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Vita et miracoli di S. Antonio de Padoa con le figure in rame

Vita et miracoli di S. Antonio de Padoa con le figure in rame

HELIA DA CORTONA [i.e., NUCCI, Elia (d. 1638)] Venice: Nicolò Honorato, 1602. 4to (197 x 145 mm). [6 leaves], 206 pp. (some mispaginations). Engraved title and 20 full-page engravings. Page 197 (f. N3r) left blank except for headline, for an illustration that was not supplied. Historiated woodcut initials, a few typographic passe-partout initial borders, woodcut and typographic head- and tailpieces. Printing flaw to headline of p. 105. Some marginal finger soiling, occasional faint staining, else fine. Contemporary armorial binding of olive hairsheep(?), sides with the central arms of jacques-auguste de thou and his second wife, Gasparde de la Chastre (Olivier Hermal Roton 216, fer 8), spine in six gold-paneled compartments, title gold-lettered in second compartment, the de Thous' joint monogram "IAG" (Jacques Auguste Gasparde) in the remaining compartments, small bee tool at head and tail, pink and blue silk headbands, plain edges and endpapers (discreet restorations, possibly retinted). Provenance: Jacques-Auguste de Thou (1553-1617), supra-libros; early inscription on front pastedown "3 C.P. I [?]. 3 H. 83". *** First Edition, the de Thou copy, of a rare illustrated hagiography, printed and published in Padua, of that city's patron saint. Cataloguers of this and later editions have consistently misinterpreted the title attribution to "Helia da Cortona Mino. Conv." as a reference to the 13th-century Franciscan, a contemporary of Saint Anthony. In fact the author was alive at the time of printing: Elia Nucci of Cortona was a Capuchin who entered the Orders of Friars Minor in 1577, and served as priest and superior in various monasteries before returning to the convent at Cortona, where he died in 1638. This was his only published work. Born in Lisbon and baptized Fernando Martins de Bulhões (Fernando Buglione in this account), St. Anthony died in Padua before the age of 40, in 1231, and, in one of the quickest canonizations in Church history, was declared a Saint the following year. A Franciscan, he was a superbly gifted preacher, teacher, and missionary. "It is said that Francis himself chose him to teach theology to the friars at Bologna and Padua" (Oxford Dict. of Saints). His cult gained popularity in the 15th and 16th centuries. Patron of things lost, of sailors and the shipwrecked, he was credited with numerous miracles, but remains "above all an outstanding representative of the Franciscan pre-scholastic period" (op. cit.). This is the only recorded publication of Nicolò Honorato, described as a bookseller in Padua. The engraved title shows Saints Francis and Anthony, the arms of Padua and a rampant lion, and, above the imprint, a device with a musician and dog. Nucci's account, which is prefaced by poems from three local dignitaries, including the printer or publisher Horatio Larducci, emphasizes the Saint's thaumaturgical prowess. It is illustrated with a series of primitive but charming engravings, some but not all of which were re-used in the following edition, which appeared in Venice in 1606, under the imprint of the brothers Marchetti. An early bookseller's description mounted on the front pastedown adds to the de Thou provenance that of William Beckford, a probably spurious attribution. Together OCLC and ICCU (PUVE2197) cite five locations: New York Public Library, BnF, Univ. of Bern, Padua, and Nardò, Diocesan library.
Den wech des eevwich levens.... Mit Beelden verllicht door Boëtius A. Bolsvert

Den wech des eevwich levens…. Mit Beelden verllicht door Boëtius A. Bolsvert

SUCQUET, Antoine, S.J. (1574-1626) Antwerp: Hendrick Aertssens, 1622. Thick 8vo (193 x 116 mm). [16], 881 (recte 883), [41] pages. Black letter, roman and italic types. Engraved title and 32 numbered engraved plates by Boetius a Bolswert, woodcut initials and tailpiece ornaments. A modest copy: dust-soiling, first few leaves creased, old library markings on title, marginal dampstain in three or four quires. Contemporary parchment over boards, edges stained red (lacking ties, worn and soiled, upper cover detached). Old library stamp on upper edge, paper shelfmark label on spine.*** Second edition in Dutch of one of the most popular 17th-century Jesuit devotional books. Translated by Gerardus Zoes, it is enlarged from the 1620 edition, which was published the same year as the first edition in Latin. Neither a collection of religious meditations nor a doctrinal treatise of spiritual life, The way of eternal life by the Jesuit Sucquet, provincial of Flanders and Belgium from 1619-1623, is "a sort of practical guide for the use of young novices of the Society of Jesus. It is as if the spiritual director affirms his role of mediator by interposing himself between the meditator and the material meditated upon. This is reflected particularly in the engravings, which are constructed as veritable `directories' of meditation" (Dekoninck, p. 305, transl.). The complex, hallucinatory, and varied engravings by the "great baroque engraver" Boëce van Bolswert literally provide "peeps into Hell and glimpses of Heaven" (Praz, p. 195). Most include an allegorical figure representing the soul, usually accompanied by his guardian angel and often shown from the back, contemplating episodes from the Passion or other emblematic Biblical scenes. This everyman figure is surrounded by embodiments of the divinity and the devil, or of his better and worse nature: angels, devils, and monstrous part-animal part-human demons, all letter-keyed to explanations on the facing pages. Most of the engravings include multiple scenes on different planes, from pits of hell in the foreground to idyllic distant landscapes, with the Trinity, the Godhead, etc., at the top. In plates 11 to 18 the soul is shown as a painter, illustrating literally the author's comparison of spiritual meditation to the art of painting, which requires looking beyond appearances (cf. Deloninck, pp. 191-3). The book struck a nerve and continued to be reprinted for decades; besides the several Latin editions, it was translated into French, German, Spanish, Polish, English and Hungarian. The vernacular editions have a lower survival rate than those in Latin. OCLC locates no copies of this edition in American libraries. This copy does not have an extra inserted gathering of 4 leaves inserted between leaves 2Y4 and 2Y5, as described in the STVC (Landwehr describes these leaves as between Y4 and Y5), but the text is complete. Landwehr 766; Praz, pp. 506-7; Funck p. 398 (1st ed.); de Backer-Sommervogel VIII:1515,5; Short Ttitle Catalogue Flanders (STCV) 3114487. Cf. Ralph Dekoninck, Ad imaginem: statuts, fonctions et usages de l'image dans la littérature spirituelle jésuite du XVIIe siècle (Droz, 2005), p. 191-196, 304-305.
Carlo Giuseppe Sappa De' Milanesi limosiniere di S. M. per grazia di Dio

Carlo Giuseppe Sappa De' Milanesi limosiniere di S. M. per grazia di Dio, e della S. Sede apostolica Vescovo d'Acqui Conte, e Principe del S. R. Impero, Al Ven[erabile]. Clero, ed Amatissimo Popolo della Città, e Diocesi salute nel Signore, e spirito di Cristiana esultazione

PIEDMONTESE ROMANTIC BINDING — SAPPA DE MILANESI, Carlo Giuseppe, (1788-1834), Bishop of Acqui Acqui: Carolo Oddicini stampatore dei R. Uffici, 1821. 4to (binding size 253 x 207 mm). 8 pages, printed on yellow paper (or the paper has browned uniformly). Drop-title, large woodcut arms of the Bishop of Acqui. Case binding of white velvet over pasteboards, decorated with metallic thread and gilt and silver-gilt appliqués, both covers with outer border of a gilt and gauffred textile or paper strip, inner border of couched silver thread in a wavy line imitating a vine with "leaves" of purl and silver sequins, at center a large gilt plaque roundel gauffred with flower vase in relief, surrounded by a ring of sequins under couched metallic thread and an outer circle of small gilt grape leaf appliqués (small rectangular darkened area on front cover from a removed library label, front cover central roundel slightly more oxidized than lower cover). Provenance: from the collections of the Dukes of Genoa, dispersed in the 20th century. (Purchased in Italy, with export licence.)*** A pretty 19th-century Piedmontese binding on a pastoral letter from the Bishop of Acqui (now Acqui Terme), dated October 5, 1821, a panegyric of the secular powers that be, the princes of Savoy, who were in the midst of tumultuous times. Mentioned are the recently abdicated king Vittorio Emanuele I, and Carlo Alberto di Savoia, father of the future king Vittorio Emanuele II, who had recently ceded to pressure by his family and renounced his support of a group of rebels who were conspiring to install a constitutional monarchy.
Designs of Sundry Articles of Queen's or Cream-colour'd Earthen-Ware

Designs of Sundry Articles of Queen's or Cream-colour'd Earthen-Ware, manufactured by Hartley, Greens, and Co. at Leeds Pottery: with a great variety of other articles. The same enamel'd, Printed or Ornamented with Gold to any Pattern; also with Coats of Arms, Cyphers, Landscapes, &c. &c. / Abrisse von verschiedenen Artickeln vom Koniginnen oder gleben Stein-Gute… / Desseins de divers articles de Poteries de la Reine en Couleur de Creme ..

ENGLISH POTTERY TRADE CATALOGUE Leeds, 1794. Large 4to (308 x 240 mm). [24] pages text, comprising 3 printed titles, each with 6-page description of the items in the catalogue, in German, French and English; 45 copper-engraved plates, of which one folding, containing 186 designs, numbered 1-152, with an additional 34 numbered and lettered designs for "tea-ware" (tea- and coffee-ware in the French and English descriptions). Paper watermarked with a fleur-de-lys and shield with capital letters L V G below (Lubertus van Gerrevink). Some light scattered foxing and offsetting, plate 20 with closed tear to top margin just entering plate area, without loss, folding plate 26 torn across and repaired. Modern retrospective calf gilt, edges red-stained (extremities very lightly rubbed). Provenance: contemporary notes in Portuguese on the blank verso of the last plate; Duncan Grant Warrand, loosely inserted ex-libris; Martin Woolf Orskey, bookseller (1925-2018), signature at end with purchase date 1972. *** A multi-lingual catalogue of pottery produced by Hartley, Greens, and Co., for the use of traveling salesmen. Founded circa 1756, at Hunslet, south of Leeds, the company gained a reputation for its elegant cream-colored earthenware in the classical style, known as creamware, a type of earthenware made from white Cornish clay combined with a translucent glaze to produce a characteristic pale cream color. Hartley, Greens, and Co. so dominated the market that their products came to be referred to as Leedsware, or Leeds pottery. Although some of the pieces in this catalogue are for display or special use, Leeds pottery was generally a more everyday pottery than that of Wedgewood (their principal rival), and hence its survival rate is low. The earlier pieces (before around 1775) were furthermore unmarked, making attribution uncertain, thus rendering the firm's printed catalogues all the more important. The present catalogue was "one of the earliest pattern books published in England by pottery manufacturers for the use of their travellers, with illustrations of all the articles produced by the firm" (Solon). It shows the creamware as issued from the studios, before jobbers and importers added colored glazes. There are terrines, sauce boats, salts, jugs, egg cups, covered terrines and bowls, cake plates, cruet stands, candlesticks, urns, tea services, a remarkable tulip vase, and so on, many with ornaments, some in the characteristic openwork or perforated style. All of the 186 designs are numbered and identified in the accompanying plate lists. The variety is impressive. Copies of the Leeds catalogues were often cut up by jobbers, who relied on the illustrations to transmit orders accurately rather than trusting to written descriptions of the forms. Their consequent rarity makes the publishing history of the catalogues difficult to unravel. The earliest catalogue appeared in 1783, with the text in English only and 41 plates. The Danish National Library has a copy with the text in English and French, and the English title dated 1786. Another copy of the present 1794 edition is held by the V&A, but it has only 41 plates. Meanwhile, there are also copies of a 1794 edition (at Yale and RISD) with the English text only, but with 71 plates. Later editions appeared in 1795 and 1814 or 1815; these later issues lack the text, and are identified by the watermarked dates of the paper they are printed on. Most of the variously dated copies seem to be reissues of the same plates. A comparison of this copy to the Winterthur copy from 1814, which is digitized, shows that the same plates were used, with the addition of an engraved oval label, " Leeds Pottery" on each plate, up to and including plate 38, a compotier from which emerges a large cross, after which the designs diverge. The editions or issues after 1795 do not have the very useful text, with gives the name, function, and size of each piece: "As the price lists and the general title had been printed independently from the plates, and not in sufficient quality to accompany the sets of engravings, these late copies are generally found without the title and the printed description of the objects. These price lists, now very rare, were printed in English, French, German and Spanish. As the prices were subject to constant revision, prices are added with pen and ink" (Solon). Our copy is unpriced. Altogether, OCLC locates fewer than a dozen copies, some incomplete, of various issues or editions of the Leeds pottery catalogue. Copies in the trade are also rare; the last one traced was a copy of the 1814 printing offered years ago by Charles Wood in his catalogue 70 (item 79, apparently now at Winterthur). Cf. M.-L. Solon, Ceramic Literature (1910), p. 196.
Sermones dominicales ... Hyemales Estivales  De Tempore.... Sermones medicinales [con]tra pestem epidemie... [With:] Sermones de Sanctis

Sermones dominicales … Hyemales Estivales De Tempore…. Sermones medicinales [con]tra pestem epidemie… [With:] Sermones de Sanctis

BIEL, Gabriel (ca. 1410/1415-1495) Hagenau: Heinrich Gran, for Johann Rynman in Öhringen, 1510. 2 volumes in one, 4to (216 x 153 mm). Sermones de tempore: [10], 166 leaves. Sermones de sanctis: 85 of 86 leaves, foliated [8], CCC-LXX-CCCCXLVII, without final blank leaf. Double column, gothic types. Initial spaces with guide letters. Rubricated: opening initial in blue, the rest in red, capital strokes in red. Contemporary German blind-tooled calf over wooden boards, sewn on four split-strap hide sewing supports, covers panelled with an outer border of a repeated Ranke roll (3 impressions at top and bottom and 1 and 2 impressions at sides), inner border of a Maria banderole alternating with a small rosette, diagonal fillets dividing the central rectangle into 12 compartments, the 8 outer compartments each with a small round fleur-de-lis tool, the 4 inner compartments with a larger rosette in a quadrilateral frame (the tools not found in the Einbanddatenbank or Schwenke-Sammlung); one of two brass fore-edge clasps, the catches remaining but differing from each other, plain edges, front and rear endleaves each consisting of a single sheet of parchment sewn through to create the pastedown and free endleaves, the parchemnt shrunk and wrinkled and the pastedown side no longer adhering, revealing sewing structure attaching the boards; rubbed and chipped, spine largely restored. Modern morocco-backed slipcase with inner folding case. Provenance: A few contemporary marginalia and manicules; bookplate of Otto Orren Fisher (1881-1961, Detroit industrial surgeon and collector.*** Second editions, the first printed in Hagenau, by that city's first printer, of two sermon collections by the theologian and preacher Gabriel Biel, edited by his colleague Wendelinus Steinbach, and including his two sermons on the plague, "Contra pestilentiam sermo medicinalis," and "De Fuga pestis." A native of Speyer, the theologian Gabriel Biel studied in Erfurt and Cologne, and preached for nearly half a century, first at the Cathedral of Mainz and later for the Brothers of the Common Life (in Marienthal, Königstein and Butzbach), several of whose houses in the German-speaking lands he helped found. He served as provost of the brethren's house in Butzbach and later in Urach, and in 1484-aged over 70-became professor of Theology at the recently founded University of Tübingen, where he served twice as rector. Although trained in the Thomist tradition, of which he is sometimes considered one of the last representatives, Biel's brand of piety, influenced by mysticism and the Devotio Moderna, was characterized by a certain practicality and openness to humanism and to the social currents of his time. He had advanced economic ideas, set forth in his treatise on currency, was against the forced baptism of Jews, and "had considerable influence on Martin Luther" (Cont. of Erasmus). Biel, who wrote his sermons in Latin and delivered them in German, was reputedly called the "monarch of theologians" by Heinrich Bebel (cf. Catholic Encyclopedia), who contributed two laudatory poems, praising Biel and Steinbach, to the Sermones de tempore (fol. [10]v). Like most of his contemporaries, Biel had no doubt personally experienced outbreaks of plague. Later in his life, in 1483, the entire University of Tübingen briefly fled the town because of an outbreak. Flight was in fact the only "remedy," but it was frowned upon by many as both cowardly and a fool's attempt to evade God's wrath. In Biel's two sermons on the plague (Sermones de Tempore, fols. CXLIIII-CLV), Biel considers this question, reviewing the theories of contagion and the medical remedies proposed by physicians, and concludes that, although "flight could be seen as a form of medicine, and therefore licit,... it was never the less to be deprecated. Flight was contrary to charity, since it entailed abandoning the sick. It was also pointless, since God has set a limit on every human life; better, therefore, to recognise that plague is a divine punishment and seek spiritual regeneration" (R. Horrox, ed., The Black Death, 1994, pp. 108-9). Biel recommends trusting the doctors, praying, and above all, accepting death without fear. Wendelin Steinbach prepared several discrete collections of Biel's sermons, which had not previously circulated in manuscript. They were first published in Tübingen by Johan Ottmar in 1499-1500 (Goff B-662), as separate editions though with continuous signatures and foliation. Readers had these collections bound together in various combinations, and very few copies contain the complete series. For the present Hagenau series of editions, the Sermones de sanctis was signed and foliated consecutively following the Sermones de festivitatibus Virginis (not present in this copy); it has its own colophon and is complete in itself. US institutional copies of the 1510 Sermones de tempore, which contains the two plague sermons, are found at Harvard, the University of Iowa, and possibly the Newberry Library (in OCLC but not in their online catalogue). Of the Tübingen edition ISTC locates 5 US copies (Harvard Countway Library of Medicine, Free Library, National Library of Medicine, Newberry, and U. Wisconsin). Gran reprinted the collection in 1515 and 1520. VD16 B 5398 (=VD16 B 5376, VD16 B 5386, VD16 B 5390, VD16 B 5394, VD16 B 5402, VD16 B 5409). Cf. Adams B-2026 (with the Sermones de Festivitatibus Virginis but without the Sermones de Tempore); Verfasserlexikon2 I:853-858); Contemporaries of Erasmus I:146; I. Cursius, "Eine Karriere zwischen vita contemplativa und vita activa," Gabriel Biel und die Brüder von Gemeinsamen Leben (Stuttgart 1998), pp. 1-24.
Bibliothecae Alexandrinae Icones symbolicae ... elogiis illustratae

Bibliothecae Alexandrinae Icones symbolicae … elogiis illustratae

GIARDA, Cristoforo (1595-1649) Milan: Io. Bapt. Bidellinm [recte Bidellium], 1628. 4to (221 x 168 mm). [8], 140, [4] pp. + 32 leaves: engraved title on f. [1]r, signed Bassano, and 16 full-page engravings, also attributed to Cesare Bassano, each printed on the recto of the first leaf of a bifolium with a letterpress list of inscriptions or epithets for each figure printed on the second recto. Woodcut initials, a variety of woodcut and typographic head- and tail-pieces. Printed correction slip to a word in the epithet list of the Erudition plate. Occasional slight dust-soiling, showthrough of ink ownership stamp on title verso, Astronomy plate and its conjugate detached, Rhetoric conjugate leaf printed crookedly causing cropping of woodcut headpiece. Contemporary parchment over pasteboards, spine backed in 18th-century parchment with gold-lettered title, blue-speckled edges (worn and soiled). Provenance: unidentified 19th-century square purple inkstamp (R) at foot of title verso and p. 11. *** First Edition, second issue, of a key exposition of a Neo-Platonic philosophy of images. Cristoforo Giarda was a Barnabite cleric and missionary who was to meet a tragic end: in 1648 Pope Innocent X named him Bishop of Castro, a town contested by the house of Farnese, and he was murdered en route to occupy his new seat. At the time this book was published he was professor of rhetoric at the Barnabite College of S. Alessandro in Milan. The text records a series of lectures which he delivered to the gathered Congregation in 1626, in a traditional demonstration of professorial prowess. "Giarda chose as the text of his speech or sermon the figures of sixteen `Disciplines' or Liberal Arts which adorned the reading room of the newly erected College Library," recently donated to the college by the Milanese nobleman and diplomat Carlo Bossi, "where - as we may presume - he had to give a sample of his skill" (Gombrich, p. 164). The sixteen paintings on the divisions (scrinia) of the library, which may have been designed by the donor, and the engravings by Bassano reproducing them, show female allegorical figures representing the various branches of knowledge: Sacred Scripture, Theology, Canon Law, Civil Law, Natural Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Medicine, Surgery, Rhetoric, Poetry, Astronomy, Geography, Mathematics, Architecture, History, and Erudition. Each engraving is accompanied by a letterpress list of epithets describing the figure; possibly these were also inscribed on the original paintings. Preceding Giarda's descriptions of each of these allegorical figures is a eulogy of the art of symbolic images. Giarda's exposition, whose sources and importance were brilliantly analyzed by Ernst Gombrich, amounts to a "culmination and summary" of a Neo-Platonic tradition which viewed visual symbols as paths to understanding of the divinity. To Giarda, "the Arts and Sciences are not `abstract concepts' but spiritual entities, heavenly virgins, the daughters of the Divine intellect ... The Symbolic Image provides the means through which the inmates of the spiritual world can descend to earth and assume visible form there to rouse, instruct and transform the mind of man through the love of higher things" (Gombrich, p. 182). Renaissance Neo-Platonists viewed the universe as a "vast symphony of correspondences," in which symbols revealed occult affinities. Knowledge of these correspondences and harmonies was attributed to the Ancients, who were closer to Creation. While this "symbolism as a form of revelation" contradicted in many ways the official doctrine of the Church, according to which religious images were simply tools for teaching the illiterate, by the Baroque period these views, whether articulated or not, had permeated literary and artistic culture and had been accepted into religious art. Giarda "belongs to the generation of Cortona and Bernini, the generation, that is, in which religious art was assigned the task of rousing the mind from vision to visions" (art. cit., p. 186). Although the title states that this was Pars prior, no more was published. A presumably earlier issue, undated but with the imprint of the heirs of Melchior Malatesta (who signed the dedication to Giovanni Batista Trotto), is usually dated to 1626 after the date of the imprimatur (13 May 1626), but the sheets are otherwise identical (including the errata at the end of the preliminaries, and the printed correction slip to the list of Eruditio epithets, correcting the word "Corroboratrix," which is in all copies). Landwehr, J. Romanic emblem books, 320; Praz 349 (this issue); Cicognara 1899; Libreria Vinciana 4372. Cf. DBI 54: 572-574; Gombrich, "Icones Symbolicae: The Visual Image in Neo-Platonic Thought," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, vol. 11, 1948, pp. 163-192. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/750466.
Summa Roselle de casibus conscientie

Summa Roselle de casibus conscientie

SALIS, Baptista de (Trovamala); Ottmar NACHTGALL, editor Strassburg: Johann Knobloch, 1516. Folio (309 x 212 mm). [10], 265, [1 blank] leaves. Double column. Title printed in red and black within large woodcut border by Hans Baldung Grien showing Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I enthroned, holding scepter and orb, within a pillared hall, at his feet the imperial arms, signed with the artist's monogram (Hollstein 257; Johnson, German Renaissance Title-Borders, no. 3). Title somewhat stained and with a few short marginal tears, occasional browning. Contemporary Moravian half blind-tooled alum-tawed pigskin and wooden boards, sewn on four pairs of cords, the sides divided into panels, decorated differently on each cover with a variety of repeated tools and a single roll applied twice, the spine also blind-tooled (but rubbed), pair of brass fore-edge clasps with pigskin attaches, semi-circular clasp-strap recesses cut into in both boards. The binding well-preserved with clear impressions of the tools. Provenance: Franz Gottfried Troilo von Lessoth (ca. 1583- ca.1648), honorary councilor (from 1617) to Emperor Ferdinand III, with his large woodcut armorial bookplate, covering the entire front inner board; his family's library combined with the Piccolomini family library and donated ca. 1701 or 1702 to: the Library of the Piarists (Poor Clerks of the Mother of God), Schlackenwerth, Bohemia [today Ostrov], late 17th-century inscription on title, Ex libris Principissae Piccoliminiae Bibliothecae Slacoverd[ensis] Scholarum Piarum"; shelfmark "Morales No. 17" on front pastedown; "1516" stencilled or penned in modern black ink at foot of spine; with E. K. Schreiber, 1984 (description inserted); sold to Wolfgang G. Scholz, sale Boston, Skinner, 23 July 2019, lot 22.*** Ninth but first correct edition of this popular guide to canon law, revised and edited by the important Strassburg humanist Ottmar Nachtgall (Luscinius); an attractive copy with interesting Central European provenance. The 15th-century Franciscan Baptista de Salis or Trovamala published two versions of his Summa casuum conscientiae, completed in 1483, appearing under different titles, as the Summa baptistiniana and the Summa rosella. Arranged alphabetically by subject, from Abbas to Uxor, the work includes detailed guidelines for many topics, including absolution, adultery, divorce, confession, excommunication, heretics, the canonical hours, indulgences, novices, relics, and usury. Baptista's principal source was Nicolaus de Ausmo. Ottmar Nachtgall (1487-1537) was a priest and pioneer of Greek studies in Germany, and is credited with bringing the study of Greek to Strassburg. His student life epitomizes the cosmopolitanism of humanist education: His first teacher was Jakob Wimfeling; he then read literature and philosophy in Paris, studied theology and canon law in Louvain and later Padua, and finally learned musical composition in Vienna. His interest in classical Greek led him to visit Greece. Returning to Strassburg in 1514, he became a member of the humanist circle which included his old tutor Wimfeling, Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg and Sebastian Brant. Erasmus respected Nachtgall's knowledge of Greek and encouraged him. Although he remained a Catholic, Nachtgall's resistance to corrupt practices in the church hindered his career, and he left the city in 1523 for Augsburg. In a poem on the title page, and in his dedication to Jacobus Richshofen, vicar of the Strassburg Thomaskirche, and to Johann Sigrist, licentiate and scholasticus, Nachtgall praises the utility of the Summa rosella, as it provides a guide for students through the dense complications of law. Previous editions however, he asserts, were rife with errors, and correcting the text was a "Herculean labor" (the subtitle refers specifically to the Venice edition, presumably the Paganinus de Paganini edition of 1499, Goff S-50). This copy made its way eastward soon after publication, as the exuberantly decorated and well-preserved contemporary binding is Moravian or Bohemian. Four tools associated with a workshop described by the Eindbanddatenbank as active in Moravia ca. 1520 (EBDB w003447) are used on the binding. These are a small unicorn tool (EBDB s027811), a Maria banner (EBDB s027807), and two budding plants (Knospenstaude, EBDB s027798 and EBDB s027814). Not recorded in the EBDB are at least three further tools: a small circular deer tool and two rosettes, and one narrow leafy roll (the spine tooling is largely indecipherable). The book remained in what is now the Czech Republic: in the early seventeenth century the rich Czech humanist aristocrat Franciscus Godefridus Troilus à Lessoth, whose family originated in Rovereto in the Italian Alps, mounted one of his large woodcut bookplates inside the front cover (at least one other bookplate of his is known). Troilo's title of councilor to Ferdinand III was apparently purely honorific, granted in recognition of his service and monetary contributions to the throne rather than with any expectation of administrative duties. During his lifetime or soon after his death his family's library was deposited in the library of the old convent of Strahov, and was later absorbed into the family collection of Princess Piccolomini(née Maria Benigna of Saxe-Lauenburg) to form the "Troilo-Piccolomini" library, which was consigned in or around 1700 to the Piarists of Schlackenwerth (today Ostrov, in the Czech Republic). The Piarist library was taken over by the municipal Gymnasium of Schlackenwerth / Ostrov after 1815, and in 1910 the municipality sold the entire contents of the Gymnasium library to a Viennese bookseller. I locate two copies in North America, at Berkeley Law Library and Latimer Library, Saint Vincent College and Archabbey. Adams T-1002; Miriam Chrisman, Bibliography of Strasbourg imprints 1480-1599, C1.3.34; Schmidt, Répertoire bibliographique Strasbourgeois jusque vers 1538 (Strasbourg 1895), VII Jean Knobloch, no 109 (with a typo in the foliation); Pennington, Bio-Bibliographical Guide to Medieval and Early Modern Jurists, no. 085, online at http://amesfoundation.law.harvard.edu/BioBibCanonists/Report_Biobib2.php?record_id=r085. On Nachtgall, cf. Contemporaries of Erasmus 3:3-4. On Troilo von Lessoth and Piccolomini, cf. Jan Racek, "Collezione di monodie italiane primarie alla Biblioteca Universitaria di Praga," Sborník prací Filozofické fakulty brn nské univerzity (Brno, 1958), 5-38: see pp. 11-12; and E. Raffel, "In Europa gedruckt, in Weimar gesammelt," in Seemann, ed., Europa in Weimar: Visionen eines Kontinents (2008), 48-76.
Traité des songes et des visions nocturnes avec leurs significations

Traité des songes et des visions nocturnes avec leurs significations, selon la doctrine des Anciens, expliquées par ordre alphabétique

LOTTERY DREAM GUIDE — [Caen: Chalopin, 1800. 12mo (137 x 84 mm). 12 pp. Drop-title. Stab-stitched in original blue printed wrappers. Modern folding moroco-backed chemise and slipcase.*** A late chapbook incarnation of Vulson de La Colombière's treatise on dream interpretation (first published 1660), this pocket-sized alphabetical list of dreams and their meanings had a practical purpose, being sold as an aid for the selection of lottery numbers (but see below). The association of dreams and lottery numbers derived from the Italian smorfia tradition, which linked (and still does) the lottery and its numbers to dreams and the occult. The word smorfia refers to keys associating dreams with winning numbers (also sometimes called cabala) and by extension to the ephemeral publications containing these keys. "A feature of the Italian lottery throughout its history is the intense interest in occult methods of predicting the winning numbers. Foremost is the smorfia - a slang word meaning a wry grimace but also having overtones associated with the dream god Morpheus, son of Hypnos, God of Sleep...." (Adrian Seville, History Today, Vol. 49, no. 3, March 1999) In this brief pamphlet, the connection with the lottery is indicated by a list of the 27 "most commonly pulled" lottery numbers printed at the end. (Oddly, all end in either 3, 7, or 9.) The dream descriptions, however, provide no lottery numbers. These highly abbreviated one-or-two-line summaries are simply followed by a verbal description of their degree and type of luck or lack of it, or their meaning. Thus "to dream of being a tree" portends illness, "kissing a dead person" promises long life, though just kissing anyone signifies trouble. Arranged by keyword, the list covers an impressive range of dream subjects: seeing oneself swimming in the sea (loss and harm), having long teeth (trouble from one's parents), dreaming that one is a doctor (good luck), hearing bells ringing (signifies honor with boredom!), etc. The attribution to the Caen chapbook printer/publishers Pierre-Jean-Aimé and Théodore Chalopin was made by René Helot, who found several copies of the pamphlet in the Chalopin archives. OCLC locates 2 copies, at the BnF and the Newberry. Cf. Helot, La Bibliothèque bleue en Normandie (1928), 245.
Prolyta Victorius Emmanuel Stellardi Taurinensis aulae regiae clericus ad Theologiae Lauream..

Prolyta Victorius Emmanuel Stellardi Taurinensis aulae regiae clericus ad Theologiae Lauream..

PIEDMONTESE ROMANTIC BINDING Turin: s.n., 1836. 4to (binding size 257 x 203 mm). 20 pp. Case binding of ivory watered silk over pasteboards, covers richly embroidered with a variety of gilt metallic appliqués, both covers with outer border of braided or needle-looped silver thread, enclosing a large border of scrolling hatched gilt onlays, ornamented with laurel sprigs, tiny stars and concave gilt roundels creating a jewel-like effect, at each corner a pair of laurel branches built up from individual gilt leaves mounted on sequins, at center of front cover an ornate crowned monogram MT, at center of back cover a large bouquet with ornamental volute base, pink endpapers (dampstain to upper cover, central bouquet with loss of a star and damage to two others, tear to front endpaper). Provenance: from the collections of the Dukes of Genoa. (Purchased in Italy, with export licence.)*** A splendid example of a Piedmontese gilt-embroidered textile binding, on a printed thesis for the laureate or bachelor's degree in theology, awarded to Vittorio Emanuele Stellardi at the University (Ateneo) of Turin on 14 May 1836. The lavish use of gold in low relief produces appropriately celebratory bling. Wealthy noble families would distribute these slender volumes on the occasion of their offsprings' graduations. The crowned monogram on the front cover honors Maria Teresa of Austria, Princess of Tuscany. It is not clear whether this indicates that this was a presentation copy to the Princess, or whether the bindings of all copies of this privately printed thesis would have been similarly decorated. The book was exhibited in Turin in 1998: cf. Francesco Malaguzzi, Legature romantiche piemontese: legature del periodo romantico in raccolte private no. 57, and p. 29.
Rosario figurato della Sacratissima Vergine Maria madre di Dio nostra avocata ... raccolto per Il R. P. F. Andrea Giannetti dal Saló..

Rosario figurato della Sacratissima Vergine Maria madre di Dio nostra avocata … raccolto per Il R. P. F. Andrea Giannetti dal Saló..

LUIS DE GRANADA (1504-1588) Rome: (Giuseppe de gl'Angeli for) Giovanni Baptista d' Cavalleri & Lorenzo Oderico "conpagni" [sic], 1577. 4to (198 x 140 mm). [12], "176" [i.e., 276] pp. Engraved allegorical title and 21 full-page engravings, woodcut head- and tailpieces, initials, and printer's device at end. Light foxing and staining, title-leaf and its conjugate discreetly reinforced at gutter, a few small marginal tears or small wormholes, lower forecorners of ff. Q4, R1 and R2 clipped, catching extreme outer corner of engraving on R2v. Contemporary flexible parchment, manuscript title on spine, lower edge ink-lettered "PR"; front endleaves and lower pastedown renewed. *** Rare edition of an illustrated guide to the mysteries of the rosary, first printed in 1573 at the same press. The text, compiled by Andrea Giannetti (or Zannetti, d. 1575) from the spiritual writings of the Spanish Dominican, principally his Libro de la oracion y meditacion (1st ed. 1554), is a series of meditations on the 15 mysteries, divided into the traditional three sections of the joyful, sorrowful and glorious rosaries (gaudioso, doloroso, glorioso), devoted respectively to the Annunciation, Nativity and childhood of Christ; the Passion; and the Resurrection, Assumption, Pentecost and Coronation of the Virgin. The use of narrative images to assist meditation on the rosary was already well established. Here, each of the three sections is illustrated with five large engravings, one for each mystery, and with a preliminary allegorical engraving of a rosebush, with a central branch-enclosed hollow enclosing an emblem of the main theme (respectively the Madonna with the Child, the Pietà, and the Virgin Crowned), and five large five-petaled roses containing medallions holding miniature versions of each of the scenes shown in the full-page engravings. Of the three further engravings, in the preliminary and final sections (the latter containing various prayers), one shows the author preaching to three eminences, identified by Ruth Mortimer as Pope Gregory XIII, the Emperor Maximilian II, and Philip II of Spain, but used in various works for different purposes. The illustrations' echo effect, reinforcing the numerical satisfactions of reciting the rosary, was certainly an element in the book's popularity. The sixteenth century had witnessed the flourishing of rosary confraternities, which had first appeared in the 1480s, and in 1569 Pope Pius V had consecrated the rosary as an element of Catholic religious practice with the bull Consueverunt Romani Pontifices. This book thus reflected a contemporary fascination with the rosary; it may also itself have contributed to popular dissemination of the fifteen mysteries of the rosary, which seem to have originated with the 15th-century theologian Alanus de Rupe. ICCU records 24 editions printed in Italy from 1573 to 1607 (a supposed 1572 edition mentioned by Mortimer appears to be a ghost). The present edition reprints de Angelis' previous edition, of 1573, the earliest recorded of this text, and it appears to use the same engravings. These have been attributed to the Mantuan engraver Adamo Scultori (1530-1585), whose signature appears in the engraved frontispiece of the 1573 edition, within the cartouche that is filled here by the Cavalieri and Oderico imprint. The same engravings or close copies, or possibly other versions based on the same model, appeared in other publications of the prolific Counter-Reformation print publisher and engraver Giovanni Battista de Cavalieri, and are often attributed to him, probably also on ambiguous grounds, given his habit of recutting and reusing older plates. A handful of smaller format editions appeared in Venice and Brescia in 1574-1577. In 1578, a quarto format edition was published in Venice by Giovanni Varisco, illustrated in part with the same copperplates as in the De Angelis editions, by then quite worn. OCLC locates North American copies of this edition at the National Gallery of Art and the Newberry. EDIT-16 records under a separate number (CNCE 78575) a single copy (at the Biblioteca comunale Ariostea - Ferrara) of what appears to be a different issue of this 1576 edition, without the engraved title, or in which the title does not have the 1577 imprint. EDIT-16 CNCE 41981; USTC 838985; cf. Mortimer, Italian 218 (1573 edition).
Trois discours pour la religion catholique: des Miracles

Trois discours pour la religion catholique: des Miracles, des Saints & des Images

RICHEOME, Louis (1544-1625) Rouen: Jean Osmont, 1604. 12mo (144 x 79 mm). [22], 626, [8] pp. Title printed in red and black and with woodcut printer's device. Woodcut and type-ornament head- and tailpieces, ornamental initials. An attractive copy (title a bit dust-soiled). Contemporary parchment over flexible boards, manuscript spine title, traces of two fore-edge ties. Provenance: with Blackwell's, 1977, catalogue 1095/842, entry cut out and pasted inside front cover. *** An important exposition of Jesuit emblematics, contained within a detailed defense of the Jesuits by one of their most talented polemicists. Protestant factions had held the Jesuits responsible for the attempted assassination of Henri IV in December 1594, by a young man named Jean Châtel, who had been educated in the Jesuit Collège of Clermont. The Jesuits' opponents essentially held that Châtel had been brainwashed in Jesuit "chambres de méditations," or cells supposedly filled with lurid images of hell, which caused weak minds to fall prey to delusion. So convincing were these accusations that the Jesuits were expelled from France, until their reinstatement by the royal Edict of Rouen in 1603. First published in Bordeaux in 1597, Richeome's work, which is dedicated to the King, is couched as a Catholic refutation to Reformists, and to one particular pamphlet, cited on p. 1 (the anonymous Copie d'une lettre envoiee a Monsieur l'evesque d'Angers, touchant les miracles de Nostre Dame des Ardilliers lez Saulmur, en novembre 1594). The text is in three parts, treating miracles, saints, and images, in response to Protestants' claims that miracles had long since ceased to exist, and their assertions that both the veneration of saints and worship using images constituted idolatry. In the third part, on images, Richeome distinguishes between images and idols, refuting such Protestant theorists as Henri Estienne, whom he claims confounded the two. Cleverly marshalling citations from the Bible, the Church fathers, the Talmud, and even Calvin, he reviews the early Church's use of and attitudes toward images, and refutes Protestant arguments by demonstrating that the line between permissible reverence of images and idolatry lies not in the images themselves but in the uses made of them. Having debunked his opponents' interpretations, in the second half of this section Richeome proceeds to review historical Catholic imagery of God, both pictorial and metaphorical, and traditional symbolic imagery for Jesus, the Holy Spirit, angels, the devil, the virtues and vices, the Virgin, Saints, and so on. Other topics treated are the Sacraments, imagery in the temple, miracles effected by images, Veronica's veil, the Holy Shroud, the use of physical objects to signify incorporeal concepts, and the legitimate uses of imagery for teaching religion and for inspiring faith and virtue. The work, which sparked further polemical responses, and counter-responses from Richeome, sets forth a coherent theory of imagery that was to prove central to both the Jesuit mission and to emblematic theory itself. "Indeed, the main theoreticians of the ars or philosophia symbolica in the seventeenth century were to be found in the ranks of the Jesuits" (Dekininck, "Jesuit Emblematics"). Fluently written and easy to read, Richeome's treatise was in high demand. This pocket format Rouen edition uses the same sheets as previous Rouen editions (or issues) from 1600 and 1602; all were shared by the booksellers Theodore Reinsart and Jean Osmont, changing only the titles, and for the Osmont issues, only the dates on the title-pages. Later Rouen editions from 1608 and 1613 may also have been in fact reissues. Many copies of these Rouen editions (or issues) ended up in Great Britain. OCLC lists two copies of any of the Rouen issues in American libraries (Columbia, this issue, and John Carter Brown, 1600 issue), and 6 copies of other editions. De Backer-Sommervogel VI:1817-18 (other editions); Alden & Landis 597/60 (other editions; chapter 23 in the first part discusses Brazil and Peru); Ralph Dekoninck, "L'imagination idolâtre et l'idolâtrie fantasmée. La guerre des images entre L. Richeome et J. Bansilion," in Henri IV, Art et Pouvoir, pp. 67-75 (Tours, 2016, online); R. Dekoninck, "Jesuit Emblematics between Theory and Practice", in Jesuit Historiography Online.
Almanach utile et agréable de la loterie de l'Ecole Royale Militaire pour l'année 1759 ... Enrichi de quatre-vingt-dix figures en taille douce

Almanach utile et agréable de la loterie de l'Ecole Royale Militaire pour l'année 1759 … Enrichi de quatre-vingt-dix figures en taille douce, qui pourront servir de devises

LOTTERY ALMANAC - GRAVELOT, Hubert François (1699-1773) Amsterdam & Paris: chez Prault père [and] Laurent-Fr. Le Clerc, 1759. 16mo (113 x 62 mm). viii, 97, [1] pp. (folding table counted as 4 pages). Ninety-one etchings after Gravelot, including allegorical frontispiece signed by N. Le Mire and dated 1758, and 90 etched plates of girls and women engaged in various activities of daily life. Text within double rule border throughout. Small marginal loss to pl. 34, pl. 90 with an old crease from paper flaw, very occasional very slight soiling, overall in fine condition. Contemporary French red morocco, covers paneled with triple gilt fillets, spine gold-tooled and -lettered, green gilt dominoté endpapers with repeating star pattern; modern morocco two-part pull-off case by Riviere & Son. Provenance: Sir David Lionel Goldsmid-Stern-Salomons (1851-1925), armorial bookplate.*** The first French lottery almanac and the single most abundantly illustrated eighteenth-century French almanac, with 91 etchings designed by Gravelot, who also wrote the epigrammatic quatrains accompanying each etching. Gravelot's series of delightful etchings of little girls, teenage girls, and young women, busy with pastimes or chores, or shown at moments of emotional intensity, was intended, as is explained in the preface, to represent the spirit of France, while encouraging its citizens to play the new national lottery, established in 1757 to finance construction of the Ecole royale militaire, a military academy founded by Louis XV in 1751 to train 500 young noblemen from impoverished families. Besides the usual calendar and a 12-month table of gains and losses, the text contains a history and description of the new lottery and its Italian antecedents, explanations of its principles and mechanics, and a guide to playing advantageously using "mathematical reasoning." The lottery, for which bureaus were to be established throughout France, was planned to last for 30 years, with monthly drawings. It was an early form of today's Lotto. Tickets containing numbers from 1 to 90 were spun in a "wheel of fortune," pictured in the frontispiece, from which five winning tickets were selected. One had the right to place bets on up to five numbers at once, the variously sized bets being provided with arcane names (an extrait for one number, ambe for two, terne for three, etc.). The pictures' role was to help the lottery player choose his number(s), functioning somewhat in the manner of the traditional Italian smorfia, but without the exclusive focus on dreams and portents, which are referred to in the preface as an optional method of inspiration. Like the lottery itself, the concept of thematic images linked to lottery numbers was based on the Italian model (as explained in the preface and the historic chapter), but, while in Italy each city chose their own motifs - in Rome it was the arts, in Naples animals, in Genoa flowers, and in Venice, trades - for France it was decided without hesitation that "la galanterie" was a natural fit for the nation (p. iv). One might read a rather Freudian (or Jungian) motivation into the presumably subconscious choice by the lottery committee of the very opposite of a warlike theme - sweet young girls, domesticity, and intimations of intimacy, for the financing of a military school. Whether this was Gravelot's idea is unknown, but his contribution was major: as stated in the publishers' preface, and in his own Avertissement on the penultimate verso, he designed the figures and wrote the verses. The plates were etched by Noël Le Mire (1724-1801), "one of the most prominent engravers of the 18th century ... [whose] best work was in his book illustrations after Boucher, Cochin, Gravelot, Eisen, Gravelot, Monnet, Moreau, and others" (Thieme-Becker 23:27). The frontispiece depicts blindfolded fate drawing tickets from the "wheel of fortune" and dropping them into a crowd of eager ladies and gentlemen. The first 28 plates portray young girls, and the rest adolescents and young women. Each etched scene is set within a gracious rococo frame with cartouches for the title, the number, and at the foot Gravelot's rhyming quatrain. Shown are girls at play, with dolls or, heaven forbid, spinning tops with the boys (Gravelot disapproves), learning their ABC's, being slapped by their mother or governess for laziness, teaching the dog to dance, playing badminton alone, on a swing pushed by a brother, crying as the cat makes off with the pet sparrow, painting dreamily at a table, and even building a house of cards. As she ages the teenage girl is given more work - she embroiders, knits, studies, but also prepares for parties, flirts, gossips, is jealous ... Many of the plates tell stories. Portraits of the now adult young women include a reader (the quatrain warns to choose one's books as one does one's friends: wisely), a gambler, a coquette, a "savante" (surrounded by books), a dreamer, personifications of boredom and religious devotion, and, moving into another sphere, working women, shown gardening, milking cows, harvesting grapes, spinning, cooking, sewing, doing hair, selling knickknacks, etc. Even a laundress and a housemaid are shown, the latter making a bed, and admonished to be "flattering, supple, patient, and never to tell certain secrets." The final plate depicts, fatefully, a wedding, and there is nothing left to show, the bride having ceased to be the property of la Galante France and become that of her husband. This copy is in very fine condition. The edition is a notorious rarity. There are two copies at the Bibliothèque nationale de France, of which at least one is incomplete, a defective copy at the Bibliothèque Ste. Geneviève, and copies at the Morgan Library and the British Library. (The Morgan also has four of Gravelot's original drawings for the almanac, and Houghton Library has six others.) The almanac had only this one year of issue. The plates were re-issued once, in an edition of Les Jeux de la petite Thalie (Paris: Desnos, s.d.), which is almost as scarce as this volume. Because of its rarity, this almanac is far less known than Gravelot's 17-volume Almanach iconologique, which contained, like most French almanacs, 12 plates per volume. John Grand-Carteret, who devoted 5 full columns to the edition, knew of only the Baron Pichon copy. The collector and amateur Savigny de Moncorps included this almanac in his list of twenty most "absolutely desirable almanacs," of which it is the earliest, and the frères Goncourt called it, a trifle condescendingly, "un vrai petit bijou et joujou" which perfectly suited Gravelot's talents. Inventaire du fonds français, graveurs du XVIIIe siècle, vol. 10, Gravelot, 983-1073, and vol. 14, Lemire, 159-248; Grand-Carteret, Les Almanachs français 277; Cohen-de Ricci, Guide de l'amateur de livres à gravures du XVIIIe siècle (1912), col. 28-29; Savigny de Moncorps, Coup d'oeil sur les almanachs illustrés du XVIIIe siècle. Deuxième édition (1891), pp. 29-35.
Album of watercolor and pen-and-ink designs for embroidery

Album of watercolor and pen-and-ink designs for embroidery

EMBROIDERY DESIGNS - [British Isles, 1830. Folio (397 x 250 mm). 110 leaves [plus 29 blanks], of varying sizes, many on guards, of which 6 are large and folding, and 2 small loose sheets, containing dozens of highly finished pen-and-ink or watercolor floral and foliate embroidery designs. Some dampstaining at front with traces of mold, some dust-soiling to edges, the large folding leaves with a few mostly marginal tears and creases. Contemporary half brown goatskin and marbled paper over boards, smooth spine divided into gold-ruled compartments, each with a large gilt fleuron; a contemporary manuscript list of the 72nd Regiment of Foot (ca. 1823-ca. 1841) used as front pastedown; rubbed, loss to paper on front cover. Provenance: bookplate of Rev. James Lambert, A.M., Trinity College, Cambridge (on back pastedown); childish drawing on front free endleaf; old largely effaced purple inkstamp, only the name "Exeter" legible; with Bertram Rota, catalogue 303, Architecture, item 85.*** A large portfolio of carefully executed designs for embroidery or needlework, carried out in the sunset years of hand embroidery. In 1828 the Alsatian inventor Josué Heilmann produced the first embroidery machine, which could operate with over 300 needles simultaneously. Although such machines did not become widespread for another 20 years, this was to be the death-knell for everyday domestic hand-embroidery. The designs include floral borders, swags and sprigs, spot and corner designs, repeating motifs, curlicues, and some abstract designs. About 60% are in watercolor, sometimes skillfully combining several colors on one page. The uncolored designs are in pen and ink and/or gray wash. All but a couple of sketches at the end appear to be the work of a professional draftsman. Various laid and wove papers are used, with watermarks of the makers S. Wise & Co.; Whatman; Hall, Whatman & Balston; and John Hayes, with dates ranging from 1819 to 1824; with some apparently later unwatermarked wove papers. Some designs are openwork, for broderie anglaise; others are whitework patterns to be worked on muslin, with delicate needlework fillings. About five appear to be unfinished, with some of the designs lightly traced in pencil, and a couple of others have only partial coloring. There are a few faint penciled notes, such as "red pattern, light sprays of roses form the veil," or "very pretty when worked." Most leaves bear an x or cross in pencil near the gutter, possibly indicating that the designs on the sheet had been copied.
Pinax iconicus antiquorum ac variorum in sepulturis rituum ex Lilio Gregorio excerpta

Pinax iconicus antiquorum ac variorum in sepulturis rituum ex Lilio Gregorio excerpta

WOEIRIOT, Pierre (1532-1596?), artist Lyon: Clément Baudin, 1556. Oblong 8vo (118 x 164 mm). Collation: A-E4 (E4 blank). [19] leaves letterpress text (final blank removed), 5 text leaves printed on one side only. Italic type, extrait du privilege at end in roman type. Thirteen engraved plates: engraved title, self-portrait of the artist aged 24, dedication leaf, 9 numbered plates of funerary ceremonies, and printer's device, all by and after Pierre Woeiriot. This copy with an extra blank leaf after the engraved dedication leaf, on old paper but apparently supplied by the binder. Small round repair to outer blank corner of device leaf, lightly washed, very occasional small marginal stains. Dark olive-green morocco, sides with blind-stamped panel of interlocking ovoids, spine blind-tooled and gold-lettered, turn-ins gold-tooled, gilt edges, by Bauzonnet, stamped signature upside down on the lower free endpaper (slight rubbing at extremities of joints). Provenance: Guillaume Mouret, contemporary signature at end (E3v) and on title-page (faded); Gustave Chartener, bookplate, sale, part I, 4 May 1885, lot 134; Damascène Morgand (catalogue, 1900, no. 39695); (with Lardanchet, Paris, catalogue Feb. 2002, no. 10); Fred Feinsilber, booklabel, sale, Sotheby's Paris, 11 October 2006, lot 19; Marc Litzler, book label, sale, Christie's Paris, 20 Feb. 2019, lot 13.*** Only Edition, a superb, large-margined copy of one of the greatest and rarest French sixteenth-century illustrated books. Woeriot's masterpiece can be considered the first French artist's book. The text is secondary to Woeiriot's extraordinarily fine engravings. Not only did the 24-year old goldsmith design and cut them, but, as he states proudly in his dedication, he cast and polished the copperplates, and had the work printed and published (the royal privilege is indeed granted to him, not to the printer). Woeiriot was a goldsmith, and his works include designs for gold-wrought rings and sword hilts. A native of Neufchâteau, he is thought to have spent time in Italy, perhaps in Rome. The present illustrations were among his earliest works, produced soon after settling in Lyon, where he remained until ca. 1563 before becoming engraver to the Duke of Lorraine. Although Mortimer credits the printer Clément Baudin for selecting the text, it seems equally likely that Woeiriot chose the subject of his engravings, Lilio Gregorio Giraldi's De sepulchris & Vario sepeliendi (Basel, 1539), a text that called out for illustrations during a period that was fascinated with ancient funeral rites. Its adaptation into excerpts was then probably carried out by Baudin, of whom this was the first imprint. The artist's mastery of the Fontainebleau mannerist style is impressive. The engraved title is lettered in an oval with distorted lettering as if on a curved surface, within a border of architectural forms filled with skeletons, standing, sitting, and in pieces. At the top two angels blow horns. The self-portrait, dated 1556, printed on the verso of the second leaf, shows the artist at the age of 24, flanked by grotesques. It is one of the most beautiful Renaissance portraits to appear in a printed book. The dedication to Charles III, Duke of Lorraine, of which the text was also engraved by Woeiriot himself, in rather endearingly adolescent slanted lettering, is set within symbols of war, including bound prisoners, and surmounted by the arms of Lorraine. The nine plates, ostensibly showing the funeral rites of different ancient peoples, of Rome, India, Scythia, Egypt and the Heruli, are above all exhibits of Woeiriot's imagination and fine-tuned skill. Vast in scope, showing huge skies and distant panoramas, they provide at the same time extremely detailed close-ups of more-graceful-than-life crowds of mourners. Three plates (6, 7, and 8) juxtapose wild, exotic and sometimes horrifying scenes of partly fictive funeral customs with real French places, identified in the text, notably plate 6, showing Lyon. All are signed with Woeiriot's full name and Lorraine cross (for his native province). In plate 9 (depicting cannibalism), his name appears in reverse. The wonderful engraved device for Baudin, with his elephant motif, was engraved for this edition and not used elsewhere. The work was influential, being copied by Girolamo Porro for some of his illustrations for Porcacchi's Funerali antichi (1574), which were in turn imitated in later funeral books (cf. Mortimer). Noteworthy among the previous distinguished owners of this fine copy was Gustave Chartener (1813-1884), a native of Metz, who amassed a huge library of books and prints devoted to Lorraine, and who commissioned the sober retrospective binding from Bauzonnet. I locate four copies in US libraries: the Philip Hofer copy at Houghton, the Sylvain Brunschwig copy at NYPL (Spencer Collection), the Rahir - Burton copy at the University of Virginia (Douglas Gordon collection), and a copy at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Baudrier V: 24 (illus.); Gültlingen XIII: 147.1; Harvard / Mortimer 555; Brunet V: 1469, Suppl. II: 952; Robert-Dumesnil, Le Peintre-Graveur Français 7: p. 53, no. 1 & pp. 86-93, nos. 193-204; Fontaine, Antiquaires et rites funéraires, pp. 339-355; The French Renaissance in Prints (1995), no. 140, p. 394; Brun, Le livre français illustré de la Renaissance (1969), pp. 97-98 & 316, pl. 31.
Thirsis Minnewit. Bestaande in een verzameling der moyste en aangenaamste minne-zangen en voysen

Thirsis Minnewit. Bestaande in een verzameling der moyste en aangenaamste minne-zangen en voysen

DOS-À-DOS - Amsterdam: Joannes Kannewet II, 1760. 2 works in 4 volumes, 12mo, bound dos-à-dos (binding size 134 x 74 x 50 mm). Thirsis Minnewit: 3 volumes: [8], 160; 164, [4]; [8], 160. Volume 1 with engraved frontispiece, all 3 letterpress titles with a woodcut vignette of men and women at a banquet, woodcut initials and tail-piece vignettes. Vrolyke zang-godin: 160, [4] pp. Without the 2 unpaginated preliminary leaves, containing the engraved frontispiece and title-leaf. Some soiling and staining in vol. 3, second work with tear to corner of fol. D8 catching a letter and catchword. Bound together in a double dos-à-dos binding of mottled dark brown calf, the two covers gold-tooled with two double-fillet panels, a small stamped arabesque lozenge at center and a large and small flowering plant tool at each corner of the inner panel, the spines gold-tooled in five compartments, second compartment with the gold-stamped volume number (1 to 4), gilt edges, marbled endpapers. Small repairs to corners and to fore-edge of lower board. Provenance: Grace Whitney Hoff (1862-1938), her 1933 catalogue: Amédée Boinet, Bibliothèque de madame G. Whitney Hoff, no. 294; by descent to her grandson Charles "de" Labouchere (Charles David Labouchere), with their bookplates.*** A pair of popular Dutch songbooks in a four-volume dos-à-dos binding. Known as a "double" dos-à-dos binding, surviving examples of this variant of the usual two-volume dos-à-dos are extremely rare, but, surprisingly, the genre seems to have been identified with the present popular erotic songbook: I locate only two other double dos-à-dos bindings, both on copies of these same songbooks (in different editions). The binding style may be a clever allusion to certain passages of the book's racy contents. Although few copies of any edition of Thirsis Minnewit are found outside the Netherlands, the Short-Title Catalogue Netherlands (STCN) lists over 20 editions (each volume is listed separately, making an exact count difficult). The collection was first printed in 1636, under the title Scoperos satyra ofte Thyrsis minnewit, attributed to Johan van Dans. According to STCN, Joannes Kannewet II, the publisher of the present edition, was active for nearly fifty years, from 1733 to 1780. The title of volume 3 declares it Verbeeterd (corrected). This is one of several editions to have been issued with a companion songbook, De vrolyke zang-godin. The two works, technically separate editions, are found together in all extant copies recorded. In this copy the binder apparently deliberately omitted the title-page and woodcut frontispiece of the Zang-godin, evidently a not uncommon practice. The unsigned engraved frontispiece in volume 1 shows a pastoral scene with an embracing couple, dancing nude nymphs in the background, and an androgynous creature representing Bacchus in a chariot pulled by swans in the foreground. This iconography and the small banquet vignette were a regular component of the songbook, which contains the words to hundreds of songs, some quite bawdy, to be sung to popular melodies, identified in small type beneath the title of each song. The two other double dos-à-dos bindings mentioned above are: a calf gilt binding on an undated [ca. 1690?] edition of the same songbooks in the Bodleian Library (shelfmark Broxb. 1.27); and a gold-tooled vellum binding on a 1726-1728 edition of the same, from the Cornelius Hauck collection, sold at Christie's New York , 28 June 2006, lot 387. STCN 168606682 and 24067006X, locating only the British Library copy outside the Netherlands.
Orationes Partheniae in Conventibus Ordinariis et Generalibus Ad Sodales Marianos in Congregatione Academica Salisburgensi dictae: Et jam ab eadem Congregatione Salisburgensi sub titulo Beatissimae Virginis Matris Dei Mariae Gloriose In Coelos Assumptae Partheniis DD. Sodalibus In Xenium oblatae

Orationes Partheniae in Conventibus Ordinariis et Generalibus Ad Sodales Marianos in Congregatione Academica Salisburgensi dictae: Et jam ab eadem Congregatione Salisburgensi sub titulo Beatissimae Virginis Matris Dei Mariae Gloriose In Coelos Assumptae Partheniis DD. Sodalibus In Xenium oblatae

MARIAN DEVOTION, SALZBURG - Salzburg: Johann Joseph Mayr, 1755. 8vo (148 x 89 mm). [30], 267, [23] pp. 12 engravings in text, woodcut and typographic head- and tailpieces, large folding letterpress table. Fine condition. Stitched with a drawn-on Brokatpapier cover, the edges cut flush and sprinkled with a red pigment.*** A devotional confraternity book produced for members of the Marian sodality (or confraternity) of Salzburg University's Congregation of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin (Maior Congregatio Academica Beatissimae Virginis in Caelos Assumptae). Although called orationes or prayers, the text consists of sermons or exhortations for feast days throughout the year. Inserted are 12 leaves each devoted to a different saint, arranged by order of feast days, one per month, with an engraving on the recto showing the saint within an oval cartouche surrounded by scenes from his or her life, above the saint's feast day in large letters, a short quotation from a church father, and two related aphorisms or resolutions, with on the verso a life of the saint. The title describes the book as a "gift" offered to members; these "gift books" for the sodality were apparently published annually (see below), but are now not surprisingly quite rare. Following the text is a table of contents, and, in the last five leaves, a catalogue of new members of the sodality, categorized by discipline (theology, law, physics and logic), followed by a list of members deceased in 1753 and 1754. The large folding table preceding this section lists the highest officials and council members of the "Marian Magistrature". The largest name is that of the Prinz-Archbishop, Sigismundus Christophorus, followed by his many titles. Sigismundus, Graf von Schrattenbach (1698-1771), Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg from 1753 to 1771, was particularly devoted to the cult of the Virgin, and during his tenure Marian devotion reached a high point in Salzburg. It was also during this time that Leopold Mozart played violin in the court orchestra; his son Wolfgang Amadeus was born in Salzburg in 1756. Other books for the sodality are recorded, under various titles, for different years, between 1740 and 1765, all printed by Mayr. Three digitized examples from the Bavarian State Library are Xenium Partheniis D.D. Sodalibus Oblatum, Salzburg: Mayr, 1740; Officia sodalis Mariani in allocutionibus Partheniis declarata, Salzburg: Mayr, 1764; and the same title for 1765. Each of these editions has its own inserted 12 leaves of saints, which follow the same format with engraving and text, but but each edition has different saints and engravings (with no overlap), though the style of the engravings is uniform. The bibliographical construction of this book (and apparently of the aforecited editions, viewed in digitized format) shares the mix-and-match characteristics of some liturgical and devotional printing: following the first three leaves a separate quire of 12 leaves is inserted, containing the saints section, printed in smaller roman types. Besides the typographical variation, it is evident that this quire is an extraneous insert from the fact that the catchword on f. )(3v is ORA-, the first word of the drop-title on f. A1r being Orationes. The final quire contains 9 leaves, and the large folding table is inserted after f. S4. The collation reads: )(4 (-)(4) 12 A-R8 S8 (S8 + 1); folding table inserted after S4. F. )(2v signed ")(3". The book was simply stitched and is in its original pretty and well-preserved paper cover. The bookblock edges appear to have been trimmed and sprinkled with red coloring after the wrapper was applied. "The final printed leaf shows a small amount of deckle edge, showing that the book was carefully 'cut to show proof', which is a nice touch on such a cheap structure" (N. Pickwoad, to whom grateful thanks, email communication). I locate two other copies of this edition, at Amberg and the Capuchin library at Muenster.
Spécimen des divers caractères

Spécimen des divers caractères, vignettes et fleurons des Fonderie et Stéréotypie de L. Leger graveur, neveu et successeur de P. F. Didot

LEGER, L. Paris: Place de l'Estrapade, No. 28 (Impr. de Panckoucke), 1831. 4to (280 x 220 mm). 64 leaves, plus 4 large folding specimen broadsides bound at end. 3 preliminary leaves: title, with Leger's monogram, 2-page Avis to printers and booksellers, 2-page price list, the latter bearing the official royal inkstamp (Timbre royal); 61 specimen leaves and 4 large folding plates, printed on rectos only. Double rule borders throughout. Thin but fine wove paper. Occasional light spotting, foxing along folds of broadsides, tiny hole in 3rd broadside. Stab-stitched in original printed blue wrappers (soiled, tears to backstrip), untrimmed.*** A finely printed specimen book, containing a complete range of type specimens and an extensive display of decorative and illustrative material from the stock of a master Parisian typefounder with ties to the Didot family. This appears to be the only general stock catalogue to have been issued by this typefounder, of whom little is known other than the fact, stated on the title, that he was a nephew of Pierre-Francois Didot. In advertising this fact Leger probably hoped to borrow a bit of the Didot glory, since he calls himself his uncle's successor, which seems doubtful, given the fact that Pierre-Francois's youngest son, Henri Didot, was also a typefounder. Active from ca. 1783 to 1835, Leger's foundry occupied successively six different addresses. At the time he issued this stock catalogue he had worked since 1818 at no. 28 Place de l'Estrapade in the fifth arrondissement, an address previously occupied by a foundry owned by the Fournier sisters, and which had descended from the 16th-century typefounder Guillaume Le Bé. It is likely that Léger purchased the atelier from the sisters, which would make him part of this illustrious lineage, although Audin did not have sufficient evidence to assert this positively (cf. p. 1 note). Leger, who remained at that address until 1833, has occasionally been incorrectly conflated with one of Pierre-François Didot's other sons, Léger Didot, or Didot Saint-Léger, who financed construction of the first paper-making machine, invented by Nicholas-Louis Robert. In his foreword, addressed to potential buyers (printers and publishers), Leger declares that the present specimen is the result of "25 years of hard work, of sacrifices and researches of all kinds, of which the principal goal has always been the improvement and progress of typography." The first leaf of the typographic portion of the Specimen reproduces medals received by Leger, most recently a patent or Brevet d'invention awarded him at the art exposition held in Douai in 1831, providing a terminus post quem for the catalogue. Contents: 24 leaves of type specimens, comprising roman and italic in every size, all in the Didot style, some gothic and Hebrew types, 2 leaves of Greek types, several display and ornamental types, concluding with a leaf showing 93 different "ornamented and non-ornamented" accolades and filets (curly brackets and ornamental rules). 37 leaves of graphic material: - 11 leaves of Fleurons polytypés sur cuivre (numbers 1-145; ff. 7-11 titled Armes de France); - 4 leaves of Fleurons polytypés sur bois (nos. 146-197) - 3 leaves of Fleurons gravés sur acier (nos. 198-219); the last page shows a tomb decorated with skulls, tears, etc. - 18 leaves of Vignettes gravées sur acier: ornamental bands or part-borders, organized by size, and numbered 1-248. - 1-leaf sample with bust of Homer above a row of small astronomical symbols, within a double ornamental border. - 4 large folding broadside type and vignette specimens, various dates and printers, including two unknown to Audin (see below). The 467 individually priced graphic elements consist of "fleurons" (what we would now call vignettes), and "vignettes" (borders or bandeaux), making this catalogue an unusually comprehensive resource for the study of ornamental and figurative graphic printing material. Included are figurative vignettes, busts, monograms (including Leger's own, no. 24 of the first series, which also appears on the title), trophies and other emblematic accumulations of objects, religious vignettes of saints, the crucifixion, and armorial or royal insignia, the latter including 22 settings of the Charter of 1830, which had established the July Monarchy. Although these graphic pieces are organized by production process, no such distinction is made in the prices, in which size is the only criteria of different costs. About half are steel engravings, and half were printed from stereotype clichés, known as "polytypages," cast either from copperplates or from woodblocks (e.g., Fleurons polytypés sur cuivre or sur bois). It is noteworthy that this is the only one of Léger's specimen catalogues listed by Audin in which Leger is described on the title as having his own stéreotypie (stereotyping studio), presumably used for these polytypages of graphic material rather than for typography, i.e., stereotype plates made from types. Some of the vignettes are white-on-black, and resemble wood engravings. At least a few may have originated with the Didot family: the last leaf contains an oval cartouche enclosing a steel-engraved bust portrait of Homer, signed by Andrieu, which is also specimen no. 206 in the section Fleurons gravés sur acier, and the bust alone appears as specimen no. 7 in the first section, Fleurons polytypés sur cuivre. Bertrand Andrieu (1761-1822) was a celebrated medal engraver during the Revolution and Napoleonic period. In 1798 Pierre and Firmin Didot had employed him to produce a series of vignettes, for their stereotype edition of Virgil. These were widely dispersed through polytypage in the 19th century (cf. Jammes catalogue no. 53). In the preface to his invaluable catalogue, Marius Audin explains that, besides their periodic general catalogues, typefounders often issued special specimens, on the occasion of a new font or ornament; these could be in the form of broadsides, some copies of which were kept back for later inclusion in the general catalogues. Thus the present specimen book includes at the end four large folded broadside specimens by Leger, comprising: 1) Caractères d'Ecritures De la Fonderie de Leger, Graveur, Quai des Augustins, No. 17, à Paris. De l'Imprimerie de Mame, rue du Pot-de-Fer, [between 1809 and 1815]. 588 x 440 mm. A selection of 17 italic and other cursive types within an ornamental border. The date is based on the address (cf. Audin, p. 154, note 29: Leger's second sojourn at the quai des Augustins lasted from 1809 to 1817), and the activity dates of the short-lived Mame press in Paris, from 1807 to 1815: cf. N. Dinzart, La Maison Mame: Histoire d'une imprimerie-librairie au XIXe siècle, mémoire de diplome, ENSIB, 1988-89, pp. 18-21 (digitized). Audin 206. 2) Caractères d'Ecriture Gravés et Fondus par Leger, Graveur, Place de l'Estrapade, No. 28, à Paris. Imprimerie de Jules Didot aîné, [not before 1819]. 567 x 408 mm. Shows two cursive types, ornamental border, reproduction at top of two medals received in 1819. Not in Audin. 3) Audin 203 Caractères d'Ecriture De la Fonderie de Leger, Graveur, Place de l'Estrapade, à Paris. Imprimerie de C. F. L. Panckoucke, [between 1818 and 1833]. 568 x 394 mm. Title in 3 different fonts, specimen of one large upright cursive font, ornamental border. Audin 203. 4) vignettes gravées sur acier de la fonderie de m. leger, graveur breveté du roi, place de l'Estrapade, no. 28. Imprimerie de C. F. L. Panckoucke, [between 1818 and 1833]. 537 x 394 mm. The above title in very small capitals at center of six concentric progressively smaller ornamental borders. Not in Audin. I locate 4 other copies of this specimen book, at Houghton Library, Cambridge Univ. Library, and the BnF, and a copy offered by the Librairie Jammes in 2006. The BnF includes three folding specimens, and the 3 other copies appear to each have two. The Jammes copy also differs from this one in having a leaf of musique grecque at the end instead of the sample leaf with the Homer portrait, and beige instead of blue wrappers (inset in a later binding in that copy). Audin, Les Livrets Typographiques des Fonderies Françaises créés avant 1800, nos. 207 (this catalogue, not seen, citing Updike), 203 and 206; pp. 154, note 29 & pp. 161-162. All the other Leger specimens recorded by Audin are single sheets. Updike, Printing Types II: 183-4; Jammes, Collection de Specimens de Caracteres 1517-2004, 90 (conflating Leger with his cousin Didot Saint-Léger); Birrell and Garnett, Catalogue of ... Typefounders' Specimens, 63: the typographic portion of this catalogue only, without title, erroneously attributed to Panckoucke.
Haandbog til Brodering og Tegning ... Förste Deel. Med XXVI illuminerede Kobbere

Haandbog til Brodering og Tegning … Förste Deel. Med XXVI illuminerede Kobbere, som angive de behörige Farver

GROSCH, Henrik August (1763-1843) Copenhagen: Glydendal, 1794. Oblong folio (307 x 204 mm). 12 pp., 25 (of 26) engraved plates (without plate 1), all delicately colored in watercolor under the direction of the artist-publisher. Title within type-ornament border. First plate (pl. 2) somewhat soiled and with small ink splashes or spots, some marginal soiling elsewhere, a few frayed or folded edges. Color essays in border of pl. 14, and color splashes on some versos, pencil doodles in margin of pl. 20. Modern blue paper wrappers, new archival flyleaves; cloth folding case.*** Only edition, the first Danish pattern book for embroidery, containing neoclassical and floral designs and ornaments, for colored silk embroidery on clothing and accessories, and wool embroidery for foot rugs. The author and artist was a painter and drawing instructor from Lübeck, who studied at the Royal Danish Art Academy in Copenhagen from 1790 to 1794, remaining there until 1811, when he founded a drawing school in Halden, Norway, and later helped found what was to become the Norwegian royal art academy in Oslo. In his introduction, Grosch sets forth the basic principles of design and various types of needlework, and discusses at length choices of colors. He is aware of treading a new path in Denmark, and states that because of his lack of predecessors he must decide on colors and elements of designs for himself. As the sub-title states that the hand-coloring is provided in order to indicate the appropriate colors, it is clear that the coloring was supplied under his direction. The delicate engravings with largely pastel coloring include designs for borders, cartouches, floral motifs, garlands, flowers alone or in baskets or urns; a ruin (e.g., pl. 13), motifs from Antiquity (pl. 19, reproducing at center a scene from a Greek vase), and funerary monuments (pl. 16 & 17). The designs are intended for the decoration of dresses, waistcoats, kerchiefs, fire screens, wallets, etc. The last plate is a color chart. A second part was published separately, in 1805. Both parts are very scarce. Outside Scandinavia I locate a single copy, at the Lilly Library. The Lilly copy lacks plates 16 and 26, and plate 2 is defective; it also includes 25 plates from what is presumably the second part, including three plates signed by C.D. Fritzsch. The coloring of the plates in the Lilly copy differs in some details, including elements of vases, blossoms, from that of this copy, but is in the same style. With thanks to the Lilly for sharing digitized images of their copy. Charlotte Paludan & Lone de Hemmer Egeberg, 98 Mønsterbøger ... 98 Pattern Books for Embroidery, Lace, and Knitting (Den Danske Kunstindustrmuseum, 1991), no. 69; Bibliotheca Danica, Supplement 209.
Regla de la P[a]sio[n]: Manuscript rules for the Confraternity of the Holy Cross of La Horcajada

Regla de la P[a]sio[n]: Manuscript rules for the Confraternity of the Holy Cross of La Horcajada, Spain

CONFRATERNITY OF THE HOLY CROSS, LA HORCAJADA, SPAIN Ávila and La Horcajada, 1615. Manuscript on parchment (380 x 270 mm). [1]8. complete. Contents: ff. 1r-4v: Regla, in Spanish, in 30 numbered sections (inconsistent numbering on ff. 3v-4v), in a rounded script in brown ink (the first page slightly larger), up to 27 lines. F. 1r: incipit, first four lines in large lettering, with very large calligraphic initial: En el no[m]bre de dios todo poderoso padre y hijo y espiritu sa[n]cto tres personas y una esencia... Section 30 (f. 4v) added in a slightly later hand. The word Cruz symbolized by a red Maltese cross. Text on ff. 2r-2v underlined in red. Calligraphic initials, some with marginal extensions in brown, purple or red. Marginal drawings of prickly foliage, some in the shapes of fantastic animals. Later marginal notes opposite many sections. Ff. 5r-5v: [Heading:] Este es traslado de un testimonio, followed by two notarial subscriptions on f. 5v, one partially in cursive, signed and dated Ávila, 11 May 1527, the other in italic (partly faded), including the date 1615. F. 6r: A cerca de la procession de la Resurrection. After an introductory portion in a small round early 16th-century hand in brown ink, the text continues from f. 4v with sections 32-37 of the Regla, of which sections 33-37 are in a later sixteenth-century hand; these sections ruled through with light diagonal lines. Signatures or notes in lower margin. F. 6v: blank except for five lines heavily cancelled in red. Ff. 7r-7v: five paragraphs, in a fine upright italic hand, the first and third with headings in red, La orden que han de tener en la procession de la Resurxection [sic] en la [faded and illegible]...; La orden que sea de tener en la procession de la Resurretion [sic] en el domingo de pascua es la siguente... Followed on f. 7v by a note in a different hand dated from La Horcajada, 21 May 1550. Ff. 7v-8v and back inner cover: later additions, some quite faded. A few later marginal annotations throughout. Rubrication and decoration: headings and line fillers in red, a few ornamented line fillers or borders, some passages underlined in red or light purple, else ruled in dry point, numerous calligraphic initials in red or brown ink, opening initial with purple filigree extension filling left margin, numerous foliate, vegetable and zoomorphic ornamental designs in the margins in red, purple and brown ink. Binding: stitched into the original parchment cover with title "Regla de la P[a]sio[n]" in large letters, the R with decorative extensions, above a large cross in green ink, entwined with the snake and in the margins apparently the instruments of the Passion. Condition: rubbing and staining, vertical crease from folding causing occasional erasure of text, outer edge of first page somewhat rubbed affecting legibility of text (some words at line ends helpfully written over in a later hand), the inks used in the last two leaves quite faded; wrapper worn and darkened, with tears at top and 3 small holes in lower cover. Provenance: Confraternity of the Holy Cross of Horcajada; purchased in France (with export licence). *** A Spanish confraternity manuscript, containing the rules and statutes that governed the Confraternity of the Holy Cross (referred to as the Cofradía or Hermandad de la [Cruz], the word Cruz being supplied by a Maltese cross in red) of La Horcajada, a town located in Castile y León, in the province of Ávila. As in other Roman Catholic countries, confraternities or lay brotherhoods played a vital role in community life in Spain, functioning as mutual aid societies and venues for laypeople to express their piety and perform charitable acts. vernacular manuscript confraternity statutes from the iberian peninsula surface much more rarely than, for example, their italian counterparts, although it appears that Spain had a larger number of confraternities proportional to the population, especially in Castile y Leon, than the other Catholic lands. Virtually every community, including small villages, had at least one confraternity. While exact numbers of confraternities in sixteenth-century Spain are unknown, "studies carried out for a number of cities suggest that the number of confraternities and brotherhoods in the Hispanic kingdoms was larger than elsewhere in Catholic Europe.... The reasons behind the extraordinary popularity of confraternities and brotherhoods in the Hispanic kingdoms cannot yet be established, however, in view of the current state of research on the topic.... There has been a tendency for scholars to emphasize the confraternity as a primarily urban phenomenon, a reflection, perhaps, of their early development in Italy where they formed an essential part of civic and urban life. In the Hispanic kingdoms, however, these institutions were equally important in the religious and social life of the small village. Pastoral visitations carried out by the bishops of Cuenca during the sixteenth century found that `nearly every community had at least one brotherhood,' even small villages of 500 inhabitants. A similar pattern prevailed in villages around Toledo during the late sixteenth century" (Callahan, pp. 18-19). In his article William Callahan further points out the popular nature of Spanish confraternities, which "arose from the initiative of the laity rather than the clergy, prime examples of the lay piety that began to flourish in late medieval Europe. This piety developed largely on its own uncontrolled by either local bishops or the pope, both of whom regarded its manifestations with some suspicion.... The resiliency of traditional confraternities and brotherhoods developed from their connection to local religious cultures. It also reflected a fact noted by scholars who have studied specific cities and regions, the strongly popular character of membership. There were, of course, some associations that limited membership to the nobility or clergy, but in most cases members were recruited from the popular classes. This was obviously true in the case of peasant villages where only one or two confraternities existed..." (pp. 22-23). In spite of the centrality of confraternities to early modern religious life in Spain, there is comparatively little modern scholarly literature, especially on the rural confraternities. (Note the absence, for example, of any articles on Spain or Portugal in Brill's recently published Companion to Medieval and Early Modern Confraternities, edited by Konrad Eisenbichler.) This working manuscript bears witness to this important but understudied aspect of Spanish popular religious culture, before the restrictions placed on confraternities by the Council of Trent and succeeding Popes. Consulted frequently and contributed to by members of the confraternity, the manuscript includes abundant interlinear and marginal additions and corrections, and half- or full-page later additions. The town of La Horcajada is identified in the opening page. Ff. 1r to 5v contain the introduction, the first 30 statutes, and a notarized testimony with heading "Este es traslado de un testimonio" which relates to the apparently recent establishment of the confraternity. The statutes cover admission of new members, general rules of comportment, requirements of prayer and confession for feast days and for the canonical hours, charity for poorer members of the confraternity, chants, etc. Several paragraphs relate to processions, including required habits and admission of non-members into the processions. On f. 6r a paragraph on the procession de la Resurrection is followed by six entries numbered 32 to 37, of which paragraphs 33 to 37 are in a later 16th-century hand. Several light diagonal lines through these five paragraphs may indicate that they were cancelled. The verso (f.6v) contains only five lines, heavily cancelled in red ink, and f. 7r continues discussion of the procession of the Resurrection on a feast day (the name of the saint is smudged) and on Easter Sunday, in a different 16th-century upright cursive. This second section (of which portions are difficult to read because of fading), ends on f. 7v and is followed by a note in a larger hand, dated from La Horcajada, 21 May 1550. The final leaf and inner back cover contain later additions, some quite faded. One late addition in the lower margin of f. 5v is dated 1615. The manuscript is decorated in a popular style. Some of the leafy plant designs have a thorny look that may reflect local vegetation. Animals and grotesques include a scorpion-like creature, birds, and possibly imaginary mammals. A witness to the central role played by religious confraternities in early modern Spain, bearing the marks of its use and in original condition, it is a rare survival, and would repay further study. Cf. William Callahan, "Confraternities and Brotherhoods in Spain 1500-1800," Confraternitas: The Newsletter of the Society for Confraternity Studies 12:1 (2001) 17-25. See also William A. Christian, Local Religion in Sixteenth Century Spain (Princeton 1981); Maureen Flynn, Sacred Charity: Confraternities and Social Welfare in Spain, 1400-1800 (Basingstoke, 1989).