Michael Brown

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Autograph Letter Signed, Boston, November 22, 1848 to Thomas J. Taylor, New York City,Anti-Semitic Letter of Boston merchant written to his cousin, a New York City lawyer, 1848

Wood, T. Quarto, 2 pages, plus stamp-less address leaf, few small tears to integral address leaf, else in good, clean, legible condition. Written by [Th.] B. Wood, of Boston, Massachusetts to his cousin, attorney Thomas J. Taylor, of 183 Second Street, New York. The letter appears to be written by Timothy B. Wood, of the firm of ?A. Wood Son & Co.,? of Boston. Timothy B. Wood, who ran the firm of A. Wood Son & Co., with a man by the name of ?L. Whitney?, the firm was based at the wharf opposite 50 Charles Street, where Wood lived. The company dealt in coal, wood, and Green Mountain lumber. The letter is written to the writer?s cousin, Thomas J. Taylor, at 183 Second Street, New York. The New York City Directory for 1848 identifies Thomas J. Taylor as a lawyer, with an office at 25 Nassau and his home at 183 Second Street. The letter complains about a Jewish man who owes Wood money. Wood makes derogatory remarks about ?9 out of 10 Jews? being ?cursed humbugs.? Wood also complains of a second Jewish man who used to work for Wood, who owes him a smaller debt. He writes his cousin Taylor, asking help in collecting this smaller debt. ?Boston 22 Nov 1848 Dear Cousin, I enclose you Philip?s invoice and would have sent it sooner, but only yesterday received my boxes containing my books. I hope you will not let the rascal rest till he pays up. He is like 9 out of 10 Jews, a cursed humbug. As to the small claim on that other Jew, he bought the ?things? out & out, and it was nothing to me whether he disposed of them or not, and having worked for me in Manchester and professing great friendship, I did not hesitate in letting him have them without the cash as he said he had his wages to draw that week and would pay on the following Tuesday. I enclose a note to him & if he has not paid, please to deliver it to him. If he does not seem inclined to pay then have it till I am over in N.Y. I fully expected to have received a letter by the last mail from England. I conclude there was not any or you would have got it for me. There was a pretty heavy fall of snow here on Sunday night, and some sleigh riding on Monday, but it is now about all thawed away. If you see Howarth, please to ask him if he has given the key of my store to Raymond. If he has not, tell him to do so. Give him my address here and tell him I shall be glad to hear from him. I am happy to say we are both well and I hope this will find you and all at 183 Second Street the same. With best respects, I am yours truly, [Th] B. Wood?
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Autograph Letter Signed, York, Pennsylvania to John Houston Mifflin, Columbia, Pennsylvania, September 14, 1844

Ramsey, A.C. Quarto, 1 page, including stamp-less address leaf, in very good, clean and legible condition. ? I recd your letter of the 14th and I desire to see you first before paying for the pictures. I have something to mention to you respecting them. The frames of course I will pay at any time. Knowing we can adjust them when we meet without any difficulty, I hope you will wait till I have that pleasure. Hoping that you may have all manner of felicity as a married man and that you may call your first born boy after your humble servant ? John Houston Mifflin (1807-1888) was born in Pennsylvania. An amateur poet, he studied portrait painting at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts with Thomas Sully, and began exhibiting there in 1832. In 1836-37 he was in Europe for further study, along with G.P.A. Healy and several others. On his return to America, Mifflin worked in Philadelphia and Georgia. He moved to Savannah, Georgia, where he spent four years as an itinerant artist, wandering through Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina and Florida, painting portraits of wealthy families, as well as landscapes and miniatures. As an artist, he was unique in that he also opened a daguerreotype photographic studio, possibly becoming the first daguerreotypist in Savannah. It is possible that the ?pictures? mentioned in the letter were photographs rather than paintings. Mifflin named his first son Lloyd, ignoring Ramsey?s hint, and Lloyd also became a painter and photographer, as well as an accomplished poet. Groce-Wallace, Dictionary of Artists in America, 1564-1860, p.442; Fielding, p. 241
Vernacular Photograph Album with Early Albumen Photographic Views of India

Vernacular Photograph Album with Early Albumen Photographic Views of India, Burma, and Penang. The Album was likely compiled, and the Images taken by a British Missionary or Colonial Official circa late 1850s-1860s

Anonymous] Quarto, album containing 61 photographs, nine of which are loose and laid in, images are mounted on 31 leaves, bound in contemporary ½ roan and brown covered cloth boards, binding worn, front cover detached, but present, portions of back-strip missing, old tape repairs to binding, some foxing to mounting leaves, else very good. The views are largely identified in pencil either on mounting leaves, or in the case of the loose photographs in pencil on the verso of the image. Most of the photographs are large, ranging in size from approximately 9 x 7 inches to 2 ½ x 3 ½ inches at the smallest. Two images are dated 1858, including: ?Entrance to Shingodama?s Pagoda Kenindine?, signed at bottom right corner in red ink ?W.S. .58? and ?On the Kenindine Road?, likely signed by the same individual. Two of the images are dated in pencil ?1865,? most of the images based on costume styles are clearly from this period. However, several images may be from the 1850s, one image taken in India notes the presence of ?Sepoy gardeners,? who were undoubtedly fired after the uprising in 1857. Many of the images were probably taken by the unknown compiler of the album. This interesting album contains early photographic views of locations in Burma, India, both southern and northern, Penang, and in the compiler?s native England. The views include several of Pagodas in Burma, including the Shouay Dagon and Shwedagon Pagoda in Rangoon, now Yangan, Myanmar. The entrance to ?Shingodama?s Pagoda, Kenindine,? ?Lyator Traveller?s House ? Tennyen,? a view of the village of Tennyen, ?Kyoung in Kenindine,? and other views in and around Kenindine. There are numerous views of India including: views of Quilon, now Kollom, an old seaport and city on the Laccadive sea coast in Kerala; ?Col Stevenson?s garden & part of Backwater with Sepoy gardeners &c ? Quilon,? (see image below), and ?Mr. Liddells grounds & landing place on Backwater ? Quilon.? The album contains 11 views of the Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram, a town in Kancheepuram District of the Indian State of Tamil Nadu. Now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. There are images of the Pancha Rathans, rock temples and sanctuaries, the Sthalasayam Perumi Temple, the Descent of the Ganges, a rock relief carved on two monolithic boulders, and other sites. There is a view of the ?Mission Church at Palamcottah from the compound of the Training Institution?. Palamcottah during British rule was a town in the Tinnevelly District of Madras, which was at the time the center of missionary activity in South India. Above this image are two group portraits of British military and colonial officials and their wives. There are two mounted views of a Dak Bungalow and mountain lodge in Dharamsala in Himachal Pradesh, dated in pencil 1865. There are four views of Penang: including a waterfall, ?Church,? ?Fort at Penang from the sea,? and ?Landing Place ? Penang.? The loose views include images of Burma and India. Including two large views of the Shwedagon Pagoda, and a view entitled: ?Irama. Basket making at the foot of the Hill & large bamboo growing near? (see below). Which is likely taken somewhere in Java. There are three views of Coonoor, and one of the public gardens at Ooty. Coonoor is a Taluk and municipality in the Niligris district in the State of Tamil Nadu, India. Coonoor is at an altitude of 1850 m above sea level and is the second largest hill station after Ooty. The compiler of the album was apparently stationed in Coonoor. The view of the town of Coonoor is marked with a small line showing where their cottage was located. There is also an image identified as ?Travancore?, which was an Indian Kingdom from 1729 to 1949 which at its zenith covered most of modern day central and southern Kerala, Kanyakumi District. In the early 19th century it became a princely state of the British Empire.
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Manuscript Letter-Copy Book of Early Labor Unionist and Ohio?s First Chief Inspector of Shops and Factories – Henry Dorn, of Columbus, Ohio, 1884-1885

Dorn, Henry Quarto, 622 manuscript pp., and 11 page index; comprising 178 copied letters on tissue paper, written to 127 different businesses, individuals, and government officials, dated 29 April 1884 to 30 December 1885; bound in half leather, cloth boards, back-strip lacking, edges and corners worn, boards scuffed and rubbed; lacks several pages, couple of pages torn, otherwise written in a good, legible hand, not faded. The letter-copy book contains copies of letters to the owners, or managers of various shops and factories that Chief Inspector Dorn was responsible for inspecting in the state of Ohio. He either writes to let them know that their company complied with the new statutes, or that the company did not pass inspection. If the company failed the inspection, he lets them know what improvements must be made in order to bring the businesses up to standards set by an Act of the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, entitled: ?Revised Statues of Ohio, for the better protection of health, comfort & safety of persons employed in Shops & Factories.? Inspector Dorn also writes to various government officials such as the Ohio State Auditor and the Ohio Attorney General. The letter-copy book represents the first 21 months (April 1884-December 1885) that the position of Chief Inspector of Shops & Factories existed. Dorn was the first Chief Inspector appointed under the new statute passed on 4 April 1884. Henry Dorn (1843-1911) Henry Dorn was born on 16 February 1843 at Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany, where he attended the local public schools until he was fourteen years old. At fourteen, he studied machinery, serving as an apprentice from 1857 to 1862. During this time, he entered night-college and took up the subject of draughting, which he readily mastered. After his schooling he went to Paris, France, where he found work with the Northern Railroad Company, a company at that time of three thousand men. For the next four years he spent his time in the shops and the drawing rooms. After leaving this company he found employment with other companies working on stationary engines, tools, telegraph instruments, and in other branches of mechanics. In this manner he mastered mechanical engineering, and the French language. In 1869, Dorn immigrated to the United States and found work at his trade with William Sellers & Company, of Philadelphia, one of the finest machine shops in America. He next established his own cigar factory, but disliked the work, and went to work for Henry Disston & Company, the famous Philadelphia saw maker. There he worked on an invention for large circular saws. Dorn was next went to Cleveland, Ohio, where he accepted a position with the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad, where he remained for six years before leaving for the American Telegraph Supply Company, helping to build the first electric light. He then is found as the superintendent of the Cleveland Superior Viaduct, before finally working for the city of Cleveland in their Civil Engineer?s Department, laying some of the first block pavements in the city. During employment with the H.P. Wire Nail Company, of Cleveland, in the early part of 1881, he received injuries, which rendered him partially paralyzed, on his right side, for nearly three years, at which time he accepted an appointment by Ohio Governor Hoadly in the beginning of 1884, and was made the first Chief Inspector of Workshops and Factories in Ohio. It is during this period of Dorn?s life that this letter-copy book was kept, when he served as Ohio? first Chief Inspector as the statute was only passed in April of 1884. In this chief inspector?s position, he succeeded in getting on the statute books many wise and beneficial laws and succeeded in giving the office not only a state, but a national reputation. In 1888 he brought to light, and exposed, a most iniquitous scheme to enrich the proprietors of the various glass works of the state who were shipping t
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Small collection of 18 letters written by and to Dr. Francis and his wife, Maria Eliza Cutler Francis: 6 to Francis from colleagues (including his mentor David Hosack and Columbia President W.A. Duer); 5 from Francis to his brother, travelling in Europe as companion to young Sam Ward; 7 to Mrs. Francis from her mother, brother, sister and a friend.

Francis, Dr. John Wakefield (1789-1861) 18 letters, 28 manuscript pages, mainly quarto and folio, some old tape repairs at fold joints, generally in good legible condition, despite the idiosyncratic handwriting of Francis and several of the correspondents in the collection. Family Letters of Dr. John Wakefield Francis, leading High Society Doctor of New York City, guardian of Julia Ward Howe and future ?King of the Lobby? Sam Ward and ?Literati? physician of Edgar Allan Poe and Herman Melville - 1825- 1856. John Wakefield Francis was born in New York City, the son of a German immigrant. His father?s death at an early age forced Francis to apprentice himself to George Long, a printer. After tutoring by two Irish clergymen he was able to enter Columbia College in 1807, with advanced standing. Upon his graduation in 1809 he at once began the study of medicine under David Hosack. Entering the new College of Physicians and Surgeons he became its first graduate in 1811 and entered into partnership with Hosack, which continued until 1820. Appointed lecturer in medicine and materia medica in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, he voluntarily served without fees. When the school merged with the Medical Department of Columbia, he was given professorships in both subjects, and spent the year 1816-17 studying in Europe. Upon his return he was given a third chair, that of forensic medicine, to which was added in 1819, a fourth, obstetrics. Meanwhile, from 1810 to 1814, with Hosack, he edited the American Medical and Philosophical Register. On the way to becoming New York?s foremost obstetrician, he published in 1821 an edition of Thomas Denman?s Introduction to the Practice of Midwifery. In 1826, with four others, he entered upon the work of establishing the new Rutger?s Medical College but, owing to litigation, the venture was short-lived. During the four years of the school?s existence, however, he taught obstetrics and forensic medicine. On November 16, 1829, he married Maria Eliza Cutler of Boston. His income now had reached over $ 15,000 annually and probably never fell below that figure. In 1830 he formally retired from teaching and for some years remained devoted to his practice and numerous avocations. He was interested in many different attempts to promote the general welfare; with Drs. Mott and Stearns, he founded the New York Academy of Medicine (1846) and was its second president (1847-48); in the fifties he lent James Marion Sims the aid which made it possible to establish the Woman?s Hospital; he was largely responsible for the founding of the State Inebriate Asylum at Binghamton; toward the close of his career, shortly before the opening of the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, he gave clinical instruction in the wards of Bellevue Hospital. He was pronounced by Dr. Marshall Hall while on a visit to New York, the most representative physician of his generation. Outside the field of his profession, his prominence as an officer or honorary member of ethnological, fine arts, historical, typographical, horticultural, and antiquarian societies, and his countless personal charities, made ?our learned and jolly Dr. Francis? (The Diary of Philip Hone, 1889, II, 210) one of the best-known and best-loved figures in New York. Compared by contemporaries both to Dr. Johnson and to Dr. Franklin, he possessed remarkable powers of observation and memory, was enthusiastically interested in the progress of science, and a devoted lover of letters. Though he had little time for methodical reading, he bought books constantly, delighted in literary conversation, ?and seemed to regard attendance, without fee or reward, upon authors, artists, and actors, the highest privilege of his profession?. (Tuckerman, Old New York, post, p. xli). His own writings, in addition to several medical papers, consisted largely of biographical sketches and occasional addresses. His anniversary discourse, delivered before the New York Historical Society, Nov. 17, 1857, was published in enla
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Collection of incoming Correspondence to Carrie P. Taylor, Teacher and Dairy Farmer, of Sanbornton, Belknap County, New Hampshire, 1876-1892

Taylor, Carrie P. Archive of 538 letters, 2122 manuscript pages; written in ink and pencil, in legible hands, dated 9 April 1876 to 28 March 1892. (62 letters are not dated but are from the same time period). All of the letters in the collection are written to Carrie P. Taylor, of Sanbornton, New Hampshire, and are written to her either at Sanbornton, or when she was away teaching at Newport, New Hampshire (18 April 1878 to 25 January 1880). Several of the undated letters are addressed to Carrie at Newport, thus they were written during the 1878-1880 time period. After her time spent as a teacher, Carrie lived at her family home, taking over the dairy farm after the death of her parents (mother in 1890, father in 1900). Taylor Family of Sanbornton, New Hampshire Among the early settlers of Sanbornton, New Hampshire, was Jonathan Taylor, who moved with his father from the town of Stratham, and settled upon Lot No. 9, in the Second Division, in 1773. This has been the Taylor homestead since, descending to Thomas, the son of this Jonathan Taylor, who married Sarah E. Jewett, by whom he had a large family, the sixth son, Jonathan M. Taylor (1822-1900), was the father of Carrie P. Taylor, the subject of this archive. Carrie?s father left home at an early age, after some attendance at the district schools and the Sanbornton Woodman Academy, to learn the trade of a blacksmith, and, having acquired the skills, set up a stand for that business at Sanbornton Square, where he established his home, and practiced his craft for more than fifty years, and at the same time took an active part in all the business affairs of the town. He was known as a superior blacksmith. Taylor began early to acquire and cultivate land as an incidental pursuit, as a matter of health, recreation, and profit, till he owned about one hundred acres altogether. The land produced two tons of hay, or more, per acre as a first crop, while a large second crop was usually secured. He raised and trained fine steers, his cattle being generally high-grade Herefords, and he had been a most successful exhibitor at state and local fairs both in this line and in dairy cows, as well as vegetables, in the production of which he had had remarkable success. His corn also had been widely noted for years for its excellence, it being a beautiful eight-rowed variety, improved from the original "Brown" corn of Lake Winnipiesaukee. He had won many premiums on this, and received a medal and diploma for an exhibit of the same at the Chicago World's fair, in connection with which exhibition he had an appointment as a representative from Belknap County in the World's congress of agriculture. His home was a commodious farmhouse, and in 1879, he erected a fine ?modern? barn. Mr. Taylor was a charter member and first master of Harmony Grange, Sanbornton, which at the end of two years had one hundred and seventy-one members. As a deputy of the State Grange he was instrumental in organizing most of the subordinate granges of Belknap county, and also effecting in 1887, the organization of the Belknap Pomona Grange, of which he was master in 1894 and 1895, it having then attained a membership of over nine hundred ? the largest in the state. In 1885, he was elected treasurer of the State grange. For several years he was treasurer of the Grange State Fair association, which he was active in organizing the Belknap County Agricultural Society, of which he was for two years president. He was a director and vice-president of the Grange Mutual Fire Insurance Company, and was also a director and president of the Sanbornton Fire Insurance Company organized in 1871, largely by his influence, as was also the Sanbornton Town Fair Association. For more than forty years Taylor was chairman of the Democratic town committee. He had served his town repeatedly as moderator, was for seventeen years town clerk, and had been postmaster, representative, and county commissioner. On Novemb
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Autograph Letter Signed, Quincy, Massachusetts, May 18, 1854 to Rev. Alvan Lamson, Dedham, Massachusetts

Quincy, Josiah 12mo, 2 pages, with original mailing envelope, in good, clean, legible condition. Former Harvard President and Boston Mayor on European revolution, ?moral debasement?, political ?tyranny? and the dangers of Catholic influence in America, 1854. Quincy writes: ?Dear Sir, I am greatly obliged by receiving a copy of your discourse conveying your impressions of men and things abroad. I had previously read it in the monthly religious magazine with great pleasure. Your impressions were so naturally delineated and your remarks so faithful and just, your reflections on the moral debasement of the many and the oppressive tyranny of the few, on the hopelessness from revolution, on the blasting influence of the Catholic priesthood, on social progress and its tendency to produce skepticism and indifference are at once so striking and alarming, inviting the mind to deep thoughts concerning the probable influences of that Religion, relative as it is beginning to be, on the future destinies of our Republic ? that I know not when I have read anything more satisfactory and appropriate. Without any spirit of compliment I regard the publication happy and useful and I thank you for it as a citizen and particularly for the attention of making me a possessor of a copy of it from your own hand.? With a copy of the above referenced publication, (although not Quincy?s own copy): Lamson, Alvan, D.D., Impressions of Men and Things Abroad: A sermon Preached at Dedham, Sept. 11, 1831, After an Absence of Some Months in Europe (Boston: 1854) original wrappers, 20 pp., with pencil ownership signature of H. O. Hildreth, founder of the Dedham Historical Society and local historian, on front wrapper. In his sermon, Lamson describes his visit to France, Germany, and particularly Italy, where he found ?moral debasement?, the ?extinction of liberty? and the ?prostration of intellect?, mostly oweing to the ?decrepit? Catholic Church. He had returned to the United States with intense feelings of American chauvinism, but he does not, like Quincy, relate his European observations to political affairs in America. Descended from a family of Boston Brahmins, himself a former Congressman, Mayor of Boston (as was his son and grandson) and President of Harvard from 1829 to 1845, Quincy makes clear his sympathies for the anti-Catholic Know Nothing movement which was at its height the year he wrote this letter, in a shaky hand, at the age of 82.
Photograph Album of the town of Albion

Photograph Album of the town of Albion, Orleans County, New York, dated circa 1890s-1910s

Small quarto album, containing 114 black and white photographs, mainly silver prints, the album is bound in original half leather, marbled paper boards, the photographs are mounted onto sheets of paper in album; the paper stock of these leaves is of poor quality, all sheets are browned, and brittle, chipped at margins, and loose in album; several photos loose, not pasted to sheets; photos vary in size from 5? x 3 ¾? to 6? x 4? to 7 ½? x 4 ½?; images not dated, circa 1890s to 1910s. The images themselves are in good condition, clean and clear, however the album and the leaves the images are mounted on have condition issues. The album is not signed, nor labeled, but several clues within the album and images of the photos, appear to place the album as being a collection of images of buildings in the town of Albion, New York, in Orleans County. Several images are of buildings under construction ? perhaps the album was compiled by a builder. The album contains a newspaper clipping of an Albion, New York newspaper dated 1911, however none of streetscapes show any automobiles, rather horse and buggy, or people on horses, thus the mages likely date from the late 19th Century, or first decade of the 20th Century. Some of the photographs of the churches in the album, when compared to the architecture of the historic churches of present day Albion, shows that they are indeed photos of Albion churches, in particular the First Presbyterian Church and the Christ Episcopal Church, thus confirming the images are buildings in Albion, Orleans County, New York. Albion is a village in Orleans County, New York. The village is centrally located in the county. The village is partly within the towns of both Albion and Gaines. Albion is the county seat of Orleans County and is about 30 miles (48 km) west/northwest of the City of Rochester. There are no written inscriptions identifying the photos, however some have images provide some information. One is the A.V. Clark tombstone, which may be a clue to the origins of the album. Another is a Cole tombstone, again possibly a clue to the ownership of the album. A couple of the photos have ?Aristotype? or ?Drop Shutter? written on the bottom margins, indications of the photographer detailing the method he took taking the photograph. An ?Aristotype? is a high-symmetry structure type that can be viewed as an idealized version of a lower-symmetry structure. ?Drop Shutter? is an early form of camera shutter consisting of a plate which when released falls vertically and carries an aperture in its center past the opening of the lens. One photo shows the ?Andre Monument, Tarrytown, NY.? Another image shows ?Our Unknown Dead ?May 30, 1890? ? and has a photo of a monument. One image is a portrait of an older man with the inscription: ?Dr. Marsh, Albany Medical School,? written in pencil next to it. A couple of newspaper clippings, laid into the album, mention President Grant?s death, which would place them in 1885, perhaps dating the album as early as 1885. The First Presbyterian Church of Albion at 29 East State St. was built in 1874 - with its 175-foot high spire was the tallest structure in Orleans County, New York. Photographs of it in the album show it to be complete, thus dating the photo album post 1875, and with the Grant obituary mentions in the newspaper clippings, puts it at about 1885, but the album also shows a church built in the 1890s, and a newspaper clipping of 1911, thus a good date for the album is likely 1890s-1910s and before the automobile, as only horses and horse and buggies are shown in the photos when streetscapes or properties are shown. The images consist mainly of architectural views such as houses, churches, cemetery monuments, small local bridges, buildings under construction, several interior views of homes, several landscape views showing gardens, fountains, and the grounds of properties, some animals, a couple of water scenes
State of Georgia. By His Excellency George Mathews

State of Georgia. By His Excellency George Mathews, Captain-General, Governor, and Commander In Chief In And Over The Said State, And Of The Militia Thereof Do Give And Grant Unto Richmond Dawson One Thousand Acres 1794.

Printed document, completed in manuscript, measuring approximately 13? x 13?, dated 28 October 1794; with attached smaller printed land warrant, dated 5 June 1793 with small manuscript plat map (tear at fold), this second document measures approximately 7 ½ ? x 12?, includes large (3 ¼? diameter) heavy wax seal of Georgia attached by ribbon; good condition. An impressive printed land great, likely one of the fraudulent land grants issued by Georgia for their public domain lands, completed in manuscript for 1000 acres of land in Washington County, Georgia, granted by Gov. George Mathews to one Richmond Dawson. The document is signed by Mathews as well as by the surveyor, George Weatherby, who has included a sketch of the land in question. The land is described as ?on the waters of Choopee River, bounded SE and NE by said Dawson?s land and on all other sides by ?Vacant Lands.? Governor Mathews had an eventful career, first as a Revolutionary soldier (including a stint as colonel of the Virginia troops in Greene?s Carolina campaign), then as governor of Georgia, and finally as a special agent leading ?irregular? activities in attempts to wrest Florida from Spain in 1810-1812. In the end the U.S. Government repudiated Mathew?s Florida actions, and he died in Augusta a bitter old man. ?By his demise the authorities at Washington escaped the consequences of his threat that he?d ?be dam?d if he didn?t blow them all up,? and he carried to the grave much evidence that might explain his debatable conduct. (DAB). A handsome Georgia document and unusual early imprint and which is also, likely one of the fraudulent land grants issued by Georgia for their public domain lands (see below). Richmond Dawson & the Georgia Public Domain Fraud Richmond Dawson was the eldest of twelve children born to Brittain Dawson (c1720-1795) and his wife Sarah (c1730-1817). Richmond?s mother Sarah, also seen as Sabra, by her will in 1817, willed her home to a William Arrington Bugg, her grandson, the son of her daughter Mary Margaret Dawson who had married Edmond Bugg. Richmond?s father Brittain Dawson is seen in Georgia as early as 1779 when he was listed on his friend John Walton?s will and six years later, in 1785, he deeded a slave to his grandson William Arrington Bugg. Brittain is found in 1794 in the sale of slaves. Richmond Dawson appears to have been a large landowner in Georgia and a questionable ?land surveyor.? He is found acquiring a total of 130,000 acres of public land from Governor Mathews in two separate grants dated just after the grant offered here. On 3 November 1794 he acquired 50,000 acres in Franklin County and on 4 November 1794 he acquired another 80,000 acres in Franklin County. In all he appears to have acquired over a million and a half acres of public lands in Georgia located in Augusta, Franklin, Montgomery, Washington Counties in the years 1793 to 1794. Richmond is found selling 114,000 acres on the Canouche and Ogeeche Rivers in Washington County, Georgia in 1794 to John Cobb, late of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, who had moved to Augusta, Georgia. Most likely this was one of the fraudulent land deals perpetrated against people from outside the state. In 1839, Georgia?s Surveyor-General furnished to the state?s Legislature a statement that the 24 counties of Georgia that were in existence in 1796 contained only 8.7 million acres, but the records of the office showed that there were 29 million acres granted in these counties. The 29 million acres embraced all grants, genuine and fraudulent. These land grabbers of the 1790s completed purely fictitious surveying and platting, in some instances for themselves and some instances for one another. James Shorter, George Weatherby (the surveyor on the present document), Richmond Dawson (the person acquiring the land on this document), and Zadock McGruder were among the most active surveyors, and it was shown that James Shorter did a great deal of surveying for Richmond Da
Manuscript Medical Lecture Notebook of Dr. Robert K. Smith

Manuscript Medical Lecture Notebook of Dr. Robert K. Smith, one-time chief resident of Blockley Almshouse, a.k.a Philadelphia Hospital and Insane Asylum, kept while a student at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1835-1836

Smith, Robert K. Small quarto, 124 manuscript pages, plus blanks, bound in original ¾ leather over marble papered boards, binding worn along edges, corners, spine and spine tips, boards rubbed and scuffed, some toning, entries written mostly in ink, a couple of pages in pencil, in a legible hand. Front flyleaf has the following ownership inscription in ink: ?Notes on Lectures Delivered / at Jefferson Medical College / Taken by Robt. K. Smith T.M./ During the Session 1835.6 / Bohemia Manor Cecil County / Maryland / Robt. K. Smith Mem of Jefferson M. College.? Robert K. Smith?s notebook contains his notes on lectures of the session 1835-1836 from November 1835 to February 1836; and includes his notes on: Dr. Jacob Green, M.D. on Chemistry (includes a piece on Galvanic Electricity); Surgery by Dr. George McClellan, M.D.; Materia Medica by Dr. Samuel Colhoun, M.D.; Midwifery by Dr. Samuel McClellan, M.D.; Practice of Medicine by Dr. John Revere, M.D.; and Anatomy by Dr. Granville Sharp Pattison, M.D. An online 1835-1836 catalogue of Jefferson Medical College confirms the above listed physicians and their course of lectures at Jefferson Medical College for the year (1835-1836). At the time there were 233 students registered for the lectures, having grown from only 96 in 1832-1833. The fee for each course of lectures was $15.00, another $10.00 allowed you into the Dissecting Rooms and Demonstrations. The fee for your diploma was $15.00 and $5.00 to the janitor, plus another fee of $5.00 for admittance into the museum for instruction by the Curator in the Art of making Anatomical Preparations and to the privilege of attending the Clinical instruction of the Dispensary. In all, one year at the medical school cost $159.00. Robert K. Smith, listed as ?of Pennsylvania?, was listed as a student for the 1834-1835 lecture course year, and the notebook offered here shows him as a student for 1835-1836. The Jefferson Medical College catalogue for 1836-1837 shows him as a student in that 1835-1836 class, however this catalogue shows him being ?of Delaware? and graduating in 1836 with the thesis ?The Influence of Habit.? Robert K. Smith (1817-1877) Robert K. Smith was born about 1817 in Pennsylvania (per the 1850 census) and apparently (from the notebook) moved to Bohemia Manor in Cecil County, Maryland by the time he took these lecture courses at Jefferson (1835-1836). By the 1840s he is found living in Delaware where his two oldest children were born and were he was found as a member of the Delaware Chapter of the Pennsylvania State Medical Society; and by at least 1850 he is found in Darby, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, which is on the southwest border of Philadelphia. Robert K. Smith held the ?position of Resident-in-Chief? in 1855-1856 and again in 1858-1859 at Philadelphia General Hospital (?Blockley Almshouse? a.k.a. Philadelphia Hospital and Lunatic Asylum). He had general charge of all hospital affairs and besides routine work, lectured at times in the amphitheater. One such lecture given at the hospital in the winter of 1855-1856 was a lecture on the clinical course of the hospital and was published in pamphlet form in 1855. He was first elected to the position on 2 July 1855 and was selected by the guardians and is said to have co-operated most efficiently with the clinical board, delivering in October a most excellent introductory lecture, and participating in the clinical instructions communicated to the class. In a newspaper announcement for the lecture, he was listed as the President of the Medical Board. The 1860 U.S. Census found Dr. Robert K. Smith enumerated in Philadelphia?s 24th Ward. It said he was born in 1817 in Pennsylvania, and that his wife Sallie was born in Delaware in 1819. Their two oldest children were born in Maryland, and the two youngest were born in Pennsylvania. Smith was listed as a physician. Dr. Robert K. Smith died on 21 November 1877 at the age of 60 and was buried at Great
Autograph Letter Signed

Autograph Letter Signed, to James Gordon Bennett, editor and founder of the New York Herald, written by ?Enquirer? of New York

Enquirer? possibly James Watson Webb Quarto, 4 pages, posted from ?Washington Square? New York, ?March 29,? no year given, likely 1850?s. The letter writer signs their name ?Enquirer? and inquires about Bennett?s opinion on the presumed upcoming American delegation to Paris, France, perhaps concerning some political matter. James Gordon Bennett (1795-1872) James Gordon Bennett was the founder, editor and publisher of the New York Herald and a major figure in the history of American newspapers. Bennett was born to a prosperous Roman Catholic family in Newmill, Banffshire, Scotland, Great Britain. At age 15, Bennett entered the Roman Catholic seminary in Aberdeen, where he remained for four years. After leaving the seminary, he read voraciously on his own and traveled throughout Scotland. In 1819, he joined a friend who was sailing to North America. After four weeks they landed in Halifax, Nova Scotia, where Bennett briefly worked as a schoolmaster till he had enough money to sail south to Portland, Maine, where he again taught school in the village of Addison, moving on to Boston, Massachusetts by New Year's Day, 1820. He worked in New England as a proofreader and bookseller before the Charleston Courier in Charleston, South Carolina hired him to translate Spanish language news reports, so he briefly relocated to The South. He moved back north to New York City in 1823, where he worked first as a freelance paper writer and then, assistant editor of the New York Courier and Enquirer, one of the oldest newspapers in the city In May 1835, Bennett began the New York Herald after years of failing to start a paper. After only a year of publication, in April 1836, it shocked readers with front?page coverage of the grisly murder of prostitute Helen Jewett; Bennett got a scoop and conducted the first-ever newspaper interview for it. In business and circulation policy, The Herald initiated a cash?in?advance policy for advertisers, which later became the industry standard. Bennett was also at the forefront of using the latest technology to gather and report the news, and added pictorial illustrations produced from woodcuts. In 1839, Bennett was granted the first ever exclusive interview to a sitting President of the United States, the eighth occupant, Martin Van Buren (1782?1862, served 1837?1841). By the time Bennett turned control of the New York Herald over to his son James Gordon Bennett Jr. (1841?1912), at age 25 in 1866, it had the highest circulation in America but would soon face increasing competition from Greeley's Tribune and soon in the next decades, from Joseph Pulitzer's New York World, William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, along with Henry J. Raymond's The New York Times. However, under the younger Bennetts' stewardship, the paper slowly declined under the increasing stiff competition and changing technologies in the late 19th century and, after his 1912 death, it was merged a decade later with its former arch-rival, the New York Tribune in 1924, becoming the New York Herald Tribune for another 42 years meeting with considerable success and reputation in its near last half-century, until finally closing in 1966?1967. The author of this letter, written to Bennett, is possibly James Watson Webb (1802-1884). The letter is signed simply ?Enquirer,? it is unclear who the author is, but the New York Courier and Enquirer, properly called the Morning Courier and New-York Enquirer, was a daily broadsheet newspaper published in New York City from June 1829 until June 1861, when it was merged into the New York World. Throughout its existence it was edited by newspaper publisher James Watson Webb. It was closely connected with the rise and fall of the United States Whig Party and was noted for its careful coverage of New York Harbor shipping news and its close attention to speeches and events in the United States Congress. ?Washington Square Sir, I fear you are becoming so much engrossed with the political conditions of the world as to forget the social.
Autograph Letter Signed of Wendell Phillips Garrison

Autograph Letter Signed of Wendell Phillips Garrison, editor of ?The Nation,? written to Major-General Jacob Dolson Cox, concerning their fears for their sons volunteering for the Spanish-American War, 1898

Garrison, Wendell Phillips octavo. 3 pages, on the letterhead of ?The Nation,? dated 10 June 1898, written by Wendell P. Garrison to Major-General Jacob Dolson Cox. Wendell Phillips Garrison and ?The Nation? Wendell Phillips Garrison (1840?1907) was an American editor and author. He was born in Cambridgeport, Massachusetts, a son of the abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. He graduated from Harvard in 1861. His father's abolitionist newspaper The Liberator ended in 1865, after passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Very much a successor was The Nation, which began in 1865 and of which the younger Garrison was Literary Editor. The Nation was backed up by his father's vast network of contacts. After the specific, urgent problem of slavery had been ended (The Liberator), America could proceed to a broader field, thus the birth of ?The Nation.? The magazine is still published today. As a young man, Wendell P. Garrison had adopted pacifist and anti-imperialist beliefs. The Nation was established in July 1865 at 130 Nassau Street ("Newspaper Row") in Manhattan. A group of abolitionists, led by the architect Frederick Law Olmsted, wanted to establish a new weekly political magazine. Edwin Lawrence Godkin, who had been considering such a magazine for some time, agreed and so became the first editor of The Nation. Wendell Phillips Garrison was Literary Editor from 1865 to 1906, the year before he died. Garrison writes to Major-General Jacob Dolson Cox (1828-1900) concerning his fear for their sons volunteering for military service in the Spanish-American War. Cox was a statesman, lawyer, Union Army general during the American Civil War, Republican politician from Ohio, author, and recognized microbiologist. He served as the 28th Governor of Ohio and as United States Secretary of the Interior. As Governor of Ohio, Cox sided for a time with President Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction plan and was against African American suffrage in the South, though he supported it in Ohio. Seeing himself caught between Johnson and the Radical Republicans, Cox decided not to run for reelection. He stayed out of politics for a year, though both Sherman and Grant advocated that Cox replace Stanton as Secretary of War as a means of stemming the demands for Johnson's impeachment. But Johnson declined. When Ulysses S. Grant became president, he nominated Cox Secretary of Interior and Cox immediately accepted. The last years of his life Garrison devoted to writing military history books and war remembrances. ?The Nation, 208 Broadway (P.O. Box 794), New York, June 10, 1898 Dear Mr. Cox: My motive in placing you on the map will appear in the little volume I have just mailed to you for Mrs. Cox. By opening it you will be convinced that it is not worthwhile to pursue with it; and also, whenever she and it come together, let it be understood that I want no acknowledgement of it. I am sorry indeed to learn of your personal mission and anxiety; and it was with pain that I learned from Lloyd who saw him in camp before his departure, that your Edward was committed to this unhappy war. It is anybody?s right to take up arms in it, it is not that of the strong, the middle-aged & the gray haired men who forced the country into it and the ones who should assume its burden of peril & hardship. The youth should quietly keep the way of learning and reasonableness, & fit themselves to repair the folly of their elders. I feel all the more deeply on this subject because I am within an ace of losing Lloyd in Edward?s company. I hope your boy will emerge from his present trial & will return without having fired a shot at a fellow being. The non-combatant Garrison of a Hobson is, after all, the most to be envied. My best regards to the Clarks and any other adjacent fragment of your posterity. Katherine sends me continued good news concerning herself, and she shall have this latest item from you. Always Cordially Yours, Wendell P. Garrison Tell your Alice th
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Incoming Letters of the family of architect Frederick L. Francis and his wife Lulu Horton Francis, of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, 1905-1923

Francis, Frederick L. 42 letters, 109 pp., dated 27 February 1905 to 5 March 1923; plus related ephemeral items: 3 black and white photographs; 18 manuscript notes (mostly regarding family genealogy); 2 postcards; 1 calling card; 10 greeting cards; and 4 printed ephemeral items. H.M. Francis & Sons, Architects Frederick L. Francis was the son of Henry Martyn Francis (1836-1908), a distinguished architect. Henry was born on 16 June 1836 at Lunenburg, Worcester County, Massachusetts. He married Emily Josephine Leighton in July 1867 at Cambridge, Massachusetts. She was born on 7 October 1836 at Skowhegan, Somerset County, Maine. Many of H.M. Francis? designs are listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places. Buildings attributed to him (or to his family firm) include churches, schools, private homes, and a variety of public buildings. These include: the Congregational Church at 820 Main Street, Fitchburg; the former Fitchburg High School (aka the Academy Street School, and more recently known as The Annex); the Westford Town Farm, Westford, Massachusetts; the Goffstown [NH] Public Library; and the Murdock School, Winchendon, Massachusetts; the Fitchburg YMCA and Police Station. He also designed bridges, such as one on Cushing street in Fitchburg, and the Wallace Walkway (stairway leading to the front of the present-day Longsjo Middle School, Academy St., Fitchburg). His obituary credits him with the design of about 30 schools, 25 churches, and 15 libraries. Henry?s two sons that worked in the firm with him were Frederick Leighton Francis and Albert Franklin Francis. Frederick L. Francis was born 5 February 1870, at Fitchburg, Worcester County, Massachusetts. He was a student at M.I.T. in 1892. He married Lula May Horton (1877-1961) at Fitchburg on September 17, 1898. Lula was the daughter of Timothy Frank Horton (1849-1926) and his wife Esther M. Whitney (1856-1883) of Brattleboro, Windham County, Vermont. Frederick and Lulu had three children, twin sons who died at birth in 1901; and a daughter Katherine Horton Francis (1903-1984). Frederick was an architect working for his father?s architectural firm, joining the firm with his brother Albert in 1902. Frederick?s father died in 1908 and the firm went into the hands of Frederick and Albert. Frederick took trip to Europe in 1913 (to Hamburg and Munich, Germany; and Paris, France), he sailed on the S.S. Patricia of the Hamburg American Line. He died on 9 April 1919 at the age of 49 and was buried at Forest Hill Cemetery, in Fitchburg. After Frederick?s death in 1919, Lula married a second time to Joseph A. Harwood (1880-1948). Frederick?s brother, architect Albert Franklin Francis (1875-1946) made his home in Fitchburg as well. He married Edith M. Perry (1878-1902) in 1898. Thirty of the forty-two letters were written to Frederick L. Francis, 10 were written by his wife; 4 by his mother; and 4 by his brother Albert. Frederick wrote 2 of the letters. Frederick?s wife Lulu received 5 of the letters, plus others. The letters were written by family, friends, and associates. The letters discuss family affairs and history, and matters related to the Francis architectural firm. Sample Quotes: ?H.M. Francis & Sons Architects, Fitchburg, Massachusetts, Aug 6, 1913 Dear Fred: We got your cards and Lu let us read your letter so we feel posted up to date. Everything going on well so far. First floor of Quinlan block nearly framed. Have not started brickwork on Lowe?s garage yet. Went over to Normal School yesterday, also to Lowe?s. Nothing important happened since you left. Sent out bills Monday and got check from F. Savings Bank job $200, as first payment on acct. Hope to get letter from you soon telling all about boat and people on it. Hope you had good room and good food, and that you will feel fine by time you land. A fellow just in to see if he could get a job as draftsman. Dave Goldberg just phone to see if I would go down to the Elks
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Manuscript Diaries of Rutgers Female College student Carrie A. McAllister, of New York City, New York, 1866-1871

McAllister, Carrie A. 4 diaries, 756 pp. plus, 29 pp. of memoranda and cash accounts, dated 1 January 1866 to 10 October 1871, with gaps, as follows: 1866: 350 pp., plus 6 pp memoranda and cash accounts, bound in limp leather, 12mo pocket diary, one day entry per page, entries written in pencil in a legible hand, binding worn, chipped; inscribed on front flyleaf ?Diary of / Carrie A. McAllister / 229 Jay St. / Brooklyn, L.I. / Student Packer Institute.? 1867: 180 pp., plus 15 pp memoranda and cash accounts, 12mo pocket diary bound in limp leather, three days entries per page, entries are written in pencil in legible hand, binding worn; inscribed on front fly leaf ?Property of / Carrie A. McAllister / Rutgers College / Class of ?68.? 1868: 131 pp., plus 5 pp. memoranda and cash accounts, bound in limp leather, 12mo pocket diary, one day entry per page, entries written in pencil in legible hand, binding worn, spine chipped. 1871: 95 pp., plus 5 pp. memoranda and cash accounts, 12mo pocket diary, bound in limp leather, three days entries per page, entries written in pencil in legible hand, binding worn; inscribed on front flyleaf ?Carrie.? Carrie A. McAllister (1850-1939) Carrie A. McAllister was born on 2 May 1850 in Connecticut. She was the daughter of William McAllister (1822-1880) and his wife Esther Hollis (1823-). William McAllister was a clergyman for the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was born in Derry, Londonderry, Northern Ireland, his wife Esther was born in England. Carrie was one of at least five children. Her oldest sister Neoma was born in New York in 1845, then her siblings William (1847), Anna (1848) and Carrie herself (1850) were all born in Connecticut. Her younger sister Emma (1854) was born in New York, thus the family traveled after they immigrated and finally settled in New York City. The family is found in the 1860 Census living in New York City and later in Brooklyn. Carrie attended the Packer Institute in Brooklyn, as the 1867 diary has her name and the institute?s name inscribed on the front flyleaf. The Packer Institute was founded in 1845, when a committee of landowners and merchants interested in improving the education of girls raised funds for a new school, which they called the Brooklyn Female Academy, on Joralemon Street. Although the school was successful, both financially and educationally, with steadily increasing enrollment, on January 1, 1853 the building caught fire and burned to the ground. The Academy received an offer from Harriet L. Packer, the widow of William S. Packer, to give $65,000 towards rebuilding the school if it were named after her late husband. The new building was designed by the Minard Lafever, a noted designer of Brooklyn churches, and opened in November 1854. The school is still in business. After the Packer Institute, Carrie attended Rutgers Female College, where, graduating with an A.M. in the Class of 1868. She also appears to have received a degree of arts from Baltimore Female College of Baltimore, Maryland. Rutgers Female Institute opened as New York City?s first institution of higher education for women in 1839. Located in a new building on Madison Street in what is now the Lower East Side, it offered a one-year course of study at the higher education level as well as classes for younger girls. In 1860 Rutgers Female Institute followed the general direction of Manhattan development and moved uptown to 487-491 Fifth Avenue, across the street from the Croton Distributing Reservoir (now the New York Public Library). The new facility was built in 1856 as the ?House of Mansions,? an unsuccessful attempt at an early type of luxury apartment building. In 1867 a new charter from the state upgraded it from Rutgers Female Institute to Rutgers Female College and it began to offer a four-year BA degree recognized by the state Board of Regents. Rutgers Female College stayed on at Fifth Avenue until moving to a building at 54-58 West 55th Street in 1882. It finally closed in
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Manuscript Day Book of Dr. James W. Smith, physician of Akron, Ohio, 1852-1855

Smith, Dr. James W. folio, 210 manuscript pp., bound in ¼ calf, marbled paper covered boards, measures 8? x 12 ½?, dated 29 Oct 1852 to 30 May 1855; covers and spine poor, very worn, spine chipped, text block split in half, couple of signatures loose; written in ink, in legible hand, some entries faded (about ?) and difficult to read. The Inside front board has a later inscription in magic marker that reads: ?Dr. Smith / Physician?s Day Book / 1852-1855 / Akron, Ohio.? Another earlier, perhaps contemporary ink inscription on top of inside front flyleaf reads: ?J.W. Smith Day Book.? However, a brief look at the 1850 U.S. Federal Census shows many of the names in the day book have similar people enumerated at Montgomery County, Ohio, in the towns just outside of Dayton, and an entry in day book shows the doctor going to the Phillipsburg (Montgomery County) area and the Union (Montgomery County) area; possibly placing Dr. Smith in the Dayton area, instead of Akron; further research would need to be conducted to determine. Dr. Smith performed several abortions. Dr. Smith also treats a woman with nervine and hydrastis (which can be used as an abortative). He treats a number of women in their confinement and mentions treating a ?colored? child of David Jones, and other African-Americans, and an Irish man. Most of the time the doctor names the patients and the charges, in some places he lists the cause for the visit and in many he lists the types of medicine ? hepatic powder, plasters, lobelia, quinine, tonic syrup, etc., that he prescribed. It appears that he takes payment in vegetables (bushel of turnips), meat (20 lbs. pork), or other services as well. Examples from the Day Book: ?Dec 21 1852 A. Helmrek to Pulmonary syrup for wife $ .25 to vis med for David Jones Colored girl east of Milton $2.00? ?Dec 27 1851 to vis to med to colored girl for David Jones $2.00? ?Feb 24 1853 Philip [Ganner] to attending wife in Abortion $3.00? ?March 20, 1853 Adison Davis to attending wife in confine $3.00? ?March 25, 1853 Jonathan Jay to vis to med for to babe $1.00 to antidispeptic wine bitters $ .50? ?June 7, 1853 Martha Jay to 2 vials nervine 37c to hydrastis 12c to tonic powders 25c $ .75? ?Nov 1, 1853 Abram Hains to attending wife in labor all night $2.00? ?Nov 2, 1853 Abram Hains to attending wife in Parturition $3.00? ?Nov 3, 1853 Abram Hains to 2 vis & med for wife $2.50? ?Nov 4, 1853 Abram Hains to 2 vis & med for wife $2.50 to bot liniment $ .25? ?August 31, 1854 William Hall, Irish man on Jos. [Turners] place to 2 vis & med for son $2.00? ?Sept 1, 1854 William Hall, Irish man to call to med for son $ .50? ?Sept 12, 1854 to James Fox colored man at Lee?s to vis To med $1.50? ?December 1, 1854 ____ Kenedy to vis & med his wife in abortion detention &c. $1.50? ?January 18, 1854 ____ Guinea colored man to vis & med for child & med for wife $ .50?
Group of Five Autograph Letters Signed written by Thomas Boylston Adams to his parents

Group of Five Autograph Letters Signed written by Thomas Boylston Adams to his parents, John and Abigail Adams, while he was in Europe, serving as secretary to his brother, Ambassador John Quincy Adams, 1796-1797

Adams, Thomas Boylston (1772-1832) quarto, five letters, 19 pages, in very good, clean and legible condition. The collection includes three letters by Adams to his mother Abigail, and two to his father, then serving as Vice President and President of the United States. The letters written by Thomas in the Hague and London, report on events in Europe, French intrigue in America and Florida, the Citizen Genet affair, he writes his father concerning Washington?s Farewell Address and reaction to it in Europe, the effect of the French Revolutionary War, the views of the new American Republic, news of his brother, John Quincy Adams, and his own feelings about the United States, and much more. The letters are dated June 29, 1796 (to Abigail), August 27, 1796 (to Abigail), November 26, 1796 (to the Vice President), December 21, 1796 (to Abigail) and October 3, 1797 (to the President). Four of the letters are docketed by Abigail Adams in the upper left corner of the first page. Thomas Boylston Adams (1772-1832) Thomas Boylston Adams was the third son and youngest child of John and Abigail (Smith) Adams. He was born on 15 September 1772 and was baptized in the First (Congregational) or North Precinct Church in Quincy, Massachusetts, five days later. Named for his great-great-grandfather, the young Thomas Boylston Adams impressed the family with his early talent for Latin and what his aunt Elizabeth Smith Shaw called ?a more martial, and intrepid Spirit.? Early on, she wrote to Abigail, Thomas Boylston showed ?a love for Business, and an excellent faculty in dispatching it. Indefatigable in every-thing that shall render him a useful member of Society, and independent of the World.? In September 1774, two years after his birth, his father was appointed one of the delegates to the First Continental Congress from Massachusetts Bay. In 1784, his mother traveled to Europe to accompany her husband on his diplomatic missions including while he was U.S. Minister to the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. While both of his parents were abroad, Thomas lived with relatives in Haverhill, Massachusetts. Thomas graduated from Harvard College in 1790 where he studied law according to his family's wishes. His elder brother, John Quincy Adams, however, did not believe he possessed sufficient skills to practice law successfully, but Thomas went to Philadelphia and engaged in further legal studies with Jared Ingersoll. Thomas accompanied his brother, the future President John Quincy Adams, on John Quincy?s first diplomatic mission to Europe as his secretary in 1794 when John Quincy was appointed Ambassador to the Netherlands, and Thomas also acted as his secretary when he later became Ambassador to Prussia. The two brothers made excellent co-workers, and although he often suffered from bouts of acute rheumatism, Thomas Boylston Adams found time for ice-skating, museum trips, and a steady whirl of social engagements during his brief diplomatic career. ?He has ever been a faithful friend, and kind companion, as well as an industrious and valuable assistant to me,? John Quincy wrote of Thomas Boylston when his brother departed for America in 1798. Thomas Boylston continued to practice law after his return to America, he spent time in Philadelphia with his father and eldest brother, when his father was President, and served very briefly as his father?s secretary in 1800, after the death of George Washington. Between 1802 and 1803, Thomas Boylston Adams pursued his literary ambitions, secretly teaming with Joseph Dennie to edit the national magazine Port Folio and recruiting John Quincy Adams as the main contributor. By 1805, Thomas Boylston?s professional success at the bar allowed him to support a family, and he married Ann (Nancy) Treat Harrod of Haverhill, Massachusetts on 16 May 1805. Nancy was the daughter of Haverhill innkeepers Joseph and Anna Harrod. She was born on 25 April 1774(?). Her father ran a tavern called the Mason
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Incoming Correspondence to New York City attorney, William Allen Butler son of early ?Albany Regency? member Benjamin F. Butler, written by U.S. Senator George F. Edmonds, of Vermont; U.S. Congressman Simeon B. Chittenden, of New York; & others, 1864-1895

Butler, William Allen 15 letters, 27 pp., dated 6 February 1864 to 15 March 1895; of the 15 letters, 12 are dated 1879 to 1883; also includes a three-page manuscript note; and 2 used bank checks. Thirteen of the fifteen letters were written to William Allen Butler; they were written by: U.S. Senator George F. Edmonds, of Vermont (5); U.S. Congressman Simeon B. Chittenden, of New York (5); E.C. Benedict of Albany, NY (1); attorney George W. Parsons, of New York, NY (1); and his son Benjamin F. Butler, of Boston, MA (2); the remaining two letters written by William Allen Butler himself, listed as of New York, NY (1) to Lieut. Theodorus Bailey Myers Mason; and a letter of Butler?s son Benjamin F. Butler, written to James McKean, Esq., of New York City, New York. Senator George F. Edmonds and Congressman Simeon B. Chittenden, both write to William Allen Butler on their respective U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives letterhead. George W. Parsons writes to Butler on the letterhead of his law firm ?Barney, Butler, & Parson? (Butler is a partner in the firm). Butler?s son Benjamin F. Butler writes to him on his residential letterhead of 12 Pemberton Square, Boston, Massachusetts. William Allen Butler writes to Lieut. Theodorus Bailey Myers Mason on the letterhead of his law firm in 1895, ?Butler, Stillman & Hubbard? of New York City. Theodore B. M. Mason was the founder and first head of the United States Office of Naval Intelligence, with the post of Chief Intelligence Officer (prior to it being re-designated as Director of Naval Intelligence in 1911). Butler writes to him soon after Mason retired and deals with some legal work for Mason. The three-page manuscript note is a ?Memo of Wm. Allen Butler to Miss Thorne 1850 given to W.A. B. Jr. by Mr. Samuel Thorne after Miss T?s death ? The letters written by Senator Edmonds and Congressman Chittenden to William Allen Butler, mainly concern an Act of 31 May 1878 titled: ?An Act to forbid the further retirement of United States legal-tender notes.? The act reads: ?Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That from and after the passage of this act it shall not be lawful for the Secretary of the Treasury or other officer under him to cancel or retire any more of the United States legal-tender notes. And when any of said notes may be redeemed or be received into the Treasury under any law from any source whatever and shall belong to the United States, they shall not be retired, cancelled or destroyed but they shall be re-issued and paid out again and kept in circulation: Provided, That nothing herein shall prohibit the cancellation and destruction of mutilated notes and the issue of other notes of like denomination in their stead, as now provided by law. All acts and parts of acts in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. Approved, May 31, 1878.? Butler was working with Edmonds and Chittenden to bring a case about this legal-tender notes in front of the U.S. Supreme Court, and were working to get the House and Senate involved ( see examples of letters below). The following are biographies of Butler, Chittenden, and Edmunds: William Allen Butler, Esq. (1825-1902) William Allen Butler was an American lawyer and writer of poetical satires. He was born on 20 February 1825 in Albany, New York, the son of the poet and lawyer Benjamin Franklin Butler (1795-1858) and nephew of naval hero William Howard Allen. William?s father Benjamin was a prominent lawyer from the state of New York. A professional and political ally of Martin Van Buren, among the many elective and appointive positions he held were Attorney General of the United States (1833-1838) and United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York (1838-1841). He was also a founder of New York University and one of the founders of the Children's Village school in New York City. Benjamin studied at Hudson Academy in Hudso
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Manuscript Diaries and related ephemera of Pvt. Herbert J. Satchwell, U.S.M.C., of the U.S.S. Kearsarge, recounting several cruises of the ship along the Eastern Seaboard of the United States, the Gulf of Mexico, and the West Indies, dated 1900-1903

Satchwell, Herbert J. 6 volumes, small quarto, 960 manuscript pages, entries dated 1 November 1900 to 21 September 1903, plus ephemera, as follows: Vol. 1. - 163 pp., entries dated 1 November 1900 to 26 April 1901; bound in leather, written in ink, in a legible hand, minor wear at edges. Recounts a trip from Brooklyn Navy Yard, down to Hampton Roads, Virginia, then to Florida, around Florida to the Gulf of Mexico, stopping at various ports along the way, then to the West Indies, passing Cuba and Haiti, then to Puerto Rico, where they went ashore at Culebra, before sailing to Kingston, Jamaica and then returning to Brooklyn Navy Yard. Vol. 2. - 136 pp., entries dated 24 May 1901 to 23 October 1901; with 31 pp. essay ?A Battleship Community,? plus 3 pp. on the President McKinley assassination; bound in half leather, marbled paper backed boards, spine and tips chipped, front board shaken, boards scuffed, entries written in ink, in a legible hand. After some time in dry dock at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, the Kearsarge leaves for a cruise along the New England coast stopping at Newport and Block Island, Rhode Island and Gay Head (Aquinnah), Woods Hole, and Nantucket, and Camp Higginson. They then sailed south to Virginia, to Newport News, Hampton Roads, Cape Henry. They spend time at sea, and then proceed into Chesapeake Bay, before heading back north to New York (Staten Island), and New York City. Vol. 3. - 200 pp., entries dated 1 November 1901 to 19 May 1902; bound in half leather, cloth backed boards, spine and tips chipped, front board shaken, some scuffing to binding, in ink, in a legible hand. This diary begins while in New York, the Kearsarge then sails to Newport News, Virginia, before going on a cruise to the West Indies. The ship proceeds to Havana, Cuba; then Culebra Island, Puerto Rico, where they set up camp. After some time, they sail to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, then to Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba. After Cuba the ship sails to Colon, Columbia; then to Port of Spain, Trinidad; Fort-de-France and St. Pierre, Martinique; St. John, Antigua; St. Thomas, D.W.I.; back to Culebra Island, and back to Hampton Roads and Newport News, Virginia. Vol. 4. - 147 pp., entries dated 20 May 1902 to 6 November 1902;?, bound in half leather, cloth backed boards, lacks spine, front board and first couple of pages loose, some scuffing to binding, entries written in ink, in a legible hand. This volume opens while the ship is in the Chesapeake Bay and Annapolis, Maryland, before sailing to New York City and Ft. Warren, Massachusetts, then back to the Brooklyn Navy Yard before going north to New England and ports in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, and returning to the Navy Yard at New York during the months of September through November. Vol. 5. - 208 pp., entries dated 7 November 1902 to 28 May 1903; ?Winter Cruise of 1902-1903? written on inside front blank; lacks page 27-28; page 86 blank, with circular of North Atlantic Station tipped in; page 87 left blank; bound in half leather, marble paper backed boards, spine badly chipped, front board shaken, some scuffing to binding, entries written in ink, in a legible hand. Starting out in Tompkinsville, Staten Island, New York, the ship sails to Hampton Roads, Virginia and then to Culebra Island, Puerto Rico; and other ports in the West Indies: Port of Spain, Trinidad; St. Lucia; St. Kitts Island; Ponce, P.R.; off Galveston, Texas; then to Pensacola, Florida, where they spend 28 February to 11 April 1903; then at sea for target practice for several days, and return to Pensacola for five days, before returning north to the Brooklyn Navy Yard where they remain from 12 May to the end of the journal. Vol. 6. - 72 pp., entries dated 29 May 1903 to 21 September 1903; ?Summer Cruise of 1903? written on inside front blank; bound in half leather, marbled paper backed boards, spine chipped, front board shaken, some scuffing to binding, entries written in ink, in a legible hand. Journal starts at the Brooklyn N
Wanted by the United States? notorious draft evader and deserter

Wanted by the United States? notorious draft evader and deserter, Erwin Bergdoll, of the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Brewery Family, 1918

printed broadside, with half tone portrait of Erwin Bergdoll and text; sheet measures 7 ¾? x 10 ½?, black and white portrait, minor wear, and light staining to bottom margin. Erwin G. Bergdoll (1890-1965) Erwin G. Bergdoll was born on 24 June 1890, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was a son of the famous Philadelphia Bergdoll brewery family. He was the son of Louis Bergdoll Jr. (1857-1896) and his wife Emma Christina Barth (1861-1944). The family brewery was founded by Erwin?s grandfather, Louis Bergdoll Sr. (1825-1894). The senior Louis Bergdoll was born in Sensheim near Heidelberg, and learned the craft of brewing and the brewery trade in Germany. He arrived in the United States at Castle Garden on the ship Doris, on 27 June 1846. He partnered with Charles Psotta in his first brewery. Their business increased and they expanded their City Park Brewery. It was one of the breweries which made Philadelphia's Brewerytown the beer capitol of the United States. Philadelphia's taste ran towards lager and Bergdoll and Sons' lager contributed to Philadelphia's reputation as a center of beer production. Later, in retirement, he turned to real estate and built a number of houses in the city's Fairmount section. Among the charities he supported were the German (now Lankenau) Hospital, The Little Sisters of the Poor, and the Salem Reformed German Church Bergdoll?s grandson, Erwin G. Bergdoll was a wealthy privileged child, and took up race car driving, competing in the 1915 Indianapolis 500. He also won the last Fairmount Park Motor Race held in Philadelphia in 1911. When he was drafted during World War One, he appears to have decided to dodge the draft, following in his older brother?s footsteps Grover C. Bergdoll (1893-1966). The family was of German heritage and the brothers at best were conflicted about joining an attack on their Fatherland. The boys, raised by a coddling mother were seen by the general public as irresponsible, entitlement-minded adults born into great wealth. After being on the lam for about two years, Bergdoll eventually surrendered himself to authorities on 21 July 1920, just after his brother Grover had escaped from the authorities and gone back to evading the authorities. Erwin was held on trial for draft dodging and was found guilty in August of 1920 and sentenced to four years hard labor at Leavenworth Prison. Erwin Bergdoll died at Camden, New Jersey, on 21 March 1965 and was buried at West Laurel Hill Cemetery, Bala Cynwyd, Montgomery County, PA. Text of Broadside: ?Wanted by the United States [2 ¾? x 3 ¾? portrait of Bergdoll with cap, tie and sport coat, collared shirt] Erwin Bergdoll Notorious Draft Evader and Deserter wanted by the United States Authorities at Philadelphia, PA., on charge of willfully evading the Selective Service Act. Erwin Bergdoll, a member of a wealthy Philadelphia family, interested in the Bergdoll Brewing Company, left Philadelphia on May 9, 1918, since which time he has been traveling extensively throughout the country. It is believed that he is constantly on the move, accompanied by a male companion. He is an an expert automobile driver, aviator and speed king. Description: - Tall, medium build, gray eyes, and brown hair. This man is a serious offender against the laws of the United States, and his arrest is earnestly desired by the military authorities. Every effort should be put forth by Federal and State Officers to bring about his apprehension. An appeal is made to all patriotic citizens to co-operate with the authorities in effecting his arrest. In the event of his apprehension, please detain him and wire or telephone full particulars to the undersigned, or to the representative of the Department of Justice at Philadelphia. Francis Fisher Kane, United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Penna., Philadelphia, Penna. Todd Daniel, Acting Local Agent of Department of Justice, Philadelphia, PA.?
Autograph Letter Signed

Autograph Letter Signed, of New York City Post Master and Tammany Hall Grand Sachem, Isaac Vanderbeck Fowler, to another Post Master, concerning the founding of the newspaper ?Washington Union,? to be used as political organ for the Democratic Party, 1858

Fowler, Isaac Vanderbeck Quarto, 1 page, dated 12 May 1858, written by New York City Post-Master Isaac V. Fowler to a fellow Post Master, requesting his help is promoting and signing subscribers to a new Democratic newspaper, the Washington Union. Isaac Vanderbeck Fowler (1818-1869) Isaac Vanderbeck Fowler (1818-1869) was thrice the Grand Sachem of the Tammany Society, better known as Tammany Hall, from 1848?1850, 1857?1858, and 1858?1859, the last term shared with William M. "Boss" Tweed. He was appointed Postmaster of New York City by President Franklin Pierce on April 1, 1853 and was also a delegate from New York to the 1860 Democratic National Convention. Fowler was an unusual leader of the Tammany Society as he was a college graduate. He also moved in the better social circles and convinced a number of rich young men to join the organization. However, Fowler had long lived beyond his means, and on 10 May 1860 was removed from his office as Postmaster and a warrant was issued for his arrest, accusing him of embezzling $155,554. Fowler, who had also produced the $2,500 to buy off the Republican Peter P. Voorhis on the city's Board of Supervisors, was staying at a hotel when the warrant for his arrest was issued. The responsibility for Fowler's arrest was given to Isaiah Rynders, another Tammany operative who was serving as a United States marshal at the time. Rynders made enough ruckus upon entering the hotel where Fowler was staying that Fowler was able to escape to Mexico. Fowler eluded capture and traveled to Mexico and Cuba. On July 5, 1866, the District Attorney filed a nolle prosequi, saying that he no longer intended to prosecute Fowler for his misdeeds. Sometime after that, Fowler returned to the United States. Fowler died on 29 September 1869 in Chicago, Illinois, and was at the time planning to return to New York City. ?Post Office, New York May 12th, 1858 To the Post Master Dear Sir, I beg leave most earnestly to call your attention to the propriety of taking immediate and effective measures to increase the circulation of the Washington Union. This is a measure in which our political friends at the seat of Government may naturally take a deep interest. The importance to our party of an able, firm, liberal, central organ which shall have a wide and general circulation, cannot be too highly estimated. In a free country the Press has an influence and power which should be effectively invoked for the support of the popular party. We have been heretofore too neglectful of this point. By now attending to it, with efficiency and concert of action, we can, more than in any other way, disseminate those broad and national principles, the acceptance of which will not only aid the success of our party, but promote the prosperity and harmony of our country. On the fly-leaf of this letter you will find a prospectus of the Union, and you are requested at once to get as many subscribers as possible & forward the same to me. And I can assure you, your aid in this matter will not only be gratifying to the Administration, but also to our active friends at Washington & in this city. Yours respectfully & truly, Isaac V. Fowler?
Autograph Letter Signed Mobile

Autograph Letter Signed Mobile, Alabama, November 11, 1856, recounting his trip from New York City to Mobile, Alabama, written to his sister Jennie, 1856

Rainey, Thomas Quarto, 1 page, dated 11 November 1856, written by Thomas Rainey to his sister Jennie S. Rainey, recounting a steamer trip from New York City, to Savannah, Georgia, to Florida, and finally to Mobile, Alabama. Rainey writes about his trip and his travelling companions, one of which was the daughter of Florida?s governor, Richard Keith Call (1792-1862) and another being Catherine Daingerfield Willis Gray Murat (1803-1867), the great-grandniece of George Washington, and the widow of Prince Charles Louis Napoleon Achille Murat, son of Joachim Murat, King of Naples and his wife Caroline Bonaparte, sister of Napoleon. Thomas Rainey (1824-1910) This letter was written by Thomas Rainey (1824-1910) to his sister Jennie S. Rainey (1832- ). Thomas was born in Yanceyville, Caswell County, North Carolina ? one of many children born to James Glenn Rainey (1805-1876) and Sophia Hendrick (1807-1870). Apparently schooled in engineering and eventually earning the honorific - Dr. Thomas Rainey, he led a colorful life. Rainey taught school, wrote a book, became involved in Republican Party politics, and studied steam navigation in Europe. At one time he owned a fleet of sixteen steam ferry boats in Brazil, and his brother Dabney Rainey is buried there. His fortune was made in Brazil, but it was a ?bridge? that became his life?s passion. Dr. Thomas Rainey was a resident of Ravenswood, Queens and spent 25 years of his life and most of his fortune advancing the construction of a bridge across the East River between Manhattan and Long Island City. The area that now accommodates Rainey Park (New York City) was to be the Queens anchor for the ?Blackwell Island Bridge,? a project backed by leading citizens of Long Island City after the American Civil War. In 1871, they incorporated the ?New York and Queens County Bridge Company.? The bridge, planned with one ramp south to Brooklyn and another out to Long Island, was promoted as a catalyst for developing growth in Queens and as a railroad link to Long Island. To the community?s disadvantage, the effort fell apart during the financial Panic of 1873. Rainey had been one of the earliest and staunchest supporters of the project, and the burden of organizing and refinancing the company fell on him, first as treasurer in 1874, then as president in 1877. Dr. Rainey lobbied around the country to get financial backing and a bridge franchise. However, the War Department, concerned that a bridge could interfere with the defense of New York and access to the Brooklyn Navy Yard, withheld approval. Most interest in the region was for another bridge between Brooklyn and Manhattan. The sparse population in Queens at the time raised further concerns of need and profitability, and the project had once again lost steam by 1892. A group from the community called the Committee of Forty kept the effort alive. After the consolidation of New York City in 1898, the project gained new momentum and the bridge was finally built at Queens Plaza, a few blocks south of the proposed location. On opening day in 1909, Dr. Rainey realized his dream as he crossed the new bridge with Governor Charles Evans Hughes. The Queensboro Bridge fulfilled its promise by tying the Borough of Queens into Greater New York and Rainey received a gold medal inscribed ?The Father of the Bridge.? The structure was named the Queensboro Bridge, but Rainey?s contribution was not forgotten. On April 18, 1904, the City of New York acquired several acres of waterfront property through condemnation procedures. The concrete ?sea wall,? built where the park meets the East River, was completed in 1912, by which time Rainey had passed away. To honor his public spirit, the city named the property Rainey Park. This park is the largest in Ravenswood, once an exclusive neighborhood. ?Mobile, Nov. 11, 1856 My Dear Sister Jennie, I arrived in this little city yesterday, & am going on to New Orleans to day. I came to Savannah from N. York in the Steamer ?Alabama,?
Engraver?s Specimen Workbook containing Specimens of this Baltimore Engraver?s Work c. 1819-1840s

Engraver?s Specimen Workbook containing Specimens of this Baltimore Engraver?s Work c. 1819-1840s

Bannerman, William W. Quarto, commercial notebook 54 leaves of heavy brown paper, each leaf, often both recto and verso, as well as front and rear pastedowns, are mounted with examples of Bannerman?s work, proof copies, steel engravings, drawings, watercolors and miscellaneous material executed by Bannerman. Accompanied by a sheet of paper seal impressions of the designs of Edward Stabler (1794 -1883). Bannerman has signed the book at least three times: once on the cover and again on the free endpapers. Original three-quarter leather over blue paste paper boards. The front board bears the following inscription: Wm. W. Bannerman. Specimen Book?. Heavy wear to the binding; hinges broken; block broken; some pages are loose. Bannerman?s personal record ? kept as a scrap book ? of his accomplished work seemingly encompassing his entire working life in Baltimore. The album consists of mounted examples ranging from book illustrations, commercial labels, cards, steel engravings, woodcuts, printed ribbons, an occasional typeface sample, and proof copies. The examples are mounted to the pages of the notebook in random fashion. Most are identified with Bannerman?s name in the illustration. There are also a small number of original drawings and watercolors. Additionally, the volume contains drawings and several proofs of engravings by Bannerman?s son John B. Bannerman. The volume also includes a sample page of an entirely engraved, illustrated writing manual, which appears to be unknown. ?William W. Bannerman, engraver, William Bannerman was a partner in the Baltimore firm of Medairy & Bannerman c. 1827-31; he appears to have worked on his own in Baltimore after that, his best known work being a series of engraved portraits of American statesmen for the U. S. Magazine and Democratic Review, 1840-45. Bannerman died about 1845/45, leaving his widow, who kept a fancy and household goods store for some years, and a son John B. Bannerman, who carried on the engraving business at the same address. Baltimore City Directories 1827-51; Stauffer, I, 14.? Groce-Wallace, Dictionary of Artists in America 1564-1860, p. 26-27 ?John B. Bannerman, engraver, probably the son of William W. Bannerman, engraver of Baltimore. He was working in Baltimore 1849-53 and in San Francisco 1856-60. Baltimore Business Directory 1849, 1851, 1853; San Francisco Business Directory and City Directory, 1856, 1858-60.? Groce-Wallace, p. 26?
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Autograph Letter Signed, Parkville, Missouri, March 1, 1849 to Rev. C. D. Herbert, Ellsworth, Maine

Park, George S. quarto, three pages plus stamp-less ?free franked? address leaf, in very good, clean and legible condition. George Shepherd Park had an amazing life, first as a hero of the Texas War of Independence and then as a Missouri and Kansas pioneer who founded two cities and two colleges. Born in Vermont, lived for a time in Maine, then taught school in Ohio and Illinois, at 24 he went to Texas to fight Santa Anna?s troops, said, according to apocryphal legend, to be the sole survivor of the Goliad Massacre. He then moved to Missouri to teach school and to build a home at a steamboat landing site. In this new city of Parkville, which bore his name, he started a Presbyterian Church and a pro-Abolitionist newspaper which was raided by a pro-slavery mob, its printing press thrown in the river. He also established another town on the Kansas River where he funded an anti-slavery society and a college that would later become Kansas State University. Back in Missouri, later in life, he founded yet another college ? also named for him and still in existence ? intended to prepare students for Presbyterian mission service. This letter, written in his early Missouri pioneer days to a friend in the Maine village where he had resided show?s Park?s religiosity ? and that of his wife, who may have been a Quaker. At the start of the Gold Rush, Park declares his conviction that the country was headed down a dangerous path of immorality and disunion. ?Dear Friend, do the old Hills look natural? Do you love those cold bleak hills, those clear, gushing streams, those green pastures, lovely cottages and tall church spires better than our mighty Western rivers, our vast prairies and fertile plains? But you will say home sweet home. Ah yes, what a circle of endearments! There can be no dearer spot than the one that gave us birth. I will give you a slight sketch of times and things in this far off land. We have made a great many improvements the last year and several brick buildings will go up this year. But a great many has caught the Gold fever and two companies of 24 each will start for California on the first of May The excitement is great. The companies meet every week and discuss matters, an animated discussion took place the other day on the size of the Kegs each one should have made to bring home their gold in. Whether they should hold 50,000 or 100,000 Dollars worth, the 100,000 carried. I have not caught the fever and Eliza [his wife] says she does not want so much gold. It was quite healthy here last summer but we expect the Cholera soon on the boats. It has been a dry cold winter. The rive has been froze and the snow has laid on the ground all winter. The river has risen now 5 ft but the ice still holds. Some talk of a dissolution of the Union but I hope there is moderate men enough North and South to save the Union The Methodist have preaching twice a month. The old Methodist church have established a circuit and preach once in two months some places. They suffer much persecution & are driven off. The people call them abolitionists We have got a brick schoolhouse built 20 by 30 on top of the hill in front of the graveyard and last though not least a division of the sons of temperance with 40 members and prospering. We are getting up a library for the Sons. We have foes on every hand but our division stand up manfully. We are going to petition the county court to grant no more [liquor] licences so you see the war has fairly begun. And the Gamblers collect in the grocery to organize and the sons in the division room. But sir I tremble at the prospect of our country. Every thing seems unsettled ? people moving to and fro, Gambling, drinking, Idleness, Ignorance, the evils of Slavery, negroes prowling about to pillage & burn, no Sunday schools, a want of moral & religious. If the sons of temperance fail I shall be discouraged, and t