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Almanach utile et agréable de la loterie de l'Ecole Royale Militaire pour l'année 1759 ... Enrichi de quatre-vingt-dix figures en taille douce

Almanach utile et agréable de la loterie de l'Ecole Royale Militaire pour l'année 1759 … Enrichi de quatre-vingt-dix figures en taille douce, qui pourront servir de devises

LOTTERY ALMANAC - GRAVELOT, Hubert François (1699-1773) Amsterdam & Paris: chez Prault père [and] Laurent-Fr. Le Clerc, 1759. 16mo (113 x 62 mm). viii, 97, [1] pp. (folding table counted as 4 pages). Ninety-one etchings after Gravelot, including allegorical frontispiece signed by N. Le Mire and dated 1758, and 90 etched plates of girls and women engaged in various activities of daily life. Text within double rule border throughout. Small marginal loss to pl. 34, pl. 90 with an old crease from paper flaw, very occasional very slight soiling, overall in fine condition. Contemporary French red morocco, covers paneled with triple gilt fillets, spine gold-tooled and -lettered, green gilt dominoté endpapers with repeating star pattern; modern morocco two-part pull-off case by Riviere & Son. Provenance: Sir David Lionel Goldsmid-Stern-Salomons (1851-1925), armorial bookplate.*** The first French lottery almanac and the single most abundantly illustrated eighteenth-century French almanac, with 91 etchings designed by Gravelot, who also wrote the epigrammatic quatrains accompanying each etching. Gravelot's series of delightful etchings of little girls, teenage girls, and young women, busy with pastimes or chores, or shown at moments of emotional intensity, was intended, as is explained in the preface, to represent the spirit of France, while encouraging its citizens to play the new national lottery, established in 1757 to finance construction of the Ecole royale militaire, a military academy founded by Louis XV in 1751 to train 500 young noblemen from impoverished families. Besides the usual calendar and a 12-month table of gains and losses, the text contains a history and description of the new lottery and its Italian antecedents, explanations of its principles and mechanics, and a guide to playing advantageously using "mathematical reasoning." The lottery, for which bureaus were to be established throughout France, was planned to last for 30 years, with monthly drawings. It was an early form of today's Lotto. Tickets containing numbers from 1 to 90 were spun in a "wheel of fortune," pictured in the frontispiece, from which five winning tickets were selected. One had the right to place bets on up to five numbers at once, the variously sized bets being provided with arcane names (an extrait for one number, ambe for two, terne for three, etc.). The pictures' role was to help the lottery player choose his number(s), functioning somewhat in the manner of the traditional Italian smorfia, but without the exclusive focus on dreams and portents, which are referred to in the preface as an optional method of inspiration. Like the lottery itself, the concept of thematic images linked to lottery numbers was based on the Italian model (as explained in the preface and the historic chapter), but, while in Italy each city chose their own motifs - in Rome it was the arts, in Naples animals, in Genoa flowers, and in Venice, trades - for France it was decided without hesitation that "la galanterie" was a natural fit for the nation (p. iv). One might read a rather Freudian (or Jungian) motivation into the presumably subconscious choice by the lottery committee of the very opposite of a warlike theme - sweet young girls, domesticity, and intimations of intimacy, for the financing of a military school. Whether this was Gravelot's idea is unknown, but his contribution was major: as stated in the publishers' preface, and in his own Avertissement on the penultimate verso, he designed the figures and wrote the verses. The plates were etched by Noël Le Mire (1724-1801), "one of the most prominent engravers of the 18th century ... [whose] best work was in his book illustrations after Boucher, Cochin, Gravelot, Eisen, Gravelot, Monnet, Moreau, and others" (Thieme-Becker 23:27). The frontispiece depicts blindfolded fate drawing tickets from the "wheel of fortune" and dropping them into a crowd of eager ladies and gentlemen. The first 28 plates portray young girls, and the rest adolescents and young women. Each etched scene is set within a gracious rococo frame with cartouches for the title, the number, and at the foot Gravelot's rhyming quatrain. Shown are girls at play, with dolls or, heaven forbid, spinning tops with the boys (Gravelot disapproves), learning their ABC's, being slapped by their mother or governess for laziness, teaching the dog to dance, playing badminton alone, on a swing pushed by a brother, crying as the cat makes off with the pet sparrow, painting dreamily at a table, and even building a house of cards. As she ages the teenage girl is given more work - she embroiders, knits, studies, but also prepares for parties, flirts, gossips, is jealous ... Many of the plates tell stories. Portraits of the now adult young women include a reader (the quatrain warns to choose one's books as one does one's friends: wisely), a gambler, a coquette, a "savante" (surrounded by books), a dreamer, personifications of boredom and religious devotion, and, moving into another sphere, working women, shown gardening, milking cows, harvesting grapes, spinning, cooking, sewing, doing hair, selling knickknacks, etc. Even a laundress and a housemaid are shown, the latter making a bed, and admonished to be "flattering, supple, patient, and never to tell certain secrets." The final plate depicts, fatefully, a wedding, and there is nothing left to show, the bride having ceased to be the property of la Galante France and become that of her husband. This copy is in very fine condition. The edition is a notorious rarity. There are two copies at the Bibliothèque nationale de France, of which at least one is incomplete, a defective copy at the Bibliothèque Ste. Geneviève, and copies at the Morgan Library and the British Library. (The Morgan also has four of Gravelot's original drawings for the almanac, and Houghton Library has six others.) The almanac had only this one year of issue. The plates were re-issued once, in an edition of Les Jeux de la petite Thalie (Paris: Desnos, s.d.), which is almost as scarce as this volume. Because of its rarity, this almanac is far less known than Gravelot's 17-volume Almanach iconologique, which contained, like most French almanacs, 12 plates per volume. John Grand-Carteret, who devoted 5 full columns to the edition, knew of only the Baron Pichon copy. The collector and amateur Savigny de Moncorps included this almanac in his list of twenty most "absolutely desirable almanacs," of which it is the earliest, and the frères Goncourt called it, a trifle condescendingly, "un vrai petit bijou et joujou" which perfectly suited Gravelot's talents. Inventaire du fonds français, graveurs du XVIIIe siècle, vol. 10, Gravelot, 983-1073, and vol. 14, Lemire, 159-248; Grand-Carteret, Les Almanachs français 277; Cohen-de Ricci, Guide de l'amateur de livres à gravures du XVIIIe siècle (1912), col. 28-29; Savigny de Moncorps, Coup d'oeil sur les almanachs illustrés du XVIIIe siècle. Deuxième édition (1891), pp. 29-35.
Album of watercolor and pen-and-ink designs for embroidery

Album of watercolor and pen-and-ink designs for embroidery

EMBROIDERY DESIGNS - [British Isles, 1830. Folio (397 x 250 mm). 110 leaves [plus 29 blanks], of varying sizes, many on guards, of which 6 are large and folding, and 2 small loose sheets, containing dozens of highly finished pen-and-ink or watercolor floral and foliate embroidery designs. Some dampstaining at front with traces of mold, some dust-soiling to edges, the large folding leaves with a few mostly marginal tears and creases. Contemporary half brown goatskin and marbled paper over boards, smooth spine divided into gold-ruled compartments, each with a large gilt fleuron; a contemporary manuscript list of the 72nd Regiment of Foot (ca. 1823-ca. 1841) used as front pastedown; rubbed, loss to paper on front cover. Provenance: bookplate of Rev. James Lambert, A.M., Trinity College, Cambridge (on back pastedown); childish drawing on front free endleaf; old largely effaced purple inkstamp, only the name "Exeter" legible; with Bertram Rota, catalogue 303, Architecture, item 85.*** A large portfolio of carefully executed designs for embroidery or needlework, carried out in the sunset years of hand embroidery. In 1828 the Alsatian inventor Josué Heilmann produced the first embroidery machine, which could operate with over 300 needles simultaneously. Although such machines did not become widespread for another 20 years, this was to be the death-knell for everyday domestic hand-embroidery. The designs include floral borders, swags and sprigs, spot and corner designs, repeating motifs, curlicues, and some abstract designs. About 60% are in watercolor, sometimes skillfully combining several colors on one page. The uncolored designs are in pen and ink and/or gray wash. All but a couple of sketches at the end appear to be the work of a professional draftsman. Various laid and wove papers are used, with watermarks of the makers S. Wise & Co.; Whatman; Hall, Whatman & Balston; and John Hayes, with dates ranging from 1819 to 1824; with some apparently later unwatermarked wove papers. Some designs are openwork, for broderie anglaise; others are whitework patterns to be worked on muslin, with delicate needlework fillings. About five appear to be unfinished, with some of the designs lightly traced in pencil, and a couple of others have only partial coloring. There are a few faint penciled notes, such as "red pattern, light sprays of roses form the veil," or "very pretty when worked." Most leaves bear an x or cross in pencil near the gutter, possibly indicating that the designs on the sheet had been copied.
Pinax iconicus antiquorum ac variorum in sepulturis rituum ex Lilio Gregorio excerpta

Pinax iconicus antiquorum ac variorum in sepulturis rituum ex Lilio Gregorio excerpta

WOEIRIOT, Pierre (1532-1596?), artist Lyon: Clément Baudin, 1556. Oblong 8vo (118 x 164 mm). Collation: A-E4 (E4 blank). [19] leaves letterpress text (final blank removed), 5 text leaves printed on one side only. Italic type, extrait du privilege at end in roman type. Thirteen engraved plates: engraved title, self-portrait of the artist aged 24, dedication leaf, 9 numbered plates of funerary ceremonies, and printer's device, all by and after Pierre Woeiriot. This copy with an extra blank leaf after the engraved dedication leaf, on old paper but apparently supplied by the binder. Small round repair to outer blank corner of device leaf, lightly washed, very occasional small marginal stains. Dark olive-green morocco, sides with blind-stamped panel of interlocking ovoids, spine blind-tooled and gold-lettered, turn-ins gold-tooled, gilt edges, by Bauzonnet, stamped signature upside down on the lower free endpaper (slight rubbing at extremities of joints). Provenance: Guillaume Mouret, contemporary signature at end (E3v) and on title-page (faded); Gustave Chartener, bookplate, sale, part I, 4 May 1885, lot 134; Damascène Morgand (catalogue, 1900, no. 39695); (with Lardanchet, Paris, catalogue Feb. 2002, no. 10); Fred Feinsilber, booklabel, sale, Sotheby's Paris, 11 October 2006, lot 19; Marc Litzler, book label, sale, Christie's Paris, 20 Feb. 2019, lot 13.*** Only Edition, a superb, large-margined copy of one of the greatest and rarest French sixteenth-century illustrated books. Woeriot's masterpiece can be considered the first French artist's book. The text is secondary to Woeiriot's extraordinarily fine engravings. Not only did the 24-year old goldsmith design and cut them, but, as he states proudly in his dedication, he cast and polished the copperplates, and had the work printed and published (the royal privilege is indeed granted to him, not to the printer). Woeiriot was a goldsmith, and his works include designs for gold-wrought rings and sword hilts. A native of Neufchâteau, he is thought to have spent time in Italy, perhaps in Rome. The present illustrations were among his earliest works, produced soon after settling in Lyon, where he remained until ca. 1563 before becoming engraver to the Duke of Lorraine. Although Mortimer credits the printer Clément Baudin for selecting the text, it seems equally likely that Woeiriot chose the subject of his engravings, Lilio Gregorio Giraldi's De sepulchris & Vario sepeliendi (Basel, 1539), a text that called out for illustrations during a period that was fascinated with ancient funeral rites. Its adaptation into excerpts was then probably carried out by Baudin, of whom this was the first imprint. The artist's mastery of the Fontainebleau mannerist style is impressive. The engraved title is lettered in an oval with distorted lettering as if on a curved surface, within a border of architectural forms filled with skeletons, standing, sitting, and in pieces. At the top two angels blow horns. The self-portrait, dated 1556, printed on the verso of the second leaf, shows the artist at the age of 24, flanked by grotesques. It is one of the most beautiful Renaissance portraits to appear in a printed book. The dedication to Charles III, Duke of Lorraine, of which the text was also engraved by Woeiriot himself, in rather endearingly adolescent slanted lettering, is set within symbols of war, including bound prisoners, and surmounted by the arms of Lorraine. The nine plates, ostensibly showing the funeral rites of different ancient peoples, of Rome, India, Scythia, Egypt and the Heruli, are above all exhibits of Woeiriot's imagination and fine-tuned skill. Vast in scope, showing huge skies and distant panoramas, they provide at the same time extremely detailed close-ups of more-graceful-than-life crowds of mourners. Three plates (6, 7, and 8) juxtapose wild, exotic and sometimes horrifying scenes of partly fictive funeral customs with real French places, identified in the text, notably plate 6, showing Lyon. All are signed with Woeiriot's full name and Lorraine cross (for his native province). In plate 9 (depicting cannibalism), his name appears in reverse. The wonderful engraved device for Baudin, with his elephant motif, was engraved for this edition and not used elsewhere. The work was influential, being copied by Girolamo Porro for some of his illustrations for Porcacchi's Funerali antichi (1574), which were in turn imitated in later funeral books (cf. Mortimer). Noteworthy among the previous distinguished owners of this fine copy was Gustave Chartener (1813-1884), a native of Metz, who amassed a huge library of books and prints devoted to Lorraine, and who commissioned the sober retrospective binding from Bauzonnet. I locate four copies in US libraries: the Philip Hofer copy at Houghton, the Sylvain Brunschwig copy at NYPL (Spencer Collection), the Rahir - Burton copy at the University of Virginia (Douglas Gordon collection), and a copy at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Baudrier V: 24 (illus.); Gültlingen XIII: 147.1; Harvard / Mortimer 555; Brunet V: 1469, Suppl. II: 952; Robert-Dumesnil, Le Peintre-Graveur Français 7: p. 53, no. 1 & pp. 86-93, nos. 193-204; Fontaine, Antiquaires et rites funéraires, pp. 339-355; The French Renaissance in Prints (1995), no. 140, p. 394; Brun, Le livre français illustré de la Renaissance (1969), pp. 97-98 & 316, pl. 31.
Thirsis Minnewit. Bestaande in een verzameling der moyste en aangenaamste minne-zangen en voysen

Thirsis Minnewit. Bestaande in een verzameling der moyste en aangenaamste minne-zangen en voysen

DOS-À-DOS - Amsterdam: Joannes Kannewet II, 1760. 2 works in 4 volumes, 12mo, bound dos-à-dos (binding size 134 x 74 x 50 mm). Thirsis Minnewit: 3 volumes: [8], 160; 164, [4]; [8], 160. Volume 1 with engraved frontispiece, all 3 letterpress titles with a woodcut vignette of men and women at a banquet, woodcut initials and tail-piece vignettes. Vrolyke zang-godin: 160, [4] pp. Without the 2 unpaginated preliminary leaves, containing the engraved frontispiece and title-leaf. Some soiling and staining in vol. 3, second work with tear to corner of fol. D8 catching a letter and catchword. Bound together in a double dos-à-dos binding of mottled dark brown calf, the two covers gold-tooled with two double-fillet panels, a small stamped arabesque lozenge at center and a large and small flowering plant tool at each corner of the inner panel, the spines gold-tooled in five compartments, second compartment with the gold-stamped volume number (1 to 4), gilt edges, marbled endpapers. Small repairs to corners and to fore-edge of lower board. Provenance: Grace Whitney Hoff (1862-1938), her 1933 catalogue: Amédée Boinet, Bibliothèque de madame G. Whitney Hoff, no. 294; by descent to her grandson Charles "de" Labouchere (Charles David Labouchere), with their bookplates.*** A pair of popular Dutch songbooks in a four-volume dos-à-dos binding. Known as a "double" dos-à-dos binding, surviving examples of this variant of the usual two-volume dos-à-dos are extremely rare, but, surprisingly, the genre seems to have been identified with the present popular erotic songbook: I locate only two other double dos-à-dos bindings, both on copies of these same songbooks (in different editions). The binding style may be a clever allusion to certain passages of the book's racy contents. Although few copies of any edition of Thirsis Minnewit are found outside the Netherlands, the Short-Title Catalogue Netherlands (STCN) lists over 20 editions (each volume is listed separately, making an exact count difficult). The collection was first printed in 1636, under the title Scoperos satyra ofte Thyrsis minnewit, attributed to Johan van Dans. According to STCN, Joannes Kannewet II, the publisher of the present edition, was active for nearly fifty years, from 1733 to 1780. The title of volume 3 declares it Verbeeterd (corrected). This is one of several editions to have been issued with a companion songbook, De vrolyke zang-godin. The two works, technically separate editions, are found together in all extant copies recorded. In this copy the binder apparently deliberately omitted the title-page and woodcut frontispiece of the Zang-godin, evidently a not uncommon practice. The unsigned engraved frontispiece in volume 1 shows a pastoral scene with an embracing couple, dancing nude nymphs in the background, and an androgynous creature representing Bacchus in a chariot pulled by swans in the foreground. This iconography and the small banquet vignette were a regular component of the songbook, which contains the words to hundreds of songs, some quite bawdy, to be sung to popular melodies, identified in small type beneath the title of each song. The two other double dos-à-dos bindings mentioned above are: a calf gilt binding on an undated [ca. 1690?] edition of the same songbooks in the Bodleian Library (shelfmark Broxb. 1.27); and a gold-tooled vellum binding on a 1726-1728 edition of the same, from the Cornelius Hauck collection, sold at Christie's New York , 28 June 2006, lot 387. STCN 168606682 and 24067006X, locating only the British Library copy outside the Netherlands.
An embroidered letter-holder or pocketbook

An embroidered letter-holder or pocketbook

POCKETBOOK [France, second quarter of the 18th century]. Rectangular envelope-style pocketbook with flap, 110 x 179 mm., pasteboards covered in ivory silk embroidered with polychrome and silver-gilt silk thread (red, blue, several shades of green, brown, pink, orange, beige), the covers each with a different floral decor consisting of a large flowering plant with a straight stem entwined at the foot with a multi-colored ribbon, with one central flower, four large lateral flowers and four small flowers emerging from two lateral leafy branches, each blossom in a different design with large petals of couched silver-gilt thread and multi-colored stamens and other flower parts, adorned with four small butterflies on the flap side and two on the back side, a different design in the same theme continuing onto the flap; braided green and beige binding along edges, pink satin lining (gussets torn). Rubbing along lower edge and to a few other small areas of the silk covering, some loss and old repairs to braided edges, but the embroidery intact and in very good condition; the silver-gilt thread oxidized except under the flap.*** A beautifully designed and executed embroidered pocketbook for ladies. Not a purse, this richly decorated textile envelope would have been used to carry notes or letters; a portefeuille in French, it is sometimes called a wallet in English. Such useful embroidered objects were produced by the same skilled professional (male) embroiderers who decorated bookbindings. The large boisterous flowers of this whimsical example have an Art Nouveau feel. The liberal use of silver-gilt thread would have made for a brilliant effect, as is evident from the untarnished portions hidden by the flap.
Orationes Partheniae in Conventibus Ordinariis et Generalibus Ad Sodales Marianos in Congregatione Academica Salisburgensi dictae: Et jam ab eadem Congregatione Salisburgensi sub titulo Beatissimae Virginis Matris Dei Mariae Gloriose In Coelos Assumptae Partheniis DD. Sodalibus In Xenium oblatae

Orationes Partheniae in Conventibus Ordinariis et Generalibus Ad Sodales Marianos in Congregatione Academica Salisburgensi dictae: Et jam ab eadem Congregatione Salisburgensi sub titulo Beatissimae Virginis Matris Dei Mariae Gloriose In Coelos Assumptae Partheniis DD. Sodalibus In Xenium oblatae

MARIAN DEVOTION, SALZBURG - Salzburg: Johann Joseph Mayr, 1755. 8vo (148 x 89 mm). [30], 267, [23] pp. 12 engravings in text, woodcut and typographic head- and tailpieces, large folding letterpress table. Fine condition. Stitched with a drawn-on Brokatpapier cover, the edges cut flush and sprinkled with a red pigment.*** A devotional confraternity book produced for members of the Marian sodality (or confraternity) of Salzburg University's Congregation of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin (Maior Congregatio Academica Beatissimae Virginis in Caelos Assumptae). Although called orationes or prayers, the text consists of sermons or exhortations for feast days throughout the year. Inserted are 12 leaves each devoted to a different saint, arranged by order of feast days, one per month, with an engraving on the recto showing the saint within an oval cartouche surrounded by scenes from his or her life, above the saint's feast day in large letters, a short quotation from a church father, and two related aphorisms or resolutions, with on the verso a life of the saint. The title describes the book as a "gift" offered to members; these "gift books" for the sodality were apparently published annually (see below), but are now not surprisingly quite rare. Following the text is a table of contents, and, in the last five leaves, a catalogue of new members of the sodality, categorized by discipline (theology, law, physics and logic), followed by a list of members deceased in 1753 and 1754. The large folding table preceding this section lists the highest officials and council members of the "Marian Magistrature". The largest name is that of the Prinz-Archbishop, Sigismundus Christophorus, followed by his many titles. Sigismundus, Graf von Schrattenbach (1698-1771), Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg from 1753 to 1771, was particularly devoted to the cult of the Virgin, and during his tenure Marian devotion reached a high point in Salzburg. It was also during this time that Leopold Mozart played violin in the court orchestra; his son Wolfgang Amadeus was born in Salzburg in 1756. Other books for the sodality are recorded, under various titles, for different years, between 1740 and 1765, all printed by Mayr. Three digitized examples from the Bavarian State Library are Xenium Partheniis D.D. Sodalibus Oblatum, Salzburg: Mayr, 1740; Officia sodalis Mariani in allocutionibus Partheniis declarata, Salzburg: Mayr, 1764; and the same title for 1765. Each of these editions has its own inserted 12 leaves of saints, which follow the same format with engraving and text, but but each edition has different saints and engravings (with no overlap), though the style of the engravings is uniform. The bibliographical construction of this book (and apparently of the aforecited editions, viewed in digitized format) shares the mix-and-match characteristics of some liturgical and devotional printing: following the first three leaves a separate quire of 12 leaves is inserted, containing the saints section, printed in smaller roman types. Besides the typographical variation, it is evident that this quire is an extraneous insert from the fact that the catchword on f. )(3v is ORA-, the first word of the drop-title on f. A1r being Orationes. The final quire contains 9 leaves, and the large folding table is inserted after f. S4. The collation reads: )(4 (-)(4) 12 A-R8 S8 (S8 + 1); folding table inserted after S4. F. )(2v signed ")(3". The book was simply stitched and is in its original pretty and well-preserved paper cover. The bookblock edges appear to have been trimmed and sprinkled with red coloring after the wrapper was applied. "The final printed leaf shows a small amount of deckle edge, showing that the book was carefully 'cut to show proof', which is a nice touch on such a cheap structure" (N. Pickwoad, to whom grateful thanks, email communication). I locate two other copies of this edition, at Amberg and the Capuchin library at Muenster.
Spécimen des divers caractères

Spécimen des divers caractères, vignettes et fleurons des Fonderie et Stéréotypie de L. Leger graveur, neveu et successeur de P. F. Didot

LEGER, L. Paris: Place de l'Estrapade, No. 28 (Impr. de Panckoucke), 1831. 4to (280 x 220 mm). 64 leaves, plus 4 large folding specimen broadsides bound at end. 3 preliminary leaves: title, with Leger's monogram, 2-page Avis to printers and booksellers, 2-page price list, the latter bearing the official royal inkstamp (Timbre royal); 61 specimen leaves and 4 large folding plates, printed on rectos only. Double rule borders throughout. Thin but fine wove paper. Occasional light spotting, foxing along folds of broadsides, tiny hole in 3rd broadside. Stab-stitched in original printed blue wrappers (soiled, tears to backstrip), untrimmed.*** A finely printed specimen book, containing a complete range of type specimens and an extensive display of decorative and illustrative material from the stock of a master Parisian typefounder with ties to the Didot family. This appears to be the only general stock catalogue to have been issued by this typefounder, of whom little is known other than the fact, stated on the title, that he was a nephew of Pierre-Francois Didot. In advertising this fact Leger probably hoped to borrow a bit of the Didot glory, since he calls himself his uncle's successor, which seems doubtful, given the fact that Pierre-Francois's youngest son, Henri Didot, was also a typefounder. Active from ca. 1783 to 1835, Leger's foundry occupied successively six different addresses. At the time he issued this stock catalogue he had worked since 1818 at no. 28 Place de l'Estrapade in the fifth arrondissement, an address previously occupied by a foundry owned by the Fournier sisters, and which had descended from the 16th-century typefounder Guillaume Le Bé. It is likely that Léger purchased the atelier from the sisters, which would make him part of this illustrious lineage, although Audin did not have sufficient evidence to assert this positively (cf. p. 1 note). Leger, who remained at that address until 1833, has occasionally been incorrectly conflated with one of Pierre-François Didot's other sons, Léger Didot, or Didot Saint-Léger, who financed construction of the first paper-making machine, invented by Nicholas-Louis Robert. In his foreword, addressed to potential buyers (printers and publishers), Leger declares that the present specimen is the result of "25 years of hard work, of sacrifices and researches of all kinds, of which the principal goal has always been the improvement and progress of typography." The first leaf of the typographic portion of the Specimen reproduces medals received by Leger, most recently a patent or Brevet d'invention awarded him at the art exposition held in Douai in 1831, providing a terminus post quem for the catalogue. Contents: 24 leaves of type specimens, comprising roman and italic in every size, all in the Didot style, some gothic and Hebrew types, 2 leaves of Greek types, several display and ornamental types, concluding with a leaf showing 93 different "ornamented and non-ornamented" accolades and filets (curly brackets and ornamental rules). 37 leaves of graphic material: - 11 leaves of Fleurons polytypés sur cuivre (numbers 1-145; ff. 7-11 titled Armes de France); - 4 leaves of Fleurons polytypés sur bois (nos. 146-197) - 3 leaves of Fleurons gravés sur acier (nos. 198-219); the last page shows a tomb decorated with skulls, tears, etc. - 18 leaves of Vignettes gravées sur acier: ornamental bands or part-borders, organized by size, and numbered 1-248. - 1-leaf sample with bust of Homer above a row of small astronomical symbols, within a double ornamental border. - 4 large folding broadside type and vignette specimens, various dates and printers, including two unknown to Audin (see below). The 467 individually priced graphic elements consist of "fleurons" (what we would now call vignettes), and "vignettes" (borders or bandeaux), making this catalogue an unusually comprehensive resource for the study of ornamental and figurative graphic printing material. Included are figurative vignettes, busts, monograms (including Leger's own, no. 24 of the first series, which also appears on the title), trophies and other emblematic accumulations of objects, religious vignettes of saints, the crucifixion, and armorial or royal insignia, the latter including 22 settings of the Charter of 1830, which had established the July Monarchy. Although these graphic pieces are organized by production process, no such distinction is made in the prices, in which size is the only criteria of different costs. About half are steel engravings, and half were printed from stereotype clichés, known as "polytypages," cast either from copperplates or from woodblocks (e.g., Fleurons polytypés sur cuivre or sur bois). It is noteworthy that this is the only one of Léger's specimen catalogues listed by Audin in which Leger is described on the title as having his own stéreotypie (stereotyping studio), presumably used for these polytypages of graphic material rather than for typography, i.e., stereotype plates made from types. Some of the vignettes are white-on-black, and resemble wood engravings. At least a few may have originated with the Didot family: the last leaf contains an oval cartouche enclosing a steel-engraved bust portrait of Homer, signed by Andrieu, which is also specimen no. 206 in the section Fleurons gravés sur acier, and the bust alone appears as specimen no. 7 in the first section, Fleurons polytypés sur cuivre. Bertrand Andrieu (1761-1822) was a celebrated medal engraver during the Revolution and Napoleonic period. In 1798 Pierre and Firmin Didot had employed him to produce a series of vignettes, for their stereotype edition of Virgil. These were widely dispersed through polytypage in the 19th century (cf. Jammes catalogue no. 53). In the preface to his invaluable catalogue, Marius Audin explains that, besides their periodic general catalogues, typefounders often issued special specimens, on the occasion of a new font or ornament; these could be in the form of broadsides, some copies of which were kept back for later inclusion in the general catalogues. Thus the present specimen book includes at the end four large folded broadside specimens by Leger, comprising: 1) Caractères d'Ecritures De la Fonderie de Leger, Graveur, Quai des Augustins, No. 17, à Paris. De l'Imprimerie de Mame, rue du Pot-de-Fer, [between 1809 and 1815]. 588 x 440 mm. A selection of 17 italic and other cursive types within an ornamental border. The date is based on the address (cf. Audin, p. 154, note 29: Leger's second sojourn at the quai des Augustins lasted from 1809 to 1817), and the activity dates of the short-lived Mame press in Paris, from 1807 to 1815: cf. N. Dinzart, La Maison Mame: Histoire d'une imprimerie-librairie au XIXe siècle, mémoire de diplome, ENSIB, 1988-89, pp. 18-21 (digitized). Audin 206. 2) Caractères d'Ecriture Gravés et Fondus par Leger, Graveur, Place de l'Estrapade, No. 28, à Paris. Imprimerie de Jules Didot aîné, [not before 1819]. 567 x 408 mm. Shows two cursive types, ornamental border, reproduction at top of two medals received in 1819. Not in Audin. 3) Audin 203 Caractères d'Ecriture De la Fonderie de Leger, Graveur, Place de l'Estrapade, à Paris. Imprimerie de C. F. L. Panckoucke, [between 1818 and 1833]. 568 x 394 mm. Title in 3 different fonts, specimen of one large upright cursive font, ornamental border. Audin 203. 4) vignettes gravées sur acier de la fonderie de m. leger, graveur breveté du roi, place de l'Estrapade, no. 28. Imprimerie de C. F. L. Panckoucke, [between 1818 and 1833]. 537 x 394 mm. The above title in very small capitals at center of six concentric progressively smaller ornamental borders. Not in Audin. I locate 4 other copies of this specimen book, at Houghton Library, Cambridge Univ. Library, and the BnF, and a copy offered by the Librairie Jammes in 2006. The BnF includes three folding specimens, and the 3 other copies appear to each have two. The Jammes copy also differs from this one in having a leaf of musique grecque at the end instead of the sample leaf with the Homer portrait, and beige instead of blue wrappers (inset in a later binding in that copy). Audin, Les Livrets Typographiques des Fonderies Françaises créés avant 1800, nos. 207 (this catalogue, not seen, citing Updike), 203 and 206; pp. 154, note 29 & pp. 161-162. All the other Leger specimens recorded by Audin are single sheets. Updike, Printing Types II: 183-4; Jammes, Collection de Specimens de Caracteres 1517-2004, 90 (conflating Leger with his cousin Didot Saint-Léger); Birrell and Garnett, Catalogue of ... Typefounders' Specimens, 63: the typographic portion of this catalogue only, without title, erroneously attributed to Panckoucke.
Haandbog til Brodering og Tegning ... Förste Deel. Med XXVI illuminerede Kobbere

Haandbog til Brodering og Tegning … Förste Deel. Med XXVI illuminerede Kobbere, som angive de behörige Farver

GROSCH, Henrik August (1763-1843) Copenhagen: Glydendal, 1794. Oblong folio (307 x 204 mm). 12 pp., 25 (of 26) engraved plates (without plate 1), all delicately colored in watercolor under the direction of the artist-publisher. Title within type-ornament border. First plate (pl. 2) somewhat soiled and with small ink splashes or spots, some marginal soiling elsewhere, a few frayed or folded edges. Color essays in border of pl. 14, and color splashes on some versos, pencil doodles in margin of pl. 20. Modern blue paper wrappers, new archival flyleaves; cloth folding case.*** Only edition, the first Danish pattern book for embroidery, containing neoclassical and floral designs and ornaments, for colored silk embroidery on clothing and accessories, and wool embroidery for foot rugs. The author and artist was a painter and drawing instructor from Lübeck, who studied at the Royal Danish Art Academy in Copenhagen from 1790 to 1794, remaining there until 1811, when he founded a drawing school in Halden, Norway, and later helped found what was to become the Norwegian royal art academy in Oslo. In his introduction, Grosch sets forth the basic principles of design and various types of needlework, and discusses at length choices of colors. He is aware of treading a new path in Denmark, and states that because of his lack of predecessors he must decide on colors and elements of designs for himself. As the sub-title states that the hand-coloring is provided in order to indicate the appropriate colors, it is clear that the coloring was supplied under his direction. The delicate engravings with largely pastel coloring include designs for borders, cartouches, floral motifs, garlands, flowers alone or in baskets or urns; a ruin (e.g., pl. 13), motifs from Antiquity (pl. 19, reproducing at center a scene from a Greek vase), and funerary monuments (pl. 16 & 17). The designs are intended for the decoration of dresses, waistcoats, kerchiefs, fire screens, wallets, etc. The last plate is a color chart. A second part was published separately, in 1805. Both parts are very scarce. Outside Scandinavia I locate a single copy, at the Lilly Library. The Lilly copy lacks plates 16 and 26, and plate 2 is defective; it also includes 25 plates from what is presumably the second part, including three plates signed by C.D. Fritzsch. The coloring of the plates in the Lilly copy differs in some details, including elements of vases, blossoms, from that of this copy, but is in the same style. With thanks to the Lilly for sharing digitized images of their copy. Charlotte Paludan & Lone de Hemmer Egeberg, 98 Mønsterbøger ... 98 Pattern Books for Embroidery, Lace, and Knitting (Den Danske Kunstindustrmuseum, 1991), no. 69; Bibliotheca Danica, Supplement 209.
Regla de la P[a]sio[n]: Manuscript rules for the Confraternity of the Holy Cross of La Horcajada

Regla de la P[a]sio[n]: Manuscript rules for the Confraternity of the Holy Cross of La Horcajada, Spain

CONFRATERNITY OF THE HOLY CROSS, LA HORCAJADA, SPAIN Ávila and La Horcajada, 1615. Manuscript on parchment (380 x 270 mm). [1]8. complete. Contents: ff. 1r-4v: Regla, in Spanish, in 30 numbered sections (inconsistent numbering on ff. 3v-4v), in a rounded script in brown ink (the first page slightly larger), up to 27 lines. F. 1r: incipit, first four lines in large lettering, with very large calligraphic initial: En el no[m]bre de dios todo poderoso padre y hijo y espiritu sa[n]cto tres personas y una esencia... Section 30 (f. 4v) added in a slightly later hand. The word Cruz symbolized by a red Maltese cross. Text on ff. 2r-2v underlined in red. Calligraphic initials, some with marginal extensions in brown, purple or red. Marginal drawings of prickly foliage, some in the shapes of fantastic animals. Later marginal notes opposite many sections. Ff. 5r-5v: [Heading:] Este es traslado de un testimonio, followed by two notarial subscriptions on f. 5v, one partially in cursive, signed and dated Ávila, 11 May 1527, the other in italic (partly faded), including the date 1615. F. 6r: A cerca de la procession de la Resurrection. After an introductory portion in a small round early 16th-century hand in brown ink, the text continues from f. 4v with sections 32-37 of the Regla, of which sections 33-37 are in a later sixteenth-century hand; these sections ruled through with light diagonal lines. Signatures or notes in lower margin. F. 6v: blank except for five lines heavily cancelled in red. Ff. 7r-7v: five paragraphs, in a fine upright italic hand, the first and third with headings in red, La orden que han de tener en la procession de la Resurxection [sic] en la [faded and illegible]...; La orden que sea de tener en la procession de la Resurretion [sic] en el domingo de pascua es la siguente... Followed on f. 7v by a note in a different hand dated from La Horcajada, 21 May 1550. Ff. 7v-8v and back inner cover: later additions, some quite faded. A few later marginal annotations throughout. Rubrication and decoration: headings and line fillers in red, a few ornamented line fillers or borders, some passages underlined in red or light purple, else ruled in dry point, numerous calligraphic initials in red or brown ink, opening initial with purple filigree extension filling left margin, numerous foliate, vegetable and zoomorphic ornamental designs in the margins in red, purple and brown ink. Binding: stitched into the original parchment cover with title "Regla de la P[a]sio[n]" in large letters, the R with decorative extensions, above a large cross in green ink, entwined with the snake and in the margins apparently the instruments of the Passion. Condition: rubbing and staining, vertical crease from folding causing occasional erasure of text, outer edge of first page somewhat rubbed affecting legibility of text (some words at line ends helpfully written over in a later hand), the inks used in the last two leaves quite faded; wrapper worn and darkened, with tears at top and 3 small holes in lower cover. Provenance: Confraternity of the Holy Cross of Horcajada; purchased in France (with export licence). *** A Spanish confraternity manuscript, containing the rules and statutes that governed the Confraternity of the Holy Cross (referred to as the Cofradía or Hermandad de la [Cruz], the word Cruz being supplied by a Maltese cross in red) of La Horcajada, a town located in Castile y León, in the province of Ávila. As in other Roman Catholic countries, confraternities or lay brotherhoods played a vital role in community life in Spain, functioning as mutual aid societies and venues for laypeople to express their piety and perform charitable acts. vernacular manuscript confraternity statutes from the iberian peninsula surface much more rarely than, for example, their italian counterparts, although it appears that Spain had a larger number of confraternities proportional to the population, especially in Castile y Leon, than the other Catholic lands. Virtually every community, including small villages, had at least one confraternity. While exact numbers of confraternities in sixteenth-century Spain are unknown, "studies carried out for a number of cities suggest that the number of confraternities and brotherhoods in the Hispanic kingdoms was larger than elsewhere in Catholic Europe.... The reasons behind the extraordinary popularity of confraternities and brotherhoods in the Hispanic kingdoms cannot yet be established, however, in view of the current state of research on the topic.... There has been a tendency for scholars to emphasize the confraternity as a primarily urban phenomenon, a reflection, perhaps, of their early development in Italy where they formed an essential part of civic and urban life. In the Hispanic kingdoms, however, these institutions were equally important in the religious and social life of the small village. Pastoral visitations carried out by the bishops of Cuenca during the sixteenth century found that `nearly every community had at least one brotherhood,' even small villages of 500 inhabitants. A similar pattern prevailed in villages around Toledo during the late sixteenth century" (Callahan, pp. 18-19). In his article William Callahan further points out the popular nature of Spanish confraternities, which "arose from the initiative of the laity rather than the clergy, prime examples of the lay piety that began to flourish in late medieval Europe. This piety developed largely on its own uncontrolled by either local bishops or the pope, both of whom regarded its manifestations with some suspicion.... The resiliency of traditional confraternities and brotherhoods developed from their connection to local religious cultures. It also reflected a fact noted by scholars who have studied specific cities and regions, the strongly popular character of membership. There were, of course, some associations that limited membership to the nobility or clergy, but in most cases members were recruited from the popular classes. This was obviously true in the case of peasant villages where only one or two confraternities existed..." (pp. 22-23). In spite of the centrality of confraternities to early modern religious life in Spain, there is comparatively little modern scholarly literature, especially on the rural confraternities. (Note the absence, for example, of any articles on Spain or Portugal in Brill's recently published Companion to Medieval and Early Modern Confraternities, edited by Konrad Eisenbichler.) This working manuscript bears witness to this important but understudied aspect of Spanish popular religious culture, before the restrictions placed on confraternities by the Council of Trent and succeeding Popes. Consulted frequently and contributed to by members of the confraternity, the manuscript includes abundant interlinear and marginal additions and corrections, and half- or full-page later additions. The town of La Horcajada is identified in the opening page. Ff. 1r to 5v contain the introduction, the first 30 statutes, and a notarized testimony with heading "Este es traslado de un testimonio" which relates to the apparently recent establishment of the confraternity. The statutes cover admission of new members, general rules of comportment, requirements of prayer and confession for feast days and for the canonical hours, charity for poorer members of the confraternity, chants, etc. Several paragraphs relate to processions, including required habits and admission of non-members into the processions. On f. 6r a paragraph on the procession de la Resurrection is followed by six entries numbered 32 to 37, of which paragraphs 33 to 37 are in a later 16th-century hand. Several light diagonal lines through these five paragraphs may indicate that they were cancelled. The verso (f.6v) contains only five lines, heavily cancelled in red ink, and f. 7r continues discussion of the procession of the Resurrection on a feast day (the name of the saint is smudged) and on Easter Sunday, in a different 16th-century upright cursive. This second section (of which portions are difficult to read because of fading), ends on f. 7v and is followed by a note in a larger hand, dated from La Horcajada, 21 May 1550. The final leaf and inner back cover contain later additions, some quite faded. One late addition in the lower margin of f. 5v is dated 1615. The manuscript is decorated in a popular style. Some of the leafy plant designs have a thorny look that may reflect local vegetation. Animals and grotesques include a scorpion-like creature, birds, and possibly imaginary mammals. A witness to the central role played by religious confraternities in early modern Spain, bearing the marks of its use and in original condition, it is a rare survival, and would repay further study. Cf. William Callahan, "Confraternities and Brotherhoods in Spain 1500-1800," Confraternitas: The Newsletter of the Society for Confraternity Studies 12:1 (2001) 17-25. See also William A. Christian, Local Religion in Sixteenth Century Spain (Princeton 1981); Maureen Flynn, Sacred Charity: Confraternities and Social Welfare in Spain, 1400-1800 (Basingstoke, 1989).
Les Differens Gouts et nouvelles Modes de Coeffures

Les Differens Gouts et nouvelles Modes de Coeffures

HAIRSTYLES - Johann Martin WILL, engraver Augsburg: Joh. Martin Will, 1780. 8vo (161x 95 mm). Engraved title, 23 (of 24) engraved plates of extravagant hairdos, all with caption "Coeffures d'Augsbourg" and signed "Joh. Martin Will exc. A.V." [Augustae Vindelicorum], all except plate 15 with details highlighted in contemporary hand-coloring and grey lead. Lacking plate 14, pl. 13 cropped at fore-margin, slight foxing and creasing to title; the sub-title "II. Theil" effaced and covered by owner's inkstamp. Contemporary grey embossed floral paper wrappers (rubbed, torn along backstrip, other small tears). Provenance: "G H," circular ownership stamp on title-page.*** A model-book for hairdressers, engraved and published by the Augsburg engraver Johann Martin Will (1727-1806), showing elaborately braided hairdos and monumental hair-towers, with ringlets and tresses carefully disposed around teased mountainous appendages and interwoven with ribbons, feathers, and a variety of fanciful millenary creations. Augsburg was clearly no backwater; while somewhat less extreme than their French counterparts, these hairstyles were inspired by the latest French vogue for the notorious pouf hair-constructions, allegedly invented in 1774 by the dressmaker Rose Bertin (whose most influential client was Marie Antoinette), in collaboration with a hairdresser named Monsieur Léonard. "The pouf was built on scaffolding made from wire, cloth, gauze, horsehair, fake hair, and the wearer's own tresses, teased high off the forehead. After dousing the whole edifice heavily with powder, its architect installed amid the twists and curls an elaborate miniature still-life..." (Weber, p. 104). The cropping of plate 13 at the fore-margin is due to its having been incorrectly trimmed and bound in askew; a line parallel to the gutter shows that the engraved plates were cut out from one or two large sheets. This was part II of a series. I locate only one other copy of this part (Augsburg) and one copy of part IV (the Lipperheide copy at the Kunstbibliothek of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin), which has the same title and 23 plates. The Augsburg copy is digitized: it is in wrappers of the same or very similar dark embossed paper. It includes plate 14, absent from this copy, which shows the front view of the coiffure shown from the back in plate 15. VD18 80238963-001; Lipperheide 1680 (different volume); on Will see Thieme Becker 36:7. Cf. E. Langlade, La Marchande de Modes de Marie-Antoinette: Rose Bertin (1911, digitized on archive.org); C. Weber, Queen of Fashion: What Marie Antoinette Wore to the Revolution (2006).
Nouveau Traité des Oeillets. La façon la plus utile & facile de les bien cultiver

Nouveau Traité des Oeillets. La façon la plus utile & facile de les bien cultiver, leurs noms, leurs couleurs, & leur beauté. Avec la Liste des plus nouveaux. Par L. C. B. M.

CARNATIONS - Paris: Charles de Sercy, 1676. 12mo (148 x 85 mm). [4], 162, [2] pp. Publisher's woodcut device on title, woodcut head- and tailpiece and opening initial. Contemporary parchment over flexible pasteboards. Front pastedown unglued showing liners of printed waste. Dampstain to first few leaves, foxing and softening, corners creased, binding soiled and stiffened. Provenance: from the library of the English Benedictines in Paris (St. Edmund's Priory), late 17th or 18th-century inscription on title, Benedictorum anglorum S[anc]ti Edmundi Parisiis. *** first edition of a guide to carnations and pinks, evidently by a gardener or nurseryman (whether a gentleman or a professional gardener is not known); the book, which went into several editions, helped spread the vogue for the flower in France, and is still respected. In the preface, the anonymous author claims that he intends his book for other fleuristes, with no commercial interests but purely in order to share the beauty of the flower. Testifying to the breadth of his experience, the first part is a detailed technical guide to cultivation, with much precise advice on layering (marcottage), cultivation in a pot versus a greenhouse, required watering and sun exposure, flowering, and protection from blights and insects (especially earwigs and ants). The second part, starting with chapter XVII on p. 89, is a more properly aesthetic guide to the flower, with a general assessment of its lovely qualities, and a detailed list of well over 200 different carnation varieties, organized alphabetically under each color: violet, red, crimson, pink, white, and multicolored. An entire paragraph is devoted to each type. The work, which was apparently erroneously ascribed by Barbier to one Goube of Valenciennes, met a need and was reprinted at least three times before 1700. This copy was owned by the Benedictine community of St. Edmund in Paris, founded in 1615 by the English Benedictine Dom Gabriel Gifford, later Archbishop of Reims and primate of France. Following its expulsion from Paris during the Revolution, the community took over the vacant buildings of the community of St. Gregory's in Douai in 1818. OCLC locates copies in the US at the libraries at Oak Spring, NY Botanical Garden and Chicago Botanic Garden. Musset-Pathay, Bibliographie agronomique 1379; cf. Barbier III: 522.
Le Temple de Gnide ... Par ordre de Mgr. le Comte d'Artois

Le Temple de Gnide … Par ordre de Mgr. le Comte d'Artois

BOZÉRIAN, Jean-Claude, binder - MONTESQUIEU, Charles-Louis de Secondat Paris: imprimerie de Didot l'aîné, 1780. 18mo (binding size 136 x 80 mm). 76 pp. Half-title, title with woodcut arms of the Comte d'Artois. extra-illustrated with 24 plates, comprising an engraved portrait medallion of Montesquieu by Auguste de Saint-Aubin from the 1795 edition by Pierre-François Didot; 10 etched and engraved plates by Bertaux and other engravers after Regnault, from the same 1795 edition, in two states, both avant la lettre, the first pure etching and the second with added engraving; an etched and engraved title by Moreau le jeune for the Italian edition published in Paris by Prault, 1767, in two states, the first pure etching; and a plate by N. de Launay after Marillier (in the final state only), which was used as the frontispiece to the Geneva 1777 edition of Les Lettres persanes, suivies du Temple de Gnide. Light mostly marginal dampstaining to first and last few leaves, marginal foxing to a couple of plates. Bound ca. 1800 by Jean-Claude Bozérian in dark greenish-blue gold-tooled morocco, both covers with border of an ivy plant roll-tool (Culot Roulette 33) set within two pairs of parallel fillets, with at each corner an ivy leaf (Culot Fer 8), enclosing an overall vermiculé decor (a labyrinth of squiggly pointillé lines), consisting of four carefully applied parallel impressions of Culot Roulette 23, sewn on four hidden cords, smooth spine in six compartments, the second gold-lettered, the remainder with a repeated "mille étoiles et points" stamp including roses (not in Culot), signed at foot of spine "Rel. P. Bozerian," doublures and liners of rose watered silk, turn-ins gold-tooled with Culot Roulette 9, the doublures tooled directly with a feathery foliate roll (not in Culot), gilt edges (occasional very slight wear to joints and extremities). Provenance: René Descamps-Scrive (1853-1924), monogrammed book label (sale, Paris, 23 March 1925, lot 192); mounted label certifying that this copy appeared in the exhibit Dix Siècles de Livres français in Lucerne in 1949, as no. 412 in the catalogue; at that time it was owned by one E. J. Reynaud of Geneva.*** An enchanting "vermiculé" binding on an extra-illustrated copy of the first edition of the so-called Collection du Comte d'Artois (Collection d'ouvrages français, en vers et en prose, imprimée par ordre de M. le Comte d'Artois), consisting of 64 volumes in small format, printed for the Comte (later Charles X) from 1780 to 1784 in small press-runs by François-Ambroise Didot (1730-1804, known as l'aîné to distinguish him from his younger brother Pierre-François Didot). Montesquieu long pretended to deny authorship of the Temple de Gnide, a fairly frivolous neo-mythological poem in seven cantos, which he had published anonymously as a supposed translation from the Greek, but it was to be his most frequently published work. This elegant volume represents one of a handful of vermiculé bindings executed by Jean-Claude Bozérian (1726-1839), the most skilled and sought-after Paris bookbinder of Napoleonic France. Most recorded examples appear on editions from the collection of the Comte d'Artois. The present copy is extra-illustrated with the author portrait and 10 etchings in 2 states, from the 12 plates of the 1795 edition of the Temple de Gnide, printed by Pierre-François Didot; probably not coincidentally, the 1795 edition was one of a handful of books published (i.e., financed) by Bozérian himself (cf. Culot, p. 10). The volume was shown in Lucerne, Switzerland, at the Musée des Beaux-Arts, as part of an exhibition of French books and book arts, from July 9 to October 2 1949 (Dix siècles de livres français, Musée des beaux-arts de Lucerne, 9 juillet-2 octobre 1949, no. 412). Cf. Paul Culot, Jean-Claude Bozérian (Brussels 1979); Jammes, Les Didot: trois siècles de typographie et de bibliophilie (1998), p. 4.
Linguae vitia & remedia Emblematicè expressa

Linguae vitia & remedia Emblematicè expressa

BOURGOGNE, Antoine de (1593/4-1657) Antwerp: widow Cnobbaert, 1652. Small oblong 16mo (74 x 97 mm). Collation: a8 b4 A-M8. 2 parts, continuously paginated. [12] leaves, 191, [1 bl.] pp. Half-title, etched title, 93 full-page etchings. This copy includes the cancelled leaf A8, blank except for pagination and headline on the verso. Nineteenth-century red morocco with triple gilt fillet borders, spine and turn-ins gold-tooled, edges gilt over marbling, by Trautz-Bauzonnet. Provenance: James Toovey (1814-1893), London bookseller, armorial gilt bookplate with motto inter folia fructus.*** One of the most charming Netherlandish emblem books, with 94 fine near-miniature etchings. This second Latin edition reprints the same plates and text as that of 1631, which was published at the same time as a Flemish-language edition. The purpose of the book was to list and propose remedies for the "vices" of speech: garrulousness, equivocation, insults, foul language, detraction, blasphemy, lying, perjury and calumny. The theme can be traced back to antiquity, having been treated by Plutarch in the Moralia; but the author, a member of the secular clergy at the Cathedral of Bruges, was more immediately influenced by Erasmus's De linguae usu ac abusu (1525). Part 1 provides examples of improper or sinful speech; two introductory emblems (the first a grisly vision of hell) are followed by 45 examples of such speech, each with an etched emblem on the verso and a motto and four-line poem on the facing recto, with an occasional note in smaller italic type at the foot of the page. Part 2, with 45 more etchings, turns to the remedies for each kind of evil language (each number responds to the same number in the first part). The delicate unsigned etchings are attributed, apparently without question, to Jacobus Neeffs (1610-1660) and Andries Pauli (or Pauwels) the elder (1600-1639), after designs by Abraham van Diepenbeeck (1596-1675), who dominated Antwerp book illustration at the time. Some show vignettes of daily life, in interiors, towns or landscapes, others more exciting scenes - supernatural events, battles, storms at sea, fires and floods; and many include animals, both domestic and exotic, including a toucan, a parrot, other exotic birds, porcupines, a rhinoceros, an elephant, snakes, a leopard, a lion, a crocodile and bees. The cancelled leaf A8, preserved here, was removed from most copies. This is among the scarcer emblem books. In the US, there are copies of the 1631 editions at the Getty, Houghton, Folger and Penn State; Houghton also holds a copy of the present edition. Landwehr (3rd ed.) 96; Funck, Livre belge à gravures, p. 284; Forum, The Children's World of Learning, part 7, no. 3815; cf. Praz, p. 292 (1631 Latin edition); de Vries, De Nederlandsche Emblemata 132 (1631 Flemish edition). On the artists, cf. Thieme Becker 9: 243-5 (Diepenbeeck), 25:373 (Neeffs), and 26:309 (Pauli).
Suite of etched floral embroidery designs

Suite of etched floral embroidery designs, in two states, colored and uncolored

NETTO, Johann Friedrich (1756-1810) Leipzig, 1800. Oblong folio (200 x 327 mm). 36 etched plates, comprising 18 plates each in two states, colored and uncolored (all the colored plates bound first, followed by the uncolored plates), all numbered in the plate at upper right, "Tab. I [-XVIII] 3ter Bd.," nearly all signed by Netto, some with place (Netto del. & fec., Netto fec. Lieps, etc.), including 9 large folding plates (nos. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17) in various sizes up to 480 x 378 mm. (pl. 11). No title, apparently the plate volume from an unidentified edition. Some fraying and occasional soiling to fore-edges, 8 folding plates (6 colored and 2 uncolored) with minor short repaired tears at guards, a few inner edges wrinkled, else in fresh condition, Contemporary red-patterned pastepaper (Kleisterpapier) over pasteboards (edges and spine quite worn, upper joint broken). Provenance: effaced library inkstamp on front flyleaf.*** An attractive suite of neo-classical patterns, mainly for embroidery, by the drawing-master and influential pattern book compiler J. F. Netto. A drawing-master from Leipzig, Netto was an imaginative and successful author of several needlework manuals, most published by Voss in Leipzig, including an important series of three embroidery manuals, also in large oblong folio format. He edited a periodical devoted to the arts of the needle (Taschenbuch der Strick-, Näh- und anderer weiblichen Arbeiten, 1801-4), and a few other manuals of the domestic arts for women, all now quite scarce. Jessen (p. 359) called the ensemble of Netto's sample books and manuals the "most distinguished" ("am stattlichsten") of the spate of women's needlework manuals that appeared in the late eighteenth century in response to the new vogue for female handiwork. Most of these etchings bear number- or letter-keys, indicating that they were accompanied by explanatory text, but I have been unable to identify the edition to which this plate volume - no. 3 in a series - belongs. The number of plates, subjects, and platemark sizes match none of the Netto works listed in the Berlin Katalog, OCLC, or KVK, several of which are digitized. There is a slight possibility that the set may correspond to the plates from a manual referred to by Netto in part 1 of his 1795 Zeichen- Mahler- und Stickerbuch, which he said was published in 1783, but of which no copies are recorded. The plates show floral details, swags and ribbons, delicate bouquets including sprays of wheat and feathers, classical urns, and border and corner patterns. The first suite is hand-colored in wash, watercolor and, occasionally, gold paint, indicating the suggested use of both polychrome silk thread and metallic thread. Plate 2 shows six small arabesque floral designs, colored in gold paint only. Folding plate 15 depicts at left a large, decorated urn, painted in colors and gold, and at right an outline sketch of its parts. Comparison of the uncolored plates to their colored counterparts show that the coloring must have been carried out under the supervision of the artist, for some elements of the cloth base coloring are not indicated in the uncolored etchings (e.g., pl. 10 and 11). The last two plates are patterns for whitework, these are colored only in monochrome wash (respectively green and blue) in the colored suite.
Le plaisant livre de noble homme Jehan Bocace poete florentin

Le plaisant livre de noble homme Jehan Bocace poete florentin, auquel il traicte des faictz & gestes des illustres & celebres dames

BOCCACCIO, Giovanni Paris: [Jean Réal for] Philippe Le Noir, [Guillaume Le Bret, and others], 1538. 8vo (144 x 85 mm). [8], 196 leaves. Title printed in red and black. Bâtarde type. Small typographic pointing hands used in text throughout. Half-page woodcut opening text of an author presenting his book to a seated dignitary, with reserved space for letterpress name, here "Jehan bocasse"; a variety of metalcut floriated initials, final verso with woodcut device of Guillaume Le Bret (Renouard 588). Title with old repair at top slightly affecting 2 letters, and a couple of tiny holes, worming in or near gutters catching a few letters in quires R-T, very skilful discreet repairs in ff. CC3-6, occasional faint foxing, small stain in quire M. Nineteenth-century French blue straight-grained morocco (ca. 1820), covers with gilt rule border enclosing blind roll-tooled neoclassical frame and central blind-stamped lozenge, spine gold-tooled and lettered, board edges very finely gold-tooled, gilt edges, green patterned pastepaper endleaves (corners very lightly bumped, else fine). *** An attractive copy of the second edition of De mulieribus claris in French, using the text of Antoine Vérard's edition of 1493. Although Vérard had tried to pass the translation off as his own, it was in fact a slightly revised version of an anonymous French translation made ca. 1401. Vérard's editions of Boccaccio had made the writer more accessible to a French public, but it was not until the sixteenth century that his works became more widely known, and frequently imitated. This was the "golden age" for Boccaccio in France, one that would draw to a close with the restrictions placed by the Church on the racier passages of the Decameron. On Famous Women was, as its author proclaimed, the first biographical survey devoted exclusively to women in (Western) literature. Clearly, though, in spite of the plethora of surviving Latin manuscripts of the text, Boccaccio's survey of 106 women of distinction (some for their vices) from the Bible, mythology, history, and from amongst Boccaccio's contemporaries, was of less interest to 16th-century French readers than Griseldis, Fiametta, or indeed the Decameron. Forty-five years had passed since the appearance of the first and still the only printed edition before a group of Paris publisher-booksellers decided to publish the work anew. In order either to blanket the market, to obviate pirate editions, or to spread the risk, no fewer than thirteen booksellers shared this pocket-sized edition. The first and last quires, containing the titles, colophons and publishers' devices, appear to have been reset for the various issues (cf. Hortis transcriptions). The present copy bears the imprint of Philippe Le Noir and the woodcut device of Guillaume Le Bret.The printer was recently identified as Jean Réal, whose metalcut capital initials are used at the head of each chapter; this was the first book from his press. The unusual typographic pointing hands in the text were added by the printer as a finding aid, to signal the Latin articulating phrases left in by the translator (the Latin phrases appear also in Vérard's edition, but without any specific typographic mark highlighting them). Two US copies located, at Princeton and Smith College. Moreau V, 742; BM / STC, p. 71; Brunet I, 990-91; Bechtel B-224; Hortis, Studi sulle Opere Latine del Boccaccio (1879), pp. 798-800. Cf. BnF, Boccace en France (1975), 123.
Stimulus missionum: Sive de propaganda a Religiosis per universum Orbem Fide

Stimulus missionum: Sive de propaganda a Religiosis per universum Orbem Fide

TOMÁS DE JÉSUS (ca. 1564-1627) Rome: Giacomo Mascardi, 1610. 8vo (162 x 99 mm). [8], 234, [5] pp. Title woodcut of Saints Peter and Paul flanking papal arms, woodcut initials. Some minor marginal dust-soiling, final errata leaf slightly creased. Contemporary parchment over flexible pasteboards, traces of two fore-edge ties, manuscript spine title. Provenance: Rouen, Cathedral library, 18th-century printed label, Biblioth. Rothomag., on title.*** only edition of an important manifesto of missiology by a former Carmelite hermit turned proselytizer, "the most important Discalced Carmelite theologian of the seventeenth century" (Renaissance and Reformation). An overlooked European Americanum, it includes a brief reference to christopher columbus and activities of the franciscan missionaries in the americas. Inspired by the autobiography of Teresa of Ávila, Tomás de Jésus, born Diaz Sanchez D'Ávila (there are several variants of this name), in Baeza, Andalucia, joined the Discalced Carmelites in Granada after his university studies, in 1586. The first part of his career was marked by his wholehearted embrace of the contemplative philosophy of the new order, for which he founded the first Carmelite deserts (houses of religious reclusion for monks) in Spain. But, having retired to the Desert of Las Batuecas in his late 30s, intending to spend the rest of his life in solitary meditation, Tomás underwent a change of heart, and became an ardent proponent of Catholic activism. His biographical details seem tenuous, and different motivations for this radical and permanent shift in his views have been proposed by religious historians, but it seems that external pressures contributed to this dramatic reversal in his attitude toward religious service. In 1607 Tomás was called to Rome by the Pope, and he spent the next few years founding monastic houses in northern Europe, for what was to be the short-lived Congregation of St. Paul, dedicated to missionary activity. Approved by Paul V in 1608, this precursor of the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide was suppressed five years later because of fierce opposition from within the Carmelite order. Tomás devoted his remaining years to promoting the growing fervor for spreading Christianity to the newly discovered lands outside Europe. In this work, written in Rome, Tomás attempted to convince members of the Discalced Carmelites of the rationale for missionary activism. In four parts, the learned treatise provides a history of Catholic conversional activity within medieval Europe and theological justification for propaganda of the faith. In Chapter 2 of the third part, treating the missionary activities of other orders, he describes the Franciscans' help in persuading Ferdinand to fund Columbus's first voyage, and their participation in the second voyage of 1493 (p. 129). The voyages of Vasco da Gama are also cited in the context of the Franciscans' missions in the West and East Indies. On p. 5 the extremely calamitous situation of (heathen) America, whch "makes up a fourth part of the globe," is alluded to. Neither this nor Tomás' 1613 De procuranda salute omnium gentium, an expanded version of the present not unsubstantial treatise, are in Alden & Landis. Five examples of the Rouen Cathedrial Library book label are recorded in the Catalogues régionaux des incunables des bibliothèques publiques de France, vol. 17, Haute-Normandie. On the Rouen Cathedral Library, see Mellot, "Rouen au XVIe siècle," Histoire des bibliothèques françaises II:458-469. OCLC gives one US location (General Theological Seminary); NUC adds Columbia and Johns Hopkins Peabody Library, but this is not in their online catalogues. Palau 123590; ICCU BVEE52067. On the author, cf. Renaissance and Reformation, 1500-1620: A Biographical Dictionary, p. 351; and a multilingual website devoted to Tomás de Jésus, http://tomaszodjezusa.blogspot.com/p/thoma-de-jesus-en-fran.html.
Le Petit Almanach de poche

Le Petit Almanach de poche, pour l'an de grâce de N. S. MDCCXXXVIII

EMBROIDERED BINDING, MINIATURE Liège: Everard Kints, 1737. 24mo (binding size 94 x 37 mm). Collation: A-D8 E4. [72] pages. Woodcut arms of the Prince-Bishop of Liège, Georges-Louis de Berghes (1662-1743), as frontispiece. Quires A and B (the calendar) interleaved (single leaves, centers of quires with double leaves). Small text woodcuts of moon phases. Fine condition. Contemporary green silk over pasteboards, embroidered with silver thread, both covers with central diapered cartouche disposed as if emerging from the spine, flanked by flowers and arabesques, border of asymmetrically aligned small repeated ovals, spine with central four-petalled blossom and four arcs above and below; gilt edges, gold and pink floral Dutch-gilt endpapers. *** A very small pocket almanac in an exquisitely preserved embroidered binding, whose unusual design tricks the eye into expecting an oblong format. In a small space, this rare almanac contains much useful information: an interleaved calendar with advice on plantings, lists of birth years of European royalty and of markets and fairs, a 5-page essay containing "Remarks on the Origin of Commerce," a schedule of the major postal coaches, times of sunrise and sunset, court dates, tables of the clergy's taxes on grain (Effractions), and a calendar of the 40-hour devotion. The subtitle lists the date counted from the Creation, the Flood, the Birth of Christ (i.e., standard CE date), his Resurrection, and the Gregorian revision. On the verso is the privilege, granted to Everard Kints on 16 March 1737. Kints was a wealthy Liège publisher, who in 1744 would be granted the title of printer to the Prince-Bishop. This was the first issue of the long-running Petit almanach published under his imprint: the earliest privilege had been granted to J. L. Milst in 1699; it was handed down to the latter's widow in 1730, who relinquished it to Kints in 1737. He renewed the privilege twice, in 1740 and 1744. Only a handful of copies of this miniature almanac survive. One of them is in the Patricia Pistner collection, and is described by Jan Storn van Leeuwen in her catalogue. The Pistner copy is decorated with painted hunting scenes framed in embroidered silver and colored silk thread. Interestingly, the bindings of both the Pistner copy and two other copies with similar embroidered bindings cited by Prof. Storm van Leeuwen, are presented "sideways," like the present binding. All these bindings are notable for their use of silver thread, and they may all have been embroidered and bound in the same workshops: "There is no indication that Kints ever operated his own bindery, but it is likely that these very similar textile coverings with a baroque frame of siler thread on his almanacs all came from one embroiderer, and there may have been one binder able to so skillfully mount these coverings around the bindings" - A Matter of Size: Miniature bindings and texts from the collection of Patricia J. Pistner (NY, 2019), no. 110.
Hore christifere virginis marie secundum usum Romanum ... cum illius miraculis & figuris apocalipsis et biblianis cum triumphis cesaris

Hore christifere virginis marie secundum usum Romanum … cum illius miraculis & figuris apocalipsis et biblianis cum triumphis cesaris

HORAE B.M.V., use of Rome [Paris]: Simon Vostre, 1508. Printed on paper. 4to in 8s (249 x 167 mm ). Collation: A-E8 F2 G6 H-N8 O6. [102] leaves. Batarde type 98, 29/31 lines. Title in four lines below large metalcut Vostre device (Renouard 1105), within a metalcut border; Anatomical man metalcut within an architectural border; 26 large metalcuts of which 14 full-page, 33 small text cuts, all except the full-page cuts set within a variety of metalcut borders assembled from individual cuts, and composing several historiated series (see below), most incorporating letterpress text. Rubricated, initials and paragraph marks supplied (in places rather hastily) in red and blue; a few small ink splashes from the rubrication. Ruled in red. Bound with three additional leaves containing six pages of contemporary manuscript prayers at end. Binding: 19th-century red goatskin decorated in sixteenth-century style, outer frames of black and tan inlaid calf framing large inlaid black calf interlacing bands with leafy sprigs of inlaid tan calf, all inlays outlined in gold tooling, gold-lettered title (erroneously making two words of christifere) on front cover and imprint on lower cover, spine in seven similarly decorated compartments, olive morocco doublures gold-tooled with allover design of interlacing circles, fleurs-de-lis, and blossoms, thick marbled endpapers and flyleaves, gilt edges, by Capé, with his gold-stamped signature on upper turn-in; modern linen folding case. Condition: one or two tiny tears or very discreet repairs in lower blank margins; lightly washed, with very occasional faint residual staining; discreet restoration to joints. Provenance: 1) Marielaine du Varny, of Rosny, near Mantes, Seine-et-Oise: six pages of manuscript prayers in a contemporary batarde cursive hand, in French with some Latin, signed at end, promising a reward of wine and food for anyone who finds the book: "Iste hore sunt mei qui vocet Marielaine du Varny si quis inveniet pro amore Xri redet et habebit bonum vinum ... cum pane albo cum caseo duro in pago Rony" (These Hours are mine, my name is Marielaine du Varny; should anyone find them for the love of Christ let him return them and he will have good wine ... white bread, and hard cheese in the village of Rony"). 2) effaced 17th or 18th-century signature on title, Lagarde(?). 3) French trade: 19th-century French clipped description from an unidentified auction or bookseller's catalogue, item no 7, tipped to second (of 3) front flyleaves, trace of another tipped-in description, since lost, retaining only the item number 35. 4) Robert Hoe (1893-1909), bookplate, sale Part IV, Anderson Galleries, NY, 11 November 1912, lot 1683. 5) Cortlandt F. Bishop (1870-1935), bookplate, sale, Part I, 25 April 1938, lot 1037. 6) Mary S. Collins (1864-1948), bookplate.*** A fine, large, red-ruled copy of the most lavishly illustrated of Simon Vostre's quarto editions, called the "grandes heures" as much for the richness of their illustrative material as for their format. Vostre's complete new series of 14 very large full-page woodcuts, attributed to the workshop of Jean Pichore, first appeared in this edition; only three had appeared previously. This copy is bound with six pages of contemporary manuscript prayers and devout meditations by a woman, preserved by the binder Capé when the copy was luxuriously rebound in the 19th century in a retrospective style. The present book of hours represents a high point of printed Paris Horae, for the abundance and intricacy of the graphic material, to which the text plays a decidedly secondary role. The Paris printers' mastery of the complex composition and printing of multiple editions of texts integrated with hundreds of separate metalcuts testifies to the sophistication and large production scale of what had become, within little more than a decade, a highly successful specialized branch of the book trade. Simon Vostre, who, with Antoine Vérard, had pioneered the industry of Paris Horae publishing, had commissioned several cycles of illustrations and border cuts starting in the 1490s. Vostre was the first publisher of books of hours to commission full-page metalcuts for large quarto editions. Quickly imitated by Vostre's competitors, these large cuts, formerly attributed to Jean Perréal, are now ascribed to the workshop of the illuminator / imagier / printer Jean Pichore, who supplied metalcuts to all the major Paris Horae publishers for over two decades. Of the series of fourteen full-page metalcuts, three (the Annunciation, Nativity, and Adoration of the Magi) seem to have first appeared in a quarto edition printed in 1502 by Philippe Pigouchet for Simon Vostre (cf. Fairfax Murray 257; the Bibermühle catalogue ascribes the first appearance to an edition of 1504 for Jean Pichore and Remy de Laistre: cf. Sammlung Bibermühle 92). The remaining eleven large metalcuts first appeared in this edition and other Horae with calendars for 1508-1528 published by Vostre (for the use of Paris, Chartres, Amiens, and other editions for the use of Rome). Hugh Davies assessed thus these innovative metalcuts, which, following Anatole Alès, he labeled series 4: "Introduced here are all forms of shading - criblée, cross, line, etc., the use of all these methods giving an appearance of solidity to the pictures which was never before attained. With all the artist's love for Renaissance ornament ... he has sufficient of the XVth Cent. conventionalism to preserve the naïveté and lightness of the earlier French style so soon to disappear under the more weighty German" (Fairfax Murray French, p. 280). Nine of the fourteen large cuts appear in lavish double-page displays opposite smaller metalcuts, set within architectural borders to bring them to the same size. The subjects relate thematically; in one case the cuts show two artists' views of the same subject, the Annunciation to the Shepherds. Most of these smaller cuts are from an earlier octavo-format series cut by Jean Pichore's workshop for Vostre, first used in 1502-1506. The oldest metalcuts used in the double-page spreads are the Tree of Jesse, the Adoration of the Shepherds, and the Trinity. Along with the anatomical man, the 33 small text cuts, and some of the border pieces, they date from the 15th century and are attributed to or in the style of the so-called Master of the Apocalypse Rose. As important as the larger illustrations in the presentation and reception of early 16th-century Parisian printed Horae were the metalcut page borders, which completed the visual feast offered by the book of hours. They diverted the reader with entertaining stories and an enchanting patchwork of pictures, while amplifying the main devotional text with their edifying tales and reminders of mortality. Sixteen different series are used here, including the celebrated Dance of Death with its pungent French verse text, the Last Judgment series (inspired by Dürer), the Triumphs of Caesar, the Lives of the Virgin and Jesus (sometimes described as the Typology series, modelled on the Biblia pauperum), the Miracles of Notre Dame, Susanna and the Elders, the Sibyls, Joseph and his Brothers, the Triumph of the Virtues over the Vices, and scenes of games and seasonal activities. The historiated borderpieces alternate with purely ornamental border strips embellished with putti, arabesques, grotesques, and foliate ornament. Originally imitative of the manuscript tradition, such widely copied border series took on a life of their own. Their importance in the eyes of the publisher and public is evident from the fact that they are mentioned in the title. The metalcuts and border strips that compose them include both older, stylistically archaic material in the style of the Master of the Apocalypse Rose, and more modern Italianate ornament cuts along with German-influenced figural cuts by the Pichore workshop. Contents: A1r title, A1v almanac for 1508-1528, A2r Zodiac and rules for bloodletting, A2v-A8r calendar, the calendar for each month accompanied by two quatrains, the first in Latin concerning the health-related properties of the month, and the second in French on the ages of man (each month representing six years); B1r-B2v Gospel Lessons; B3r-C4r prayers: Obsecro te, O Intemerata, Stabat mater, etc.; C4v Hours of the Virgin, alternating with corresponding Hours of the Cross and of the Holy Ghost: (C4v Tree of Jesse), C5r Matins, D3v Laudes, D8v, Matins (Hours of the Cross), E1r Matins (Hours of the Holy Ghost), E3v Prime, E4v Prime (Cross), E5r Prime (Holy Ghost), E5v Terce, E7v Terce (Cross), E8r Terce (Holy Ghost), E8v Sext, G1v None, G3r None (Cross and Holy Ghost), G3v Vespers, H1r Vespers (Cross and Holy Ghost), H1v Compline, H3v Compline (Cross), H4r Compline (Holy Ghost); H5r Rules for Advent, H8v Penitential Psalms; I5r Litany; K1r Office of the Dead; L8r Suffrages; M6v various prayers in French and Latin (plusieurs devotes louenges...); N4v Seven penitential psalms in French and Latin; O3v Horloge de la passion (French poem); O5v prayer to the three kings (Latin); O6r-v Table of contents. Major illustrations: A2r anatomical man as skeleton, surrounded by figures representing the four temperaments, within an architectural border A8v St. John the Evangelist with the Poisoned Cup, full-page B3v Betrayal, full-page C4v Tree of Jesse, within architectural border C5r Annunciation, full-page D3v Augustus and the Tiburtine Sybil, within architectural border D4r Visitation, full-page D8v The Road to Calvary, within architectural border E1r Crucifixion, full-page E2r Pentecost, full-page E3r Nativity, full-page E5v Annunciation to the Shepherds, within architectural border E6r Annunciation to the Shepherds, full-page E8v Adoration of the Shepherds, a criblé metalcut with two engraved captions, within architectural border F1r Adoration of the Magi, full-page G1v Presentation in the Temple, full-page G3v Massacre of the Innocents, within architectural border G4r Flight into Egypt, full-page H1v Death of the Virgin, within architectural border H2r Coronation of the Virgin, full-page H8v David and Uriah, within architectural border I1r David playing the Harp, full-page I8v Raising of Lazarus, full-page K1r Job on the Dung Heap, within architectural border L8r Trinity and the Church, within architectural border N2r St. Anne with the Madonna and Child (Anna Selbdritt) and emblems of the Virgin, within architectural border O3v Holy Grail (half-page criblé cut, within border) Provenance: The manuscript prayers following the printed text, by one Marielaine du Varny, are in three sections, the first and longest containing prayers to the Virgin, addressed in a variety of manners: Glorieuse Vierge Marie, Noble Mere du Redempteur, Glorieuse Vierge puella fille de dieu, etc.; the prayers of the second section are to Jesus (Jesus ... roi, filz de dieu le pere... ), and those of the final section to God (Sire Dieu tout puissant....). The promise of a gastronomical reward to anyone who should find the book was a not uncommon message by medieval book owners. The copy was later owned by three distinguished American collectors. Its excellent condition, large size, and "fine and crisp impressions" were lavishly praised in the Hoe and Cortlandt Bishop sale catalogues (at that time the binding retained its morocco slipcase, since lost). Mary S. Collins, née Mary F. Schell, married the Philadelphia publisher Philip Sheridan Collins following the death of his wife and her closest friend Anna Steffen. Together they assembled an important collection of medieval manuscripts and early printed books. Some were donated; others were sold by her estate. Four other copies located (all apparently printed on paper): Johns Hopkins University, Harvard, Rennes Bibliothèque municipale, and Sammlung Bibermühle. References: Bohatta 881; Alès, Bibliothèque liturgique ... de Charles-Louis de Bourbon, Supplément (1884), no. 358 (and cf. table, p. 43 of Supp.); R. Brun, Le livre français illustré de la Renaissance, pp. 14-16; Tenschert, ed., Horae B.M.V.: 365 gedruckte Stundenbücher aus der Sammlung Bibermühle, vols. I-IX (2003-2014), no. 95; on the illustrations, see also II: pp. 736-8 and IX, series 15, 22 & 24; Harvard/ Mortimer French II, p. 368, Horae no. 1; Peignot, Recherches historiques et littéraires sur les danses des morts (1826), pp. 149-163. Cf. Fairfax Murray French 259.
Tableau de calligraphie

Tableau de calligraphie

SEITZ, Johann Baptist (1786-1859) Munich: Anton Dreer, 1816. Large folio engraved broadsheet (775 x 590 mm.) of calligraphic samples, with five engraved vignettes. Thick wove paper, deckle edges. Fine condition.*** A splendid calligraphic sample, beautifully preserved. The imprint states that it was "composed, engraved and published by J. B. Seitz." Seitz was an engraver for the Royal Bavarian Bureau of Statistics and Topography (Königlichen Bayrischen Statistisch-Topographischen Bureau), which was responsible for the manufacture of official maps and plans. He was one of the first technicians to work on the trial production of lithographed maps. The present rare sample-sheet was presumably produced for cartographic institutes, publishers and mapmakers. The sub-title "Alphabets of Languages the most customary" is in German, English, French and Italian, and the remaining captions, all in different ornamented scripts, are in German and French. Included are ornate alphabets in Fraktur, several different italics (dubbed English, Italian and French Letter), gothic, roman, and Greek alphabets, and German Currentschrift. Three of the fine engraved vignettes, arrayed down the center of the sheet, are pictorial. At top is a romantic landscape in which a plaque leaning on a tree bears the (appropriate) motto "Nihil est Simul et Inventum et Perfectum." The others show a funerary monument in a pastoral glade, and a military trophy with the emblematic initials of Rome (SPQR) and motto below "Et arte vivitur patriae." I locate no other copies. On Seitz, cf. R. A. Winkler, Die Frühzeit der deutschen Lithographie (1975), 709.
Emblemi sulla Dottrina Cristiana ad uso de' Sordo-Muti inventati da S. R. Il Padre Gio. Bat[is]ta Ottavio Assarotti

Emblemi sulla Dottrina Cristiana ad uso de' Sordo-Muti inventati da S. R. Il Padre Gio. Bat[is]ta Ottavio Assarotti, delle scuole Pie

EMBLEMS FOR THE DEAF - ASSAROTTI, Ottavio Giovanni Battista (1753-1829) Genoa, 1824. Manuscript on laid paper, 4to (236 x 176 mm). 126 leaves, foliated [3], 1-3, [1], 4-42, [1], 43-51 [1] 52-61 [1] 62-103 [1] 104-118 (apparently complete). The numbered leaves containing one hundred and eighteen highly finished emblematic drawings, all full-page, explanations written on versos, the unnumbered leaves containing the title, 3 and 1/2-page introduction, and section titles; most of the illustrations in landscape format. Calligraphic title, text in brown ink in a neat cursive hand; the drawings in graphite, pen-and-ink and gray wash, a few with details in brown ink, each within rule border with numbering at top (gutter edge). Corner repairs to ff. 1-10, tears into ff. 9 and 104, a few other short marginal tears or fraying to edges, ff. 100 and 101 with gutters reinforced on versos, occasional minor offsetting or soiling. Late 19th-century half parchment and brown glazed paper, manuscript title label on spine.*** A remarkable emblematic manuscript, offering an illustrated course of religious instruction for Deaf children, by a pioneer of Deaf education in Italy. By the early nineteenth century, pre-modern misconceptions concerning the learning abilities of Deaf children had been largely exposed as false by such eighteenth-century pedagogues as the abbé Sicard and Charles-Michel de l'Epée in France, each of whom founded schools for the Deaf and contributed to the development of a standardized sign language, or Samuel Heinicke in Germany, who implemented a different method of communication for the Deaf, centered on oral speech. In Italy, the most influential figure in the education of Deaf children was Ottavio Assarotti. As a young man Assarotti entered the order of the Piarists (the Scuole pie). Founded in 1617, the Piarists' principal mission was (and remains) the provision of free education to poor and especially disabled children. After several years teaching theology and philosophy, Assarotti set those disciplines aside to devote himself full-time to the development of an instructional program for Deaf children. Assarotti's method consisted in teaching the children not only reading, writing, and sign language, but also a full range of humanist disciplines, including science, the arts, and foreign languages. In 1805 he obtained financial support from Napoleon to found a school, which after some delays was finally opened in 1811 in the former Bridgettine convent. After Napoleon's defeat, the growing school received renewed support from King Vittorio Emmanuele I, and its fame spread throughout Europe. "Assarotti made great use of sign language in his teaching ... Directors of nearly all Italian institutes for deaf students flocked to learn from him and carried his method back with them. Pope Gregory XVI sent the new directors of the Rome Institute, Padri Ralli and Gioazzini, to study in Genoa with Assarotti. Upon their return to Rome, they too used his techniques. How is it possible that a man so renowned and successful in his own time did not earn so much as one line of recognition in the historical accounts of other countries? Perhaps the answer lies in the fact that Assarotti left no traces in written form of his philosophy and method. Had he done so, not only would he have gained respect and notoriety outside Italy, but perhaps the critical events soon to follow [the subsequent dominance of "oralism" over sign language in Italy] would have taken a different course..." (Radutsky, p. 245). In fact, Assarotti wrote and may have published several texts for his pupils (listed in DBI, but not found in OCLC or ICCU). The present work appears to be unpublished, and may have been prepared for the use of instructors in the school. It contains a pictorial religious course of instruction, using a complex but precise symbolic system to explain Christian doctrine and liturgy, including the most abstract theological concepts. All the elements in the drawings are identified in captions of varying lengths and in various layouts. Names or words are often incorporated as visual elements of the emblems. While somewhat primitive, the drawings' unique iconography is evocative, and some have a powerful, dreamlike quality. In the Middle Ages the Deaf were barred from the sacraments - and hence from marriage and any kind of normal life - because of the belief that they could not understand the word of God. While these strictures were loosened, thanks to Luther's influence, in 1571, prejudice against Deaf persons' abilities to achieve salvation subsisted, partly because it was thought that they could not perform Confession. Hence the importance to early educators of the hearing-disabled of providing their pupils with comprehensive religious instruction, as an essential foundation of their integraton into society. The unnamed author of the introduction, writing in the third person, describes Assarotti's school and praises his religious zeal, humanity, and his understanding that Deaf people, who had been previously "abandoned by society," are fully competent and indeed capable of the highest intellectual and spiritual attainment. The emblems (the author explains), will present to the Deaf student an easy transition from familiar material objects to those objects which are less material, and from there to the most immaterial concepts of all. In doing so he or she will eventually absorb the entire Christian doctrine. The figures are described as Assarotti's own (egli ... ha inventato le figure, che formano questo Libro...), but whether the actual drawings are in his hand is unclear. The introduction concludes with an explanation of the most used, recurring emblematic figures. God is represented by a circle containing three rectangles which touch the circle and each other, representing the Divine Trinity: flames emanate from the God the Father and Jesus rectangles toward the one representing the Holy Spirit, a concept which is explained (in the text) as the reciprocal love between the two other Divine Persons. Jesus the man (as opposed to his divine nature) is shown by another circle, helpfully inscribed "Uomo / Jesu' Cristo", and humans or human souls are represented by hearts (although the meaning of the heart emblem varies throughout the manuscript). Other symbols, introduced later, are explained on the versos of the drawings. Contrasting with the approbation granted his pedagogical achievements, Assarotti's religious views, linked to the most mystical wing of the Ligurian Jansenists, met with resistance from the church hierarchy, and some of his theological writings were not approved for publication. The drawings of this manuscript provide a glimpse of an abstract mysticism which would certainly have been at odds with Catholic orthodoxy. The work is in five parts, titled: Faith (Fede, ff. 4-42); Laws (Legge, 43-51); Prayer (Preghiera, 52-61); Sanctification (Sanctificazione, 62-103), and Virtue (Vertù, 104-118). The first part is a visual exposition of the Credo, starting with God's attributes: his ubiquity is shown by the linked God-Jesus circles above a symbol of the world (earth and heavens), with the word DIO written repeatedly across the page; his omniscience by the God symbol at top sending down rays of light, at center a man sitting under a tree, and below that a well, captioned "Abyss." Creation is a delightful drawing of fish in the seas flanking a mound representing the earth, on top of which cavort animals under trees, and within which are three large hearts, linked to a central pole at the top and illustrating the three reasons that God created man: so that they might know, love and enjoy him. The Church of Jesus Christ is an architectural drawing of a fortress. Heaven is a light emanating rays, while Hell is a large vat whose opening is locked and barred. Virtuous souls are flaming hearts each with an open eye (since they see God); sinful souls are spotted hearts with wilted stems instead of flames. These blemished hearts recur throughout the book, for example behind bars in the vat of Hell; enchained by a similarly spotted Devil; in a genealogical tree descended from Adam and Eve; or clustered above Hell on Judgment Day, opposite a crowd of pure, haloed hearts, trumpets sounding above and lightning striking the damned while divine light bathes the saved. The section on Laws contains various allegorical representations of the Ten Commandments. While some drawings amount to schematic tables demonstrating the relationships between theological concepts, others are more pictorial. Reflecting no doubt Assarotti's personal mysticism, all aspects of the divinity are abstract: there are no angels, Madonnas, or images of Christ. Crosses are shown, but there are no Crucifixions, and Christ's Passion appears as a circle containing the Arma Christi. The church hierarchy is represented by a papal tiara, mitres, and stoles. Human figures appear predominantly in the drawings of the sacraments and in representations of sin. In contrast with the invisibility of the divine, Satin is personified as a grimacing devil, and the seven deadly sins appear as animals and monsters poised above poisonous emissions from Hell's chimneys. Another manuscript produced for Assarotti, very similar in content, but lacking the title and two leaves, is with the Austrian antiquarian book firm Inlibris. Cf. Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, art., Antonella Dolci, 4:433-4; E. Radutsky, "The Education of Deaf People in Italy and the Use of Italian Sign Language," in Van Cleve, ed., Deaf History Unveiled (1993), 237-5; Rauthgundis Kurrer, Gehörlose im Wandel der Zeit (doctoral dissertation, University of Munich, 2013, available as a pdf online), pp. 30-33.
Christliche Tageszeit in auferbaulichen feinen Bildern

Christliche Tageszeit in auferbaulichen feinen Bildern, zu Morgen, Messe, Reise, und Abend, mit geistreichen Gebethern entworfen

SAILER, Sebastian (1714-1777) Vienna: Kurzböck ("mit Kurtzböckischen Schriften"), 1769. Bound with: STATIONS OF THE CROSS - Der Creutzweg Jesu Christi durch Betrachtungen in Versen entworfen ...Verbesserte Auflage. Vienna: Joseph Kurzböck, 1769. 2 volumes in one, 8vo (173 x 108 mm). Sailer: 3 parts, [36] leaves, 31 engraved plates. Title within floral woodcut border. Extra-illustrated with an engraved frontispiece by Joseph Leudner (1813-1853) after Lucas Schraudolph (1817-1863). Creutzweg: [10] leaves, engraved frontispiece and 15 plates. All plates with engraved titles and captions, both works with typographic and woodcut head- and tail-pieces. Occasional light foxing, mainly in the first work. Bound together in 19th-century red calf gilt, both covers with floral border and central rosace motif, upper cover stamped with disguised gilt-lettered name '*D****ST above the centerpiece, and the date 1803 stamped in gold and 1850 in blind below the centerpiece, spine gold-tooled, block-printed decorative Kattunpapier endpapers, gilt edges (covers slightly bowed, corners scuffed). Loosely inserted devotional engraving of the same period. *** A pair of Viennese devotional books whose texts are vehicles for the 46 anonymous Baroque engravings. Dramatically outlined on white backgrounds, the figures are shown in theatrically expressive postures. These illustrations brought the Church sermons and prayers of the text to life. The sought-after preacher Sebastian Sailer was best known for his plays in Swabian dialect, some of which were set to music. This collection of prayers for different times of day appeared in numerous editions, in Augsburg and Vienna, where the press of Joseph Kurzböck (active 1755-1792) published several editions with different collations. Most are recorded with 46 plates, and include the second work, containing the Stations of the Cross, as part of the editions. I locate no other copies of the present edition of the Sailer. The Austrian National Library copy (digitized) of an edition with the same imprint, is in fact a different edition, including the Stations of the Cross and with different engravings, reverse images of those in this edition, and without captions. A copy of this edition of the Creutzweg is in Göttingen (VD18 90454170).
Zeven Spelen van die Wercken der Bermherticheyd. In rijm ghemaeckt

Zeven Spelen van die Wercken der Bermherticheyd. In rijm ghemaeckt, en nu tot Aemstelredam opentlijck ghespeelt, Anno 1591

EGELANTIER - Amsterdam: Herman Jansz. Muller, 1591. 8vo (143 x 95 mm). Collation: A-T8 (T8 blank). [302] pp. Text in gothic types, stage directions and lists of actors in italic. Title woodcut of a family meal, six text woodcuts of which 5 half-page and one smaller. Wormtrack in gutter of first few leaves, dampstaining to foremargins and lower corners, a fewer quires with larger dampstain. 17th-century stiff parchment, manuscript spine title. Provenance: "Herman Lamberts Bellaer, A[nn]o 1685," signature on front flyleaf ((Bellaer was a notary in Weesp, North Holland, from 1656 to 1658); "no. 38" written on title; sheet of 20th-century paper with note tipped in at front. *** only edition of an anonymous vernacular play collection, a late survival of a popular medieval performance tradition. These seven plays in Dutch verse dramatize the seven Works of Mercy (from Matthew 35:35-46). They were written and performed in the open air on seven consecutive Sundays, by the amateur Amsterdam literary and theatrical confraternity or "chamber of rhetoric," known as de Egelantier (eglantine or wild rose), allegedly in order to encourage the citizens of Amsterdam to participate in a lottery for the benefit of the Amsterdam insane asylum (Poll, p. 113). By the early sixteenth century, every town and many villages of the Low Countries possessed their own "college" or chamber of rhetoric; these were literary confraternities whose origin lay in medieval French-speaking theater groups of Flanders and Brabant, which performed mystery and miracle plays. Endowed with corporate structures, emblematic names (often flowers), and their own blazons and regalia, the chambers of rhetoric became a central cultural institution of Netherlandish life. After the Reformed church came to power in the northern provinces in 1581, it attempted to halt public performances of religious plays, and even to suppress the chambers altogether, but largely failed, the chambers especially of larger towns usually retaining the support of local authorities. Hence one finds such "throwbacks" as the present series of religious plays. A peculiar (to the modern reader) mixture of traditional farce and didactic allegory, it is typical of rhetoricians' plays, which were usually "absolutely middle-class in tone, and opposed to aristocratic ideas and tendencies in thought" (EB 1911, 8:721), with simple, dramatic plots that were secondary to their educational value. In each play of the present collection an allegorical figure (with a name like "Good Education" or "Brother Love") knocks on the door of the house of a different stock character - a burgher, an artisan, a farmer, etc. - asking to be fed, or clothed, or given shelter. While these tradesmen comply, a selfish character named "Most of the World" invariably rejects the stranger. Each play has a prologue and an epilogue that provides the moral of the story, explaining that the stranger, the naked, the hungry, the thirsty, etc. are all Christ on the Cross (cf. Kalff, pp. 54-55). Although founded later than many others, at the end of the 15th century, Amsterdam's de Eglantier was the most prominent Chamber of Rhetoric in the northern Netherlands. Its prestige was enhanced by the infusion of humanist writers and writers from the southern Netherlands who emigrated to the north during the religious wars. The Zeven Spelen is unique in containing the productions of a single city's Rhetorical Chamber: all other known Renaissance Dutch rhetoricians' collections contain the productions of several different towns, performed in elaborate literary competitions known as landjuweelen. Five of the six simple but charming woodcuts illustrating this edition, in a consistent style and apparently by the same wood-engraver (the printer?), show scenes from daily life: a family dining as a servant brings a platter and a mother feeds her baby; a vintner sitting cross-legged on a wine barrel in a medieval square, pouring a welcome drink to a pair of wanderers (while a neighbor quaffs behind him); naked men being clothed, a prisoner in a stockade; a sickbed, with a woman stirring gruel. The final play is illustrated with a smaller cut of the Last Judgment, probably from the printer's stock. The printer Harmen (or Herman) Jansz Muller (ca. 1540-1617), was also a well-known engraver, from a family of engraver-printers. It is possible that the title woodcut and the five larger cuts were his own work (cf. Thieme-Becker 25:230, who suggested as much). OCLC locates 5 copies in American libraries (Folger, Newberry, National Gallery of Art, Harvard, and U. Michigan). STCN 844000841; E. W. Moes, De Amsterdamsche boekdrukkers en uitgevers in de zestiende eeuw (1900-1915), I, p. 315, no. 223; Univ. of Amsterdam Library, Catalogus van oudere werken op het gebied der Nederlandsche letteren (1921) no. 6; Scheepers collection (Catalogus van een zeer belangrijke verzameling fraaie en zeldzame boeken der 16e-19e eeuw, 1947) I:66. Cf. G. Kalff, Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche letterkunde in de 16de eeuw, part 2 (1889), pp. 25 & 48-55; Klaas Poll, Over de tooneelspelen van den Leidschen rederijker Jacob Duym (1898), p. 113-14; A. van Dixhoorn, "Chambers of Rhetoric: performative culture and literary sociability in the Early Modern Northern Netherlands," in The Reach of the Republic of Letters: Literary and Learned Societies in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe (2008), 119-148.