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Ποιησεις Ομηρου [ ] Opus utrumque Homeri Iliados et Odysseae.

HOMER. Small folio. 2 parts in 1, separate t-ps, pp. (xx) 394 [i.e., 410] (ii), 314 (ii). Greek letter, occasional Roman, mostly double column. Woodcut printer’s device to t-ps and versos of last, additional engraved portrait of J. Camerarius by P. Galle (late C16) mounted on ffep decorated initials. A handful of gatherings lightly browned, slight marginal foxing, light water stain to upper outer blank corner, another to lower outer blank corner of second half, small ink splash to outer blank margin of e 6 , edges slightly trimmed touching a few marginalia. A good copy in C18 sheep, modern reback, boards worn with some loss. C19 booklabel of John McAllister, C18 bookplate of Bell’s Circulating Library and modern auction record to front pastedown, intermittent C16 Greek and Latin marginalia in red or black ink, ex-libris of Jacob Feilitscher, Jenensis, 1554, and C16 inscription on Greek language to second t-p. Annotated copy, extra-illustrated with a handsome author’s portrait by P. Galle, of the Greek text of Homer’s ‘Iliad’ and ‘Odyssey’. It sought to improve on the Hervagius edition of 1535, which had a critical apparatus based on the ‘scholia’ of Didymus of Alexandria (now believed to date much later). The German humanists Joachim Camerarius (1500-74) and Jakob Micyllus (1503-58), also the authors of Homeric commentaries, revised the 1541 edition and added further material to the Greek-only ‘scholia’ surrounding the text. This copy sheds light on the teaching of Greek at Jena in the mid-C16. The annotator was Jacob Feilitzscher, registered as a student at the Protestant Academy of Jena (from 1558, a university) in 1548, the year of its foundation (‘Matrikel’, 99). In 1554, he was studying Greek under the Lutheran humanist and former student of Melanchthon, Michael Neander (1529-81), who, after moving from Wittenberg, taught Greek and mathematics at Jena in 1551-72. Neander compiled a ‘Gnomologia Graecolatina’, a collection of ‘sententiae’ in Latin and Greek by major classical authors. Feilitzscher noted a quotation by Neander on the ‘Odyssey’ t-p, on Homer’s use of the Ionic dialect. In the notes, philology is preeminent, with attention to variants, some not listed in the surrounding commentary, as well as Greek synonyms or Latin translations. Feilitzscher noted rhetorical figures (e.g., ‘hysteron proteron’), classical quotations by Ovid, Virgil and Quintilian. In Book 2 of the ‘Iliad’, he glossed ‘the same with the civil wars in Germany’. He also highlighted and annotated scenes with ‘THERSITES’, as well as references to Aristotle’s discussion of Homer in his ‘Poetics’, and to Virgil. In Book 3, he highlighted Hector’s berating of Paris as ‘mad after women’, a ‘beguiler’ who ‘should never have been born’, and added numerous glosses to the subsequent section on the preparation for the battle, Priam’s dialogue with Helen and her dialogue with Paris after his return from the battle. On the passage describing Helen’s appearance on the walls of Troy, he glossed ‘fair among women’ with ‘Maria’, a reference to the Virgin Mary. In Book 4, he highlighted, with an observation on the Homeric relation between human faults and the gods’ will, Athena’s trick on the Trojan Pandarus, as she convinces him to shoot an arrow against Menelaus and thus undo the truce. Feilitzscher added one gloss to the ‘Odyssey’, underlining what Homer presented as the best treatment of guests and strangers, in Book 15. Hoffman II, 316; Brunet III, 271; Dibdin II, 50 (footnote). Die Matrikel der Universität Jena. Band I (1944); ‘Michael Neander’, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie 23 (1886), S.340. L3285
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De privilegiis parentum et liberorum.

ENNENKEL, Georgius Acacius. FIRST EDITION. Small 4to. pp. (viii) 1018 (l), lacking F 4 (blank) as often. Roman letter, some Italic. Woodcut initials and ornaments. Browned in a few places, small paper flaws to text of 4Q 4 with no loss. A good, clean copy in contemporary (probably Austrian) deerskin, wanting ties, blind-tooling decorated in silver (mostly oxidised), double blind ruled, blind-stamped fleurons to corners, centrepiece with arms of Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, as Archduke of Austria to upper cover and those of Lower Austria (appropriated by the Habsburgs in the C14) impaled with those of the Duchy of Austria to lower cover, raised bands, blind-tooled rosettes to three compartments, old shelfmark label at foot of spine, a.e.g., extremities a bit rubbed, with tiny loss at foot, spine and upper joint cracked but firm. A good, clean copy, of excellent provenance, of the first edition of this interesting legal work on Roman and civil law regulating the relationship between parents and children—perhaps the earliest separate treatment of this subject. This copy appears to have been in the library of the Austrian archdukes—quite possibly a presentation; the work is dedicated to Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria. Georgius Acacius Ennenkel (1573-1620), Baron von Hoheneck, an Austrian Protestant aristocrat, studied classics and philosophy at Strasbourg and Tübingen. He married the daughter of Christoph Freiherr von Althann, president of the Exchequer of the Austrian empire. Ennenkel calls the parents-children relationship ‘the closest and strongest of all human ties and contracts’. He begins with an introduction to the meaning of ‘parent’ and ‘child’ according to Roman and civil right, with the help of authorities like Baldus de Ubaldis. He comments on dozens of particular circumstances, e.g., that a ‘contemptuous and impious’ father should legally be considered a father nevertheless; the cases in which the mother is Jewish or another relative has acted ‘in loco parentis’; that a baby ‘who died during delivery’ should not be considered legally a son or daughter, as well as any child struck by supernatural monstrosities or portents. The second section is an historical overview of laws among the Romans, Greek and Jews, touching on the murder of children and the extent of parental authority. The following discuss dozens of legal topics, such as ‘pietas’ between parents and children; the rights and duties of fathers (e.g., their authority, their right to take revenge (e.g., killing an adulterous daughter); in case of ‘frightful events’ children are not compelled to obey their fathers, what happens after a father’s death); the necessity of parental consent for marriages; their obligations in terms of sustenance to their children; and inheritance. A scarce and fascinating reference work for the history of children and the family. Only Berkeley, LC and Princeton copies recorded in the US. BL STC Ger. C17 E339. L3362
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Miqnē Avram: Peculium Abrae. Grammatica Hebraea.

BALMES, Abraham de. FIRST EDITION. Small 4to. pp. [315], lacking final blank. Hebrew letter, with Roman, little Assyrian. Decorated initials. Upper outer blank corner of t-p repaired affecting few ll. of the dedicatee’s name on verso, next three ll. a bit oil or ink stained in places, lower outer edge of a 3 a bit chewed, small scattered worm holes and oil staining to final gatherings, former marginal, latter mostly, couple of ll. browned. A good copy in mid-C19 sprinkled sheep, spine gilt, gilt-lettered morocco label, a.e.r., a little loss in places, tiny scattered worm holes at head and foot of spine. Small modern Hebrew stamp to lower blank margin of t-p verso, s 2 and last, late C16 inscription ‘Fr. Alex[ander] Longus Inquisitor Montisregalis concessit isti Die 24 octobris’. A good copy of the first edition of this important Hebrew grammar for Christian scholars, printed by the most important printer of Hebrew books in Italy. Abraham de Balmes (d.1523) studied at Naples, whence he fled to Venice probably in 1510, when the Jews were expelled from the Spanish territories. In Padua, he was the personal physician of Cardinal Grimani; in Venice, he acquired a solid reputation as a linguist and translator of Hebrew philosophical texts. The Flemish turned-Venetian Daniel Bomberg (1483-1549)—the first printer in Venice and first Christian printer of Hebrew books—employed de Balmes in 1523 as one of his talented editors (Amram, ‘Makers’, 169-70). He asked him to write a Hebrew grammar, published posthumously, in order to facilitate the learning of Hebrew for Christian scholars, encouraging them to undertake the quest for the Hebrew original (not the translation for the Greek) of the New Testament, the discovery of which would ‘make your name immortal’. Balmes’s original approach to Hebrew grammar was imbued with philosophical discussion, including Aristotelian logic, Plato and the Kabbalah, outlined in Chapter 1. Organised into Hebrew sections followed by their literal Latin translation, it discusses the definition of Hebrew grammar, the alphabet and phonetics, and its various elements. The seventh chapter is an early attempt to analyse Hebrew syntax on the basis of logic and use, and the eighth—partly composed and translated by Calos Calonimos—discusses biblical prosody and accents. The partial lack of success was due to its ambivalent character as ‘a preparatory work to the reading of a “ghost” text, a Hebrew New Testament not yet available’ and ‘the experimental revision of the logical premises of the Hebrew grammatical tradition’ (Campanini, ‘Grammatica’, 19). Friar Alexander Longus is recorded as censor of Hebrew books in 1590, in Monreale, a small bishopric near Asti, in Southern Piedmont (Popper, ‘Censorship’, 135). In 1591 the Holy Office decided that ‘no Christian should in the future be allowed to undertake censorship; Jews should expurgate their own books, and then, if at any time one should be found not properly corrected, its owner should be severely punished’ (Popper, ‘Censorship’, 72-3). In Piedmont, Inquisitors continued to check recent publications and personal libraries until at least 1593. Being a work on grammar, this copy was ‘allowed’ (‘concessit’). Steinschneider, Cat. librorum hebraeorum, 1576, 6067/1; Steinschneider, Bibliographisches Handbuch, 164.2; Habermann, Bomberg, 76; BM STC It., p.2; Heller, 16-Century Hebrew Book, pp.164-5. D.W. Amram, The Makers of Hebrew Books in Italy (1909); S. Campanini, ‘Peculium Abrae. La grammatica ebraico-latina di Avraham De Balmes’, Annali di Ca’Foscari, 26 (1997), 5-49; W. Popper, The Censorship of Hebrew Books (1899). L2946
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Chaldaica Grammatica. [with] Dictionarium Chaldaicum.

MÜNSTER, Sebastian.] FIRST EDITIONS. Small 4to, 2 works in 1, pp. (viii) 212 (iv); (viii) 434 (ii). Roman and Hebrew letter, little Ge’ez. Woodcut architectural t-p with putti and grotesques to second, woodcut printer’s device to verso of last of both, decorated initials (a handful hand-coloured). Slight browning, light water stain to upper and outer blank margin of first and last few gatherings, I: fore-edge a bit chewed, small worm hole to upper outer blank corner of first few gatherings. Good copies in contemporary Swiss or German pigskin over bevelled wooden boards, rebacked, remains of spine replaced, brass clasps, double blind ruled to a panel design, outer border with blind roll with Jacob’s ladder, Abraham and Isaac, and Christ trampling the Devil, second border blind-stamped rosettes and ivy leaves, centre panel with blind rolls with female figures of Lucretia, Prudencia. Rubbed, minor loss to lower outer corners. C16 faded Italian autograph and Hebrew inscriptions to front pastedown, small armorial stamp and inscription mostly erased from t-p, occasional C16 Latin or Aramaic annotations. An Augsburg binding from the workshop of Caspar Horneffer (Haebler, I, 168-168), who signed the figure of Lucretia with C.H. (EBDB r003142). The outer border shows handsomely portrayed scenes of Christ trampling the Devil, Abraham and Isaac, and the unusual subject of Jacob’s ladder. First editions of the first Aramaic grammar and dictionary by a Christian scholar (with references to Ethiopic). By Sebastian Münster—‘the founder of the field of study of Aramaic in Germany’ (McLean, ‘Cosmographia’, 18)—they were superbly produced by one of the most intellectual early printers, the Swiss Johann Froben (1460-1527). The initials and the handsome woodcut t-p of ‘Dictionarium’ were designed by Hans Holbein the Younger, employed by Froben. Most renowned for his ‘Cosmographia’ (1544), Sebastian Münster (1488-1552) was a cartographer and Hebraist at Basle, being the first Christian scholar to produce an edition of the Hebrew Bible. He conceived his ‘Grammatica’ after learning Aramaic as a language that could shed greater light on Hebrew as well as on the interpretation of biblical texts, like the books of Daniel and Ezra, which had largely survived in Aramaic. He proceeded by making the reader familiar with Aramaic by degrees, highlighting the number of words of Greek origin, Aramaic words in the Scriptures, and comparisons between the ‘lingua Saracenica’, ‘lingua Indiana’ (Ethiopic, in Ge’ez type), Hebrew, Aramaic and Latin. After discussing Aramaic letters, numbers, nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc., it provides a few Targum texts, ‘Jewish translations of the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic [ ] used [ ] primarily as a means to teach Aramaic in the Jewish education system’ (van Staalduine-Sulman, ‘Introduction’, 1). The ‘Dictionarium’ was dedicated to St John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, a great promoter of Hebrew studies at Cambridge, later executed by Henry VIII and canonised. It includes words encountered by Münster in the course of his studies, and considered important for the study of this sacred language, from verbs to the word for ‘dates that are still unripe’, with additional explanations. The learned annotator of this ‘Grammatica’ was acquainted with Ethiopic, as he mentioned Johannes Potken’s misidentification of Ethiopian as Chaldean in his ‘Alphabetus’; he also provided the Aramaic transcription of a few Latin words. I: Panzer, VI, 258, n.654; Steinschneider, Bibl. Hand., 1377; BM STC Ger., p.632; Burmeister, Sebastian Münster, 3. II: Burmeister, Sebastian Münster, pp. 92-93, n.4.4; Burmeister, Sebastian Münster Bibl., n. 23 Fürst, Bibliotheca Judaica, II:408; BM STC Ger., p.633; BM Hebrew, p.598; Panzer, VI, 258, n.653; Steinschneider, Bibl. Hand., 1385. M. McLean, The Cosmographia of Sebastian Münster (Aldershot, 2007); E. van Staalduine-Sulman, Justifying Christian Aramaism (Leiden, 2017). L2948
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Quaestiones super quatuor libros Sententiarum Petri Lombardi.

HOLKOT, Robert. FIRST EDITION. Small folio. 178 unnumbered ff., 8 8 a-n 8 o 10 A 8 B 6 C-H 8 I 10 . Gothic letter, double column. Woodcut printer’s device to last. A little marginal soiling to t-p and last, small clean tear from upper edge of t-p repaired, occasional slight toning, small light water stain to lower or upper blank margin of a handful of ll., smudge to lower blank margin of l 3-4 . A very good copy, on thick paper, in contemporary Flemish calf over wooden boards, rebacked with original spine onlaid, traces of C14 rubricated vellum ms. used as front pastedown, another (with genealogical diagram visible to verso) preserved at rear, quadruple blind ruled to a panel design, outer border with blind-stamped half-lozenges with grapes and bearded faces to corners, second border with blind-stamped tendrils and fleurons to corners, centre panel cross-hatched in blind with quadruple ruling, fleurons within lozenges and half-lozenges in blind, raised bands, spine blind ruled, corners repaired, couple of minor scratches to upper board. Early symbols to upper and lower margin, C19 bibliographical note, contemporary ex-libris Ghysbertus Konrardi(?) and C16 purchase note ‘Frater Joannes de la Vega emit hunc liber frater (?) cumdi(?), die’ (partly erased) to t-p, the odd C15 marginalia, C15 inscriptions (one with recipe of white wine from berries to treat constipation) and traces of ms. genealogical diagram (arbor consanguinitatis?) to rear pastedown. In a charming contemporary Flemish binding, with an uncommon tool of blind-stamped bearded faces—probably green men. It bears the same design as Petrus de Palude’s ‘In quattuor sententiarum’ (Venice, 1495), now BMawrCL f.P-502 (Scott Husby Database). The latter comes from the Franciscan monastery of Louvain, though the binding was probably made in the town. ‘The binderies of the university town of Louvain produced some interesting bindings as early as the last quarter of the C15, but owing to the large scale destruction of the Louvain archives in WWI, there will be, unfortunately, no further possibility of identifying bindings from this source’ (Diehl, ‘Bookbinding’, 132). Ghysbertus Konrardi was probably the same recorded as a student from Leiden at Louvain in 1475 (see ‘Matricules - Ancienne Université de Louvain’). The copy was later purchased by the Spanish friar Juan de la Vega, who enrolled as a student in 1549 (Cole, ‘Studentenmobiliteit’, 151). This major work of Scholastic philosophy was the standard theology textbook of the middle ages. The English Dominican Robert Holkot (or Holcot, c.1290-1349) was a renowned philosopher and biblical exegete, professor of theology at Oxford and follower of William of Ockham’s scholasticism. His commentary on Peter Lombard’s (1096-1160) ‘Libri Quattuor Sententiarum’ has survived in a greater number of mss than the commentary by William of Ockham. A collection of statements on the Scriptures by acknowledged authorities, the ‘Sentences’ discussed the Trinity, the Creation, the incarnation of the word, and the doctrine of signs, touching on the sacraments, demons, sin and human will. This first edition was produced, from numerous, often imperfect manuscripts, by the famous scholar and printer Jodocus Badius Ascensius (1462-1535), editor and proofreader for Jean Trechsel in Lyon, in 1492-98. Goff H287; HC 8763*; BMC VIII 300; GW 12890. E. Diehl, Bookbinding: Its Background and Technique (New York, 1980); T. Cole, Studentenmobiliteit tussen de Nederlanden en het Iberisch Schiereiland (Ghent University, 1996). L3079
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Sacri Flores binis, ternis et quaternis vocibus Cantus [with] Hortus Marianus.Cantus

LEONI, Leone. [with] BURGH, Cornelius. FIRST EDITION of second. 2 vols, small 4to. pp. (ii) 26; (iv) 28 (iv). Roman letter, musical notation. T-ps within typographical borders, with woodcut printer’s device, printed oval centrepiece with interlacing ribbons and tendrils to last of second work, decorated white-on-black initials and ornaments. Mostly light browning, I: light water stain to upper outer corner of first few ll., light marginal see-through from adhesive of original binding at end, II: light marginal spotting to a few ll. Good copies, in C18 marbled wrappers, rubbed. Two very scarce Italian music scores, printed in Flanders. Petrus Phalesius the Younger (1545-1629) was the second of a family of Flemish music printers and booksellers. They contributed to the diffusion of Italian music in the Netherlands, publishing scores by major authors like Monteverdi and Frescobaldi. Very near the status of ephemeral publications, they are here in remarkable condition. Leone Leoni (1560-1627) was ‘maestro di cappella’ at Vicenza Cathedral, and the author of madrigals, motets for antiphonal choirs, and sundry liturgical music. The collection ‘Sacri Flores’ was first published as ‘Sacri Fiori’ in Venice in 1606. It features 8 motets for two voices, 7 for three, and 6 for four (bassi, alti, canti, tenores, and trombones), with a score devised to be easy for organists. ‘The technique of writing for small groups of voices quickly became a major compositional tool which spread throughout Europe [ ] Their earliest examples [which Leoni reprises] effectively reduced the number of lines in music still conceived contrapuntally, and used the organ to complete the harmony’ (‘Cambridge History’, 308). The second work was inspired by this tradition. Cornelius Burgh (1590-1639) was a German jurist. In 1616-18, organist at the Benedictine monastery of Mönchengladbach, and later at the parish church of St Lambertus in Erkelenz. Inspired by the style of Monteverdi, he composed mostly liturgical music. ‘Hortus Marianus’ is a collection of 25 sacred concerts, each in four parts, only using Marian texts. In four voices, the pieces were adapted ‘for all kinds of singers and instruments’, and all include bass, single or double. The early owner in this case was most probably a woman as ‘cantus’ corresponds, more or less, to the modern soprano.  I: No copies recorded in the US; only three copies recorded in the UK (BL, Manchester and Oxford). Cat. of Printed Music Pre-1801 at Christ Church, Oxford, p.38. II: No copies recorded in the US; only three recorded in the UK (BL, Manchester and Oxford). Cat. of Printed Music Pre-1801 at Christ Church, Oxford, p.9. The Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Music (2014). L3365
In epistolas Ciceronis ad Atticum commentarius

In epistolas Ciceronis ad Atticum commentarius

MANUZIO, Paolo 8vo, ff. [4], 432. Roman letter, little Italic and Greek; printer’s device on title; minor wormtrail at blank foot of first gathering, light small rustspots to a few leaves, ink smear to lower corner of ff. 243v-244r. A very good copy in contemporary Leipzig alum-tawed pigskin (Einbanddatenbank, w000428 ), blind-tooled with triple-fillet border, external roll of Biblical figures (Moses, David, John the Baptist and Christ bearing the cross) amid floral decoration and central roll of palmette with three flowers on top and bottom; contemporary title inked on spine alongside early ms shelfmark and title on paper labels slightly rubbed, a few small wormholes, corners lightly chipped; contemporary inscription ‘Sum ex libris Claudij Simonet’ on front endpaper recto, ex libris of an Augustinian convent in early seventeenth-century hand on title and an earlier one trimmed at foot; blue ink stamp of ‘Hermann Funke’ on verso of title. Aldine edition of an important Renaissance commentary on Cicero’s most famous epistolary collection, first published in 1547. Paolo Manuzio (1512-1574) was one of the most prominent humanists of the late Italian Renaissance. The youngest son of Aldus, he was a very influential scholar and publisher in his own right, living up to the family tradition. A master of the epistolary genre with very successful collections both in Latin and vernacular, he was especially engaged, as a scholar, in Latin literature. His commentaries on the works of Cicero and his polished Latin prose won him long-lasting fame throughout Europe. Under his management, the Aldine press flourished once again, after the dark times of the early 1530s. He also acted as the official printer to the Academia Venetiana between 1558 and 1561, while in the following nine years he ran the first papal press in Rome. Cicero’s letters to his friend Atticus, written from 68 to 44 BC and traditionally arranged in 16 books, provide an unparalleled insight not only into the author’s daily life and always provoking thoughts, but also into the decades preceding the fall of the Roman Republic. BM STC It., 413; Adams, M 460; Brunet, III, 1383; Graesse, IV, 375 ; Renouard, 171:9. L2293b
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Algunos motivos y razones que ay, para favorecer los seminarios ingleses

SEMINARIO JESUITA DE SEVILLA] 8vo. 4 unnumbered leaves. Roman and Italic letter, printed notes, drop-title with large woodcut initial. Margins restored in places affecting last line of text, 12 line early ms. note at the end, faded but largely legible. Light age yellowing. Generally good, in modern boards. No other surviving copies are known. The pamphlet provides a valuable evidence of the special relationship between English Catholics and the Spanish monarchy, which led to the establishment of three English Catholic colleges in Spain: San Alban in Valladolid, San Jorge in Madrid and San Gregorio in Seville. St. Gregory’s College was founded by the English Jesuit Robert Persons (1546 – 1610) in 1592 and devoted to St. Gregory the Great, apostle of England, famous for the dictum non angli sed angeli and for his dispatch of a mission to England. According to Martin Murphy (Ingleses en Seville. El Collegio de San Gregorio, 1592-1767, Seville, 2012), for most of its existence St. Gregory’s College struggled with financial problems and low student numbers, until absorbed by the Royal English College of San Alban in Valladolid, after the suppression of the Society of Jesus. Despite this it was one of the best known cultural centres within the Jesuit organisational structure, providing full education and training for future missionaries, when England was already detached from the Catholic Church. During a solemn ceremony, the alumni vowed to return to England as Catholic priests. The pamphlet shows the place of the English Catholic colleges in the political strategy of the Spanish monarchy, from their foundation under Philip II onwards. The text is divided into four chapters – the last one dedicated to “motivos particulares para favorecer este seminario inglés de Sevilla”. After a general introduction praising the glorious work of the English seminaries in Spain and giving a short history of their foundation, each of the four chapters puts forward different reasons why they should be supported by the Spanish crown. The first chapter, entitled “motivos de piedad”, refers to the common issue of the “limosina temporale”, pointing out that the spiritual faith of England depends on the material survival of these English Catholic colleges. For this reason, funds are necessary to repair Jesus’ temples and honour the sacrifice of those English Catholics persecuted in England from the origin of Church until the heretical reigns of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. Furthermore, the text especially highlights the talent and purity of the colleges students, who are excellent in rhetoric, poetry, Greek language, arts, theology, singing. The second and third chapters, concerning “motivos de la nobleza Christiana” and “motivos de utilidad temporal”, explain that the English Catholic colleges always testified to the spiritual nobility of Spain. They defended the faith of Spain against the heretics of England, welcoming English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish exiles – persecuted for their anti-Protestant ideas – and commemorating the exploits of saints and apostles (St Gregory the Great, Saint Augustine, etc.) through their task of evangelisation. Eventually, the fourth chapter focuses on St. Gregory’s college history which stands out for its excellence and virtue among other good Jesuit institutions. By giving an overview of the financial difficulties, the chapter especially aims at emphasising the necessity of supporting the college which always lived on charity, and without any economic means. Not in USTC. Not in Goldsmith. Palau, I, p. 211. L2395
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Pedacii Dioscoridae Anazarbei de Medica materia libri sex.

DIOSCORIDES Folio. ff. (x) 352. Roman letter, some Greek. Title in red and black, woodcut printer’s device to recto of last. T-p a bit thumbed, small faint purplish stain and little fraying to lower inner corner of first and last gathering, occasional slight marginal waterstaining, and minor marginal foxing. A very good copy, on thick paper, in contemporary northern Italian calf over pasteboards, lacking ties, triple blind tooled to a panel design, second border with dotted ropework, centre panel with rhombus-shaped floral centre- and cornerpieces. Spine in four compartments with double blind tooled hatching, early paper label with title at head, some rubbing, minor loss to covers and at foot of spine. A handsome copy of this fundamental ancient Greek work on herbal medicine—the first pharmacopoeia—which influenced Western medical practice until the C19. The work had been circulating in Latin (as well as Greek and Arabic) throughout the medieval period, never falling into oblivion. It was first printed by Filippo Giunta in 1518, in a Latin translation and commentary by the Florentine humanist and Medici chancellor Marcello Virgilio Adriani (1464-1521), of which this is the second edition. Born in Cilicia, Discorides (40-90AD) was a Greek physician at the service of the Roman army and an expert botanist. A compendium of medical knowledge which rivalled Hippocrates’s and Oribasius’s works, ‘De Materia medica’ discusses the properties and medical uses of hundreds of herbs all typical of the eastern Mediterranean region, often providing their names in other languages like Thracian, ancient Egyptian or Carthaginian. Its five parts cover a variety of topics including not only aromatic or culinary herbs and plants (e.g., cardamom, cinnamon, liquorice and valerian) but also cereals, fruit, roots, seeds and even minerals from which ointments, drinks or balms can be made. The short sections discuss the name, origins, physical characteristics and medical uses of each; room is also devoted to specific conditions, their symptoms and the best practice and medicaments to treat them. To the bite of adders, vipers and basilisks, for instance, is devoted a long section which explains how to intervene in case of emergency and how to prepare and use life-saving pharmacopoeia including cedar juice, bitumen and green ‘pilulae’ made from plane trees cooked in diluted wine. Four copies recorded in the US. USTC 827007; BM STC It., p. 218; NLM 1142. Not in Wellcome or Bibliotheca Osleriana. L2872
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Epistolae, et praefationes

MANUZIO, Paolo FIRST EDITION. 8vo, ff. [12], 148 [i.e. 142]. Predominantly Italic letter, little Roman. Large printer’s device on title, hand-coloured by contemporary hand; title slightly dusty; light, mainly marginal waterstains, with a few wormholes to upper gutter of first gathering, small stain to f. 91. A good copy in contemporary limp vellum, contemporary title inked along spine and lower edge; minor light stains and loss to front cover; nearly contemporary inscription ‘Verde Brasca’ (probably the Verdebrasca of Milan) on front endpaper, title and rear pastedown. First edition of one of the most influential Neo-Latin collections in early modern Europe. Paolo Manuzio (1512-1574) was a prominent humanist of the late Italian Renaissance. The youngest son of Aldus, he was a very influential scholar and publisher in his own right, living up to the family tradition. A master of the epistolary genre with very successful collections both in Latin and vernacular, he was especially engaged, as a scholar, in Latin literature. His commentaries on the works of Cicero and his polished Latin prose won him long-lasting fame throughout Europe. Under his management, the Aldine press flourished once again, after the dark times of the early 1530s. He also acted as the official printer to the Academia Venetiana between 1558 and 1561, while in the following nine years he ran the first papal press in Rome. This collection comprises several letters and prefaces written by Paolo to the Gotha of the political, religious and academic establishment of mid-sixteenth-century Italy. The work kept growing over the following 15 years until it included 12 books. However, some self-censorship took place in order to cope with the Indexes of forbidden books issued by Paul IV in 1559 and the Tridentine Council in 1564, so that a few letters appear here for the first, and only, time in their original form. As Renouard sarcastically glossed, Paolo claimed in the initial dedicatory letter that he decided to publish the present collection because of pressure from his fellow members of the Venetian Academy. BM STC It., 413; Adams, M 483; Brunet, III, 1383; Graesse, IV, 375; Renouard, 271:9. L2279
Delle navigationi et viaggi Volume primo. (with) Delle navigationi et viaggio Volume secondo. (with) Delle navigationi et viaggi Volume terzo.

Delle navigationi et viaggi Volume primo. (with) Delle navigationi et viaggio Volume secondo. (with) Delle navigationi et viaggi Volume terzo.

RAMUSIO, Giovanni Battista Folio. 3 vols. ff. I) (iv) 394; II) 256, 90; III) (iv) 430. Roman letter, with Italic. Woodcut printer’s device to t-ps and last of II) and III), over 40 woodcut illustrations of inhabitants, flora and fauna of Asia, Africa and America, 12 woodcut or copperplate maps (10 fold-out including Brazil, Cuzco and Sumatra), decorated initials. Slight mainly marginal foxing or faint dampstaining, little light age browning, the odd thumb or ink mark. Very good copies, on thick paper and of fine impression, in early vellum over pasteboards, rebacked and recornered c1900, traces of ties, gilt lettered morocco label. Remarkably crisp and clean copies of one of the most important collections of voyages and discoveries, beautifully illustrated. As here, most recorded sets are composed of different editions and those like this featuring the most complete editions of each of the individual volumes are rare. 1583 is the first complete (and augmented) edition of vol. 2, and 1606 and 1613 the only complete ones of vols. 1 and 3 (Brunet, IV, 1100-1101), adding for example the travels of Barents and Federici for the first time. Born in Treviso, Giovanni Battista Ramusio (1485-1557) worked as secretary and envoy to Alvise Mocenigo, having access to the latest information on expeditions and travels of exploration reaching Venice from abroad. First published by Ludovico Giunta in three separate volumes between 1550 and 1565, ‘Delle navigationi’ was a collection of the first-hand Portuguese, Spanish, Greek, Dutch (all translated in the Italian vernacular) and Italian accounts of voyages to Asia, Africa and America published up to that time, illustrated with bespoke maps—the first work of its kind. The first volume is mainly devoted to ‘countries which have been known for 300 years’, e.g., from Africa (and the kingdom of Prester John) to the Eastern Indies. The second features the accounts of Marco Polo on the Tartars and China (with the first mention of tea in Europe), as well as notices on Persia, Armenia and Paolo Giovio’s ground-breaking work on Muscovy. The third is devoted to the world ‘unknown to the ancients’—Columbus’s navigations, Cortéz and Pizarro’s expeditions, and notices on Mexico, Peru and other American kingdoms. In addition to engaging information on local flora, fauna, politics and customs, ‘Delle navigationi’ provided accurate topographical information through handsome and innovative fold-out woodcut and copperplate maps illustrating Cuzco in Peru, Nuova Francia (Newfoundland)—the second separate map of Northeast America—with the colony of Montreal (the earliest printed such topographical plan for North America), Brazil, Sumatra (the first map of any island in South-Eastern Asia), Eastern Africa, one of the most complete maps of the Western Hemisphere, and a plan of the Mexican city of Temistitan. Through their re-prints of 1606 and 1613, the Giunta capitalised on the continuing commercial success of collections of travel writings epitomised by Richard Hakluyt’s ‘Principal Navigations’ (1589), the original model of which was, as it were, Ramusio’s work. I) USTC 851974; BL STC It. C17, p. 720; Cordier III, 1939 (first edition only); Brunet, IV, 1100-1101; Sabin 67735; Alden 613/108. II) USTC 851974; Cordier III, 1939 (first edition only); Brunet, IV, 1100-1101; Sabin 67738; Alden 583/59. III) USTC 4035955; Cordier III, 1939 (first edition only); Brunet, IV, 1100-1101; Sabin 67739; Alden 606/87. K128
Tratado de la religion y virtudes que deue tener el principe christiano.

Tratado de la religion y virtudes que deue tener el principe christiano.

RIBADENEYRA, Pedro de 8vo. pp. 437 (ix). Roman letter, with Italic. Society of Jesus device to t-p, small engraved arms of Navarre pasted at end of ‘privilege’, printer’s woodcut compass device to last. Light age browning, the odd small ink spot, a good copy in slightly later mottled calf, arms of the marquis Josep de Margarit i de Biure gilt to covers, edges speckled red. Rebacked, gilt spine, expertly remounted, minor repair to corners. The odd early annotation. The gilt arms belong to the Catalan patriot Josep de Margarit i de Biure (1602-85), member of a baronial family from Girona. Josep fought as a general of the Catalan army siding with the French against Spanish aggression into Catalan territory. For his support, he was appointed governor of Catalonia by Louis XIII. In particular, he played a major part in the Catalan ‘revolta dels Segadors’ (1640-52) which concluded with the capitulation of Barcelona to Spain after a dramatic siege. As a reward for his courage, his Aguilar estate was turned into a marquisate by Louis XIV. Josep spent the last years of his life in exile in Perpignan where he continued to defend Catalan identity in Roussillon, annexed to France with the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659). The bearing of the arms of Catalonia, Navarre and Aragon-Sicily had been granted by King Juan II to Josep’s C15 ancestor, the bishop Juan Margarit, as a reward for his defence of the city of Girona. The C17 annotator of this copy interested in the long ‘letter to the Christian reader’ may have been Josep de Margarit himself. In a section discussing the reasons why a prince might want to continue a war through violence or political pressure, he highlighted a passage stating that ‘in order to destroy any city or province without a war, there is nothing like presenting them as places full of sin and vice, and to persuade [his subjects] that past injuries are never forgotten, despite the benefits received’. Very good, clean, well-margined copy of this intriguing anti-Machiavellian Jesuit work in Castilian. This is the fourth edition published by the Antwerp printer Jan Moretus, who held the royal privilege for some of the most successful liturgical works of the Counter- Reformation. Born and raised in Toledo, Pedro de Ribadeneyra (1527-1611) was admitted to the Jesuit order in 1540 by Ignatius of Loyola, of whom he would later write the first biography. After studying theology and rhetoric at Leuven, Paris and Padua, he taught at Italian and German Jesuit colleges, was sent on missions to Belgium and England by Ignatius himself and held important posts in Italy. Dedicated to Philip II of Spain, ‘Tratado’ presented Machiavelli’s ideal Christian prince as a misleading model contrived by an impious and godless ‘politician’—a member of ‘the worst sect invented by Satan’ to destroy piety, virtue and godly fear. He opposed the Machiavellian belief that history and ‘reason of state’ were shaped by fortune, not religion and virtue, explaining how religion and ‘reason of state’ were instead inseparable, and how a true Christian prince should defend the Catholic faith whilst piously administering government. The second part explores the fundamental concept of dissimulation—a feigned ‘mask of virtue’ which Machiavelli’s prince should sometimes wear. Ribadeneira condemned dissimulation as a sin except for good reasons, e.g., maintaining secrecy for the sake of political prudence—a behaviour equally adopted by Jesuits through ‘equivocation’, an ironically near-Machiavellian variation of dissimulation used to escape persecution. BM STC Dutch, p. 176; Adams II, 462; Peeters-Fontainas II, 1123; Palau y Dulcet XVI, 435(1595 ed.). Not in Brunet. M. Prades Vilar, ‘La teoría de la simulación de Pedro de Ribadeneyra y el “maquiavelismo de los antimaquiavélicos”’, Ingenium 5 (2011), 133-65. L2289
LACTANTIUS. Divinarum institutionum libri septem (with) TERTULLIAN. Apologeticus adversus gentes.

LACTANTIUS. Divinarum institutionum libri septem (with) TERTULLIAN. Apologeticus adversus gentes.

LACTANTIUS (with) TERTULLIAN 8vo. Two works in one, ff. (xii) 328 (xvi) 47 (xliii). Italic letter, occasional Roman and Greek. Printer’s device to t-p and recto of last. Light age browning in places, heavier to pre-penultimate gathering, some slight marginal foxing, tiny worm trails to lower outer corner of first few ll., faint water stains to some margins, small ink spot to fol. 317 obscuring a few letters, occasional contemporary marginalia. A very good, well-margined copy in handsome contemporary probably Bolognese goatskin, traces of ties, a few wormholes to covers, blue edges faded. Blind-tooled to a triple-ruled panel design, panel border with interlacing floral branch, centre panels with blind-tooled ivy leaves to corners and rhombus-shaped centrepieces with fleurons. Spine in four compartments, blind-tooled double-ruled border and cross-hatched single-rule decoration to each, raised bands with blind-tooled single rule, a few wormholes, loss to three compartments. Inscriptions ‘Ex libris ferd. di Gasparina (?) 1707’, ‘Festina lente’, ‘Est de Neapolj’ (both contemporary) to t-p, early erased inscription ending in ‘nativitati dñi 1558’ to fol. 258, occasional early annotation. The handsome binding was made in central-northern Italy. It resembles a Bolognese binding in de Marinis II, 1270 bis. Very good, well-margined editions of these milestones of early Christian apologetics, edited by the monk and humanist Onorato Fascitello (1502-64). Born in Numidia, Lactantius (c.250-325AD) moved to Greece where he taught rhetoric and converted to Christianity. After resigning his post to escape Diocletian’s religious persecutions, he lived in poverty until he became advisor to Emperor Constantine. The main focus of his works is the criticism of pagan cults and the formulation of a coherent Christian theology. ‘Institutiones divinae’ was the first attempt at a large-scale theorisation of Christianity in Latin; it was later turned into an ‘Epitome’. The owner of this copy was interested in Book I on ‘false’ religions. He highlighted sections on pagan deities and demi-gods in Greek and Egyptian cults—e.g., Mercury (or Thoth), the Sibyls, Hercules Africanus, Apollo and Jupiter—and on Euhemeristic theories explaining why pagan gods were rather posthumously deified humans. Lactantius conceived ‘De opificio Dei’ as a defence of Christian truth during Diocletian’s persecutions, and wrote ‘De ira Dei’ against Epicurean and Stoic beliefs. The poems ‘Phoenix’, ‘Carmen de Dominica Resurrectione’ and ‘Carmen de Passione Domini’ are no longer attributed to Lactantius; the first inspired the famous, namesake Anglo-Saxon poem. Tertullian (155-240AD), of whom little is known, was born in Carthage and was probably a lawyer and priest. He became one of the earliest defenders of Christianity against pagan cults like Gnosticism; he was also the first writer in Latin to use the word ‘trinity’. Tertullian’s ‘Apologeticus’ discussed key theological questions like the nature of Christ and the devil, the kingdom of God, the Roman religion, and why pagan deities should not be considered ‘gods’. This Aldine work only appeared, very appropriately, bound with Lactantius’s critique of paganism. Unlike in the first Aldine edition of 1515, it is here recorded in the initial t-p and its pagination integrated in the register. Rénouard 113:2; BM STC It. p. 366; Brunet II, 736. L2714
Florentinae Historiae libri octo priores.

Florentinae Historiae libri octo priores.

BRUTO, Giovanni Michele FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. (xxx) 463 (xxxi). Roman letter, some Italic. Printer’s device to t-p, decorated initials. Intermittent light age yellowing, small worm trail to first five ll. affecting a few letters, couple of wormholes to outer margins of last few gatherings, faint water stain to outer margins of couple of final ll. A very good, clean copy in contemporary half German pigskin over bevelled wooden boards, brass clasps, blind-tooled to a panel design, outer border with roll of floral tendrils, centre panel with rolls of fronds and rose at head and foot. Spine in five compartments, raised bands, later label, title inked to fore-edge, small piece of wood missing from upper outer corner of lower cover. Handpainted armorial woodcut bookplate of Wiguleus Hund of Lautterbach 1556 to front pastedown (some offset to fep), printed armorial bookplate of Christian Gobel of Hofgiebing 1640 and C19 bibliographic inscription to fep. Very good, clean copy, handsomely bound, of Giovanni Michele Bruto’s controversial history of Florence. Born in Venice, Bruto (1517-92) was a Hermit of St Augustin and a historiographer. He soon left the convent and started a life of frequent travels, during which he encountered humanists like Reginald Pole. In the 1550s, the Papal printer, Paulus Manutius, first substituted Bruto’s name with an alias due to suspicions of heresy which would accompany him throughout his life. In 1562, Bruto was in Lyon, in touch with circles upholding anti-Medicean views—ideas which also pervade ‘Florentinae Historiae’. The preface is a long and complex apology of the volume, contextualising it within the Western historiographic tradition from ancient authors like Livy to more recent ones like Paolo Giovio. Giovio’s ‘Historiae’ (c.1520s), caught between praise and criticism of the Medici, is often cited as an inspiration. Leaving historical chronology in the background, Bruto examines the recent history of Florence through its civic and national policy and the character of its governors, none of whom is spared criticism. For instance, in the course of three pages, Cosimo de’ Medici is called ‘fortunatus’, powerful and magnanimous as well as seriously flawed with vice and cupidity. The Medici sought to curb the circulation of this work by seizing and destroying numerous copies, hence its relative scarcity. Wiguleus Hund of Lautterbach was a Bavarian jurist and historian. He held numerous political offices including that of imperial counsellor to Duke Albrecht V, ambassador of Duke William IV to Emperor Charles V, and negotiator on the recall of the Jesuits in the early 1550s. He was the author of three antiquarian ‘Stammen Bücher’ of Bavarian princely and aristocratic families. Christian Gobel von Hofgiebing (1590- 1658) was a Bavarian doctor of law and imperial councillor to Duke Albrecht V. BM STC Fr., p. 84; Brunet I, 1307; Pettigree and Walsby, French Books, 59315; Baudrier, Bib. Lyon., VI, 308: ‘assez rare’. L2818
book (2)

Institutiones ac meditationes in Graecam linguam,

CLENARDUS, Nicolaus 4to. pp. (cxxiv), 414, (x), 415-574 dbl. cols., (xvi). πa-p⁴, q², A-Z⁴, a-2g⁴, ⁴2g⁴, 2h-2s⁴ Roman and Greek letter in various sizes. Woodcut printer’s device on on all three titles, fine grotesque woodcut initials and headpieces, bookplate of W.J. Corfield on pastedown, C.W. Dyson Perrins’ and William Foyle’s below. Very light age yellowing. A fine copy, crisp and clean, with large margins, many deckle edges, in a splendid contemporary English binding by Vincent Williamson of Eton College, of polished calf over pasteboards, covers double blind and double gilt ruled to a panel design, stopped at the corners by a gilt pointillé tools, large acorn tools gilt stamped to corners of outer panel, large block-stamped gilt corner-pieces to corners of inner panel, tree device, with ‘noli altum sapere’ panel, gilt stamped to centres, edges gilt ruled, spine double gilt ruled in compartments, with star fleuron gilt at centres and small fleurons gilt to either side, traces of green silk ties, a.e.r. preserved in modern red cloth case, gilt black morocco spine label. A fine, very beautifully preserved, and rare example of a beautiful English binding by Vincent Williamson, binder of Eton College. Williamson sometimes, as here, used a distinctive gilt tooled 'Noli altum sapere' based on the Estienne device, but adopted by the booksellers Bonham and John Norton and in some cases used by the binder for their books. According to Nixon, Williamson appears to be the first English binder to tool the title of a book on the spine. He is probably the Vincent Williamson apprenticed to George Singleton, stationer, on March 7, 1603. Parish records of St. Giles Cripplegate show that he married Elizabeth Dawson in December 1584. He is referred to in the records of Eton College until 1621. “London was not the only town where gold-tooled bookbindings were made in the first half of the seventeenth century. Thanks to Sir Robert Birley’s researches, we know of bookbindings being produced at Eton, and we know the name of the binder, one Williamson. We even know that he was the first - but by no means the last - recorded English bookbinder who found at one stage of his career that alcohol improved his finishing, only to find that the improvement lasted but a short time Nevertheless he continued to work until c, 1621, although already in 1608 Sir Dudley Carleton wrote from Eton to a friend in London: .”We have here a goode workman, but he hath commonly his hands full of worke, and his head full of drinck, yet I had as leve venture my worke with this good fellow that is sometime sober, as with them that are always mad” He also bound several books for Sir Charles Somerset, when the later left Eton in 1604, which are very nearly the first English bindings to be lettered on the spine”. Nixon and Foot The History of Decorated Bookbinding in England, p. 52. See plate 42 for an example of a Williamson binding, and BL Shelfmark c128k3 for another, without the Noli Altum Sapere device. A beautifully printed edition of Nicolas Cleynaerts teaching manual for Greek first published in 1529, and first augmented thus in 1580: It would have been the ideal manual for learning Greek for a student at Eton, though as this copy remains exceptionally clean it can hardly have been much used. BM STC Ger. C16 p. 213. Adams C2157. VD C, 4156. L. Bakelants­R. Hoven, Bibliographie des oeuvres de Nicolas Clenard. 1529­-1700. L2503
Proteus

Proteus, ofte, Minne-beelden: – Emblemata D. Iacobi Catsii; In Linguam Anglicam transfusa.

CATS, Jacob 4to. pp. 28; A-C4, D2. (English part only, of five). Roman and Italic letter. Woodcut tail piece, engraved armorial bookplate of Allan Heywood Bright signed by Alf Downey, on pastedown, mss note on the rarity of the edition tipped in on fly. Light age yellowing, a few minor marginal marks or stains. A very good copy, crisp and clean with good margins in fine C19th three-quarter dark calf over marbled boards, covers gilt ruled, spine with raised bands, richly gilt with small tools in compartments, a little rubbed at extremities. The english translation of Cats's first book Sinne-en minnebeelden (Portraits of morality and love) published in 1618, extracted from the collected edition of his emblematic work published in 1627. Jacob Cats (1577-1660), seventeenth-century poet, moralist, and statesman, was one of the leading poets in the golden age of Dutch literature. His emblem books, which reflected a stolid Calvinist philosophy, exhorted readers to virtuous and industrial lives. Enormously popular, the books became the source of many well-known maxims and proverbs, giving him the title of “Father Cats,” a fond soubriquet still used by modern Dutch to describe him. He is best known as a poet and author of emblem books—illustrated collections of didactic and moralistic (although clever and often humorous) poetry. They are valued as treasure troves of sociological and historical detail, illustrating not only many facets of daily life in the seventeenth century, but the moral and philosophical ideals of the era as well. “Some time ago a study appeared of Cat’s indebtedness to certain English social traditions. His indebtedness was by no means left unrepaid; Cats did not borrow from English literature without some return from his own store. In her valuable ‘English Emblem Books’, Miss Rosemary Freeman remarked that Cat’s work was ‘translated into English’ by Thomas Heywood, among others.  . So far as I can discover, his emblems do not appear translated in the works of English emblematists. Such English translations as were made of his individual emblems are to be found in so obvious a place that they have apparently escaped notice; the 1618 edition of Cat’s Sinne-enMinne Beelden. The emblems appear in the body of the text in three languages, Cats’ native Dutch, French, and Latin. A commendatory sonnet addressed ‘Au tres-digne d’Honeurs & Bon-heurs, le Tres-docte Signeur Iaques Cats,’ by Joshuah Sylvester, famous in English literature for his translations of Du Bartas, praised Cats’ ‘Tri-lingue Stile’ which leads to the conclusion that the author himself was responsible for the French and Latin version of his emblems. At the back of this edition are included English translations of fifty-one emblems, ‘Emblemata D. Iacobi Catsii; In Linguam Anglicam transfusa.’; there is no indication of any translator. It may have been Cat’s himself, with or without the assistance of his pietist friend, William Teellinck, who translated the emblems into English; it might conceivably have been Sylvester, who was for some time a factor in Middelburg and must have known some Dutch at least and who certainly knew French and Latin well. In any case, whoever Englished the emblems did so almost as soon as the Dutch originals appeared in print, a fact which suggestsCats himself or someone in Middelburg very close to him.” Rosalie L. Colie. ‘A note on the English translations from Jacob Cats’. De Vries 89. Landwehr, Low Countries 118. Praz, p. 300. Adams, Alison. ‘A bibliography of French emblem books of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Nr. F.154. L2014b
Epistola divi hulderichi augustensis episcopi

Epistola divi hulderichi augustensis episcopi, adversus constitutionem de cleri coelibatu.

ULRICH von AUGSBURG [PSEUDO-ULRICH] FIRST EDITION. 4to. 4 unnumbered ll., A4. Roman letter. Very light age browning, t-p and verso of last dust-soiled, a couple of light marginal spots. Avery good copy in modern boards, the odd early marginal annotation. Very good copy of the first edition of a pamphlet on clerical celibacy. Purportedly written by St Ulrich (890-973), Bishop of Augsburg—an authorship now identified as 'Pseudo-Ulrich'—'Epistola' first appeared in C11 Germany during debates on clerical celibacy raised by Gregory Vii. The addressee, named 'Pope Nicholas', was probably Nicholas II, supporter of a controversial policy on clerical chastity in the mid-1050s. 'Epistola' explained that the Pope's duty was to recommend and praise but not to impose celibacy—hence its frequent use during early C16 debates on this topic. A useful authority, in addition to St Augustine, was Paphnutius of Thebes (4th century) who, at the First Council of Nicaea, criticised the decision to forbid clerics who had been ordained after marriage to abstain from their wives. The short preface stating that 'celibacy is an excellent thing, not as much when it is imposed' was written by Martin Luther. Important English Reformers like John Foxe apparently owned manuscript copies. Melchior II Lotter was responsible for printing Luther's Old and New Testament in 1522-24. USTC 651268; Benzing 818a; WA Br. 12, Nr. 4217; BM STC Ger., p. 878; Proctor 11917; Knaake III, 1055. L1613
De agricultura vulgare.

De agricultura vulgare.

CRESCENZI, Pietro de’ Small 4to. ff. 235 [234] (vi). Roman letter, large Gothic to t-p, double column. Woodcut of Justice to recto and large woodcut from Alexander Grammaticus’s Doctrinale (1513) to verso of t-p; c.30 small woodcuts in text of rural scenes (some repeated); decorated initials. Lower blank half of last leaf replaced, upper margins slightly trimmed, occasional minor yellowing. A fine copy, on high-quality paper, in C19 polished calf, double gilt ruled border, gilt arms of Victor Spitalieri de Cessole family to covers, silk bookmark, marbled pastedowns, a.e.g. Spine in six double gilt ruled compartments, five with gilt leafy tendrils. Erased autograph (?) on front pastedown, the odd mark in red crayon. A fine, handsomely illustrated, copy of the Italian translation of Pietro de’ Crescenzi’s famous writings on agriculture, printed in over 50 editions in several languages between 1471 and 1600. Crescenzi (c.1230/30-1320) studied law, medicine and natural science at Bologna. After retiring from a long legal career, he spent much time at his estate in the Bolognese countryside. There he was inspired to write ‘De agricultura vulgare’ (c.1304)— first printed as ‘Ruralia commoda’ in Nuremberg in 1471—a treatise on agriculture based on classical and medieval sources and his direct experience. Like its most important models—Columella’s ‘De re rustica’ and Palladius’s ‘Opus agriculturae’—‘De agricultura’ was fundamental for the humanist re-elaboration of the rustic values of landownership so dear to the ancient Roman elites. The work presents an ideal ‘holistic’ landowner who is knowledgeable about all aspects of estate management, from the architecture of buildings to the caretaking of gardens and meadows, wine-making, bee-keeping, hunting, farming, and the use of trees and plants for medicinal and nutritional purposes. The physical and spiritual well-being of Crescenzi’s country life is identified with the harmony of the human and the natural following Avicenna’s theories of the bodily humours. The superb woodcuts, many of which were drawn from the Venetian edition of 1495, depict a variety of subjects, from techniques for distilling river water and planning gardens to ways of ensuring that oxen ‘cooperate’ whilst pulling the plough—a tongue-in-cheek vignette, this, in which the artist inserted, behind the customary peasant figure, that of Hercules carrying out his tenth labour of bringing back from the end of the world the uncooperative cattle of Geryon. This copy belonged to the Spitalieri de Cessole family from Nice who amassed a great library. The gilt arms were commissioned by Henry de Cessole in 1850. Graesse II, 299: USTC 824568; BM STC It., p. 203; Essling, 845; Sander, 2238; Simon 162. Not in Bitting, Vicaire or Oberlé. L2865
The King’s Maiesties Declaration to His Subjects concerning lawfull Sports to be used.

The King’s Maiesties Declaration to His Subjects concerning lawfull Sports to be used.

CHARLES I FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. (iv) 18. A-C⁴ First leaf blank but for signature-mark "A" in part of a woodcut frame, lacking last blank C4. Large Italic letter. Woodcut ornament on t-p, at heads of dedication and text, full page cut of Royal arms on t-p verso, note in a near contemporary hand explaining the contents of the work on “A”. Light age yellowing, recto of first leaf dusty, the odd thumb mark or spot, cut a little close in upper margin just touching page numbers. A very good copy crisp and clean in modern boards. In 1618 James I, travelling back from Scotland to London ‘Found that his subjects were debarred from Lawful Recreations upon Sundayes after evening prayer ended, and upon Holy dayes.’ James was concerned that ‘the meaner sort who labour hard all the weeke, should have no Recreations at all to refresh their spirits.’ but also that the prohibition of legitimate recreation would both ‘set up filthy tiplings and drunkennesse’ and encourage disaffection, especially in areas like strongly Catholic Lancashire. There the established church was not popular, to which James specifically refers. Accordingly James declared that no-one was to be prevented from lawful recreation after the end of services - dancing, leaping, vaulting, archery, morris dances, May games, Whitson Ales, May poles and the like were to be freely indulged in. Unlawful games such as bear and bull baiting remained prohibited, as ‘at all time in the meaner sort of people. Bowling’ also the carrying and use of any sort of weapon. Fifteen years later, James’ son Charles I, found that under the pretence of remedying abuses there had been forbidden in some places both secular meetings and ecclesiastical feasts. In the second part of this work Charles reiterates and republishes his father’s declaration, commanding all justices, mayors, constables etc. to implement and obey it or ‘tender our displeasure’. Apart from enlightened social policy Charles’ intervention was covertly to rebuff the Puritans and overtly to convince the Catholics (whom he wished to convert to Anglicanism) that honest mirth and recreation were tolerated in the official religion. A splendid piece of primary social history. ESTC. S101032. “A reprinting of the proclamation by James I of 24 May 1618, with an endorsement by Charles I dated at end: “Westminster the eighteenth day of October, in the ninth yeere of our reigne.” STC. 9254.7. The variant with headpiece on A4r of a winged woman. XL
Epistolarum Pauli Manutii Libri 10. Duobus nuper additis eiusdem quae Praefationes appellantur.

Epistolarum Pauli Manutii Libri 10. Duobus nuper additis eiusdem quae Praefationes appellantur.

MANUZIO, Paolo 8vo. 3 parts in one. pp. [xvi], 469, [iii]; 67, [v]; 139, [xiii]. [A-2G8, 2H4; a-d8 e4; A-I8 K4.] Preface in Roman letter, text in Italic. Large woodcut Aldine anchor & dolphin device with legend ‘Aldus Iunior’ on 1st and 2nd titles and at end of first two parts, Aldine woodcut device (without ‘Aldus Iunior’) at the end of third part, miniature woodcut portrait of Aldus Manutius the Elder, within architectural border, on verso of first and second titles, early ownership inscription on 1st title “Michaelii Pasini” 1628, 1632, several others crossed out, occasional marginal notes and underlinings, notes in probably Pasini’s hand on verso of last leaf. Light age yellowing, two quires lightly browned, some marginal spots and thumb marks, occasional minor, mostly marginal, light waterstaning, a little short at head A good copy in quarter speckled sheep over marbled boards c. 1700, spine with blind ruled raised bands, small fleurons gilt at centres of compartments, tan morocco title label gilt lettered, all edges sprinkled red, worn a head, a few small worm holes in lower compartment. A collection of the celebrated Latin epistles in Ciceronian style by the Venetian scholar - printer Paolo Manuzio (1512-74), third son of Aldo the Elder (1449-1515), founder of the famous Aldine press. The letters, dated between 1558 and 1570, were edited and printed by Paolo’s eldest son Aldo the Younger (with his unusual ‘Aldus Junior’ device, Ahmanson-Murphy A22a) who had succeeded to the family business in 1561, when his father left for Rome to manage the Tipografia del Popolo Romano for Pope Pius IV. Aldo the Younger was a professor of literature who wrote a treatise on Latin spelling. The 3rd part contains Paolo Manuzio’s dedicatory prefaces to his redactions of the classics. Indexes at the end of the volume list the names of the 124 recipients of the letters, and the names of the 28 dedicatees of the prefaces. The circular woodcut portrait of his father, Aldus Manutius the Elder is surrounded with the legend : Aldus Pius Manutius R.; the architectural border comprises the Aldine arms and motto ‘Insigne Manutianum’. Complete as called for in the final register. Some copies however are found with the 27 pages of book XI, which were printed as a supplement to this edition and which are found bound in some copies, (see a long explanatory note in Renouard). This eleventh part was then printed as an integral part of the 1573 edition. Renouard 212-213, no 7. USTC 840490. Adams. M 489. L2913
des Xpiens

des Xpiens, qui enseigne à chascun bon chrestien et crestienne la voye et le chemin pour aller en Paradis.

LE GRANT ORDINAIRE 4to. ff. 149 [i]. Lettre Bâtard in double column. Title in red and black with large grotesque initial, partial border made up of eleven small woodcuts of devotional scenes, some in white on black criblé, full page woodcut on verso of title, fine full-page woodcut of Christ in Glory on verso of A4, two small text woodcuts, first quire printed in red and black, small woodcut white on black criblé initials, occasional marginal manuscript annotation in a slightly later hand, bookplate of Miss Audrey Ridsdale on pastedown. Light age yellowing, some light mostly marginal spotting, a few quires with light browning, the rare marginal mark or spot. A very good copy, crisp and clean, in early C19th probably English close grained green morocco, covers bordered with a double gilt rule, scrolled border with floral and leaf tools, central arabesque of small tools gilt, spine with raised bands richly gilt in compartments, red morocco label, gilt lettered, inner dentelles gilt. Spine and joints darkened. All edges yellow. Exceptionally rare edition, probably the second by the Veufe Trepperel, of this beautifully printed and illustrated popular work of devotion; it is recored in one other copy only, at the BNF. All early editions are extremely rare. The work is undated in the colophon and title, but can be dated from the text; on the verso of ff. 149 : "En lan mil cinq cens et xx le premier jour de febvrier apres la nativite de nostre seigneur fut dernierement consomme ce present livre " The ‘Grand Ordinaire des Chretiens’ is a popular devotional work which forms a guide for ‘All good Christians’, male and female, along the route to salvation, teaching in the vernacular all that you were required to believe, how you were supposed to behave, what to avoid doing, what you needed to fear and what to hope for, on the path to salvation. It is in effect a popular and vernacular form of the catechism. This kind of guide to salvation was particularly popular at the beginning of the C16th in France predating the reformation. It is divided into five parts, the first dealing with Baptism and the Creed, the second with the Ten commandments, including a long discussion of the seven deadly sins, the third with good deeds and works of mercy, the fourth with confession, and the final chapter on the sufferings of hell and the joys of Paradise. “Le Grand Ordinaire garde quelques-uns des caractères d’une vieille catéchèse orientée vers des recettes de comportements, ‘moins soucieusse de précision dogmatique que tournée vers la pratique des oeuvres et singulièrement la confession.’” Elisabeth Germain. ‘Parler du salut?: Aux origines d'une mentalité religieuse.” It is less a work of Christian doctrine and more a manual on how to live well and die well, directed to ordinary people with almost entirely practical instruction. It offers fascinating insight into how the church expected ordinary people to behave just before this kind of work was completely overridden by the the Reformation, which created new forms of the Catechism to which the Catholic Church then responded with updated catechisms of its own. Rare. FR BNF 33407250. Not in USTC. BM STC Fr. C16th, Fairfax Murray or Mortimer. L2878