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Critical Study on the History of Bulgarians/ Kriticheskie issledovaniya ob istorii bolgar

Venelin, Y. The work of historian and publicist Yuriy Ivanovich Venelin Critical Study on the History of Bulgarians , 1849, covers the period from the Bulgarians arrival on the Thracian Peninsula up till 968, when Bulgaria was conquered by the Grand Duke of Russia, Sviatoslav. Venelin s work was not re-published in either the pre-revolutionary period, or the Soviet Russia period. Yuriy Ivanovich Venelin (real name Georgiy Hutsa, 1802-1839) was the first Russian slavist, the first researcher of the history of the Bulgarian people, philologist and historian, and an active member of the Society of Russian History and Antiquities. His effort and scientific works helped to establish slavic departments in Russian universities in 1834. Yuriy Ivanovich was born in Subcarpathian Ruthenia (today is Zakarpattia) in the family of a Rusyn Orthodox priest named Hutsa. In 1822 he entered Lviv University under the Russian name Venelin to study history. His interest in Russian and Slavic History brought him to Russia. Since 1825 Venelin lived in Moscow, and would often earn his living by private tutoring. What is more, he taught Konstantin and Ivan Aksakov, future ideologists of Slavophilism. Venelin was seen at the historian s M.P. Pogodin, and was in touch with A. S. Khomyakov and I. I. Sreznevsky. His works were published in periodicals. Studying history of the Slavic tribes, the scientist came to the conclusion that the Slavs inhabited Europe as long as the Greeks or the Romans, which was absolutely new knowledge caused, as a number of people thought, by his"enthusiastic Slavophilism". Studying the origin of the Bulgarians, Venelin proved their belonging to the Slavic-Russian tribe, and not to the Tatar, as it was believed by many scientists at the time. In 1830, through S. T. Aksakov help, a young polyglot scientist was envoyed to Bulgaria for one year by the Academy of Sciences. Venelin conducted a full research there and collected valuable philological, linguistic, folklore, historical, ethnographic and other data that brought light to a better understanding of Slavic Bulgarian people and their culture. Once he returned back to Moscow, Yuriy Ivanovich started to process and examine all the collected materials and, based on that, to write articles and books. Bulgarian national renaissance activists called Venelin as their predecessor. In recent years, Russia, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Zakarpattia Oblast in Ukraine have focused on building up interest in the heritage of Venelin.


Gan, Aleksei A famous work by Aleksei Gan (1887 or 1893 1942) - Russian theorist and designer. In 1918-20 he was the head of the section of mass performances and spectacles of the theatrical department of Narkompros, and he made a radical proposal for the entire population of Moscow to enact the May Day spectacle The Communist City of the Future (1920). This mass action activity presaged the anti-aesthetic stance that was to characterize Gan s approach. Through his co-founding with Varvara Stepanova and Aleksandr Rodchenko of the First Working Group of Constructivists (1921 4), and his publication of Constructivist principles in his book Konstruktivizm (1922), Gan played a leading role in the development of the Constructivist aesthetic. In his interpretation of Constructivism, which he saw as the creative counterpart to the socio-political tasks of the Revolution, Gan called for creative activity to be politicised to the maximum and for its artistic component to be minimised. His slogans included we declare uncompromising war on art and death to art , which he attempted to encapsulate in his designs for portable book kiosks, folding street stalls, exhibition posters and clothing, where the objects were reduced to the most simple and functional forms. It was this extreme approach that led to a split with fellow Constructivists Rodchenko and Stepanova in 1923 and his setting up of what he considered the true group of Constructivists, comprised of students at Vkhutemas. This group consisted of several production cells: the equipment for everyday life, children s books, specialized work clothes and typography, as well as cells concerned with material structures, mass action, and cinema and photography (Kino-Fot). The group exhibited their work at the First Discussional Exhibition of the Union of Active Revolutionary Art (Moscow, May 1924). Gan also published and edited the journal Kino-Fot (1922 3), in which he advanced his idea of the replacement of painting by photography and promoted the cinema as a medium unconnected with tradition and capable of the objective recording of successful changes in Soviet life. He developed these theories in Da zdravstvuyet demonstratsiya byta (1923) and in his articles for Sovremennaya arkhitektura (1926 30), the journal of OSA, for which he was artistic editor. He was also a founding member of October (1928 32), a union of artists, designers and architects, which primarily advocated Constructivist ideals as the most suitable for the advancement of the material culture of Soviet society.