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Sokol Books Ltd.

In epistolas Ciceronis ad Atticum commentarius

In epistolas Ciceronis ad Atticum commentarius

MANUZIO, Paolo 8vo, ff. [4], 432. Roman letter, little Italic and Greek; printer’s device on title; minor wormtrail at blank foot of first gathering, light small rustspots to a few leaves, ink smear to lower corner of ff. 243v-244r. A very good copy in contemporary Leipzig alum-tawed pigskin (Einbanddatenbank, w000428 ), blind-tooled with triple-fillet border, external roll of Biblical figures (Moses, David, John the Baptist and Christ bearing the cross) amid floral decoration and central roll of palmette with three flowers on top and bottom; contemporary title inked on spine alongside early ms shelfmark and title on paper labels slightly rubbed, a few small wormholes, corners lightly chipped; contemporary inscription ‘Sum ex libris Claudij Simonet’ on front endpaper recto, ex libris of an Augustinian convent in early seventeenth-century hand on title and an earlier one trimmed at foot; blue ink stamp of ‘Hermann Funke’ on verso of title. Aldine edition of an important Renaissance commentary on Cicero’s most famous epistolary collection, first published in 1547. Paolo Manuzio (1512-1574) was one of the most prominent humanists of the late Italian Renaissance. The youngest son of Aldus, he was a very influential scholar and publisher in his own right, living up to the family tradition. A master of the epistolary genre with very successful collections both in Latin and vernacular, he was especially engaged, as a scholar, in Latin literature. His commentaries on the works of Cicero and his polished Latin prose won him long-lasting fame throughout Europe. Under his management, the Aldine press flourished once again, after the dark times of the early 1530s. He also acted as the official printer to the Academia Venetiana between 1558 and 1561, while in the following nine years he ran the first papal press in Rome. Cicero’s letters to his friend Atticus, written from 68 to 44 BC and traditionally arranged in 16 books, provide an unparalleled insight not only into the author’s daily life and always provoking thoughts, but also into the decades preceding the fall of the Roman Republic. BM STC It., 413; Adams, M 460; Brunet, III, 1383; Graesse, IV, 375 ; Renouard, 171:9. L2293b
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Algunos motivos y razones que ay, para favorecer los seminarios ingleses

SEMINARIO JESUITA DE SEVILLA] 8vo. 4 unnumbered leaves. Roman and Italic letter, printed notes, drop-title with large woodcut initial. Margins restored in places affecting last line of text, 12 line early ms. note at the end, faded but largely legible. Light age yellowing. Generally good, in modern boards. No other surviving copies are known. The pamphlet provides a valuable evidence of the special relationship between English Catholics and the Spanish monarchy, which led to the establishment of three English Catholic colleges in Spain: San Alban in Valladolid, San Jorge in Madrid and San Gregorio in Seville. St. Gregory’s College was founded by the English Jesuit Robert Persons (1546 – 1610) in 1592 and devoted to St. Gregory the Great, apostle of England, famous for the dictum non angli sed angeli and for his dispatch of a mission to England. According to Martin Murphy (Ingleses en Seville. El Collegio de San Gregorio, 1592-1767, Seville, 2012), for most of its existence St. Gregory’s College struggled with financial problems and low student numbers, until absorbed by the Royal English College of San Alban in Valladolid, after the suppression of the Society of Jesus. Despite this it was one of the best known cultural centres within the Jesuit organisational structure, providing full education and training for future missionaries, when England was already detached from the Catholic Church. During a solemn ceremony, the alumni vowed to return to England as Catholic priests. The pamphlet shows the place of the English Catholic colleges in the political strategy of the Spanish monarchy, from their foundation under Philip II onwards. The text is divided into four chapters – the last one dedicated to “motivos particulares para favorecer este seminario inglés de Sevilla”. After a general introduction praising the glorious work of the English seminaries in Spain and giving a short history of their foundation, each of the four chapters puts forward different reasons why they should be supported by the Spanish crown. The first chapter, entitled “motivos de piedad”, refers to the common issue of the “limosina temporale”, pointing out that the spiritual faith of England depends on the material survival of these English Catholic colleges. For this reason, funds are necessary to repair Jesus’ temples and honour the sacrifice of those English Catholics persecuted in England from the origin of Church until the heretical reigns of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. Furthermore, the text especially highlights the talent and purity of the colleges students, who are excellent in rhetoric, poetry, Greek language, arts, theology, singing. The second and third chapters, concerning “motivos de la nobleza Christiana” and “motivos de utilidad temporal”, explain that the English Catholic colleges always testified to the spiritual nobility of Spain. They defended the faith of Spain against the heretics of England, welcoming English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish exiles – persecuted for their anti-Protestant ideas – and commemorating the exploits of saints and apostles (St Gregory the Great, Saint Augustine, etc.) through their task of evangelisation. Eventually, the fourth chapter focuses on St. Gregory’s college history which stands out for its excellence and virtue among other good Jesuit institutions. By giving an overview of the financial difficulties, the chapter especially aims at emphasising the necessity of supporting the college which always lived on charity, and without any economic means. Not in USTC. Not in Goldsmith. Palau, I, p. 211. L2395
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Pedacii Dioscoridae Anazarbei de Medica materia libri sex.

DIOSCORIDES Folio. ff. (x) 352. Roman letter, some Greek. Title in red and black, woodcut printer’s device to recto of last. T-p a bit thumbed, small faint purplish stain and little fraying to lower inner corner of first and last gathering, occasional slight marginal waterstaining, and minor marginal foxing. A very good copy, on thick paper, in contemporary northern Italian calf over pasteboards, lacking ties, triple blind tooled to a panel design, second border with dotted ropework, centre panel with rhombus-shaped floral centre- and cornerpieces. Spine in four compartments with double blind tooled hatching, early paper label with title at head, some rubbing, minor loss to covers and at foot of spine. A handsome copy of this fundamental ancient Greek work on herbal medicine—the first pharmacopoeia—which influenced Western medical practice until the C19. The work had been circulating in Latin (as well as Greek and Arabic) throughout the medieval period, never falling into oblivion. It was first printed by Filippo Giunta in 1518, in a Latin translation and commentary by the Florentine humanist and Medici chancellor Marcello Virgilio Adriani (1464-1521), of which this is the second edition. Born in Cilicia, Discorides (40-90AD) was a Greek physician at the service of the Roman army and an expert botanist. A compendium of medical knowledge which rivalled Hippocrates’s and Oribasius’s works, ‘De Materia medica’ discusses the properties and medical uses of hundreds of herbs all typical of the eastern Mediterranean region, often providing their names in other languages like Thracian, ancient Egyptian or Carthaginian. Its five parts cover a variety of topics including not only aromatic or culinary herbs and plants (e.g., cardamom, cinnamon, liquorice and valerian) but also cereals, fruit, roots, seeds and even minerals from which ointments, drinks or balms can be made. The short sections discuss the name, origins, physical characteristics and medical uses of each; room is also devoted to specific conditions, their symptoms and the best practice and medicaments to treat them. To the bite of adders, vipers and basilisks, for instance, is devoted a long section which explains how to intervene in case of emergency and how to prepare and use life-saving pharmacopoeia including cedar juice, bitumen and green ‘pilulae’ made from plane trees cooked in diluted wine. Four copies recorded in the US. USTC 827007; BM STC It., p. 218; NLM 1142. Not in Wellcome or Bibliotheca Osleriana. L2872
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Epistolae, et praefationes

MANUZIO, Paolo FIRST EDITION. 8vo, ff. [12], 148 [i.e. 142]. Predominantly Italic letter, little Roman. Large printer’s device on title, hand-coloured by contemporary hand; title slightly dusty; light, mainly marginal waterstains, with a few wormholes to upper gutter of first gathering, small stain to f. 91. A good copy in contemporary limp vellum, contemporary title inked along spine and lower edge; minor light stains and loss to front cover; nearly contemporary inscription ‘Verde Brasca’ (probably the Verdebrasca of Milan) on front endpaper, title and rear pastedown. First edition of one of the most influential Neo-Latin collections in early modern Europe. Paolo Manuzio (1512-1574) was a prominent humanist of the late Italian Renaissance. The youngest son of Aldus, he was a very influential scholar and publisher in his own right, living up to the family tradition. A master of the epistolary genre with very successful collections both in Latin and vernacular, he was especially engaged, as a scholar, in Latin literature. His commentaries on the works of Cicero and his polished Latin prose won him long-lasting fame throughout Europe. Under his management, the Aldine press flourished once again, after the dark times of the early 1530s. He also acted as the official printer to the Academia Venetiana between 1558 and 1561, while in the following nine years he ran the first papal press in Rome. This collection comprises several letters and prefaces written by Paolo to the Gotha of the political, religious and academic establishment of mid-sixteenth-century Italy. The work kept growing over the following 15 years until it included 12 books. However, some self-censorship took place in order to cope with the Indexes of forbidden books issued by Paul IV in 1559 and the Tridentine Council in 1564, so that a few letters appear here for the first, and only, time in their original form. As Renouard sarcastically glossed, Paolo claimed in the initial dedicatory letter that he decided to publish the present collection because of pressure from his fellow members of the Venetian Academy. BM STC It., 413; Adams, M 483; Brunet, III, 1383; Graesse, IV, 375; Renouard, 271:9. L2279
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Scala naturale, overo Fantasia dolcissima intorno alle cose occulte, e desiderate nella filosofia.

MAFFEI, Giovanni Camillo FIRST EDITION. 8vo. ff. 140. Italic letter, little Roman. Woodcut printer’s device to recto and woodcut author’s portrait to verso of t-p, half-page woodcut of celestial spheres with two conversing scholars, decorated initials. Minor paper flaw to lower blank margin of one fol., the odd ink spot, occasional light marginal waterstaining. A very good copy in old vellum, recased. Attractive copy of this intriguing work on philosophy and natural science—an epitome of the all-embracing aspirations of humanist thought. Giovanni Camillo Maffei (fl.1562-73) was a philosopher, physician, natural scientist and musician, and a member of the most important Neapolitan intellectual circles. In addition to fundamental works on the art of singing, touching on the physiology of the human voice, Maffei wrote philosophical letters and the idiosyncratic ‘Scala naturale’. Engaging and well-written, ‘Scala naturale’ discusses the cosmos and its inhabitants, their nature, physiology, soul and customs as determined by the world around them. Purporting the existence of 14 instead of the Aristotelian 8 spheres, Maffei discusses the nature of each considering how it is affected by the interaction of the four humours. For instance, in the first sphere, this can cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and affect the nature and colour of stones, metals, plants, animals and human beings. He showcases his medical knowledge in lengthy disquisitions on the ‘evolution’ of organs and limbs to the optimal shape for their function and the causes of physical differences between humans, e.g., unlike in animals, the colour of human skin is not determined by the nature thereof but by the vapours in the environment in which it developed. The work also touches on comets, the origins of rivers and seas, celestial phenomena, solar circles, the zodiac, judicial astrology and its connection to predictions. Riccardi I/1, 61; BM STC It., p. 402; Cantamessa I, 583; Houzeau & Lancaster 2617. L2721
Delle navigationi et viaggi Volume primo. (with) Delle navigationi et viaggio Volume secondo. (with) Delle navigationi et viaggi Volume terzo.

Delle navigationi et viaggi Volume primo. (with) Delle navigationi et viaggio Volume secondo. (with) Delle navigationi et viaggi Volume terzo.

RAMUSIO, Giovanni Battista Folio. 3 vols. ff. I) (iv) 394; II) 256, 90; III) (iv) 430. Roman letter, with Italic. Woodcut printer’s device to t-ps and last of II) and III), over 40 woodcut illustrations of inhabitants, flora and fauna of Asia, Africa and America, 12 woodcut or copperplate maps (10 fold-out including Brazil, Cuzco and Sumatra), decorated initials. Slight mainly marginal foxing or faint dampstaining, little light age browning, the odd thumb or ink mark. Very good copies, on thick paper and of fine impression, in early vellum over pasteboards, rebacked and recornered c1900, traces of ties, gilt lettered morocco label. Remarkably crisp and clean copies of one of the most important collections of voyages and discoveries, beautifully illustrated. As here, most recorded sets are composed of different editions and those like this featuring the most complete editions of each of the individual volumes are rare. 1583 is the first complete (and augmented) edition of vol. 2, and 1606 and 1613 the only complete ones of vols. 1 and 3 (Brunet, IV, 1100-1101), adding for example the travels of Barents and Federici for the first time. Born in Treviso, Giovanni Battista Ramusio (1485-1557) worked as secretary and envoy to Alvise Mocenigo, having access to the latest information on expeditions and travels of exploration reaching Venice from abroad. First published by Ludovico Giunta in three separate volumes between 1550 and 1565, ‘Delle navigationi’ was a collection of the first-hand Portuguese, Spanish, Greek, Dutch (all translated in the Italian vernacular) and Italian accounts of voyages to Asia, Africa and America published up to that time, illustrated with bespoke maps—the first work of its kind. The first volume is mainly devoted to ‘countries which have been known for 300 years’, e.g., from Africa (and the kingdom of Prester John) to the Eastern Indies. The second features the accounts of Marco Polo on the Tartars and China (with the first mention of tea in Europe), as well as notices on Persia, Armenia and Paolo Giovio’s ground-breaking work on Muscovy. The third is devoted to the world ‘unknown to the ancients’—Columbus’s navigations, Cortéz and Pizarro’s expeditions, and notices on Mexico, Peru and other American kingdoms. In addition to engaging information on local flora, fauna, politics and customs, ‘Delle navigationi’ provided accurate topographical information through handsome and innovative fold-out woodcut and copperplate maps illustrating Cuzco in Peru, Nuova Francia (Newfoundland)—the second separate map of Northeast America—with the colony of Montreal (the earliest printed such topographical plan for North America), Brazil, Sumatra (the first map of any island in South-Eastern Asia), Eastern Africa, one of the most complete maps of the Western Hemisphere, and a plan of the Mexican city of Temistitan. Through their re-prints of 1606 and 1613, the Giunta capitalised on the continuing commercial success of collections of travel writings epitomised by Richard Hakluyt’s ‘Principal Navigations’ (1589), the original model of which was, as it were, Ramusio’s work. I) USTC 851974; BL STC It. C17, p. 720; Cordier III, 1939 (first edition only); Brunet, IV, 1100-1101; Sabin 67735; Alden 613/108. II) USTC 851974; Cordier III, 1939 (first edition only); Brunet, IV, 1100-1101; Sabin 67738; Alden 583/59. III) USTC 4035955; Cordier III, 1939 (first edition only); Brunet, IV, 1100-1101; Sabin 67739; Alden 606/87. K128
Tratado de la religion y virtudes que deue tener el principe christiano.

Tratado de la religion y virtudes que deue tener el principe christiano.

RIBADENEYRA, Pedro de 8vo. pp. 437 (ix). Roman letter, with Italic. Society of Jesus device to t-p, small engraved arms of Navarre pasted at end of ‘privilege’, printer’s woodcut compass device to last. Light age browning, the odd small ink spot, a good copy in slightly later mottled calf, arms of the marquis Josep de Margarit i de Biure gilt to covers, edges speckled red. Rebacked, gilt spine, expertly remounted, minor repair to corners. The odd early annotation. The gilt arms belong to the Catalan patriot Josep de Margarit i de Biure (1602-85), member of a baronial family from Girona. Josep fought as a general of the Catalan army siding with the French against Spanish aggression into Catalan territory. For his support, he was appointed governor of Catalonia by Louis XIII. In particular, he played a major part in the Catalan ‘revolta dels Segadors’ (1640-52) which concluded with the capitulation of Barcelona to Spain after a dramatic siege. As a reward for his courage, his Aguilar estate was turned into a marquisate by Louis XIV. Josep spent the last years of his life in exile in Perpignan where he continued to defend Catalan identity in Roussillon, annexed to France with the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659). The bearing of the arms of Catalonia, Navarre and Aragon-Sicily had been granted by King Juan II to Josep’s C15 ancestor, the bishop Juan Margarit, as a reward for his defence of the city of Girona. The C17 annotator of this copy interested in the long ‘letter to the Christian reader’ may have been Josep de Margarit himself. In a section discussing the reasons why a prince might want to continue a war through violence or political pressure, he highlighted a passage stating that ‘in order to destroy any city or province without a war, there is nothing like presenting them as places full of sin and vice, and to persuade [his subjects] that past injuries are never forgotten, despite the benefits received’. Very good, clean, well-margined copy of this intriguing anti-Machiavellian Jesuit work in Castilian. This is the fourth edition published by the Antwerp printer Jan Moretus, who held the royal privilege for some of the most successful liturgical works of the Counter- Reformation. Born and raised in Toledo, Pedro de Ribadeneyra (1527-1611) was admitted to the Jesuit order in 1540 by Ignatius of Loyola, of whom he would later write the first biography. After studying theology and rhetoric at Leuven, Paris and Padua, he taught at Italian and German Jesuit colleges, was sent on missions to Belgium and England by Ignatius himself and held important posts in Italy. Dedicated to Philip II of Spain, ‘Tratado’ presented Machiavelli’s ideal Christian prince as a misleading model contrived by an impious and godless ‘politician’—a member of ‘the worst sect invented by Satan’ to destroy piety, virtue and godly fear. He opposed the Machiavellian belief that history and ‘reason of state’ were shaped by fortune, not religion and virtue, explaining how religion and ‘reason of state’ were instead inseparable, and how a true Christian prince should defend the Catholic faith whilst piously administering government. The second part explores the fundamental concept of dissimulation—a feigned ‘mask of virtue’ which Machiavelli’s prince should sometimes wear. Ribadeneira condemned dissimulation as a sin except for good reasons, e.g., maintaining secrecy for the sake of political prudence—a behaviour equally adopted by Jesuits through ‘equivocation’, an ironically near-Machiavellian variation of dissimulation used to escape persecution. BM STC Dutch, p. 176; Adams II, 462; Peeters-Fontainas II, 1123; Palau y Dulcet XVI, 435(1595 ed.). Not in Brunet. M. Prades Vilar, ‘La teoría de la simulación de Pedro de Ribadeneyra y el “maquiavelismo de los antimaquiavélicos”’, Ingenium 5 (2011), 133-65. L2289
LACTANTIUS. Divinarum institutionum libri septem (with) TERTULLIAN. Apologeticus adversus gentes.

LACTANTIUS. Divinarum institutionum libri septem (with) TERTULLIAN. Apologeticus adversus gentes.

LACTANTIUS (with) TERTULLIAN 8vo. Two works in one, ff. (xii) 328 (xvi) 47 (xliii). Italic letter, occasional Roman and Greek. Printer’s device to t-p and recto of last. Light age browning in places, heavier to pre-penultimate gathering, some slight marginal foxing, tiny worm trails to lower outer corner of first few ll., faint water stains to some margins, small ink spot to fol. 317 obscuring a few letters, occasional contemporary marginalia. A very good, well-margined copy in handsome contemporary probably Bolognese goatskin, traces of ties, a few wormholes to covers, blue edges faded. Blind-tooled to a triple-ruled panel design, panel border with interlacing floral branch, centre panels with blind-tooled ivy leaves to corners and rhombus-shaped centrepieces with fleurons. Spine in four compartments, blind-tooled double-ruled border and cross-hatched single-rule decoration to each, raised bands with blind-tooled single rule, a few wormholes, loss to three compartments. Inscriptions ‘Ex libris ferd. di Gasparina (?) 1707’, ‘Festina lente’, ‘Est de Neapolj’ (both contemporary) to t-p, early erased inscription ending in ‘nativitati dñi 1558’ to fol. 258, occasional early annotation. The handsome binding was made in central-northern Italy. It resembles a Bolognese binding in de Marinis II, 1270 bis. Very good, well-margined editions of these milestones of early Christian apologetics, edited by the monk and humanist Onorato Fascitello (1502-64). Born in Numidia, Lactantius (c.250-325AD) moved to Greece where he taught rhetoric and converted to Christianity. After resigning his post to escape Diocletian’s religious persecutions, he lived in poverty until he became advisor to Emperor Constantine. The main focus of his works is the criticism of pagan cults and the formulation of a coherent Christian theology. ‘Institutiones divinae’ was the first attempt at a large-scale theorisation of Christianity in Latin; it was later turned into an ‘Epitome’. The owner of this copy was interested in Book I on ‘false’ religions. He highlighted sections on pagan deities and demi-gods in Greek and Egyptian cults—e.g., Mercury (or Thoth), the Sibyls, Hercules Africanus, Apollo and Jupiter—and on Euhemeristic theories explaining why pagan gods were rather posthumously deified humans. Lactantius conceived ‘De opificio Dei’ as a defence of Christian truth during Diocletian’s persecutions, and wrote ‘De ira Dei’ against Epicurean and Stoic beliefs. The poems ‘Phoenix’, ‘Carmen de Dominica Resurrectione’ and ‘Carmen de Passione Domini’ are no longer attributed to Lactantius; the first inspired the famous, namesake Anglo-Saxon poem. Tertullian (155-240AD), of whom little is known, was born in Carthage and was probably a lawyer and priest. He became one of the earliest defenders of Christianity against pagan cults like Gnosticism; he was also the first writer in Latin to use the word ‘trinity’. Tertullian’s ‘Apologeticus’ discussed key theological questions like the nature of Christ and the devil, the kingdom of God, the Roman religion, and why pagan deities should not be considered ‘gods’. This Aldine work only appeared, very appropriately, bound with Lactantius’s critique of paganism. Unlike in the first Aldine edition of 1515, it is here recorded in the initial t-p and its pagination integrated in the register. Rénouard 113:2; BM STC It. p. 366; Brunet II, 736. L2714
Syntagma anatomicum.

Syntagma anatomicum.

VESLING, Johann 4to. pp. (xvi) 274 (xiv). Roman letter, with Italic. Attractive engraved t-p illustrating lesson in the anatomical theatre of the University of Padua, flanked by two allegorical female figures; printer’s device to second t-p; 23 fine engravings of dissected bodies, blood vessels and organs; decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Marginal ink spotting in a few places. Illustrations in very good impression, gutter of second reinforced. A very good copy in contemporary vellum. Ex-libris of ‘J[ohannes?] Fabris(?) Rect. de (?) 1730’. A very good copy of the FIRST ILLUSTRATED EDITION of this popular anatomy text for medical students. Johann Vesling (1598-1649) was a German scholar of botany and medicine, who became professor of anatomy and surgery at the University of Padua in 1632. ‘Syntagma anatomicum’ was an extremely successful textbook favouring practical knowledge ‘which dissection offers to eyes and hands’ over mere theoretical questions. Vesling guides the reader through a textual cum visual dissection head to foot, proceeding according to the body parts an anatomist would encounter from the moment of the first incision, beginning with skin and body fat. As he proceeds, he examines bones underlying the soft parts which are being dissected and the complexities of the nervous system, the vessels that take blood to the brain (‘circle of Willis’) and the lymphatic system—these being among the earliest and most thorough medical descriptions of these anatomical structures. ~The copperplate illustrations were 'intended for the commonest needs but are mostly original engravings and represent some organs of the human body more correctly than their predecessors. They were popular at the time of their appearance and were frequently re-engraved' (Choulant, Anatomic Illustration', 243). USTC 4018742; mentioned in Bibl. Osleriana 4166 and Heirs of Hippocrates, 476. Not in BMC C17 It. L2879
Florentinae Historiae libri octo priores.

Florentinae Historiae libri octo priores.

BRUTO, Giovanni Michele FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. (xxx) 463 (xxxi). Roman letter, some Italic. Printer’s device to t-p, decorated initials. Intermittent light age yellowing, small worm trail to first five ll. affecting a few letters, couple of wormholes to outer margins of last few gatherings, faint water stain to outer margins of couple of final ll. A very good, clean copy in contemporary half German pigskin over bevelled wooden boards, brass clasps, blind-tooled to a panel design, outer border with roll of floral tendrils, centre panel with rolls of fronds and rose at head and foot. Spine in five compartments, raised bands, later label, title inked to fore-edge, small piece of wood missing from upper outer corner of lower cover. Handpainted armorial woodcut bookplate of Wiguleus Hund of Lautterbach 1556 to front pastedown (some offset to fep), printed armorial bookplate of Christian Gobel of Hofgiebing 1640 and C19 bibliographic inscription to fep. Very good, clean copy, handsomely bound, of Giovanni Michele Bruto’s controversial history of Florence. Born in Venice, Bruto (1517-92) was a Hermit of St Augustin and a historiographer. He soon left the convent and started a life of frequent travels, during which he encountered humanists like Reginald Pole. In the 1550s, the Papal printer, Paulus Manutius, first substituted Bruto’s name with an alias due to suspicions of heresy which would accompany him throughout his life. In 1562, Bruto was in Lyon, in touch with circles upholding anti-Medicean views—ideas which also pervade ‘Florentinae Historiae’. The preface is a long and complex apology of the volume, contextualising it within the Western historiographic tradition from ancient authors like Livy to more recent ones like Paolo Giovio. Giovio’s ‘Historiae’ (c.1520s), caught between praise and criticism of the Medici, is often cited as an inspiration. Leaving historical chronology in the background, Bruto examines the recent history of Florence through its civic and national policy and the character of its governors, none of whom is spared criticism. For instance, in the course of three pages, Cosimo de’ Medici is called ‘fortunatus’, powerful and magnanimous as well as seriously flawed with vice and cupidity. The Medici sought to curb the circulation of this work by seizing and destroying numerous copies, hence its relative scarcity. Wiguleus Hund of Lautterbach was a Bavarian jurist and historian. He held numerous political offices including that of imperial counsellor to Duke Albrecht V, ambassador of Duke William IV to Emperor Charles V, and negotiator on the recall of the Jesuits in the early 1550s. He was the author of three antiquarian ‘Stammen Bücher’ of Bavarian princely and aristocratic families. Christian Gobel von Hofgiebing (1590- 1658) was a Bavarian doctor of law and imperial councillor to Duke Albrecht V. BM STC Fr., p. 84; Brunet I, 1307; Pettigree and Walsby, French Books, 59315; Baudrier, Bib. Lyon., VI, 308: ‘assez rare’. L2818
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Les Ans ou Reports del raigne du Roye Edward le quart, nouelment reuieu et corrigee en diuers lieux.Auxy vous aues in cest Impression les cases icy referres al Abridgement de Brooke, & as auters Lieurs del common Ley.

EDWARD IV [Yearbooks] Folio, ff. [i], 10, 29, 28, 44, 8, 12, 32, 25, 53, 19, 11, 21, 10, 8, 33, 12, 8, 30, 10, 19, 84, 51; [xl] (separate foliation for each year) A-5A⁶, ²A-F⁶ ²G⁴ Black letter, some Roman.  Title within elaborate woodcut border, floriated woodcut initials, “Tho. Burman” in a near contemporary hand at head of title page with his price to side, extensive marginal notes in his very neat and minuscule hand, letter of accounts in C19th hand loosely inserted. Title page, first and last two leaves a little dusty, browned and chipped at foredge,  rust spot on A2, front flyleaves backed, rear fly-leaf renewed, upper margins dusty in places, occasional spots to outer margin, one or two thumb marks. A good copy, crisp and clean with good margins, upper cover in contemporary calf bordered with a triple blind rule, lower cover replaced with a later board in tree calf, spine with raised bands, part of the original spine laid down. a.e.r. An extensively annotated copy of these yearbooks that covers the reign of Edward IV, 1461-1483, with an index of cases, side-notes and cross-references. An extremely important source for our knowledge of medieval common law. The Year Books were the first English reports and the primary source for the great works of Littleton, Hobart, Hale and Coke. The first printed editions appeared in 1481-1482. Substantial numbers of manuscripts circulated during the later medieval period containing reports of pleas heard before the Common Bench. These publications constituted the earliest legal precedents of the common law. They are extant in a continuous series from 1268 to 1535, covering the reigns of King Edward I to Henry VIII. The language of the original manuscripts and editions was either Latin or, as here, in Law French. Maitland and others have considered that the medieval manuscripts were compiled by law students, rather than being officially sanctioned accounts of court proceedings. In any case, from the later Middle Ages onwards English lawyers were reporting cases so as to provide a permanent record of how they had been decided, and in the form of annual volumes they had become by 1500 an important source of reference. They combine eyewitness accounts of "procedural tactics [and] the personality of the pleader and the judge" with "scandal, idle conversation, [and] details upon the weather" (Rostenberg, 'Publishing, Printing & Bookselling in England'). This copy has been extensively annotated by a certain Thomas Burman who has cross referenced the cases with other collections such as Coke, Dyer etc. Unfortunately we have not as yet been able to discover his identity, but he must have been a legal scholar as his notes are remarkably thorough, covering nearly every case in the work, in a very neat and legible hand. ESTC. S121407. STC 9769. L2726
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The Haven of Health: Chiefly gathered for the comfort of Students, and consequently of all those that have a care of their health.

COGAN, Thomas FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. [xiv], 284, [xx]. [par.]4, 2[par.]4, A-2P4. Black letter, some Roman, Greek and Italic. Woodcut printer's device on title, woodcut arms of Edward Seymor (the dedicatee) on verso, several woodcut initials, two historiated. Early autograph of William Finch on title, marginal annotations in his hand, bookplate of Cornelius Hauck on pastedown. Title fractionally dusty with pen trials and minor ink spots, waterstaining in lower parts of some leaves, a few running titles fractionally shaved. A good copy, in fine 19th-century calf by Riviere, covers bordered with a double gilt rule, arms of W. H. Miller gilt at centres, spine with gilt ruled raised bands double gilt ruled in compartments, Miller’s monogram at head and tail, title and author gilt lettered in the others, edges gilt ruled, inner dentelles richly gilt, a.e.g. some edges dampstained. Extremely rare first edition of this important and charming medical work that deals with all aspects of health; the Britwell library copy. Cogan divided preventative health into five categories: labor or exercise of body and mind, eating, drinking, sleeping and ‘Venus’ or sexual relations. He includes many interesting recipes for a variety of healthy drinks, including Aqua vitae, Rofa Solis, cinnamon water, wormwood wine and buttered beer. “The Haven of Health, by Thomas Cogan, appeared in 1584 and then in a second edition in 1589 with many of its latin passages translated. At first it was directed chiefly toward students and then to a more popular audience. Cogan was master of Manchester Grammar School, and we catch a glimpse of his pedagogic style in the following comments: “By the very order of nature, reason ought to rule and al appetites are to be bridled and subdued” . Like other works of this period, he freely criticises Galen but also depends heavily on the Regimen of Salerno. Most frequently, it is ordinary English custom and his own personal experience to which he defers, as for example he approves of oats as food for humans. Even more audaciously, he approved of beef, contrary to the warnings in Galen, Isaac, and Salerno.” Ken Albala. ‘Eating Right in the Renaissance.’ "Cogan advised students to breakfast on light digestible foods, to avoid overloading the stomach with a variety of meats at one meal, to cut down on salt and to drink milk as a conteractant to melancholy. He recognized that excessive study made students prone to mental breakdown and recommended that they take regular breaks from study to avoid exhausting their mental energy, and that they refresh their minds with recreations such as music or games" Norman. The work is unusual both for being written in the vernacular and for being directed to students. “Cogan tended to break away from precedent by writing in English. As early as 1534 to be sure Sir Thomas Elyot had brought out a semi-scientific book “the Castell of Helth,” in the vernacular. But so much feeling was aroused in medical circles by Elyot’s presumption that it was found necessary in the preface of the later editions to set forth a defence of the innovation. Pure scientific literature continued to be written almost exclusively in Latin. . Nevertheless, the ‘Haven of Health’ exemplifies the spirit of the times” George Simpson. ESTC S105007. STC 5478. Durling 981; Norman 493. Osler 2331 “It is a book of good sense. Many local notes of value about diet and times of meals at the University. . By the use of ‘one dish onely at one meale, and drinking thereto but small drinke’ he became slender”. Welcome, later edns. only. L2576
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Institutiones ac meditationes in Graecam linguam,

CLENARDUS, Nicolaus 4to. pp. (cxxiv), 414, (x), 415-574 dbl. cols., (xvi). πa-p⁴, q², A-Z⁴, a-2g⁴, ⁴2g⁴, 2h-2s⁴ Roman and Greek letter in various sizes. Woodcut printer’s device on on all three titles, fine grotesque woodcut initials and headpieces, bookplate of W.J. Corfield on pastedown, C.W. Dyson Perrins’ and William Foyle’s below. Very light age yellowing. A fine copy, crisp and clean, with large margins, many deckle edges, in a splendid contemporary English binding by Vincent Williamson of Eton College, of polished calf over pasteboards, covers double blind and double gilt ruled to a panel design, stopped at the corners by a gilt pointillé tools, large acorn tools gilt stamped to corners of outer panel, large block-stamped gilt corner-pieces to corners of inner panel, tree device, with ‘noli altum sapere’ panel, gilt stamped to centres, edges gilt ruled, spine double gilt ruled in compartments, with star fleuron gilt at centres and small fleurons gilt to either side, traces of green silk ties, a.e.r. preserved in modern red cloth case, gilt black morocco spine label. A fine, very beautifully preserved, and rare example of a beautiful English binding by Vincent Williamson, binder of Eton College. Williamson sometimes, as here, used a distinctive gilt tooled 'Noli altum sapere' based on the Estienne device, but adopted by the booksellers Bonham and John Norton and in some cases used by the binder for their books. According to Nixon, Williamson appears to be the first English binder to tool the title of a book on the spine. He is probably the Vincent Williamson apprenticed to George Singleton, stationer, on March 7, 1603. Parish records of St. Giles Cripplegate show that he married Elizabeth Dawson in December 1584. He is referred to in the records of Eton College until 1621. “London was not the only town where gold-tooled bookbindings were made in the first half of the seventeenth century. Thanks to Sir Robert Birley’s researches, we know of bookbindings being produced at Eton, and we know the name of the binder, one Williamson. We even know that he was the first - but by no means the last - recorded English bookbinder who found at one stage of his career that alcohol improved his finishing, only to find that the improvement lasted but a short time Nevertheless he continued to work until c, 1621, although already in 1608 Sir Dudley Carleton wrote from Eton to a friend in London: .”We have here a goode workman, but he hath commonly his hands full of worke, and his head full of drinck, yet I had as leve venture my worke with this good fellow that is sometime sober, as with them that are always mad” He also bound several books for Sir Charles Somerset, when the later left Eton in 1604, which are very nearly the first English bindings to be lettered on the spine”. Nixon and Foot The History of Decorated Bookbinding in England, p. 52. See plate 42 for an example of a Williamson binding, and BL Shelfmark c128k3 for another, without the Noli Altum Sapere device. A beautifully printed edition of Nicolas Cleynaerts teaching manual for Greek first published in 1529, and first augmented thus in 1580: It would have been the ideal manual for learning Greek for a student at Eton, though as this copy remains exceptionally clean it can hardly have been much used. BM STC Ger. C16 p. 213. Adams C2157. VD C, 4156. L. Bakelants­R. Hoven, Bibliographie des oeuvres de Nicolas Clenard. 1529­-1700. L2503
Epistola divi hulderichi augustensis episcopi

Epistola divi hulderichi augustensis episcopi, adversus constitutionem de cleri coelibatu.

ULRICH von AUGSBURG [PSEUDO-ULRICH] FIRST EDITION. 4to. 4 unnumbered ll., A4. Roman letter. Very light age browning, t-p and verso of last dust-soiled, a couple of light marginal spots. Avery good copy in modern boards, the odd early marginal annotation. Very good copy of the first edition of a pamphlet on clerical celibacy. Purportedly written by St Ulrich (890-973), Bishop of Augsburg—an authorship now identified as 'Pseudo-Ulrich'—'Epistola' first appeared in C11 Germany during debates on clerical celibacy raised by Gregory Vii. The addressee, named 'Pope Nicholas', was probably Nicholas II, supporter of a controversial policy on clerical chastity in the mid-1050s. 'Epistola' explained that the Pope's duty was to recommend and praise but not to impose celibacy—hence its frequent use during early C16 debates on this topic. A useful authority, in addition to St Augustine, was Paphnutius of Thebes (4th century) who, at the First Council of Nicaea, criticised the decision to forbid clerics who had been ordained after marriage to abstain from their wives. The short preface stating that 'celibacy is an excellent thing, not as much when it is imposed' was written by Martin Luther. Important English Reformers like John Foxe apparently owned manuscript copies. Melchior II Lotter was responsible for printing Luther's Old and New Testament in 1522-24. USTC 651268; Benzing 818a; WA Br. 12, Nr. 4217; BM STC Ger., p. 878; Proctor 11917; Knaake III, 1055. L1613
Questio quotlibetica de effectibus quos consuetudo operat[ur] in foro conscientiae.

Questio quotlibetica de effectibus quos consuetudo operat[ur] in foro conscientiae.

TAPPER, Ruard FIRST EDITION. 4to. 15 unnumbered ll., A-D 4 , lacking D 4 (final blank). Woodcut initial. T- p a bit dusty, very rare marginal spotting. A very good copy in modern boards, the odd early annotation. Very good copy of this scarce theological pamphlet on the effects of ‘ecclesiastical custom’ on Christian conscience. Ruard Tapper (or Tappart, 1487-1559) was a Catholic theologian, dean of St Peter’s Church and chancellor of the university at Leuven; he was also an eminent, notoriously ruthless inquisitor. Delivered as a lecture at Leuven in 1520, ‘Questio’ focuses on the concept of ‘consuetudo’—which may mean ‘action carried out frequently’, ‘law drawn from customary actions’ and, to canon law experts addressed in this work, an ‘ecclesiastical custom’ which is binding to the individual and the community. ‘Questio’ examines the tensions between ecclesiastical and natural (i.e., traditional, non-ecclesiastical) customs, and how even socially-radicated ecclesiastical customs may go against regulations determined by canonical authority in the course of the centuries. In particular, it focuses on the effects of these tensions on the conscience of individuals who may defy ecclesiastical custom in private—e.g., perceiving one’s marriage as null despite its validity—whilst respecting it in public. No copies recorded in the US. USTC 437145; Nijhoff & Kronenberg 3917. Not in BM STC Dutch., Brunet or Graesse. L1611
Orationes XXIII (with) Eiusdem interpretatio quincti libri Ethicorum Aristotelis ad Nicomachum (and) Hymnorvm sacrorvm liber.

Orationes XXIII (with) Eiusdem interpretatio quincti libri Ethicorum Aristotelis ad Nicomachum (and) Hymnorvm sacrorvm liber.

MURET, Marc-Antoine FIRST EDITIONS. 8vo. Three works in one, pp. (xvi) 320 (vi) 37 (i) (ii) 57 (i), second with half, third with separate t-p. Italic letter, with Roman, little Greek. First and third t-ps with Paulus Manutius’s woodcut portrait to recto and arms of Emperor Maximilian II with Aldine device to verso; woodcut portrait of Muret within oval cartouche, grotesque headpieces, decorated initials and tailpieces. A few ll. lightly browned, upper margins a bit trimmed, occasional slight marginal foxing, tiny worm trail to inner gutter of a few gatherings. A good copy in contemporary vellum, spine in four compartments, raised bands,  lettering in two hands, shelfmark at foot. ‘12-5’ (price?) on front pastedown, illegible later annotation to first t-p, ‘K.2. II app. Le (?) 762’ (bibliographic reference?), ‘Calle(?)’ in red crayon, ‘170’ and ‘19/46’ ms. to rear eps. Good, original copies of the first editions of Marc-Antoine Muret’s much-commended rhetorical, philosophical and poetic works. Muret (or Muretus, 1526-85) was a French humanist and talented Latin author skilled—like his classical model, Cicero—in all genres. Among his admirers were Henry II and Ronsard. After years of wondering to escape persecution for his alleged homosexuality, he spent the rest of his life in Rome under the auspices of Cardinal Ippolito d’Este. This was the first florilegium of his complete works. His 23 orations, which bear the date of their first delivery, deal with rhetoric (e.g., a defence of ‘humanae litterae’, the conjunction of ‘eloquentia’ and philosophy); commentaries on Aristotle’s ‘Nichomachaean Ethics’, Cicero’s ‘Tusculanae disputationes’ and Justinian’s ‘Pandectas’; apologies for European princes and funeral elegies for Charles IX of France and Pope Pius V. The second part is devoted to a commentary of Book V of Aristotle’s ‘Nichomachaean Ethics’, a foundational text for medieval legal, theological and moral debates. Following Aristotle, Muret reflects on justice, how it relates to virtue, what virtue signifies for individuals, communities and lawmakers, and when justice should be considered virtuous. The ‘Hymns’ are outstanding instances of Neo-Latin verse devoted to sundry topics including liturgical days (e.g., Saint Barbara’s day, Christmas and Epiphany), of which they summarise the devotional essence, odes to friends, scholars, politicians, and the celebration of great minds like a poem on Raphael’s tomb. Muret also admitted that two poems he had officially attributed to the Roman playwrights Trabea and Accius were in fact his own work. ‘Hymnorvm liber’ was originally intended as the third part of the florilegium; although here it bears a separate imprint, there is no USTC number for this 1575 first edition, and it is missing from some recorded copies. USTC 843780; Rénouard 219:11; Brunet III, 1952; BM STC It., p. 457. Not in Gamba. L2832b
Suplicatio quorundam apud Helvetios evangelistarum ad r. D. Hugonem episcopum Constantiensem.

Suplicatio quorundam apud Helvetios evangelistarum ad r. D. Hugonem episcopum Constantiensem.

ZWINGLI, Ulrich FIRST EDITION thus. 4to. 8 unnumbered ll., A-B4. Roman letter. Woodcut frame with leafy tendrils to t-p. T-p a little dust-soiled, old repair to gutter of first couple of ll., faint waterstaining to upper outer corner, the odd thumb or ink mark. A very good copy, with wide margins, in modern boards, early inked numeral to t-p, manicula and marginal annotation. Very good copy of the first edition (?) of this important contribution to the debate on clerical and monastic celibacy by Ulrich Zwingli and signed by other ten reformed religious. Zwingli (1484-1531) was a leader of the Swiss Reformation influenced by Erasmus’s humanist theories and Luther’s theology. His works include petitions and pamphlets concerning issues of canon law on which he disagreed with the Roman Catholics. Addressed to the Bishop of Constance, ‘Suplicatio’ argued against the celibacy of the clergy and monks—a vow Zwingli himself had recently broken by getting married. The Latin text, also printed by Froschauer in Zurich, was issued after the German version of the same year, addressed to the Swiss authorities and the wider public. Following Luther’s work, published in 1522, Zwingli considered celibacy a human not divine ordinance, hence he saw no obligation for clerics and monks to follow it. The annotator of this copy was interested in Zwingli’s view that ‘chastity is an angelic gift’ which comes from God and may not be given to everyone; it is better, Zwingli upheld, for those who cannot be continent to be allowed to marry, rather than they should break the vow of chastity and commit a sin. Only Folger copy recorded in the US. USTC 695031; VD16 Z898; Finler, Zwingli-bibliographie, 3c. Not in BM STC Ger. or Graesse. L1614
Opusculum de Jubileo siue Peregrinatorium ad urbem Romanam.

Opusculum de Jubileo siue Peregrinatorium ad urbem Romanam.

BERNARDUS de LUTZENBURGO FIRST EDITION. 4to. 14 unnumbered ll., A-B4 C6. Roman letter. T-p with decorated head- and tailpiece. Very light age browning, faint waterstaining to blank upper outer corners, a little light spotting, gutter of last reinforced. A very good, crisp, well-margined copy in boards, early inked numeral to t-p. First edition of this very scarce pamphlet on the theology and customs of the Jubilee, designed for the benefit of laymen journeying to Rome for its celebration. Most were probably discarded on its completion. Bernardus de Lutzenburgo (d. 1535) was a Dominican friar and the author of sermons and treatises on topics including the punishments of heretics and capital sins. ‘Opusculum’ is a concise guide to the Jubilee, declared by Clement VII for the same year. It examines its meaning and origins, functions (remission of sins, celebration of the saints and martyrs, solicitation of charity) and legal aspects, the kinds of ‘grace’ or remission available with the purchase of indulgences, the sundry alterations to the regulations made by popes since the fourteenth century, and the evils committed by those who forbid penitents from purchasing indulgences. It ends with a list of the stations along the pilgrimage from Cologne to Rome. The Quentell press from Cologne, mentioned in the colophon, was responsible for the publication of parts of Tyndale’s Bible in the 1520s. No copies recorded in the US. USTC 679898; B 1995. Not in BM STC Ger. or Graesse. L1616
De agricultura vulgare.

De agricultura vulgare.

CRESCENZI, Pietro de’ Small 4to. ff. 235 [234] (vi). Roman letter, large Gothic to t-p, double column. Woodcut of Justice to recto and large woodcut from Alexander Grammaticus’s Doctrinale (1513) to verso of t-p; c.30 small woodcuts in text of rural scenes (some repeated); decorated initials. Lower blank half of last leaf replaced, upper margins slightly trimmed, occasional minor yellowing. A fine copy, on high-quality paper, in C19 polished calf, double gilt ruled border, gilt arms of Victor Spitalieri de Cessole family to covers, silk bookmark, marbled pastedowns, a.e.g. Spine in six double gilt ruled compartments, five with gilt leafy tendrils. Erased autograph (?) on front pastedown, the odd mark in red crayon. A fine, handsomely illustrated, copy of the Italian translation of Pietro de’ Crescenzi’s famous writings on agriculture, printed in over 50 editions in several languages between 1471 and 1600. Crescenzi (c.1230/30-1320) studied law, medicine and natural science at Bologna. After retiring from a long legal career, he spent much time at his estate in the Bolognese countryside. There he was inspired to write ‘De agricultura vulgare’ (c.1304)— first printed as ‘Ruralia commoda’ in Nuremberg in 1471—a treatise on agriculture based on classical and medieval sources and his direct experience. Like its most important models—Columella’s ‘De re rustica’ and Palladius’s ‘Opus agriculturae’—‘De agricultura’ was fundamental for the humanist re-elaboration of the rustic values of landownership so dear to the ancient Roman elites. The work presents an ideal ‘holistic’ landowner who is knowledgeable about all aspects of estate management, from the architecture of buildings to the caretaking of gardens and meadows, wine-making, bee-keeping, hunting, farming, and the use of trees and plants for medicinal and nutritional purposes. The physical and spiritual well-being of Crescenzi’s country life is identified with the harmony of the human and the natural following Avicenna’s theories of the bodily humours. The superb woodcuts, many of which were drawn from the Venetian edition of 1495, depict a variety of subjects, from techniques for distilling river water and planning gardens to ways of ensuring that oxen ‘cooperate’ whilst pulling the plough—a tongue-in-cheek vignette, this, in which the artist inserted, behind the customary peasant figure, that of Hercules carrying out his tenth labour of bringing back from the end of the world the uncooperative cattle of Geryon. This copy belonged to the Spitalieri de Cessole family from Nice who amassed a great library. The gilt arms were commissioned by Henry de Cessole in 1850. Graesse II, 299: USTC 824568; BM STC It., p. 203; Essling, 845; Sander, 2238; Simon 162. Not in Bitting, Vicaire or Oberlé. L2865
The King’s Maiesties Declaration to His Subjects concerning lawfull Sports to be used.

The King’s Maiesties Declaration to His Subjects concerning lawfull Sports to be used.

CHARLES I FIRST EDITION. 4to. pp. (iv) 18. A-C⁴ First leaf blank but for signature-mark "A" in part of a woodcut frame, lacking last blank C4. Large Italic letter. Woodcut ornament on t-p, at heads of dedication and text, full page cut of Royal arms on t-p verso, note in a near contemporary hand explaining the contents of the work on “A”. Light age yellowing, recto of first leaf dusty, the odd thumb mark or spot, cut a little close in upper margin just touching page numbers. A very good copy crisp and clean in modern boards. In 1618 James I, travelling back from Scotland to London ‘Found that his subjects were debarred from Lawful Recreations upon Sundayes after evening prayer ended, and upon Holy dayes.’ James was concerned that ‘the meaner sort who labour hard all the weeke, should have no Recreations at all to refresh their spirits.’ but also that the prohibition of legitimate recreation would both ‘set up filthy tiplings and drunkennesse’ and encourage disaffection, especially in areas like strongly Catholic Lancashire. There the established church was not popular, to which James specifically refers. Accordingly James declared that no-one was to be prevented from lawful recreation after the end of services - dancing, leaping, vaulting, archery, morris dances, May games, Whitson Ales, May poles and the like were to be freely indulged in. Unlawful games such as bear and bull baiting remained prohibited, as ‘at all time in the meaner sort of people. Bowling’ also the carrying and use of any sort of weapon. Fifteen years later, James’ son Charles I, found that under the pretence of remedying abuses there had been forbidden in some places both secular meetings and ecclesiastical feasts. In the second part of this work Charles reiterates and republishes his father’s declaration, commanding all justices, mayors, constables etc. to implement and obey it or ‘tender our displeasure’. Apart from enlightened social policy Charles’ intervention was covertly to rebuff the Puritans and overtly to convince the Catholics (whom he wished to convert to Anglicanism) that honest mirth and recreation were tolerated in the official religion. A splendid piece of primary social history. ESTC. S101032. “A reprinting of the proclamation by James I of 24 May 1618, with an endorsement by Charles I dated at end: “Westminster the eighteenth day of October, in the ninth yeere of our reigne.” STC. 9254.7. The variant with headpiece on A4r of a winged woman. XL
Epistolarum Pauli Manutii Libri 10. Duobus nuper additis eiusdem quae Praefationes appellantur.

Epistolarum Pauli Manutii Libri 10. Duobus nuper additis eiusdem quae Praefationes appellantur.

MANUZIO, Paolo 8vo. 3 parts in one. pp. [xvi], 469, [iii]; 67, [v]; 139, [xiii]. [A-2G8, 2H4; a-d8 e4; A-I8 K4.] Preface in Roman letter, text in Italic. Large woodcut Aldine anchor & dolphin device with legend ‘Aldus Iunior’ on 1st and 2nd titles and at end of first two parts, Aldine woodcut device (without ‘Aldus Iunior’) at the end of third part, miniature woodcut portrait of Aldus Manutius the Elder, within architectural border, on verso of first and second titles, early ownership inscription on 1st title “Michaelii Pasini” 1628, 1632, several others crossed out, occasional marginal notes and underlinings, notes in probably Pasini’s hand on verso of last leaf. Light age yellowing, two quires lightly browned, some marginal spots and thumb marks, occasional minor, mostly marginal, light waterstaning, a little short at head A good copy in quarter speckled sheep over marbled boards c. 1700, spine with blind ruled raised bands, small fleurons gilt at centres of compartments, tan morocco title label gilt lettered, all edges sprinkled red, worn a head, a few small worm holes in lower compartment. A collection of the celebrated Latin epistles in Ciceronian style by the Venetian scholar - printer Paolo Manuzio (1512-74), third son of Aldo the Elder (1449-1515), founder of the famous Aldine press. The letters, dated between 1558 and 1570, were edited and printed by Paolo’s eldest son Aldo the Younger (with his unusual ‘Aldus Junior’ device, Ahmanson-Murphy A22a) who had succeeded to the family business in 1561, when his father left for Rome to manage the Tipografia del Popolo Romano for Pope Pius IV. Aldo the Younger was a professor of literature who wrote a treatise on Latin spelling. The 3rd part contains Paolo Manuzio’s dedicatory prefaces to his redactions of the classics. Indexes at the end of the volume list the names of the 124 recipients of the letters, and the names of the 28 dedicatees of the prefaces. The circular woodcut portrait of his father, Aldus Manutius the Elder is surrounded with the legend : Aldus Pius Manutius R.; the architectural border comprises the Aldine arms and motto ‘Insigne Manutianum’. Complete as called for in the final register. Some copies however are found with the 27 pages of book XI, which were printed as a supplement to this edition and which are found bound in some copies, (see a long explanatory note in Renouard). This eleventh part was then printed as an integral part of the 1573 edition. Renouard 212-213, no 7. USTC 840490. Adams. M 489. L2913
des Xpiens

des Xpiens, qui enseigne à chascun bon chrestien et crestienne la voye et le chemin pour aller en Paradis.

LE GRANT ORDINAIRE 4to. ff. 149 [i]. Lettre Bâtard in double column. Title in red and black with large grotesque initial, partial border made up of eleven small woodcuts of devotional scenes, some in white on black criblé, full page woodcut on verso of title, fine full-page woodcut of Christ in Glory on verso of A4, two small text woodcuts, first quire printed in red and black, small woodcut white on black criblé initials, occasional marginal manuscript annotation in a slightly later hand, bookplate of Miss Audrey Ridsdale on pastedown. Light age yellowing, some light mostly marginal spotting, a few quires with light browning, the rare marginal mark or spot. A very good copy, crisp and clean, in early C19th probably English close grained green morocco, covers bordered with a double gilt rule, scrolled border with floral and leaf tools, central arabesque of small tools gilt, spine with raised bands richly gilt in compartments, red morocco label, gilt lettered, inner dentelles gilt. Spine and joints darkened. All edges yellow. Exceptionally rare edition, probably the second by the Veufe Trepperel, of this beautifully printed and illustrated popular work of devotion; it is recored in one other copy only, at the BNF. All early editions are extremely rare. The work is undated in the colophon and title, but can be dated from the text; on the verso of ff. 149 : "En lan mil cinq cens et xx le premier jour de febvrier apres la nativite de nostre seigneur fut dernierement consomme ce present livre " The ‘Grand Ordinaire des Chretiens’ is a popular devotional work which forms a guide for ‘All good Christians’, male and female, along the route to salvation, teaching in the vernacular all that you were required to believe, how you were supposed to behave, what to avoid doing, what you needed to fear and what to hope for, on the path to salvation. It is in effect a popular and vernacular form of the catechism. This kind of guide to salvation was particularly popular at the beginning of the C16th in France predating the reformation. It is divided into five parts, the first dealing with Baptism and the Creed, the second with the Ten commandments, including a long discussion of the seven deadly sins, the third with good deeds and works of mercy, the fourth with confession, and the final chapter on the sufferings of hell and the joys of Paradise. “Le Grand Ordinaire garde quelques-uns des caractères d’une vieille catéchèse orientée vers des recettes de comportements, ‘moins soucieusse de précision dogmatique que tournée vers la pratique des oeuvres et singulièrement la confession.’” Elisabeth Germain. ‘Parler du salut?: Aux origines d'une mentalité religieuse.” It is less a work of Christian doctrine and more a manual on how to live well and die well, directed to ordinary people with almost entirely practical instruction. It offers fascinating insight into how the church expected ordinary people to behave just before this kind of work was completely overridden by the the Reformation, which created new forms of the Catechism to which the Catholic Church then responded with updated catechisms of its own. Rare. FR BNF 33407250. Not in USTC. BM STC Fr. C16th, Fairfax Murray or Mortimer. L2878
method-draw-image (23)

Revocatio literarum et constitutionum foel. rec. Pii papae V pro mendicantibus et aliis regularibus contra locorum ordinarios, ad terminos iuris communis

GREGORY XIII] Folio. 2 unnumbered and unsigned ll. Title with oval woodcuts of demi-dragon of the Boncompagni family, Sts Peter and Paul and decorated initial. Very minor marginal spotting, all edges untrimmed. An excellent, clean copy, early casemark to upper margin of first. An excellent, remarkably clean copy of this scarce papal bull issued by Gregory XIII in the first year of his pontificate, which revoked regulations approved by his predecessor. Pius V had in fact overruled pastoral limitations imposed by the Council of Trent on mendicant orders by allowing their members to act, among other things, as secular confessors without the bishop’s approval—partly to improve pastoral provision in the New World colonies. In this bull, Gregory XIII reduced these liberties and brought back the regulation of the mendicant orders under the rules of ecclesiastical law to require episcopal permission for such privileges. The bull was first published in 1572 and reprinted in the following year in Rome, Brescia and Paris. This edition bears a re-set title and different woodcut decorations to ‘Reductio literarum et constitutionum’ (EDIT16 42444), with which it shares the exact text. The key word of the title—‘Reductio’—becomes here ‘Revocatio’ with a different title setting and woodcuts. Only two copies of this edition appear to be recorded. The Blado press was responsible for printing official documents of the Papal States including a great amount of bulls which, due to their ephemeral nature, have rarely survived unscathed. No copies recorded in the US, only two other recorded. Fumagalli 2154. L2298