last 24 hours
last 7 days
last 30 days
older than 30 days

Detlev Auvermann Rare Books

Pithecanthropus erectus; Eine menschenaehnliche Uebergangsform aus Java. Von Eug. Dubois

Pithecanthropus erectus; Eine menschenaehnliche Uebergangsform aus Java. Von Eug. Dubois, Militairarzt der niederlaendisch-indischen Armee.

DUBOIS, Euge?ne [Eugen] 4to, pp. [4], 39, [1], with three photographic illustrations in the text, and two photographic plates (faced by a half-page descriptive note each); lightly browned; front free end-paper reinforced in the gutter; a good copy in the original publisher’s cloth-backed boards; spine renewed and the boards a bit rubbed and lightly soiled; offered with a group of 26 offprints by Dubois, largely on the same subject. FIRST EDITION, THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE DISCOVERY OF HOMO ERECTUS, PRINTED IN A SMALL PRINT RUN IN BATAVIA, NOW JAKARTA, AND HERE ACCOMPANIED BY A MOST COHERENT GROUP OF 26 VERY RARE PUBLICATIONS BY DUBOIS ON COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. Although hominid fossils had been found and studied before, Dubois was the first anthropologist to embark upon a purposeful search for them. Dubois was born and raised in the village of Eijsden, Limburg, where his father, Jean Dubois, was an apothecary, later the mayor. Interested in all phenomena of the world of nature, Eugène explored the ‘caves’ (‘Grotten’, actually underground limestone mines) of Mount St Peter and amassed collections of plant parts, stones, insects, shells, and animal skulls. From age 12-13 on, he attended school in the Limburg city of Roermond, boarding with a family there and then he dropped out. In Roermond he attended lectures on Darwin’s new theory of evolution given by the German biologist, Karl Vogt. Resisting his apothecary father’s plan to follow in his footsteps, Dubois, encouraged by his teachers, in 1877 decided to study medicine at the University of Amsterdam. While a student he taught anatomy at both of the brand new (founded 1880) art schools housed at the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam the Rijksschool voor Kunstnijverheid (State School for Applied Arts) and the Rijksnormaalschool voor Teekenonderwijzers (State Normal School for Drawing Instructors). In 1884 he obtained his medical degree. He declined an offer from the University of Utrech of a position as a teacher. Instead, at the invitation of his anatomy instructor, Max Fürbinger, creator of several ‘genealogical systems’ or evolutionary trees, he decided to train as an academic. From 1881 to 1887 he studied comparative anatomy and became Fürbinger’s assistant. His chief interest was in human evolution, influenced by Ernst Haeckel, who reasoned that there must be intermediate species between ape and human. Following the discovery of a prehistoric flint mine near the village of Rijckholt, Dubois himself finds human skulls there. ‘Appointed lecturer in anatomy at the University of Amsterdam (1886), Dubois investigated the comparative anatomy of the larynx in vertebrates but became increasingly interested in human evolution. In 1887 he went to the East Indies as a military surgeon and, on the island of Sumatra, began to excavate caves in search of remains of early hominins (members of the human lineage). ‘Continuing his quest on the island of Java, Dubois found at Trinil a jaw fragment (1890) and later a skullcap and thighbone. The skull gave evidence of a small brain, massive browridges, a flat, retreating forehead, and other apelike features. Dubois named the fossils Pithecanthropus erectus, or "upright ape-man," to indicate an intermediate phase in the evolution then believed to proceed from simian ancestors having the upright posture characteristic of modern man. After publishing his findings (1894) he returned to Europe (1895) and became a professor of geology at the University of Amsterdam. Because of controversy surrounding his discovery, he withdrew his materials from all examination until 1923’ (Encyclopaedia Britannica, online).The 26 offprints, dating from 1886 to 1939, included here (3 in German, 4 in Dutch, and 19 in English, the majority from the Proceedings of the Meetings of the Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam) are significant both textually and in demonstrating Dubois’ on-going struggle in gaining recognition for his ground-braking discovery.
Isaaci Newton

Isaaci Newton, Matheseos Professoris Cantabrigiensis, & Regiae Societatis Anglicanae Socii, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Londoni, jussu Soc. Regiae, 1687, in 4. [contained in:] Acta Eruditorum Anno M DC LXXXVIII publicata, ac Serenissimo Principi Ac Domino Dn. Friderico, Regnorum Daniae ac Norvegiae Haeredi &c. &c. Dicata.

NEWTON]. [PFAUTZ, Christoph]. THE IMPORTANT ACTA ERUDITORUM REVIEW OF THE PRINCIPIA. There were four early reviews of the Principia: the first appeared in no. 186 of the Philosophical Transactions but, ‘not only did Halley finance, edit, publish and distribute Principia, he also reviewed it, anonymously, in P[hilosophical] T[ransactions]. It is little more than a summery interspersed with expressions of praise’. The second appeared in the Bibliothèque Universelle of March 1688, consisting ‘of nothing more than the headings of the sections of Books I and II translated into French. There is also a summary of Book III, and an introductory paragraph ’ The final review was that in the Journal des sçavans, August, 1688, in which ‘Newton’s hypothesis was dismissed as arbitrary, unproven and belonging to geometry rather than mechanics’. Published in June, 1688, the review in the Acta offered here is the third in sequence, and ‘the most detailed and serious of the four reviews. It was comprehensive enough to provide many people in Europe without access to the Principia itself with a fairly full account of its contents’ (Gjertsen, The Newton Handbook p. 472). ‘New evidence has recently enabled the author of this book review [in the Acta] to be identified as Christoph Pfautz (1645-1711), a professor of mathematics at the University of Leipzig . Pfautz was a logical choice to be the reviewer of the Principia. He was a professional mathematician interested in astronomy. He was also a close associate of the editor, Mencke, and was a regular reviewer of the Acta ‘It is evident that Pfautz is making a careful and complete paraphrase or summery or “epitome” (as we shall see Newton call it) of the Principia, much like an extended and detailed analytical table of contents Following an extended summery of the many different topics explored by Newton, Pfautz reaches the conclusion of Book Two. He fully appreciates the significance of Newton’s demonstration that the speed of planets in their orbits, moving “more slowly in their aphelia and more swiftly in their perihelia” is “the opposite of what ought to happen according to the mechanical law of vortices”. He apparently can find no fault with Newton’s ringing conclusion that the planetary speeds in Cartesian vortices contradict the celestial phenomena, even though he does not comment on the significance of the dreadful blow that Newton has dealt to Cartesian physics. That Pfautz fully understood some of the main principles of Newton’s dynamics is made clear in his discussion in Book Three of the motion of the planets. For he says that, using what he has “said in the preceding books”, Newton “demonstrates” that “the forces by which the circumjovial planets, the primary planets, and the moon are continually drawn away from rectilinear motions and are kept in the orbits” are the result of “their gravitation toward Jupiter, the sun and the earth”. It was a primary feature of Newtonian dynamics thus to explain curved or orbital motion and a continual acceleration or falling toward a center as a result of a centripetal force, which in the case of planets and satellites is the force of gravity. Thus Newton dismissed from physics the ambiguous and misleading notion of a centrifugal force. ‘Pfautz review achieved a special importance in 1689, when Lebniz referred to it in one of the three articles published in the Acta: the “Tentamen de Motuum Coelestium Causis” (Essay on the Causes of the Motions of the Heavenly Bodies). In this work, Leibniz set forth an alternative explanation to Newton’s’ (I. Bernard Cohen, ‘The review of the first edition of Newton’s Principia in the Acta Eruditorum, with notes on the other reviews’ in The investigation of difficult Things. Essays on Newton and the History of the Exact Sciences pp. 323-336).
method-draw-image (23)

Soviet War News Weekly

A NEARLY COMPLETE RUN OF THIS RUSSIAN WWII NEWSPAPER, PUBLISHED IN LONDON BETWEEN JANUARY 22, 1942, AND MAY 17, 1945, AND LACKING ONLY THE FINAL ISSUE UNDER THAT TITLE. I am confident that Soviet War News Weekly will regularly keep the British public in touch with everything in my country. It should report not only on the daily march of events on the front, not only on the changes and movements on the battlefield, but also the great struggle of the people in the rear; on the daily war effort of the ordinary worker, farmer and intellectual; on the difficulties which are facing them and on the way in which they are overcoming the greatest obstacles. It should give news about the progress of Soviet science, literature and art in wartime, about the problems of Soviet industry and technique, about the life of our towns and villages to-day and about the guerrillas, those brave men and women who fight our struggle behind the enemy lines. In this way the Soviet War News Weekly , the first Soviet newspaper in Britain, will serve a purpose which is common to all of us to foster the growing spirit of political understanding and human friendship between the great British people and my own (Ivan Mikhailovich Maisky, Soviet diplomat and the Soviet Union s Ambassador to the United Kingdom, on the front page of the first issue). The papers purpose was to inform the British and their allies of the enormous Russian war effort on the Eastern Front, both in terms of men and materials. Despite the fact that the information was one-sided, and in spite of the vituperative propaganda, the newspaper contains an abundance of information about, and many illustrations of the war in Russia. There are numerous contributions by the controversial Jewish Soviet writer, Bolshevik revolutionary, journalist and historian Ilya Grigoryevich Ehrenburg, including his article Kill , published in issue no. 37, October 1, 1942. The last number, and not present here, came out on May 24, 1945, just over 2 weeks after the German capitulation. After that date the paper continued under the title The Soviet News Weekly. This journal is extremely rare outside the UK, Germany, and France. OCLC locates copies at Tel Aviv and Haifa, and four in Canada, at the University of British Columbia and at three Toronto libraries (unless there is some duplication regarding the latter entries). There are no locations for the US.
De igne

De igne

THEOPHRASTUS. Two vols. in one, 4to, pp. 24; [4], 25, [3]; occasional foxing, slightly heavier to the Greek title-page; the Latin title and dedication misbound towards end; otherwise a very good copies in 18th-century calf over marbled boards; boards and spine a bit worn; upper joint cracked, but firm. FIRST EDITION OF TURNÈBE S ANNOTATED LATIN TRANSLATION OF THEOPHRASTUS INTERESTING WORK ON FIRE, A WORK SOMETIMES INTERPRETED AS A SERIOUS DEPARTURE FROM ARISTOTLE S PHYSICS, AND HERE BOUND WITH TURNÈBE S PRINTING OF THE ORIGINAL GREEK TEXT OF THE FOLLOWING YEAR. Concerning Theophrastus account of the four elements, it has been debated to what extent this conforms to the Aristotelian doctrine. In particular, it is not clear whether Theophrastus followed Aristotle in holding that the heavens are made of a fifth element, the ether, distinct from the four sublunary elements, or whether he claimed that the heavens are simply made of fire It has been argued, for instance, that Theophrastus abandoned the fifth element, but used it only in arguments against Plato without endorsing it himself (see Steinmetz 1964). There is no doubt, on the other hand, that he gave prominence to the element of fire. In his short treatise On Fire, Theophrastus distinguished heavenly fire from terrestrial fire, which is always mixed with other elements, and pointed out that, in contrast to the other three elements, terrestrial fire can be generated artificially and constantly requires refuelling. Most importantly, Theophrastus postulated that fire, or heat, is active while the other three elements are passive In fact, this Theophrastean view has been interpreted as a serious departure from Aristotle s physics, according to which hot and cold are active while moist and dry are passive. Against this interpretation, however, it has been remarked that, since the Aristotelian biology postulates only the hot as active, Theophrastus did nothing but extend Aristotle s view to physics in general (see Longrigg 1975). Furthermore, although some scholars have presented the action of the hot as constituting for Theophrastus the reason for the interchanges between the elements, others have counterclaimed that these should be understood as qualitative and not just due to a mechanical mixture (see Steinmetz 1964; Gottschalk 1967) (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, online). One of the most eminent French humanists of the Renaissance, Adrien Turnèbe was a specialist in Greek textual criticism, and printer. His Greek edition of Theophrastus work on fire is one of the first Greek printings from the Royal Press (1552-1556); the text first appeared in the monumental Greek of Aristotle s Opera printed by Aldus. Turnèbe (1512-1565) was born at Les Andelys, a former province of northwestern France on the English Channel, now Normandy. At the age of twelve he was sent to Paris to study, and attracted great notice by his remarkable abilities. After having held the post of professor of belles-lettres at the University of Toulouse, he returned to Paris as professor, or Royal reader, of Greek at the College Royal in 1547. In 1552 he was entrusted with the printing of the Greek books at the Royal Press, in which he was assisted by his friend Guillaume Morel. He died of tuberculosis on June 12, 1565. Provenance: Dr Askew sale, Baker and Leigh, 4 March 1775, lot 3145 (manuscript auction label to upper cover), and apparently acquired by Michael Wodhull on that day; William O Brian, bequest booklabel dated 1899; stamp of the Jesuit library at Milltown Park on front free endpaper. Adams T 580 & T 581; Neville Historical Chemical Library II, pp. 542-543 (the Latin text only); Partington I, 127; not in Durling, Duveen, Ferguson or Wellcome; with the Greek text apparently decidedly rarer than the Latin, the few copies containing both the Greek and Latin versions located by OCLC are at the University of Firenze Humanities Library, Staatsbibliothek Berlin, British Library, Cambridge, and Manchester; the
Della caduta di un sasso dall aria ragionamento.

Della caduta di un sasso dall aria ragionamento.

TROILI, Domenico 4to, pp. [viii], 120; some very light marginal foxing, but a fine copy, entirely uncut, in the original Italian carta rustica; end-papers foxed; covers lightly soiled. VERY RARE FIRST EDITION OF THIS FASCINATING SCIENTIFIC REPORT BY THE ITALIAN JESUIT AND STUDENT OF BOSCOVICH, DOMENICO TROILI, RECOGNIZED THROUGH THE PRESENT PUBLICATION AS THE FIRST PERSON TO DOCUMENT THE FALL OF A METEORITE. In 1766, Troili witnessed the fall of a stone from the sky near the town of Albareto, in the Duchy of Parma, Italy. He collected reports from many other eyewitnesses, closely examined the stone and detected in it small grains of a brassy mineral. He called the material marchesita (from Italian little marchioness ). Troili summarized the results of his research in [his] Ragionamento della caduta di un sasso ( Concerning the fall of a stone from the air ) published in Modena in 1766. The report by Troili said that at about five hours after midday, when the sky was clear except for some clouds over the mountains on the far horizon, many people leaving their fields suddenly saw distant flashes of lightning and heard thunder. This rose in a crescendo of cannonading with loud explosions overhead. Numerous people saw a body streak across the sky and plunge to the ground. To some, the trail looked bright and fiery; to others, dark and smoky. The body hit the ground with such a force that a cow was knocked off its feet and two women clung to trees to avoid falling. The stone made a hole a meter deep in the earth and instantly broke into many pieces. It was a stone that was very heavy, irregular in shape, and magnetic. The outer surface looked as though it had been burned by fire. The inner parts looked much like sandstone with small steely sparkles. Approximately 2 kilograms of the stone were recovered. Today its small fragments are dispersed in numerous museums and laboratories, with the largest piece of 605 g located in the Museum of the University of Modena. The main component of the meteorite was long assumed to be pyrite, FeS2. However, in 1862, German mineralogist Gustav Rose analyzed the composition and determined it as FeS, an iron sulphide. Rose named this new mineral troilite after Troili (Wikepedia). Highly erudite, Troili traces back recordings of meteorite falls through history, with references to and quotes from Pliny, Aristotle, Titus Livius, and more recent and contemporary authors such as Gesner, Cardano, Gemma Frisius, Gassendi, Descartes, Cabeo, the English natural theologian and natural philosopher, William Derham, Redi, Daubenton, Vallisnieri, Josef Stepling, Boscovich, and the pioneer of conchology, Niccolò Gualtieri. He also refers to samples preserved in various museums or private collections, such as those of Anselmus de Boodt and Johann Joachim Brackenhoffer, and discusses related electrical phenomena and lightning, as studied by Beccaria and Franklin. The work was republished by the same printers in the following year. Poggendorff II, 1136; Riccardi I/2, 560. 2; Sommervogel VIII, 252; not in Houzeau and Lancaster or Sinkankas; KvK records two locations only, at Göttingen, and Österreichische Nationalbibliothek; OCLC locates copies at the Smithsonian, Harvard, University of California, Berkeley, and Columbia University, New York.
De homine libri duo. Georgi Merulae alexandrine in Galeotum annotationes. Cum indicibus utrobiq[ue] contentoru[m] & copiosissimis & certissimis.

De homine libri duo. Georgi Merulae alexandrine in Galeotum annotationes. Cum indicibus utrobiq[ue] contentoru[m] & copiosissimis & certissimis.

MARZIO, Galeotto 4to, ff. [10], 133, [1]; title within a fine woodcut border by Hans Holbein, numerous fine woodcut initials, two over 9 lines; Froben’s large woodcut device at end; a fine copy, bound in a stiff contemporary vellum sheet (see below). FIRST FROBEN EDITION, THE FIRST PRINTING OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY AND THE FIRST PRINTING OUTSIDE ITALY, OF MARZIO’S WORK ON HUMAN ANATOMY, BEAUTIFULLY PRODUCED AND HERE PRESERVED IN A WONDERFUL EXAMPLE OF A STRICTLY CONTEMPORARY, ASCETIC VELLUM BINDING. Martius Galeotti (1442-1494) was an Italian astrologer, born in Narni, Umbria. He settled first in Boulogne and then went to Hungary after his religious views proved unpopular with the Catholic Church. In Hungary he became secretary to King Matthias Corvinus (Matthias I), and also tutor to the latter’s son, Prince John. His work De jocose Dictis et Factis Regis Matthias Covirni further incurred the displeasure of the church and he was taken to Venice where he was imprisoned for a time. He was released following the intervention of Pope Sixtus IV, whose tutor he is said to have been at an earlier date. He subsequently returned to France where he became state-astrologer to King Louis XI. De homine is arranged in the classic way, describing the various parts of the body from head to toe, and with discussions of various diseases interspersed. Besides references to authorities such as Cornelius Celsus and Pliny, most others are to classical poets including Plautus, Persius, Manilius, Lucretius, Horace and Vergil. Galen and Hippocrates are not generally named, but appear cumulatively as (auctores) ‘Graeci’. Appended to Martius’ work is a critical commentary by the Italian humanist and classical scholar Giorgio Merula (c. 1430–1494). The greater part of his life was spent in Venice and Milan, where he held a professorship and continued to teach until his death. While he was teaching at Venice, he was the subject of a personal polemic by Cornelio Vitelli, directed at his scholarship. Merula produced the editio princeps of Plautus (1472), of the Scriptores rei rustica, Cato, Varro, Columella, Palladius (1472) and possibly of Martial (1471). He also published commentaries on portions of Cicero, on Ausonius, Juvenal, Curtius Rufus, and other classical authors. De homine was first printed in Italy around 1471 two further incunable editions followed. The first joint appearance of Martius’ work with Merula’s critical commentary appended was the Milan edition of 1490. Froben’s, the first sixteenth century printing, appears to be the most influential. There were subsequent editions and commentaries. Binding and provenance: bound in a thick vellum sheet, a generous section of the outer edges folded in; the vellum sheet attached to the book block via two strips of sinew and twirled across the spine; no front- or rear paste-downs, as per its original structure; the book block stitched across its back and onto three sets of thick cords over short vellum guards; the cords’ loops equally exposed at the back, the whole allowing for perfect insight into the entire, original structure of the binding and the process of its making; smudged inscription to the first (of two) front fly-leaves; near-contemporary inscription ‘Caspar von Escherlbach’ at head of title below what appears to be a Latin motto; another inscription, with the surname partly erased and dated 1646 to the center of the title-page; a third early inscription ‘ Ex Supellectili Jo[ann]is Philippi Flachichierni (?), Sti Lubentij on f. 133 verso. dams M 746; Hieronymus 239; VD 16 M1306; Wellcome I 4095.
Traité des usures

Traité des usures, ou explication des prets et des interets par les loix qui ont eté faites en tous les siecles

COLLET, Pilibert 8vo, pp. [16], 303, with an interesting woodcut illustration on title (see below); an excellent copy in contemporary French calf, gilt; head of spine a little worn. PRESENTATION COPY OF THE SCARCE FIRST EDITION OF THIS INTERESTING WORK ON USURY IN WHICH THE AUTHOR MAINTAINS THAT ‘USURY IS MORE LEGITIMATE THAN THE TITHE BECAUSE IT IS THE PRICE OF A SERVICE RENDERED BY AN INSTRUMENT, CAPITAL’ (Gilles Jacoud, translator and editor, Jean-Baptiste Say and Political Economy p. 257). ‘[Philibert Collet] was the son of a notary, and was born at Châtillon-les-Dombes, in 1643. He pursued his studies at Lyons, in the college of the Jesuites, of which order be became a noviciate, but acquitted their society at the age of 22, and dedicated himself to the profession of the law. ‘By the liberality of sentiment which he displayed in his writings, he excited an ill-founded suspicion, that he was an enemy to religion. This imputation has, indeed, been in all ages the lot of those who have impugned ecclesiastical abuses, and could not fail to be levelled at Philibert, who attacked the power of the priests, in a “Treatise on Excommunication;” a “Tract on Usury;” “Discourses on Tythes and Alms,” and on the “Cloystering of Nuns.” He died in 1718, after a solemn declaration, that he did not repent of any of these publications which had excited against him no ordinary degree of prejudice’ (Abraham Rees, The Cyclopaedia; Or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and Literature vol. 8, 1819). Collet was a highly interesting character. After renouncing his vows he spent time in England, meeting with a number of learned men, including Thomas Willis and Robert Boyle. He eventually returned to Châtillon where he filled the function of both judge and mayor ‘with great integrity and honour through his zeal, his work, his vast erudition, and the number and variety of his writings’. Collet had excommunication procedures raised against himself over his suspension of the funeral of a man suspected of suicide at his native Châtillon, an event regarding which he is recorded as having ‘garrotted’ the priest overseeing the funeral with the cord of a church bell to then personally take him into custody. As with some of his other works the Traité des usures was published anonymously, and without the printer’s name, as they contained ‘singular sentiments, more free than his church permitted’ (Robert Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica or a General Index to British and Foreign Literature, vol. I, 1824, p. 247). His thoughts on tithes paid to the Church show his stance against a divine right or justification of such; his much criticised treatise on excommunication finds favourable mention at the end of the Traité des études monastiques in the author’s, Jean Mabillon’s ‘catalogue of choice books’. The interesting woodcut illustration on the title shows a representation of the star sign of Taurus, sometimes associated with spring, above a field of flowers and in between the motto: ‘Usuram verno sidere terra parat’ (‘In spring the land prepares itself to yield interest’ - with interest here represented as a natural product of the cycle of seasons in agriculture, a notion much in opposition to the scholastic view of interest as sinful for being unnatural. Provenance: title inscribed ‘Raviot ad[voc]at ex dono authoris’. Raviot may well be identified as Guillaume Raviot (1667 to circa 1735), ‘avocat au parlement et conseilleur des Etats de la Province de Bourgogne’, author of several works on legal matters, and of Latin poetry. Goldsmiths’ 2820; Kress 1727; I.N.E.D. 1146 (remarking that the author’s conclusions are in favour of the legitimacy of interest on loans).
Réflexions su la Liberté Avec une Préface par M. Formey

Réflexions su la Liberté Avec une Préface par M. Formey

REINHARD, Adolph Friedrich von. 8vo, pp. xiv, 73, with woodcut vignette on title and one woodcut head-piece; very lightly browned; a fine copy in contemporary speckled boards. VERY RARE FIRST EDITION OF THIS WORK ON LIBERTY BY ADOLPH FRIEDRICH VON REINHARD, A HIGHLY ACCLAIMED LAWYER, AND AN AUTHOR OF APPARENT INTEREST TO IMMANUEL KANT WHO OWNED A COPY OF THE CONTEMPORARY GERMAN TRANSLATION, AS WELL AS THREE OF REINHARD’S OTHER WORKS. ‘[Reinhard’s] father was Hofrat to the Mecklenburg-Strelitz court, i.e. he was part of the legislature, and he contributed greatly to [his] education. Reinhard went to the University of Halle, but returned to his home town when his father died in 1747. He then became a secretary to the Herzogliche Justizkanzlei in Neu-Strelitz. In 1753, he became an honorary member of the Teutsche Gesellschaft in Göttingen and in 1754 a member of the Gesellschaft der nützlichen Wissenschaften in Erfurt as well as an honorary member of the Jenaische Teutsche Gesellschaft. Although his main occupation was law, he published on a broad range of mostly philosophical topics. He also acquired some command of the English language, which was still unusual at this time. In 1759, he became “Justizrat” in Neu-Strelitz, a high position in the judiciary. In 1774, he was appointed “Consistorialrat” and at the same time professor of law at the University of Bützow. The duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin appointed him judge at the “Reichskammergericht” (the highest court of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation) in Wetzlar and thereby ennobled him. ‘Dissatisfied with Wolffianism, he was attracted by the philosophy of Christian August Crusius. In 1755, his critical essay on Leibniz’s optimism won the prize essay contest of the Prussian Academy of Sciences and Belles Lettres (Dissertation sur l’optimisme), which attracted some attention, for example from Jean Louis Samuel Formey who wrote a critical review in Nouvelle Bibliothèque Germanique (vol. 18, pp. 23-31). In Réflexions sur la Liberté (1762), Reinhard defends free will against fatalism and argues that there are certain restrictions on the freedom of will (e.g. that it is natural to will freely to choose the good)’ (Heiner F. Klemme and Manfred Kuehn, editors, The Bloomsbury Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers, pp. 618-619). Reinhard’s work carries a preface by Johann Heinrich Samuel Formey. Born in Berlin, Formey was the son of immigrant Huguenots. In 1744, Formey was named a member of the Academy of Berlin, and in 1748 its perpetual secretary, at a time when the language between the Academy’s scientists was changed from Latin to French. Between 1741 and 1753, successive publishers in The Hague brought out the six volumes of Formey’s La belle Wolffienne, which was his effort to explain the philosophy of Christian Wolff to women. He wrote more than 17.000 letters during his life, and corresponded for several years with Francesco Algarotti, author of the famous Newtonianism for Women. A German edition of Reinhard’s work, translated from the original French, was printed at Leipzig in the same year. The German translation, as well as three further publications by Reinhard are known to have been present in the personal library of Immanuel Kant (see Arthur Warda, Immanuel Kants Bücher p. 53, no. 97, for the German printing). Reinhard’s work is very rare: OCLC records just four German locations, one copy in Denmark, at the National Library, one at the National Library, Israel, and one copy in the UK, at the British Library. There are no North-American library holdings.
Le Nozze di Paride ed Elena rappresentate in un vaso antico del museo del signor Tommaso Jenkins gentiluomo inglese.

Le Nozze di Paride ed Elena rappresentate in un vaso antico del museo del signor Tommaso Jenkins gentiluomo inglese.

ORLANDI, Orazio Folio, ff. [2], pp. 27, [1], with an engraved frontispiece and a large folding engraved plate by Guglielmo Miller after Federico (Friedrich) Anders; some light foxing, stronger on the first 2 and final two leaves; nonetheless an attractive copy in contemporary Italian patterned boards; minor wear to spine. ONLY EDITION OF ORLANDI’S STUDY OF THE SO-CALLED ‘JENKINS VASE’, A MARBLE VASE INCORPORATING AN ANCIENT SCULPTURED WELL-HEAD, SHOWING THE MARRIAGE OF PARIS AND HELEN ATTENDED BY EROS AND THE MUSES, AND A SUPERB EXAMPLE OF 18TH-CENTURY ANTIQUARIAN CRAZE, RESULTING IN THE CREATION OF A ‘MODERN’ CONCOCTION, WITH A BEAUTIFUL, ANCIENT RELIC AS ITS CENTERPIECE. Thomas Jenkins (ca. 1722–1798) was a British antiquary and painter who went to Rome accompanying the British landscape-painter Richard Wilson about 1750 and remained behind, establishing himself in the city by serving as guide and sometime banker to the visiting British, becoming a dealer in Roman sculpture and antiquities to a largely British clientele and an agent for gentlemen who wished a portrait or portrait-bust as a memento of the Grand Tour. Among the antiquities that passed through Jenkins’s hands, often improved by restorers like Bartolomeo Cavaceppi, was a version of the discus thrower discovered in Hadrian’s Villa at Tivoli, which is now in the British Museum. Jenkins also exported paintings to London. Jenkins also helped form the collections of William Petty (later Lord Shelbourne and Lord Lansdowne), Henry Blundell (on his Grand Tour in 1765–66, for Ince-Blundell Hall, Lancashire, including the ‘Jenkins Venus’ or ‘Barberini Venus’ from Palazzo Barberini) and Lyde Browne of Wimbledon (which were eventually bought by Empress Catherine II for the Hermitage). In 1770 a dispensation from Pope Clement XIV enabled Jenkins and the painter-dealer Gavin Hamilton to manage the dispersal of the Mattei antiquities, which had formed one of the most-visited private collections in Rome. Clement made a first selection for his Museu Pio-Clementino at the Vatican before permitting export, with Jenkins and Hamilton acting as agents for Don Giuseppe Mattei. By the time the three volumes of Monumenta Mattheiana were issued, 1776–79, most of the Mattei marbles, some bought by Jenkins directly, were no longer in Italy. Jenkins also dealt in modern works of sculpture: in 1786 he purchased Gian Lorenzo Bernini’s Neptune and Glaucus from the gardens of Villa Montalto; as a consequence, conserved in the Victoria & Albert, it is the only Bernini sculpture in Britain. The body of the vase is made from a well-head first recorded at Pozzuoli, near Naples, in 1489. Jenkins is thought to have purchased it on a visit to Naples in 1769. At his instigation, the well-head was mounted as a vase, by the addition of a vine leaf frieze and lip above, and cup with Satyr’s head, stem and base below. A drawing in the British Museum shows it before its transformation into a vase in the eighteenth century. The vase itself is now in the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff. Cicognara, 3290; OCLC locates just two copies, at the British Library, and Bibliothèque Nationale et Universitaire, Strasbourg.
Tulip Calendar].

Tulip Calendar].

ESHQI, Mohammad 4to, ff. [16], manuscript on glazed paper, executed in a beautiful, small nashkī script; opening page with a panel of finely-worked illumination in colours and gold; title inset in red ink; all pages within a four-line border in red, black, and gilt; finely preserved in its slim, contemporary binding of red morocco boards; a large leopard-speckled paper panel inset on covers within a silver (oxidized) ornamental scroll; the binding a little worn at head and tail of spine; old European (?) shelf-label to lower cover; end-papers mauve or mauve-speckled opposite lightly pink paste-downs. A VERY RARE SEASONAL CALENDAR FOR THE PLANTING OF TULIPS BY A NAMED AUTHOR, SEEMINGLY A PERSONAL GARDENER UNDER, AND TO, SULTAN SELIM III. A very rare planting calendar for the wonderful, much sought after tulip, written during the reign of the enlightened Sultan Selim III (1761-1808), known for his reform-mindedness, his associations outside the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire, and his endeavours to modernize and reform his state. The son of the equally progressive Sultan Mustafa III and Mihrişah Sultan, Selim was fond of literature, poetry and calligraphy, a great lover of music and one of the best composers in the Ottoman classical music tradition. When Selim succeeded his uncle Abdülhamid I (April 7, 1789), he attempted to end the social, economic, and administrative chaos facing the empire. He set up a committee of reformers (1792 93) and promulgated a series of new regulations collectively known as the nizam- i cedid ( new order ). These included reforms of provincial governorships, taxation, and land tenure. More significant were his military reforms: in addition to new military and naval schools, he founded new corps of infantry trained and equipped along European lines and financed by revenues from forfeited and escheated fiefs and by taxes on liquor, tobacco, and coffee. Finally, to provide for direct contact with the West, Ottoman embassies were opened in the major European capitals. Selim, who came to the throne during a war (1787 92) with Austria and Russia, was compelled to conclude the treaties of Sistova (Svishtov; 1791) with Austria and of Jassy (1792) with Russia. In 1798 Napoleon s invasion of Egypt drove Selim into alliance with Great Britain and Russia. After the French evacuated Egypt (1801), Selim, dazzled by Napoleon s successes in Europe, not only recognized him as emperor (1804) but also, under the influence of General Sébastiani, Napoleon s ambassador in Constantinople, declared war (1806) on Russia and Great Britain (Encyclopaedia Britannica, online). Selim was eventually strangled in 1808 on the orders of his successor, Mustafa IV. The 26-page calendar lists the varieties of tulips in red, and their colours, qualities, sizes, etc., in black ink, and by alphabetical order. Written a long time after Europe s Tulipomania of the seventeenth century, which ended in bankrupting a large number of investors, with single bulbs of certain specimens, such as the striped Semper Augustus, having been traded for extraordinary sums until the collapse of the scheme, this manuscript is rare testimony to the appreciation of this particular flower in its place of origin around the end of the eighteenth century. This is a wonderful little manuscript: a Sultan s gardener s planting calendar and on a most singular topic; finely produced and calligraphed, and in its original binding.
Super octo libros Physicorum Aristotelis. Commentaria. Secunda aeditio nuperrimè ab Authore recognita

Super octo libros Physicorum Aristotelis. Commentaria. Secunda aeditio nuperrimè ab Authore recognita, multisq[ue] in locis aucta & à mendis quam maximè fieri potuit repurgata.

SOTO, Domingo de. Two vols. in one, folio, ff. 129, [1, blank]; 108, [1], with printer s device in woodcut to both titles, large device at the end of volume II, woodcut initials, and a few woodcut diagrams in the text; numerous errors in foliation, especially to volume I; the first two leaves a bit brown-stained and with a faint dampstain to upper margins; otherwise only occasionally lightly browned or stained; the title to volume II with a tear to lower outer corner (paper-flaw); a few early notes in brown ink to volume II (a couple just shaved); an excellent copy in near contemporary Spanish limp vellum, yapped edges, spine lettered Physica de Soto in ink. THE EXTREMELY RARE FIRST COMPLETE EDITION, THE FIRST TO CONTAIN THE HIGHLY IMPORTANT SECOND VOLUME, WHICH FIRST PRINTS DE SOTO S FORMULATION OF THE LAW OF FALLING BODIES (Vol. II, Book 7, questio tertia-quarta). CONTRARY TO ARISTOTELIAN TEACHING, AND EXPRESSED AS UNIFORMITER DIFFORMIS , DE SOTO S FORMULATION LARGELY ANTICIPATES THAT PRONOUNCED BY GALILEO IN HIS DISCORSI BY OVER 80 YEARS. [De Soto s] works on the Physics are particularly important for the history of science, since in the question on Book VII [i.e. vol. II, book 7, questio tertia-quarta] Soto was the first to apply the expression uniformly difform to the motion of falling bodies, thereby indicating that they accelerate uniformly when they fall and thus adumbrating Galileo s law of falling bodies (William A. Wallace in DSB VII, p. 548). In seeking an appropriate global measure of the velocity of a uniformly accelerating object such as a falling heavy body, de Soto notes if the moving object A keeps increasing its velocity from 0 to 8, it covers just as much space as [another object] B moving with a uniform velocity of 4 in the same period of time. He was thus the first to apply mathematics to this physical problem without experimental verification, but in a way that, because it was mathematically precise and physical, constituted an exceptionally clear invitation to experimental verification for such inquisitive minds as were prepared to recognize it. If de Soto s writings did influence Galileo, as seems quite probable, they may have influenced his thinking on dynamics as well as on kinematics. According to Juan José Pérez Camacho and Ignacio Sols Lucía, de Soto s concept of the resistentia interna of a body foreshadows Galileo s resistenza interna in being intrinsic to the body itself rather than to its medium, and proportional to the weight of the body (Jorge Mira-Pérez, Domingo de Soto, early dynamics theorist , in Physics Today, January 2009, p. 10). Referred to in Mira-Pérez s article as of probable influence on Galileo, William A. Wallace, the first historian of science to examine this question in depth in a number of papers, traces de Soto s influence and his formulation of the law of motion through the decades prior to Galileo s own statement in his Discorsi via Jesuit teaching, including through that of de Soto s favourite pupil, Franciscus Toletus, who first became an instructor at the Collegium Romanum in 1559. Showing that de Soto himself was likely to have witnessed actual experimental work regarding laws of fall conducted by Italian scientists, physicians and philosophers prior to the completion of this much amended 1551 edition, Wallace draws attention to an early notebook by Galileo, recording Jesuit teaching notes in which de Soto is referred to, as well as to the fact that the penultimate edition of de Soto s commentary was published in Venice in 1582, at a time when Galileo was beginning his studies of the Physics in Pisa: We should note that Soto had finished writing his commentary and questions on the Physics up to book VII, where the passages I have quoted are to be found, early in 1545, at which time he was called to the Council of Trent. To make them quickly available to students his texts were printed in an incomplete edition of 1545, which does not contain the passages about falling motion. But Soto r
Idyllia.

Idyllia.

LA RUE, Charles de 12mo, pp. 88, with engraved vignette on title, six engraved head-pieces, two engraved tail-pieces, and 5 full-page emblems; oil or brown stain to lower portion of one emblem, slightly off-set on the opposite page of text; otherwise a clean and crisp copy in the original vellum over boards; spine and upper cover lettered ‘Caroli Delarue Idyllia. 1669’ in ms. A CHARMING COPY OF THE FRENCH JESUIT’S LITTLE EMBLEM BOOK, INCLUDING PANEGYRICS IN VERSE CELEBRATING THE RECENT VICTORIES OF LOUIS XIV IN FLANDERS IN 1667, AND A VICIOUS ANTI-ENGLISH SONNET CELEBRATING THE DEVASTATION OF LONDON BY THE GREAT FIRE. A French Jesuit, royal preacher and confessor, and a poet of renown, Charles de la Rue dedicates his work to the French tragedian, Pierre Corneille. On this follow laudatory poems in Latin and French on Louis XIV and his campaign in the Spanish Netherlands, a funeral ode on the recently perished Anne of Austria (1601 – 1666), a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, wife of Louis XIII, and mother of Louis XIV, as well as other odes and poems, including one on Louis’ minister of Finance, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, here honoured with a full-page emblem of an eagle hovering above its chicks, headed by the lemma ‘Jovis educat’. The siege and capture of Lille was the only major engagement of the War of Devolution, which saw the armies of Louis XIV overrun the Habsburg-controlled Spanish Netherlands and the Free County of Burgundy. Louis XIV justified the war through the fact that the promised dowry for his marriage to Maria Theresa, the daughter of Philipp IV, had not been paid, and that the French queen’s renunciation of her Spanish inheritance was therefore invalid. Louis argued that his wife’s prior claims to her father’s estate properly ‘devolved’ to her. Siege techniques applied by the French military engineer Vauban, the use of 4-gun batteries, as well as numerous fires set around as well as at the gates of Lille secured victory near the end of August 1667, with negotiations for surrender beginning on the 28th of that month. Interestingly, La Rue’s Idyllia also includes a sonnet of strong anti-English sentiment just after the Great Fire of London and possibly inspired both by the fires successfully set to the town of Lille, ongoing English aggression regarding the protection of its colonies, and Louis’ involvement in the Second Anglo-Dutch War: ‘ Londres d’un bout à l’autre est au flames en proye, Et souffre un mesme sort qu’elle merite mieux. Le crime qu’elle a fait, est un crime odieux On voit le chastiment par degrez arrivé. La guerre fuit la peste, & le feu purifie Ce que toute la Mer n’aurait pas bien lave.’ (Idyllia, p. 82) The finely engraved head and tail-pieces and full-page emblems are by Louis Cossin (1627-1704). Adams, Rawles, and Saunders, A Bibliography of French Emblem Books of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, vol. II, F383; Sommervogel VII, col. 291. Whilst reprinted twice in 1672 at Paris (re-set, slightly expanded, and with two emblems added), the original, Rouen printing of 1669 is very rare: OCLC locates two copies only for France, at Paris-Mazarine and Bibliothèque Nationale; two copies for the UK, at the British Library and Glasgow, one copy for Germany, at the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, and a single copy for North America, at Yale.
Descrizione degli Elmi posseduti da Ambrogio Uboldo

Descrizione degli Elmi posseduti da Ambrogio Uboldo, nobile de Villareggio precedono alcune notizie sull’uso, sulla forma, ecc., degli elmi nel medio evo e nei tempi anteriori e posteriori ad esso. Con tavole litografiche. [with:] Descrizione degli scudi posseduti da Ambrogio Uboldo, nobile de Villareggio precedono alcune notizie sull’uso, sulla forma, ecc. degli scudi nel medio evo e nei tempi anteriori e posteriori ad esso. Con Tavole litografiche.

UBOLDO, Ambrogio Together two vols., folio pp. [10], 33, [1], [20]; [8], 27, [1], [18], with ten lithographed plates to the first work, and nine to the second; some spotting to text, the plates largely fresh and clean or some occasional light marginal foxing; attractive copies in contemporary orange lacquered boards, gilt printed frame on covers; rubbed and a little soiled; dedicatory letters from Uboldo pasted onto front fly-leaves of each volume to Gaetano Costantini, dated 1842 and 1845 respectively, and with additional inscriptions above. ATTRACTIVE COPIES OF THE TWO MAJOR ILLUSTRATED WORKS ON THE ‘ARMERIA UBOLDO’, THE ITALIAN FINANCIER AND FORMER MILITARY OFFICER’S SUPERB COLLECTION OF ANCIENT HELMETS AND SHIELDS. Ambrogio Maria Martiniano Uboldo (1785 - 1865) was an Italian art collector, patron and military man from a rich Milanese family of bankers and soldiers (he was a nephew of the Austrian general Anton Joseph von Brentano-Cimaroli). From a young age he was destined to a promising career as a banker, but decided instead to enter the Napoleonic guards to fight campaigns in the French army. After the collapse of the Napoleonic Empire and the return of the Austrians, Ubaldo was made a nobleman of Villareggio, Tuscany, where his family owned various properties as well as land. Uboldo was an avid collector and became a member of the Milan Fine Arts Academy (the current Academy of Brera), a member of the Academy of Fine Arts of Modena and of the Accademia dei Virtuosi al Pantheon in Rome, organizations that put him in touch with the artistic world of Milan and beyond. In a few years he acquired numerous paintings by contemporary painters (Francesco Hayez, Andrea Appiani, Angelo Inganni), sculptures (in particular by Pompeo Marchesi and Enrico Emanueli), archaeological finds, rare plants, and above all antique weapons that he accommodated in his villa in Cernusco sul Naviglio, in Milan. A famous episode is recorded in a painting by Carlo Bossoli, which took place during the Five Days of Milan in 1848 when the rebels, knowing of the large collection of ancient weapons owned by the collector, decided to storm his Milanese Palace and appropriated the weapons to face the Austrians. A large part of the collection of weapons was eventually purchased by Gian Giacomo Poldi Pezzoli and today constitutes the nucleus of the armory of the Poldi Pezzoli Museum. Probably a vanity publication, the two works were distributed between 1839 and 1843 by three Milanese publishers: Angelo Stanislao Brambilla (the volume on shields only), Paolo Andrea Molina, Giuseppe Crespi (later Crespi and Pagnoni), but apparently with only slight changes to the title-pages and or imprint and date. The publication of these two, finely illustrated works was preceded by a little, seemingly unillustrated, pamphlet of 11 pages on a particular shield, published in 1837 by Giuseppe Crespi, who also printed a Raccolta di Descrizioni delle opere piu’ interessanti di Belle-Arti in Uboldo’s collection in 1842, which was again issued in 1844, with a Crespi and Pagnoni imprint. As mentioned above, printing and distribution of the work appears to have been shared by various publishers, with the various issues apparently only differing with regard to their title-pages, imprints, and dates. Provenance: long, personal inscriptions in ink from the author to his cousin, Gaetano Costantini, to front fly leaves, dating from relatively shortly after publication. Cumulatively OCLC records copies of the volume on helmets at Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, Universitat de Barcelona; for the UK at the British Library, Warburg Institute, and Victoria & Albert Museum; for the US at the Metropolitan Museum, Illinois, and Newberry Library. The volume on shields is recorded at Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, Berlin, Humboldt University, and National Library of Sweden; for the UK at the British Library, Warburg Institute, and the Victoria & Albert Museum; for the US at the Newberry Library, Illinois, National Gallery
Monumenta rerum petrificatarum praecipua Oryctographiae Noricae supplementi loco iungenda interprete filio Ferdinando Iacobo Baiero. Nuremberg

Monumenta rerum petrificatarum praecipua Oryctographiae Noricae supplementi loco iungenda interprete filio Ferdinando Iacobo Baiero. Nuremberg, Georg Lichtensteger, 1757. [bound with:] BAIER, Johann Jacob. Oryctographia Norica sive rerum fossilium et ad minerale regnum pertinentum in territorio Norimbergbensi eiusque vicinia observatarum succincta descriptio

BAIER, Johann Jacob Together two works in one vol., folio, pp. [iv], 20, with fifteen engraved plates, six double-page; pp. [iv], 65, [3], with a large engraved title-vignette, and eight engraved plates; short tear to lower blank margin of one plate; a few notes in pencil; a very good, clean copy in 19th-century red sheep-baked marbled boards; spine rubbed, head of spine a little worn. AN EXCELLENT COPY OF THIS WORK ON FOSSILS BY THE NUREMBERG PHYSICIAN AND GEOLOGIST JOHANN JACOB BAIER, ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN 1708 WITH SIX PLATES ONLY, AND HERE BOUND AFTER THE FIRST EDITION THE IMPORTANT SUPPLEMENT BY HIS SON, FERDINAND JACOB. ‘Baier was the son of Johann Wilhelm Baier, professor of Protestant theology at the University of Jena, and Anna Katharine Musaeus. After private tutoring he matriculated in 1693 at University of Jena, where he dutifully studied philosophy, classical languages, mathematics, medicine, and natural science. During 1699 and 1700 he travelled in northern Germany and in the Baltic Sea provinces to Riga and Dorpat, enriching his knowledge by conversations with other scholars and by examining collections and visiting libraries. In 1700 he finished his studies and war awarded the degrees of M.A., Ph.D., and M.D He settled in 1701 as a practicing physician in Nuremberg. In 1708 he became a member of the Leopoldina (Academy of Natural Scientists) and in 1730 was chosen its president. Baier’s scientific fame today does not rest on his medical investigations, but on his studies of minerals and fossils. Baier’s Oryctographia norica (1708) was a new, systematic presentation based on his own studies. By means of exact descriptions and good illustration he laid the foundations for the investigation of Jurassic fauna and of scientific palaeontology in general. Instead of theory, he clearly presented what could be observed. He believed that the earth had been created in one act and that the Deluge was the only great change since the Creation. His exact foundation work, however, helped to prepare the ground for the next generation to determine historically the geological structure of mountains and to transform oryctography into geology’ (Encyclopedia). The supplement by Baier’s son, Ferdinand Jacob (1707-1788), contains additional observations, referring to specific pages and plates in the first book, including identifications of the objects - mainly fossils, including many shells of molluscs and brachiopods - shown on the eight plates of his father’s work, plus his own, new series of fifteen superbly engraved plates. Nissen, ZBI, 189 and 191; Ward & Carrozzi, 97 and 99.
Della ragion di stato libri dieci

Della ragion di stato libri dieci, con tre libri delle cause della grandezza, e magnificenza della citta .

BOTERO, Giovanni Small 4to, pp. [xvi], 367, [1]; with woodcut printer s device on title and initials in the text; ink ownership inscription to recto of title covered with paper slips; some light staining to upper margin and to lower outer corner throughout, stronger in places, but still a good, crisp copy in contemporary limp vellum, spine direct lettered in ink, evidence of rodent damage to foot of spine and upper outer corner, ties lacking. FIRST EDITION OF A MASTERPIECE IN THE HISTORY OF ECONOMICS: THE MALTHUSIAN PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION TENDING TO INCREASE BEYOND ANY ASSIGNABLE LIMIT FULLY DEVELOPED IN 1589. Divested of nonessentials, the "Malthusian" Principle of Population sprang fully developed from the brain of Botero in 1589: populations tend to increase, beyond any assignable limit, to the full extent made possible by human fecundity (the virtus generativa of the Latin translation); the means of subsistence, on the contrary, and the possibilities of increasing them (the virtus nutritiva) are definitely limited and therefore impose a limit on that increase, the only one there is; this limit asserts itself through want, which will induce people to refrain from marrying (Malthus negative check, prudential check, "moral restraint") unless numbers are periodically reduced by wars, pestilence, and so on (Malthus positive check). This path-breaking performance the only performance in the whole history of the theory of population to deserve any credit at all came much before the time in which its message could have spread: it was practically lost in the populationist wave of the seventeenth century. But about two hundred years after Botero [1540 1617], Malthus really did no more than repeat it, except that he adopted particular mathematical laws for the operation of the virtus generativa and the virtus nutritiva: population was to increase "in geometric ratio or progression" (Schumpeter, History of Economic Analysis, pp. 254 5). A second edition was published at Ferrare in the same year. Adams B 2548; Bongi II, 431 2; Gamba 1271; Goldsmiths 248; Kress 178; Mattioli 395; STC Italian, p. 122.
A fine

A fine, personal autograph letter, signed in full (‘Charles Darwin’)

Darwin, Charles 8vo, two and a half pages, (one bifolium); on headed writing paper. A fine, personal autograph letter, signed in full (‘Charles Darwin’), written shortly before resuming work on the manuscript of The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication. To the author of Problèmes de la Nature, Auguste Laugel, thanking him for the receipt of a copy of his recently published work, and explaining that he has not yet been able to read it due to protracted illness. The recipient of the letter, Antoine-Auguste Laugel published articles in various journals, such as the Revue des Deux Mondes, including an ‘excellent and appreciative notice of the Origin’ (Francis Darwin, The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin vol. I, p. 539), a review held in high regard by Darwin from a man whom he described as ‘very agreeable, clever, & charming’ (letter to J.D. Hooker, April 17, 1865), and whose views on slavery and the American Civil War he shared (letter to Asa Gray, April 19, 1865). Laugel had sent a copy of his article to Darwin at the time of its appearance in the Revue. ‘It was from more popular or accessible sources than translations that many readers gleaned their notions of what Darwin said or meant A journal such as the long-lived and influential Revue des Deux Mondes, read by literate audiences all over Europe, carried reviews of a wide range of current books, including the Origin of Species; the reviewer, Auguste Laugel, a young Frenchman trained as an engineer or geologist, wrote an ample and discerning review (1860), grasping some of the implications and the difficulties of the theory, and also enthusiastically greeting the possibilities the theory suggested of transplanting flora and fauna around the world from and to a variety of landscapes: trade and exploration were strong concerns of the journal. Laugel even included an examination of current breeding experiments. Darwin, who followed his own reception with great care, invited the young writer to visit him and his family at their home at Down’ (Thomas F. Glick and Elinor Shaffer, editors, The Literary and Cultural Reception of Charles Darwin in Europe, vol. III, p. 4). ‘Auguste Laugel’s defense of Darwin in the literary journal La Revue des Deux Mondes – which had published Les fleurs du mal a few years earlier – summarized the main theoretical innovations of Darwin’s evolutionism, namely his concept of natural selection and his emphasis on the "transitionary characters" of species, an understanding that radically challenged the concept of species then current in France. Laugel’s was key to circulating Darwin’s ideas, particularly his challenges to the exceptional status of human beings by deflating qualitative distinctions between humans and animals’ (J. Dubino, Z. Rashidian, and A. Smyth, Representing the Modern Animal in Culture, 2014). Throughout his life Darwin suffered from periods of gastrointestinal distress, as well as headaches, fatigue, trembling, faintness, and dizziness. The particular bout of illness Darwin refers to in this letter set on in the spring of 1863. Darwin Correspondence Project, no. 4607F.
Abbassaï

Abbassaï, Histoire Orientale

FALQUES or FAUQUES, Marianne-Agnès de] Three vols., 16mo., ff. [2], pp. 206; ff. [2], pp. 217, ff. [2], pp. 176, 19, [1], with engraved frontispieces to each volume; silk page-markers; the first frontispiece short at lower blank margin but not cut down or supplied; pages 40-41 of volume III with early ink doodles, most likely a child’s, but not obscuring text; otherwise a lovely copy in contemporary French polished calf, leather labels, marbled edges, spines gilt. VERY SCARCE FIRST EDITION OF THIS BEAUTIFUL, TRAGIC, ORIENTAL TALE BY MARIANNE-AGNÈS DE FALQUES, A FASCINATING LITERARY FIGURE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT. Abbassaï tells the fictional love story of the eighth-century Abbasid Caliph Harun al Rashid, a character immortalized in the Arabian Nights, who falls in love with Zesbet to then learn that she is his sister, hidden away from the world by their mother Zulima, who has her own tragic story to tell. Forced by her family to become a nun and defrocked after 10 years in a convent, Mariann-Agnès Falques was duly registered as such by the authorities serving the regime of Louis XV. Her excesses gained her a notorious reputation at the time. Forced into exile, she became tutor to the children of affluent English families. Her English sojourn was marked by the publication of the Histoire de Madame de Pompadour of 1759, a scandalous text well known by Voltaire, and testimony to her audacity and independence of spirit. Famous in its time the work paints an unflattering picture of the Marquise and the omnipresent corruption at court. The audacity and malignity expressed there explains her reticence in returning to her native France, but she eventually decided to do so. She is thought to have committed suicide in 1773. ‘C’est toute une odyssée feminine que la vie de Mlle. De Fauques’ (Larousse). See Boudin, ‘Une romancière et aventurière des Lumières: Marianne-Agnès Falques, dite la Vaucluse’ (1994), and Grondin ‘La Représentation de la femme dans l’Orient de Marianne-Agnès Falques’ (2005). Barbier, Genre Romanesque, 1751-1800, 53 14; Weller, Falsche Druckorte II, p. 134.
Della fabrica del mondo ouero cosmografia. Trattato

Della fabrica del mondo ouero cosmografia. Trattato, nel quale si discorre di tute le parti componente questa gran machina con brevità e facilità in modo de Dialogo. [Manuscript on paper in Italian and Latin].

CALCAGNI, Girolamo, attributed to 4to (185 x 140 mm), c. 155 leaves in brown and red ink, including 15 leaves of tables, with a decorative armorial device on title-page, and numerous diagrams in the text, some with ink wash; the title soiled, damp-stained, and strengthened with a paper strip on verso at inner margin; the final, blank leaves, partly damp-stained and soiled; otherwise overall very well preserved; rebound in the 20th-century in vellum-backed boards. A HIGHLY INTERESTING AND FINELY ILLUSTRATED ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE IN DIALOGUE FORM IN THE IMMEDIATE POST-GALILEAN PERIOD, DISCUSSING AND ABSORBING THE NEW ASTRONOMY. STILL LARGELY UNSTUDIED, THIS IS THE EARLIER OF TWO RECORDED VERSIONS OF THIS TEXT, THE OTHER ORIGINALLY STEMMING FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE NOTED HISTORIAN OF SCIENCE AND GALILEO EXPERT, STILLMAN DRAKE, AND NOW HELD AT THE FISHER LIBRARY, TORONTO. Possibly compiled for private instruction, and highly likely inspired by Galileo’s Dialogo, this extensive manual employs two interlocutors, a Pellegrino Cantelli, and Girolamo Calcagni, whose arms are found on the title-page. Leading through from the elemental to complex astronomy, the treatise - apparently compiled the year after Galileo’s death in 1642 - frequently cites, then questions and challenges the teachings of the ancients, whilst cautiously presented and phrased. The third dialogue of the first part carefully treats the motion of the earth, first discussing the question of a revolutionary motion, then the possibility of rotation. A number of dialogues discuss geographical questions and details, and a table provides longitudinal and latitudinal data on various European cities. Folios 40-44 provide brief information on distances and sizes of various countries, kingdoms, and islands, including Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines, the Moluccas, Japan, Cuba, and Hispaniola. Following a 7 page index to this first part there is another group of dialogues concerning astronomical questions such as parallax, as well as astrological questions. Folio 74 recto includes a reference to the existence of moving sun-spots; the verso of the leaf mentions the telescope, and refers to Kepler. The final dialogues are on solar eclipses, cometary theory, the stars, the milky way, the constellations, and astrology. Our manuscript appears to form the basis of another, later version of this text, originally in the collection of the noted historian of science and Galileo expert Stillman Drake, and now preserved at the Thomas Fisher Library, Toronto. Written in the same hand, the neater Fisher manuscript shows some changes to the text, and was possibly intended to form the basis of a printed version. Provenance: contemporary armorial device on title page of the Calcagni family of Ferrara in the province of Emilia-Romagna, one of the most thriving centers of Italian Renaissance culture - the place where Copernicus earned his degree in Canon Law, and Paracelsus his degree in medicine -, inscribed ‘Comitis Hieronymus Calcanei’ beneath the escutcheon.
The Elements of Euclid explain’d in a new but most easie method .

The Elements of Euclid explain’d in a new but most easie method .

EUCLID]. DECHASLES, Claude-François Milliet FIRST ENGLISH EDITION OF DECHASLES'S HUICT LIVRES DES ELEMENTS D'EUCLIDE RENDUS PLUS FACILES (Lyon, 1672), A PARAPHRASE OF EUCLID'S ELEMENTS. ‘Claude Dechales [also de Challes or Dechasles] became a Jesuit at the age of 15 and was educated within the Jesuit Order . Dechales lectured at Jesuit colleges, first in Paris where for four years he taught at the Collège de Clermont, then at Colleges in Lyons and Chambéry. From Chambéry he went to Marseilles where King Louis XIV appointed him Royal Professor of Hydrography. In Marseilles he taught navigation, military engineering and other applications of mathematics. From Marseilles he moved to Turin where he was appointed professor of mathematics. Dechales is best remembered for Cursus seu mundus mathematicus published in Lyons in 1674. ‘In 1678 he published in Lausanne his edition of Euclid, The Elements of Euclid Explained in a New but Most Easy Method: Together with the Use of Every Proposition through All Parts of the Mathematics, written in French by That Most Excellent Mathematician, F Claude Francis Milliet Dechales of the Society of Jesus. This work covers Books 1 to 6, together with Books 11 and 12, of Euclid’s Elements An English translation was published in London by M Gillyflower and W Freeman, the translation being by Reeve Williams. A second edition of this English translation appeared in 1696’ (J.J. O’Connor and E.F. Robertson, MacTutor online). ‘Dechales [is also known to have] adopted Galileo’s theory of motion, where he introduced several original views and developments. He attaches a preponderant significance to the experimental foundation of Galileo’s main theorems and, in his opinion, the proportionality of velocity and time is first an expression of Nature (ex natura rei), then a logical assignment. Dechales anticipates some aspects of Newton’s natural philosophy by emphasising questions depending on dynamics such as the concept of gravity (related to the free fall of bodies) and the mathematical treatment of air friction . (A. Nardi, An eccentric Galilean: the Jesuit François Milliet Dechales between Galileo and Newton (Italian), Arch. Internat. Hist. Sci. 49 (142) (1999), 32-74). This is a very attractive copy in a contemporary English binding. Wing E3400.
Theorie der Modulfunktionen. Erster Teil der Vorlesung: Über den Picard’schen Satz

Theorie der Modulfunktionen. Erster Teil der Vorlesung: Über den Picard’schen Satz

LANDAU, Edmund Folio, ff. [40]; typescript; mathematical equations inserted in black ink; five leaves with diagrams on verso, three as paste-ons; a very good copy in contemporary cloth-backed boards; from the library of Hans Georg Joseph, with his Archimedian bookplate in Art Nouveau style by Franz Stassen (1896-1949).AN ANNOTATED TYPESCRIPT OF LANDAU’S IMPORTANT LECTURE ON PICARD’S THEOREM. In 1879 Émile Picard proved that a meromorphic function which omits more than two values is a constant. This theorem was justly hailed as an outstanding achievement and for many years it stirred the imagination of many prominent mathematicians with results that were ultimately epoch making. Picard’s proof was based on the elliptic modular function, a theory which was in the center of analysis at that time. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, mathematicians tried to replace Picard’s method by more elementary considerations, and in 1896 Émile Borel succeeded in giving such a proof. In the able hands of Edmund Landau this proof gave in 1904 some astonishing results concerning the influence of the first two coefficients of a power series on the properties of a function defined by the series. These results were taken as a vindication of the elementary methods, but the triumph was brief, for in 1905 Constantin Carathéodory proved that the modular function played the role of extremal function in Landau’s problem’ (Einar Hille, Analytic Function Theory, p. 219).