JOHNSON, CAPTAIN CHARLES
FIRST EDITION, engraved frontispiece and 25 engraved plates, most by J. Basire after W. Jett and J. Nicholls., title in red and black, woodcut device, contemporary speckled calf, twice ruled in gilt, spine gilt with fleurons, red morocco label, hinges and corners expertly repaired, last two leaves repaired, folio, London, for J. Janeway, 1734 FIRST EDITION OF THIS FAMOUS COMPILATION, uniting the most notorious names in the early eighteenth-century underworld. It consists of selections from two works, Alexander Smith's History of the Lives of the Most Noted Highway-men and Captain Charles Johnson's own General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates. Captain Johnson is attributed with creating the modern conception of pirates. He provided a sweeping account of what came to be called the Golden Age of Piracy. He gave an almost mythical status to the more colourful pirates such as Edward Blackbeard Teach, Calico Jack Rackham, and the female pirates Mary Read and Anne Bonny. So little is known about the life of Captain Johnson, it has been presumed that the name is a pseudonym. In 1932, it was suggested by John Robert Moore that the author was Daniel Defoe (c.1660-1731). It is known that Defoe often wrote under pseudonyms and had written earlier works on piracy. However, recently there have been doubts as to the validity of this claim. The work, although it has similarities to Defoe's writing, also has some notable differences. Most apparent is the excellent knowledge of sea language and of the pirate code, the system by which all pirates are known to have adhered to. Whoever Captain Johnson was, this book, and its first edition, A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the most notorious Pyrates, provides the best information of the lives and careers of some of the most famous pirates of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, while its companion, Smith's Highwaymen provides similar, though much more romanticised, information about some of the most significant highwaymen of the same period. Johnson inspired later generations of writers and film-makers who adapted elements of his stories and gave us the image of the pirate which has become so familiar. 'Best edition of this singular work, seldom found in good condition' according to Lowndes who states that it 'appeared originally in 73 weekly numbers at twopence each, or 20 monthly parts at eightpence'. The present copy is made up of weekly numbers, and the imprint is one of two recorded variants. Lowndes III, 1214.
FIRST EDITION, with engraved portrait frontispiece, 16 engraved plates, charts and maps, 2 folding, errata leaf, contemporary tree calf, gilt coroneted crest of the Earl of Darnley on both covers, red morocco spine label, large 4to [300 x 270mm], London: Printed for G. Nicol, 1788, a fine large choice copy with an extraordinary provenance. "In 1783 the Antelope, commanded by Captain Henry Wilson, was wrecked on a reef near one of the Palau (Pelew) Islands, a previously unexplored group. The entire crew managed to get safely ashore, where they were well treated by the natives and eventually managed to build a small vessel from the wreck, in which they reached Macao. They took Prince Lee Boo, one of King Abba Thule's sons, with them to England, where he made a good impression. [but] he soon died of smallpox" (Hill). Keate wrote the account based on the journal and papers of Wilson and other officers. 'The context was the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War normal routes from China westwards for British shipping were hampered by the Dutch East Indies. The Antelope had been returning from Macau by the "Eastern Passage", a route designed to avoid the south-west monsoon, but had strayed too far in the easterly direction. On the north coast of New Guinea Wilson anchored in the vicinity of the Schouten Islands. After some dialogue over two days with Papuan inhabitants who came out to the ship, in which Wilson used vocabulary collected by Thomas Forrest at Dory Harbour, Wilson felt the numbers he faced were threatening. He used small arms to deter them, and the crew of the Antelope was attacked, an encounter in which the artist Arthur William Devis was injured. The wreck on Ulong followed. Although Spain had claimed the islands previously, Wilson's crew made the first sustained contact, which was friendly. One of the crew of the Antelope knew Malay, allowing contact to be made with the ibedul on Koror, whom Wilson treated as a local king, somewhat misapprehending his status which was more like an elected official. While his men spent three months rebuilding the ship, Wilson entered an effective alliance with the ibedul in conflicts with Melekeok and others. One of the Antelope's guns proved decisive, shipped in a boat and discharged with powder alone'. DNB Provenance: "Capt. Barkley/Navy", contemporary inscription on verso of the frontispiece. This is most probably Captain Charles William Barkley (1759-1832) who, from 1786 to 1788 sailed the Indian Ocean in the Princess Frederica, then in the Halcyon to Kamchatka and Alaska, Hawaiian Islands and Cochin China before being captured by the French at Mauritius. Barkley's wife Frances (who was one of the first women to circumnavigate the globe) recorded in her journal that in May 1792 the Barkleys had landed at the New Carolina Islands in the Celebes, commenting that "they answer the description given by Captain Wilson of the Pelew Islands and the words given in his vocabulary of those Islands" (The Remarkable World of Frances Barkley, 1769-1845, 2003, edited by Beth Hill and Cathy Converse). Library of the Earl of Darnley with his gilt crest on both covers. Cox II, 302; Hill 907
FIRST EDITION, with an engraved folding chart (hand coloured in outline) as frontispiece, and 31 other folding engraved maps and charts., 4to, contemporary half calf over marbled boards, spine gilt, London: printed for T. Jefferys, 1762 Published toward the end of the Seven Years War, in which Spain had sided with France against Britain, this atlas is largely compiled from captured Spanish charts. Jefferys describes the Spanish possessions in the Caribbean basin, beginning with the Venezuelan coast, proceeding to Colombia, Central America, Mexico, Florida (which was later to become part of Britain's American territories), Cuba Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico. Louisiana is omitted as it was not to come into Spanish hands until 1763. Thomas Jefferys, engraver and geographer to George III. He published a great many maps and discussions about North America including a map of Florida published in 1763 in William Roberts' An Account of the First Discovery, and Natural History of Florida. Jefferys states in the introduction that his purpose is to fulfil the curiosity of the public about the parts of Spanish America where the British fleets now are located, not knowing where "next the fury of war will fall." He adds, "In the execution of our design, it is intended to confine the pen chiefly to an account of the sea-coasts, harbours, and towns adjacent to them, of the Spanish acquisitions in the West-Indies; beginning from the eastern part of the south coast of the Tierra Firma, thence along the shore to Vera Cruz, round to Florida, and so to the islands of Cuba, &c." Jefferys relates the history of the area, including discoveries by Columbus, Ponce de Leon, Cortez, and others. From these ventures Spain has taken possession of "far the best and the largest portion of America." Spain is in entire control of the trade between Europe and Spanish America at this point and Jefferys proceeds to describe in detail each type of ship used in these ventures, including: "Galleons, Flota, Flotilla, Register-ships, and Guarda-costas (coast guards)." Jefferys next analyses the mistakes that Spain has made in America and how proper usage of the territory available to them would have made Spain the greatest economic power in Europe. He concludes his introduction with a brief discussion of the various natural resources found in areas of America and the importance of international trade agreements. The main text of the volume describes and illustrates with maps and plates the settlements on the mainland coast of Spanish America and on the islands of the West Indies. Two pages are dedicated to Florida, providing approximate geographical boundaries, descriptions of the weather, topographical features, plants, and industries. Cox II, 220
FIRST EDITION, FIRST ISSUE, London for George Bishop, Ralph Newberie and Robert Barker,1598-1600.Three Volumes Bound in Two, Folio (280 x 200mm),pp. ,619; ,312,204; ,868pp.Early Red Morocco gilt, hinges repaired, Black Letter, this set includes in the original text : Drakes Voyage to Cadiz withdrawn under Royal Decree by Elizabeth I, a very attractive copy. This is the desirable First Edition, First Issue of the greatly expanded work from the single-volume original version of Hakluyt's Voyages. This edition is actually an entirely different book from the initial 1589 compilation. "This edition was indeed Hakluyt's monumental masterpiece.Much that was new and important was included: the travels of Newbery and Fitch, Lancaster's first voyage, the new achievements in the Spanish Main, and particularly Raleigh's tropical adventures.The book must always remain a great work of history, and a great sourcebook of geography, while the accounts themselves constitute a body of narrative literature which is of the highest value in understanding the spirit and the tendencies of the Tudor age" - Penrose. "It is difficult to overrate the importance and value of this extraordinary collection of voyages" - Sabin. ".An invaluable treasure of nautical information which has affixed to Hakluyt's name a brilliancy of reputation which time can never efface or obscure" - Church. Hakluyt's collection will always be the primary source for the history of early British exploration, as well as one of the gems of Elizabethan letters. The text Voyage to Cadiz has been reimagined. Hakluyt took such patriotic pride in his countrymen's exploits in the fields of travel and adventure that he devoted his life to preserving the records of all British voyages, and to advancing further means for the promotion of wealth and commerce for the nation. "Hakluyt was a vigorous propagandist and empire-builder; his purpose was to further British expansion overseas. He saw Britain's greatest opportunity in the colonisation of America, which he advocated chiefly for economic reasons, but also to spread Protestantism, and to oust Spain" - Hill. The third volume is devoted almost entirely to the Americas, the South Seas, and various circumnavigations of the world. It includes the accounts of Niza, Coronado, Ruiz, and Espejo relating to New Mexico; Ulloa, Drake, and others concerning California; and Raleigh's account of Guiana. Volume I of this set contains the original printing of the rare "Voyage to Cadiz" (pp.607- 619), which was suppressed by order of Queen Elizabeth after the disgrace of the Earl of Essex.The reason for the existence of several states of these Cadiz leaves was the fall from royal favour of the Earl of Essex, who returned to England from Ireland without leave in 1599. The greatest assemblage of travel accounts and navigations to all parts of the world collected up to its time, and a primary source for early New World exploration. This volume contains 243 narratives of voyages and travels in the New World, consisting of some one million seven hundred thousand words. GROLIER ENGLISH 100, 14. WAGNER SPANISH SOUTHWEST 3, 4, 5, 6, 8c, 9a, 18a. PRINTING & THE MIND OF MAN 105. STC 12626. SABIN 29595, 29597, 29598. JCB (3)I:360-61. EUROPEAN AMERICANA 598/42. BELL H10. HILL 743. PALAU 112038, 112039. BORBA DE MORAES, pp.391-92. Penrose, TRAVEL AND DISCOVERY IN THE RENAISSANCE, p.318. PFORZHEIMER 443. CHURCH 322 (2nd issue of vol. 1). QUINN, p.490.
FIRST EDITION, title within woodcut border, woodcut initials and decorations, contemporary calf, rebacked, small folio, R. Cotes, and are to be sold by Humphrey Blunden at the Castle in Cornhill, and Thomas Williams at the Bible in Little Britain, 1648. "The English-American his Travail by Sea and Land. was the first book by an English writer portraying daily life in the West Indies and Spanish America. Gage saw much and recorded the buccaneering and wholly his own were the strong narrative lines and his gift for observation. He wrote of the volcanoes overlooking Antigua (Agua, Fuego, and Acatenango) and the bustle of Portobello when the treasure fleet was in, with silver ingots piled in the street like paving-stones. He zestfully recalled the cuisine of the New World - the tortillas, beans, and tamales of the poor, the strange new fruits of the Indian market, and delicacies like the iguana. To chocolate, with an addict's obsessiveness, he devoted an entire chapter. He denounced the blending of Mayan ceremony and Catholic rites, but seldom condescended to his Indian parishioners, whom he found civil, gentle, industrious, and long-suffering." - ODNB. Hill 665; Sabin 26298; Wing G109
FIRST EDITION, viii-349, folding map frontispiece showing Central America and the Isthmus of Panama., lower margin of map trimmed without loss, modern speckled calf, a.e.g., 8vo, London, C. Rivington, 1735 First edition of an important work on Central America, with a first hand account of the pirates Captain Johnson and Poleas. Cockburn was an English seaman who had sailed to the coast of Central America in 1731. Cockburn s ship was attacked by the infamous pirates Captain Johnson and Poleas off the coast of Jamaica. Johnson was known as a ruthless and bloodthirsty pirate, said to be an excellent shot despite missing a hand. After a five hour battle Cockburn s ship surrendered and Johnson s pirates boarded and looted. Cockburn, Thomas Rounce, Richard Banister, John Holland, Thomas Robinson, and John Ballman found themselves 'naked and wounded', stranded on the shore at Porto-Cavalo. They escaped from jail in San Pedro Sula in Honduras, crossed the Isthmus to San Salvador. They then crossed Guatemala to the Pacific, navigated the Gulf of Fonseca, and journeyed either by canoe or on foot to Panama eventually reaching the English Factory there. This story of his marooning, escape, and two-year-long overland journey starting with his capture by Johnson was originally assumed to be fictional due to the severity of the hardships they faced. The account was a best-seller and was to be reprinted three more times before 1800. Today it remains one of the few accounts by foreign travellers through Central America in the first half of the eighteenth century. An extraordinary account. [Sabin 14095; Hill 324]
FIRST EDITION, Contemporary tan calf gilt, with a folding engraved map of the world, London, for T.Combes,J.Lucy and J.Clark 1728 One of the most important of the buccaneering expeditions' (Hill). 'Betagh, Captain of the Marines was aboard the Speedwell and under the command of Captain George Shevlocke. However, Betagh, the author of this work does his best to discredit Shelvocke's narrative whenever possible, feeling that it is a deception, and his conduct an indignity to his country and to Captain John Clipperton. In addition, Betagh describes his impressions of the countries visited in the course of the voyage, particularly the Spanish dominions of Chile and Peru, where he observed the customs of the Creoles and the techniques of gold and silver mining and refining. Baja California and Macao were also visited. Clipperton Island, off the west coast of Mexico, was discovered and named for Captain Clipperton' (Hill). Borba de Moraes I. p.104; Hill p.25.
ANSON, GEORGE AND WALTER, RICHARD
FIRST EDITION, FIRST ISSUE, , 417, p., 42 engraved folding maps and plates, list of subscribers, final leaf of directions to the binder, occasional light foxing and offsetting, pp. 319 misnumbered as 219, contemporary catspaw calf, boards twice ruled in gilt, handsomely rebacked, spine gilt, red morocco label, 4to, London, for the Author by John and Paul Knapton, 1748 A MASTERPIECE OF DESCRIPTIVE TRAVEL - Hill First edition of the most popular book of maritime adventure in the eighteenth century. This can be identified as the first of two issues by a misprinted page number (219 instead of 319) and the fact that the engraved plates are all in an early state before the addition of their identifying numbers. The narrative was based on Ansons own journal, along with notes by Richard Watler who was chaplain on the ship Centurion. George Anson entered the Navy during the War of Spanish Succession and spent the next decade rising through the ranks until 1722 when he was promoted to Commander and given command of the small 8-gun HMS Weazel. Anson's orders were to suppress smuggling between Britain and Holland, a task he swiftly and effectively performed. In recognition of his efforts he was promoted to the rank of post-captain in February 1723 and given command of the 32-gun HMS Scarborough with orders to escort British merchant convoys from the Carolinas. Between 1728-36 he transferred three times in succession before being promoted to Commodore in 1737. With the 60-gun HMS Centurion, he took command of a squadron sent to attack Spanish possessions in South America at the outset of the War of Jenkins' Ear. The work details Anson's circumnavigation which occurred during the War of Jenkins' Ear between Britain and Spain. The purpose of the expedition was for Anson's fleet to intercept Spanish ships and seize their cargo from the New World. After setting off later than planned, Anson's squadron encountered successive disasters. Two of his ships failed to round Cape Horn and another was wrecked off the coast of Chile. Anson lost half of his ships and two thirds of his men before reaching the South Pacific Islands. However, he was able to harass and sack the Spanish port of Paita in Peru. The crews were decreased due to scurvy so Anson consolidated the remaining crew in the Centurian. Despite his losses Anson was determined to seize the treasure galleon that made the annual voyage from Acapulco to Manila. Laden with Peruvian silver, she was the "Prize of all the Oceans". In June 1743 Anson intercepted the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga, and in a 90-minute action forced her surrender. After refitting at Canton he returned home the next year to find himself compared with Drake, and his exploits with the long-remembered feats of arms against the Spain of Philip II. The casualties were forgotten as the public celebrated a rare triumph in a drab and interminable war. The prize money earned from the capture of the galleon made Anson a rich man for life and brought him considerable political influence. In 1748 the authorised account was published under Richard Walter, and has formed the basis of all accounts of Ansons Voyage since. The work was a great success; the epitome of adventure for the eighteenth-century reader. It was translated into several European languages and stayed in print through numerous editions for many years. [ESTC: T89475, Hill pp. 317-8; Sabin 1625]
ACTS OF PARLIAMENT
Anno Regni GEORGII III REGIS Magnae Britaniiae, Franciae, & Hiberniae, DECIMO SEXTO. At the Parliament Begun and holden at Westminster, the Twenty-ninth Day of November, Anno Domini 1774, in the Fifteenth Year of our Sovereign Lord GEORGE the Third, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith. FIRST EDITION, , 1091-1102, woodcut coat of arms on title, woodcut floriated initial, text in black letter, unbound, folio (320 x 200mm), London, Charles Eyre and William Strahan, 1776 This important Criminal Law Act temporarily suspended the established system for transporting convicts to the British American colonies, in response to the outbreak of the American Revolution. The American Revolution had made continuing transportation there unfeasible, with the last convict ship to cross the Atlantic docking in Virginia in April that year. Under the Criminal Law Act, felons continued to be sentenced to transportation, but with no place to go, were liable instead to a sentence at hard labour until alternative provisions could be made. Any Male, convicted in England of any Crime punished by Transportation to America, may instead thereof, be kept to Hard Labour in cleansing the River Thames . The rebellion and the end of transport to America in part prompted the British use of prisons for punishment and the start of prison building programs (as opposed to the use of gaols related to trial or sentencing) because the important transportation alternative to the death penalty had been removed. While initially suspended for two years by the 1776 Act, it would be continued until 1779 by the Criminal Law Act 1778 (18 Geo 3 c 62) and the Criminal Law Act 1779 (19 Geo 3 c 54), with little resolution of the developing accommodation problems.
FIRST EDITION, 5 volumes, 28 engraved maps (16 folding), and 13 engraved plates, 4to (300 x 235mm), full polished calf gilt, spines gilt in compartments, London Printed by Luke Hansard, and sold by G. and W. Nicol. 1803-1817 "The most important general history of early South Sea discoveries, containing practically everything of importance on the subject; collected from all sources, with the most important remarks concerning them, by Captain Burney, who was a great authority on the subject. Many of the early voyages to California would be inaccessible were they not herin collected. Burney accompanied Captain Cook on his second and third voyages. His access to the London literary world served to enhance the style of his great work, in which he carried the story of Pacific discovery from its beginnings through the period just prior to Cook's first voyage" (Hill). Admiral James Burney (1750-1812), son of Dr. Charles Burney, the historian of music and the brother of diarist and novelist Fanny Burney, was originally an officer in the Royal Navy and his various written work displays "a rare union of nautical science and literary research". Burney received encouragement from Sir Joseph Banks and enjoyed free access both to Banks's magnificent library of books and manuscripts, and to Dalrymple's collection of scarcer Spanish books. Whenever possible, he relied on manuscript accounts, generally comparing them with printed narratives for purposes of style., "Burney entered the navy in 1764, and having served on the coast of North America and in the Mediterranean, sailed with Captain Cook in his second voyage, 1772-4, during which time he was promoted to be lieutenant. In 1775 he was in the Cerberus on the North American station, and was recalled to sail again under Cook in his third voyage. Consequently, on the deaths of Cook and Clerke, he came home in command of the Discovery, and was confirmed as commander on 2 Oct. 1780. In 1803 he began the publication of "A Chronological History of the Discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean", it is well known as the standard work on the subject" (D.N.B.). Ferguson, 372; Hill, pp. 40-41; Hocken, pp. 30-34; O'Reilly-Reitman, 104; Sabin, 9387
ACTS OF PARLIAMENT
Anno Regni GEORGII II REGIS Magnae Britaniiae, Franciae, & Hiberniae, DECIMO OCTAVO. At the Parliament Begun and holden at Westminster, the First Day of December, Anno Domini 1741, in the Fifteenth Year of our Sovereign Lord GEORGE the Second, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith. FIRST EDITION, , 483-486, woodcut coat of arms on title, woodcut floriated initial, text in black letter, folio (320 x 200mm), London, Thomas Baskett, 1745 The third Act to be published on the Northwest Passage, the act of 1745 offered the enormous sum of £20,000 for the discovery of a north-west passage, providing that they were a British subject. The preamble to the Act stated the expected economic benefits of the discovery of the passage, and that it would be "a great encouragement to adventurers" to offer a prize. The allocated sum was £20,000, to be paid to the owners of the first ships to successfully make such a passage. The Board of Longitude existed from 1714 until 1828, after the original Act of Parliament was passed in 1714. First added to in 1741, the act was subsequently amended or repealed and replaced on numerous occasions until the Board was dissolved by Act of Parliament in 1828. This Act established a group of commissioners to determine the validity of any claims, and restricted the scope of the Act to only apply to British subjects. It further required all British subjects to provide help and assistance to the explorers when necessary. In setting a hefty monetary reward and promoting the potential benefits to society, this act of Parliament likely intensified the Northwest Passage fervour and motivated explorers to venture deep into the Arctic. When the Act was extended in 1775 and the reward reiterated, Cook took up the mantle, leading to his third voyage.
ACTS OF PARLIAMENT
Anno Regni GEORGII III REGIS Magnae Britaniiae, Franciae, & Hiberniae, DECIMO SEXTO. At the Parliament Begun and holden at Westminster, the Twenty-ninth Day of November, Anno Domini 1774, in the Fifteenth Year of our Sovereign Lord GEORGE the Third, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith. FIRST EDITION, , 247-255, , woodcut coat of arms on title, woodcut floriated initial, text in black letter, folio (320 x 200mm), London, Charles Eyre and William Strahan, 1776 An extension and expansion of the Act of 1714. The previous extension, and promise of reward, was the motivation for Captain Cook to embark on his third and fatal voyage which departed the same year as this Act. The 1776 Act expands the scope for monetary reward to successfully approaching the North Pole within 1 degree, as well as discovering a Northwest Passage. The rules had changed. It was no longer a requirement to discover the Passage by way of Hudson Strait; instead, another condition for collecting the prize was put in place. Any passage must be discovered north of the northern 52nd parallel. As an added sweetener, £5,000 went to anyone reaching 89N latitude by sea. [Stein] It was recognised that British whale fishers sailed in northern waters on a routine basis, with frequent opportunities to approach high latitudes, but without adequate time during their fishing season to complete a northern passage. The act makes clear the potential importance of a Northwest Passage discovery for both trade and science, and it details how potential rewards will be split between those responsible for the discovery. In setting a hefty monetary reward and promoting the potential benefits to society, this act of Parliament likely intensified the Northwest Passage fervour and motivated explorers to venture deep into the Arctic. [Stein: Discovering the Northwest Passage]
ACTS OF PARLIAMENT
Anno Regni GEORGII III REGIS Magnae Britaniiae, Franciae, & Hiberniae, DECIMO SEPTIMO. At the Parliament Begun and Holden at Westminster, the Twenty-ninth Day of November, Anno Domini 1774, in the Fifteenth Year of our Sovereign Lord GEORGE the Third, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith. FIRST EDITION, , 311-312, woodcut coat of arms on title, woodcut floriated initial, text in black letter, unbound, folio (320 x 200mm), London, Charles Eyre and William Straham, 1777 One of the most important and historic British Acts, directly related to the conduct of the British throughout the American Revolution and their treatment of American prisoners. From Public General Acts 1776-1777, it required magistrates to hold anyone who had been charged with or suspected of having commited treason in the American colonies or high seas to be held in custody without bail or trial until 1 January 1778. This was published following the Declaration of Independence. It declares America to be in a state of Rebellion and War, and allows the prosecution of High Treason Charges without trial. Any participation in or support for the Revolution was considered treason against Great Britain. The Act was due to expire on 1st January 1778, but this was extended annually to 1 January of each successive year until 1 January 1783, when it was finally allowed to expire. A Very Important and Scarce Act. [ESTC: N57668]
ACTS OF PARLIAMENT
Anno Regni GEORGII III REGIS Magnae Britaniiae, Franciae, & Hiberniae, DECIMO SEPTIMO. At the Parliament Begun and holden at Westminster, the Twenty-ninth Day of November, Anno Domini 1774, in the Fifteenth Year of our Sovereign Lord GEORGE the Third, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith. FIRST EDITION, , 1039-1042 woodcut coat of arms on title, woodcut floriated initial, text in black letter, unbound, folio (320 x 200mm), London, Charles Eyre and William Strahan, 1777 This important act emphasised the Governments dedication to improving general science and navigation by offering rewards to those who could find an accurate method for determining longitude at sea. The first Longitude Act of 1714 was Parliament's response to the loss of 2,000 lives in 1707, when four British navy ships ran aground after miscalculating the longitude. The Act offered prize money of £10,000 (reduced from £20,000) for a reliable and accurate method of determining longitude at sea. Research and related experimentation were also encouraged, and award money was made available for lesser discoveries and specific improvements. The competitions attracted the skill and imagination of the greatest scientific minds and mariners of the time. The most prominent and successful competitor was John Harrison (1693-1776), who received disbursements of £22,000 over a period of 35 years for his brilliant discoveries and invention of the marine chronometer. This was, however, not without a struggle for recognition. The marine chronometer was quicker, but the preferred avenue of institutionalisation was the Lunar Distance Method. The Lunar Distance method was a method to determine longitude using certain astrological measurements and specific corrections marked in yearly almanacks. The Act of 1765 put caveats and conditions on the original act of 1714, and included stipulations that applied specifically to Harrison. It even named him in the opening language and described the current status of his contrariety with the board. Only with the relentless championing from his son, and the personal intervention of King George III, Harrison was awarded the monetary prize he was due. The Longitude Act (1777) reiterated specific goals of the program (as revised by the 1774 Longitude Act), and approved an additional £5,000 for continued research work and experimentation and for awards to recognize lesser contributory discoveries as approved by the Commissioners of the Board of Longitude. The Longitude at Sea program was successful in multiple ways, and facilitated important advances in mathematics, astronomy, horology, navigation, and Arctic exploration. Over the life of the program, a total of £53,000 in prize money was awarded to more than sixty participants.
ACTS OF PARLIAMENT
Anno Regni GEORGII III REGIS Magnae Britaniiae, Franciae, & Hiberniae, DECIMO QUINTO. At the Parliament Begun and holden at Westminster, the Twenty-ninth Day of November, Anno Domini 1774, in the Fifteenth Year of our Sovereign Lord GEORGE the Third, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith. FIRST EDITION, , 463472, woodcut coat of arms on title, woodcut floriated initial, text in black letter, unbound, folio (320 x 200mm), London, Charles Eyre and William Strahan, 1775 The second of the Restraining Acts, which restricted trade for most colonies south of New England. It was passed shortly after the first which limited the export and import of any goods to and from only Great Britain, Ireland, and the British West Indies; it also prohibited the New England colonies from fishing in the waters off Newfoundland and most of America's Atlantic coast, without special permissions and documentation, and imposed stiff penalties on both perpetrators and administrators if violations occurred. The second Act was issued upon receiving news in April that the trade boycott had spread widely among other colonies. Only New York, Delaware, North Carolina and Georgia would escape these restraints on trade, but only for a few months. The Restraining Acts were passed one year after the first Intolerable Acts had been imposed on Boston. Instead of quieting the populace, these coercive laws had been met with increasing resistance and rising resentment among the colonials. This restraint on trade by the American colonies was one of the events leading to the American Revolution.
ACTS OF PARLIAMENT
Anno Regni GEORGII REGIS Magna Britannia, Francia, & Hibernia, DECIMO OCTAVO. At the Parliament Begun and Holden at Westminster, the First Day of December, Anno Dom. 1741. In the Fifteenth Year of our Sovereign Lord GEORGE the Second, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith. FIRST EDITION, , 659-662, woodcut coat of arms on title, woodcut floriated initial, text in black letter, unbound, slight toning, folio (320 x 200mm), London, Thomas Baskett, 1745 An Act published in Public General Acts 1744-1745. This work is an amendment to the extremely effective 1700 An Act for the more Effectual Suppression of Piracy, passed during the Golden Age of Piracy. The Act was responsible for the creation of regular colonial courts with the authority to try pirates, proving to be a tremendous boon to the governments assault on sea robbers. Parliament originally designed the 1700 Act to expire in only seven years. But owing to the great effect it had in permitting the more regular prosecution of pirates, Parliament renewed it several times following the War of the Spanish Succession and made the law permanent in 1719. The Act for the More Effectual Suppression of Piracy stuck two thorns in the side of pirates. First, it treated active pirate sympathisers as accessories to piracy and stipulated the same punishments for them as for actual pirates - death and property forfeiture. Second, the law encouraged merchantmen to defend themselves against pirate attacks by providing them a reward not exceeding two Pounds. Since the Act was passed it has been strengthened several times. The 1745 Amendment bolstered the act by including anyone of British nationality working as a Privateer for France or Spain be tried under a felony with the same punishments as those for pirates. Being tried for a felony, rather than high treason, creates a stronger case for the prosecutors being less subjective than High Treason. [ESTC: N52063. AMERICAN UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW:Vol. 59 p1221-1222]
[GOLIGHTLY, ROBERT] ANONYMOUS
Manuscript log book, [5pp.], full page compass drawing, original paper wrappers, manuscript title and calculations to cover, folio (320 x 210mm), February 2nd - April 14th, 1756 A concise but detailed ships log for the voyage of the West Indies fast packet ship Newcastle, commanded by Robert Golightly, from Bristol to Barbados, Antigua, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Christopher and Jamaica. Departing from Bristol on Monday Febry. ye 2d 1756 at four in the morning small Breezes of Wind at E the pilot came on Board.Weigh'd anchor and made sail for ye Island of Barbadoes in Company wth. 30 sails for Different Ports at 8: P:M a Brest a Pawlock . Within a hand drawn table, this journal records details on weather, wind direction, navigational records, notable sightings of land and other ships. Other ships include Thursday 19th spoke a sloop from Gennova to Portsmouth and Thursday 26th Saw a Brigantine Captn. James Dawson from Virginia to Madeira . The most notable is the encounter with Admiral George Townshend (1716-1769), the Commander-in-Chief of the Jamaica Station Monday 5 & weigh d anchor & saluted admiral Townshend wth 9 Gunes . Arriving in Barbados on Thursday 18th. Came to anchor - Sent the male on shore . From Barbados the Newcastle headed to Antigua (Friday 26th), Montserrat (Thursday 1st April), St. Christopher (Friday 2nd), finally reaching Jamaica on Wednesday, April 14th. . at Port Royal Salluted the Port and Commodore wth 9 guns Each at 4 in the afternoon came to an anchor at Kingston and sent on shore the male & passengers Salluted them wth 9 Guns. A fine example of a typical journey for a mail ship, with encounters that foreshadow the onset of the Seven Years War later that year.
PHILLIMORE, AUGUSTUS (1822-1897)
Manuscript log book, 30pp., 3 full page illustrations, four inserts including a manuscript coastal chart of Gibraltar, marbled wrapper, folio, 29th July - 7th September 1846. An unusual daily account by Lieutenant Augustus Phillimore, serving as mate on H.M.S. Hibernica. The work covers the sea trials the Hibernica was participating in, along with H.M.S. Rattler, Polyphemus, Raleigh, Superb, Constance, Eurydice, Spartan, St. Vincent, Queen, Vanguard, Canopus, Rodney and Albion. The ships departed Cork in poor weather conditions, sailing in two lines to Lisbon. There are two full page plans showing the sailing formations, which are accompanied by a table recording the distance between the Hibernica and the other ships in the formation. This journal records the daily progress, wind directions and bearings, sail manoeuvres, and the signals sent to, and received from, other ships in the form of flags and gunfire during low visibility. There are many comments on the formation, or lack thereof, throughout the voyage. The great fault committed by most of the ships is the neglecting to make sail at the proper times . Some signals were missed due to the poor visibility and thick fog, but other were misunderstood Rodney required frequent reminders to keep her station , or simply ignored St. Vincent having disregarded instruction on this point . A conscientious officer, Phillimore quotes various sections of instructions for the proper procedure when sailing in formation. This is aided by the loose leaf titled Order of Battle to be observed by all ships forming the Mediterranean Fleet and signals to be observed , notes on the separate squadrons with corresponding watercolour flags and pendants. This was written and signed by the Admiral of the Mediterranean Fleet, Admiral Sir Edward William Owen (1771-1849). The H.M.S. Raleigh was ordered to the assistance of a Portuguese Brig in trouble, so was consequently removed from the trials. There were several gun salutes to Spanish and Portuguese ships when approaching Lisbon. The Commander in Chief, Commodores, Captains, Commanders and Lieutenants were presented to the Queen of Portugal at the palace at Belam. Philimore wrote nothing could show more than the necessity of practise in fleet sailing and a knowledge of the signal book, with a squadron so little experienced in fleet sailing. Augustus Phillimore entered the Navy in 1835, serving in the First Opium War, including operations in the Yang-tsze-kiang, which resulted in the opening of the treaty ports in 1842. He commanded the Medea in the West Indies in 1852, promoted to Commodore at Port Royal in 1868, Admiral in 1884 and Commander in Chief in 1884. Phillimore was appointed Senior Naval Officer at Gibraltar from 1869 to 1872, in special recognition of his services in Cuba, and during the civil war in Haiti. During this time he made the proposal that a new naval dockyard should be constructed in Gibraltar. It was 22 years before his proposal was put to parliament, but the scheme was approved and resulted in new moles and three dry docks being completed in 1896.
CHRISTOPHER, JOHN [MIDSHIPMAN]
Manuscript logbook and workbook, 2 calligraphic title pages, , several text illustrations and diagrams, 3 full page watercolour illustrations, 1 manuscript map, contemporary notes to front pastedown, contemporary red morocco back marbled boards, folio (205 x 340mm), September 22 1842; with a Certificate of Service and Discharge for Christopher, serving as Mate on board the William and Thomas of the port of Hayle; a letter enclosing a plan for a proposed site for a magazine and gunpowder store, a baptism card for Roseina Christopher in 1864 and a photographic postcard of a prize bull are loosely inserted. A heavily illustrated midshipman's workbook, with some lively and detailed illustrations of ships on triangulated routes, full page watercolour illustration of a ship, anchors, a mackerel, a manuscript coastal chart From England to the Cape Verde Islands, on Mercator's Projection and several other illustrations. The workbook of the midshipman is a good example of the navigational education covered in the classroom and how it is applied in an actual voyage. The following subjects are covered; Trigonometry, Navigation, Pane Sailing, Traverse Sailing, Parallel Sailing, Middle Latitude Sailing, Mercator's Sailing, Finding Latitude by Observation, and ending in the 8 leaf log book A Journal of a Voyage from England Towards Madeira in the Ship Britannia. The logbook contains all the expected notes such as the daily progress, wind directions and bearings, sail manoeuvres,with detailed notes and equations underneath as this voyage was a practical part of the education of a midshipman. John Christopher joined the Royal Navy in 1839 and served on board the HMS Cambridge until 1841. In March 1842 he joined the Merchant Service. In 1850 he gained a Masters Certificate serving in the barque Minmanueth of Scilly from 1865 to 1872, participating in transatlantic trade with America. In 1876 he had to retire from life at sea due to his poor health, buying shares in the schooner Lizzie Morton of St Ives. In 1879 Christopher helped found the Hain Steamship Company of St Ives, with his grandsons Sir George P Christopher and Captain J Christopher playing major roles. The National Maritime Museum holds some of John Christophers papers, certificates and letters which provide an overview of his life. A fine and heavily illustrated Naval training exercise book from an accomplished seaman.
SPANISH WEST INDIES
Manuscript, [4pp.], 230 x 370mm, c.1745 AN IMPORTANT NAVAL DOCUMENT CONCERNING THE WEST INDIES, written in a neat hand, comprising detailed plans for raising sufficient militia and also methods of and places to attack In order to this undertaking it will be necessary for Officers to be appointed and dispatched to the several Colonies his Majesty is Posses'd of in America to raise men, the Americans being more proper for this enterprise than Europeans because most of those who will List for this Expedition have already been in the West Indies and are seasoned to these climes and consequently will not be so subject to sickness and mortality as raw unexperienced Europeans, besides they are more imur'd to arms and will take less time to discipline. Going on to suggest the terms which should be agreed with the Americans in order to encourage them, such has the ammunition and provisions coming from the public funds, they will be brought back at the end of the war, and most importantly .as soon as any conquest is made or Towne plundered, such plunder shall be equally shared among the whole according to the Rank and Quality they bear in the Navy . The men appointed should be old Experienced Officers[.] who are appointed for the Several Colonies in Order to Raise Men. A timeline for the preparations is laid out, with considerations made for seasonal weather, with a fleet of Man of War arriving in Jamaica by the end of September so that the whole fleet and army will be joyned and ready for any undertaking in October. Which will be the properest time of year to enter upon Action, the Hurrycane months being then over Once preparations and recruitment are concluded, the plan of attack is revealed. Cartogena and Porto Bello may be both attacked at the same time, a Small Force being able to Reduce the Latter When these places are Conquered the Havana is the next place of importance necessary to attack.Vera Cruze may likewise be reduced and thereby the whole commerce of Spain to those parts will be intirely cut off", the manuscript provides a breakdown of the 12000 troops required with the quotas of men to be raised in the several Colonies including "New England - The Province of Massechusets Bay 800, New Hampshire 200, Road Island 500; New York and the Jerseys 1500, Long Island 300; Pensilvania 800; Viginia and Maryland 1000; Both the Carolines 1000; Bermuda and Providence 500; Bardados 400; Antego 200; Montserate 100; Nevis 100; St Christophers 100; Virgin Islands 100; Jamaica 1500. two regements from England 1000; seamen landed from the Men of War 2000 .", as well as detailed plans for securing supplies and ammunitions .when the fleet arrives in the South Sea it will be necessary to stop at the Island of Chiloe which lyes upon the Coast of Chili which is stored with plenty of Cattle, Corn and fruits . Following this, the Navy will sail for Lima, It will be proper to possess all the avenues as soon as possible in order to prevent the Inhabitants from Escaping into the Country with their Treasure. Two thousand men soldiers and seamen are more than sufficient to Conquer this City being the capital of Peru great part of the treasure of that Kingdom is laid up there., dedicating almost an entire page to the riches to be gained from conquering the Spanish in South America. There would be also great Riches gained by plundering the sea Port Towns in the Kingdoms of Mexico, Peru and Chili . Continuing When Lima is Taken and Plundered the fleet may proceed to the Northward and Plunder all the Towns to Panama from thence go to the coast of Mexico, and make themselves Masters of Acapulco The plans for defeating the Spanish continue to the Philippines and the East Indies. The final paragraph reads optimistically There is no great reason to doubt but these Expeditions may meet with the desired success and if such is the Case the war with Spain will soon be at an end .
FIRST EDITION, engraved folding map, and 3 engraved folding plates, pp . 224. , contemporary mottled calf, rebacked, London, printed for James Knapton, 1699. Lionel Wafer (1640-1705) Welsh explorer, buccaneer and privateer. A ship's surgeon, Wafer made several voyages to the South Seas and visited the Malay archipelago in 1676. The following year he settled in Jamaica to practise his profession. In 1679, however, two noted buccaneers named Cook and Linen convinced him to become a surgeon for their fleet. In 1680, Wafer met William Dampier at Cartagena and joined in a privateering venture under the leadership of Bartholomew Sharp. After a quarrel during an arduous overland journey, Wafer was marooned with four others in the Isthmus of Darien, where he stayed with the Cuna Indians. He spent his time gathering information about their culture, including their shamanism and a short vocabulary of their language. He also studied the natural history of the isthmus. The following year later, Wafer left the Indians, promising to return and marry the chief's sister and bring back dogs from England. He fooled the buccaneers at first as he was dressed as an Indian, wearing body-paint and ornamented with a nose-ring. It took them some time to recognise him. Wafer reunited with Dampier, and after privateering with him on the Spanish Main until 1688, he settled in Philadelphia. By 1690 Wafer was back in England. In 1695 he published A New Voyage and Description of the Isthmus of America, describing his adventures. It was translated into French (1706), German (1759), and Swedish (1789).The Darien Company hired him as an adviser when it was planning its settlement on the isthmus in 1698. Sabin 100940; Hill 313-314; Wing W193; European Americana 699/223; Field 1617
Untitled engraved map, first state, surrounded by sixteen vignettes, descriptive verse below the image, central vertical fold, overall size 360 x 480mm, [c.1643]. Wenceslaus Hollar s faith in maps as a medium to convey information is demonstrated in his bold choice of a map to express his anguish at the outbreak of the English Civil War while the Thirty Years War was still raging on the continent. The English Civil War took place alongside the end of the longer, more widespread and bloodier conflict in mainland Europe: the Bohemian Civil War (or Hussite Wars) of 1619-1634. A Bohemian Protestant himself, Hollar was in Prague and the illustrative panels recount the events that unleashed war in his native and adopted countries from a Protestant perspective. Britain is shown filled with troops, while on the continent he depicts the victory of the Catholic German Emperor, Ferdinand II, over the Bohemian Protestants at the Battle of the White Mountain outside Prague in November 1620. Hollar draws the scenes together through the clever use of the double-headed Imperial eagle - half in the British Isles, half in the scene of Prague. The central images are surrounded by seventeen vignette scenes of historical events corresponding to the rhyming couplets beneath the illustration. Among these are a scene showing Jenny Geddes throwing her stool at Mr Hannay, the Dean of St Giles, Edinburgh, when he began to read from the new prayer book [C]; the King dissolving his fourth Parliament in 1640 (F) and also confronting Speaker Lenthall as he attempts to arrest five members (I); peaceful bucolic scenes reflecting on life before the wars (O; P); Emperor Matthias making Ferdinand King of Hungary (T); the citizens of Prague presenting Frederick of the Palatinate with the crown of Bohemia (V); the Defenestration of Prague when the Barons secretary was ejected from a castle window, and remarkably survived (W); the execution of Protestant prisoners after the Battle of the White Mountain (Z). In the centre of these columns in a roundel (M), captioned Twas a Curst Cow, kickt down ye Milk shee gave: Let us old Englands Lawes and Freedome have . The cow kicking over milk-pail had become an emblem of civil war. Hollar offers a contemporary political commentary - the reference to historical events draws certain parallels with contemporary ones. As Hollar comments (XY) Warre s sweet before tis try d . The Latin inscription is taken from Virgil s Eclogue 1. A scarce allegorical map. [BM Satires, 145; Shirley, 529; Pennington 543]