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The Inflationary Universe: A Possible Solution to the Horizon and Flatness Problems in Physical Review D23 Issue 2, 15 January 1981, pp. 347-356 [ORIGINAL WRAPPERS. INTRODUCING CONCEPT OF ‘COSMIC INFLATION’

Guth, Alan FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS of Alan Guth's landmark paper introducing the concept of "cosmic inflation," a new cosmological model he called 'inflation theory'. Though just a theory for 30 years, Guth's paper "utterly transformed scientific thinking about the origin of the universe" (Focus: Landmarks, The Inflationary Universe). In March 2014, scientists found what they say is the first direct evidence of Guth's inflation. "From studying the cosmic microwave background (CMB -- the leftover radiation from the big bang -- they have spotted traces of gravitational waves -- undulations in the fabric of space and time -- that rippled through the universe in that infinitesimally short epoch following its birth. The imprint of these gravitational waves upon the CMB matches what theorists had predicted for decades. The findings. also show that gravity -- at the smallest scale -- follows the rules of quantum mechanics [in ways] similar to other forces such as electromagnetism" (Science Magazine Online). In importing new ideas from particle physics into theoretical cosmology, Guth alters conventional big bang theory, offering essentially, a bigger, faster bang. "The classic Big Bang theory," Guth explains, "?says nothing about what banged, what happened before it banged, or what caused it to bang" (Guth). "Inflation theory suggests a superfast early-universe expansion in a tiny sliver of a second of time, the explosion driven by gravitational repulsion, the repulsion of matter and antimatter, which stretched the universe toward its present size and scale unimaginably faster than conventional cosmology had predicted. Earlier accounts of the big-bang theory depicted a universe that cooled so quickly it prevented homogeneity, but Guth's period of inflation establishes a period of time before the big bang, when the universe was small enough to evenly distribute its contents. The inflationary universe model seems to more accurately explain the spectrum of density fluctuations that gave rise to the rapid expansion that created the universe as we know it" (NNDB). As the result of Guth's research and the findings of March, 2014, cosmologists now think the just-born universe -- "a hot, dense soup of matter and energy -- went through a burst of expansion faster than the speed of light. Like a magical balloon, the cosmos doubled its size 60 times in a span of 10 (-32) seconds. This phase [Guth's inflation] ended well before the universe was even a second old" (Science Magazine Online). CONDITION & DETAILS: Lancaster: American Physical Society. Physical Review D, Volume D23, Issue 2, 15 January 1981, pp. 347-356. Quarto (11.25 x 8.25; 275 x 200mm). Original wraps. Light stain at the inner margin of the wraps. See photo. Very good.

Numerical Relation between the Atomic Weights, with some thoughts on the Classification of the Chemical Elements in American Journal of Science and Arts 17 pp. 387-406, 1854 [ORIGINAL WRAPPERS FORESHADOWING THE NUMERICAL RELATION OF ATOMIC WEIGHTS PRE MENDELEEV]

Cooke, J. P. [Josiah Parsons] FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPER OF COOKE'S PAPER FORESHADOWING MENDELEEV'S PERIODIC TABLE by proposing that the chemical elements be arranged into six groups or "series" based on their physical properties and their propensity to form compounds. Cooke's pre-Mendeleev classification scheme for the elements and atomic weight research were motivated by his interest in numerical order in nature, which reflected his belief in a divine lawgiver" (Contakes, Josiah Parsons Cooke, JPC 17, 1, 2011). The historian of science Bernard Cohen described Cooke as the first university chemist to do truly distinguished work in the field of chemistry in the United States. "Inspired by homologous organic compounds, Cooke grouped elements with analogous chemical properties into six "series". Because some of these bear significant resemblance to modern groups, his classification scheme is sometimes considered an imperfect precursor to the periodic table. Cooke allowed elements, notably oxygen, to be members of multiple "series". Second, whereas Mendeleev's table recognized periodically recurring chemical properties when elements were arranged by atomic weight, Cooke developed simple algebraic relationships involving multiples of whole or half-integers to relate the atomic weights of elements with similar properties" (Kauffman 1969, pp. 128-31). CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete issue bound in original paper wrappers. 4to. 9.5 x 6.25 inches. 460pp. Fold-out plates. The wrappers have light toning and marks; minor chipping, most noticeably at the head of the spine where a half-inch piece is missing. (Wrappers for this particular journal are rarely found and noticeably fragile. Despite the noted issues, in this particular journal they are in remarkably good condition.) Regardless, the text block remains solid and the wrapper are tightly attached. (See image and note that the darkening at the lower quarter of the spine is not actual but is due to a shadow).A light spot appears at the top of some pages, not impacting the Cooke paper whatsoever. The interior is otherwise clean and bright. Very good.

Abstracts of Distinguished Constituents (pp. 323) Semantical Analysis of Modal Logic (pp. 323-324) WITH The Problem of Entailment (p. 324) in The Journal of Symbolic Logic Issue #4, 1959

Kripke, Saul A. First edition, first impression in original wrappers of issue #4 of the 1959 Journal of Symbolic Logic. This, the December issue, includes important abstracts of Kripke papers received by the Journal in 1959: "Distinguished Constituents", "Semantical Analysis of Modal Logic", "The Problem of Entailment". All three papers in this listing relate to Kripke's seminal first paper on modal logic, "A Completeness Theorem in Modal Logic" - a paper in which Kripke's initial intuitive idea was that a proposition is necessary if and only if it is true in all possible worlds. NOTE: We offer separately all four issues of The Journal of Symbolic Logic for this same year including "A Completeness Theorem in Modal Logic." As the story goes, in 1959 and at the age of seventeen, Kripke wrote his completeness theorem in modal logic at age 17; he mailed the paper to the journal and it was sent out for comments, to, among a number of others, the head of the Mathematics at Harvard. This person then wrote Kripke urging him to apply for a job at Harvard. The reply he received read: "My mother said that I should finish high school and go to college first" (Wikipedia). CONDITION & DETAILS: Princeton:Association for Symbolic Logic,1959.Issue #4. 10 x 7 inches; 250 x 150mm. Pristine condition inside and out.

Abhandlungen zur Wellenmechanik, 1927 [Provenance: Joseph E. Mayer]

Schrodinger, Erwin [Schroedinger; Schrödinger] FIRST EDITION IN BOOK FORM OF 6 FAMOUS PAPERS THAT SCHRODINGER HAD PUBLISHED A YEAR EARLER: including "Quantisierung als Eigenwertproblem", Parts I-IV, and "Über das Verhältnis der Heisenberg-Born-Jordanschen Quantenmechanik zu der meinen" (all in Annalen der Physik. This work bears the ownership signature of Joseph E. Mayer (Joseph Edward Mayer) a University of California chemist who worked with James Franck in Germany in the late 1920s. "In January 1926, Schrödinger published in Annalen der Physik the paper 'Quantisierung als Eigenwertproblem' on wave mechanics and presented what is now known as the Schrödinger equation. In this paper he gave a derivation of the wave equation for time independent systems, and showed that it gave the correct energy eigenvalues for a hydrogen-like atom. This paper has been universally celebrated as one of the most important achievements of the twentieth century, and created a revolution in quantum mechanics and indeed of all physics and chemistry" (Wikipedia). This paper contains "the first appearance in the literature of his famous wave equation, written out for the hydrogen atom" (DSB XII, 220). "A second paper was submitted just four weeks later that solved the quantum harmonic oscillator, the rigid rotor and the diatomic molecule, and gave a new derivation of the Schrödinger equation. "A third paper in May showed the equivalence of his approach to that of Heisenberg and gave the treatment of the Stark effect. "A fourth paper in this most remarkable series showed how to treat problems in which the system changes with time, as in scattering problems. These papers were the central achievement of his career and were at once recognized as having great significance by the physics community" (Wikipedia). CONDITION & DETAILS: Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth. 4to [6.75 x 9.75 inches]. ix, 169 pp; 12 illus. Bound in slightly soiled original green cloth with minor fraying at the top of the spine. Tightly and solidly bound. Bright and very clean throughout. PROVENANCE: This work bears the ownership signature of Joseph E. Mayer (Joseph Edward Mayer) a University of California chemist who worked with James Franck in Germany in the late 1920s.

The Quantum Postulate and the Recent Development of Atomic Theory in Nature, Vol. 121, pp. 580-590, 1928 [BOHR’S COMPLEMENTARITY/COPENHAGEN INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS]

Bohr, N. [Niels] FIRST EDITION, FULL VOLUME, OF BOHR'S SEMINAL INTRODUCTION OF HIS 'complementarity' principle, the basis of what became known as the 'Copenhagen interpretation' of quantum mechanics. Handsomely rebound in half calf. "Immediately after Heisenberg's work on uncertainty relations, Bohr presented his concept of complementarity at a conference. Bohr's lecture marked the first attempt to provide a genuine philosophical underpinning to the new advances in physics. The uncertainty relations had provided Bohr a concrete measure of the consequences of the wave-particle duality and thereby a physics-based justification for his ideas. "Bohr had already embraced the wave-particle duality underlying quantum theory and he presented the concept of complementarity as the fundamental feature of a new conceptual framework. For Bohr, complementarity was an almost religious belief that the paradoxes of the quantum world must be accepted as fundamental, not to be 'solved' or trivialized by attempts to find out 'what's really going on down there.' Bohr used the word in an unusual way: the 'complementarity' of waves and particles, for example (or of position and momentum), meant that when one existed fully, its complement did not exist at all" (Louisa Gilder). "The lecture was published in Nature in 1928 in a revised form. It sparked significant debate in the years that followed and solidified the boundaries between those who accepted Bohr's view of the consequences of quantum theory and those who were seeking a more 'realistic' microscopic theory or a more realistic interpretation of quantum theory itself" (McEvoy). "It is hard to overestimate was Bohr has done. The principle of complementarity. is possibly one of the greatest discoveries in the scientific history of mankind, with ramifications on many other levels of science." (Josef Jauch). "From the epistemological point of view, the discovery of the new type of logical relationship that complementarity represents is a major advance that radically changes our whole view of the role and meaning of science." (DSB). ALSO: "New Results on Cosmic Rays" by R. A. Millikan and G. Harvey Cameron pp. 1-8 [Millikan paper concludes that cosmic rays come from outside the Milky Way]. ALSO: "A New Type of Secondary Radiation" by C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan pp. 501-502; "A Change of Wave-length in Light Scattering" by C. V. Raman pp. 619; "The Optical Analogue of the Compton Effect" by C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan pp. 711. [Raman's three papers announce Raman scattering, for which he was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics]. CONDITION: London: Macmillan. 4to. (11 x 8.25 inches; 275 x 206mm). Entire volume, not ex-libris. Handsomely and professionally rebound in half leather. 5 raised bands at the spine, gilt-ruled. The boards are purposefully scuffed a bit (see picture) to imply aging. One red morocco label; one black morocco label; both gilt-lettered. Tightly and very solidly bound. Clean and bright throughout. Near fine condition.
Fluctuations in the Primordial Fireball in Nature 215 No. 5106 pp. 1155-1156

Fluctuations in the Primordial Fireball in Nature 215 No. 5106 pp. 1155-1156, September 9, 1967 [First Tentative Sightings of CMB Anistropies]

Silk, Joseph I. FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS. Shortly after Wilkinson and Partridge published the first tentative sightings of CMB anistropies, Joseph Silk, in this paper, demonstrated that only very large density irregularities in the early universe (larger than 1,013 solar masses) would survive and be visible in the CMB. We separately offer the Wilkinson & Partridge paper as well as the related Rees & Sciama paper. The Gruber Foundation, writing about Silk in their Cosmology Prize Laureate Profile, noted the following: "The validation of the Big Bang interpretation of the universe arrived, in 1965, just as a 22-year-old Joseph Silk was entering the field of cosmology. The discovery came in the form of an observation of microwave radiation suffusing all of space in every direction. This cosmic microwave background, or CMB, matched a theoretical prediction of what temperature a universe born in a Big Bang would have reached today if the universe had been expanding and cooling for 13 billion years. The radiation, however, was featureless-yet features are what a CMB would need if it's going to grow into a universe full of galaxies. "Presumably more precise observations would detect those irregularities, and in 1967 and 1968 [in a separate paper], Silk calculated that when observations of the CMB attained a far more subtle level of precision, those features would emerge in the form of infinitesimal temperature fluctuations" (Gruber Foundation Cosmology Prize Laureate Profile). CONDITION & DETAILS: London: Macmillian & Sons. Complete issue in original wraps. Discreet ex-libris stamp on the front wrap. As is not uncommon, three neat holes near spine (for keeping given issues together) are present and do not affecting text. Evidencing no wear, this issue is also clean and bright inside and out. Very good+ condition.
Large-scale Density Inhomogeneities in the Universe in Nature 217 No. 5128 pp. 511-516

Large-scale Density Inhomogeneities in the Universe in Nature 217 No. 5128 pp. 511-516, February 10, 1968 [REES-SCIAMA EFFECT IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS]

Rees, Martin; Sciama, Dennis FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS OF REES & SCIAMA'S PREDICTION OF WHAT IS NOW CALLED THE "REES-SCIAMA EFFECT," an important correlation between galaxy density (the number of galaxies per square degree) and the temperature of the CMB in different parts of the universe. The effect is a nonlinear anistropy in the CMB caused by large scale density inhomogeneities in the universe such as quasar clusters. "The CMB radiation is a direct relic of the early universe. It is a unique and deep probe of both the thermal history of the early universe and the primordial perturbations in the matter distribution" (Tuluie, "Cosmic Microwave Background" AJ, 1996, 15). In this paper, English physicists Martin Rees and Dennis Sciama argue and predict that these large scale density inhomogeneities and their "effect on the angular distribution of the cosmic black-body radiation" are the result of perturbations caused by photon passing through an inhomogeneous, expanding universe (Rees & Sciama, 1968, 511). Furthermore, they argue that this effect on the angular distribution could potentially be observable (ibid). Rees & Sciama imagine "a photon passing through a sphere that is expanding differently than the rest of the universe" and from there, consider four effects (1) Blue shift due to photon falling into a larger potential well than it climbs out of. (2) Doppler shift due to the observer receding from the source. (3) Gravitational Redshift from expanding universe. (4) Time delay from the gravitational field" (Asai, Rees-Sciama Effect and Superstructures). As a result of these considerations, Rees & Sciama argue that their effect "takes place when the gravitational potential well crossed by the photons varies during the flight travel time. Indeed, if the photons fall into a gravitational potential well different from the one they go out of, this induces a gravitational redshift (of the Sachs- Wolfe type). The variations in the potential wells are due essentially to the non-linear evolution of the structures. In the case when the potential well is deepened, the photons gained energy and are blue shifted while going towards the centre of a structure, and they lose even more energy than what they gain while going out. This difference results in a net red shift along that line of sight" (Lachièze-Rey. Theoretical and Observational Cosmology, 321). NOTE: We separately offer two related papers (also in original wrappers): "Fluctuations in the Primordial Fireball" by Joseph I. Silk (Nature 215 No. 5106 pp. 1155-1156, September 9, 1967) AND "Large Scale Density Inhomogeneities in the Universe" by D. T. Wilkinson and R. B. Partridge (Nature 215 No. 5102 p. 719, August 12, 1967). CONDITION & DETAILS: London: Macmillian & Sons. Complete issue in original wraps. Discreet ex-libris stamp on the front wrap. As is not uncommon, three neat holes near spine (for keeping given issues together) are present and do not affecting text. Evidencing no wear, this issue is also clean and bright inside and out. Very good+ condition.
Large Scale Density Inhomogeneities in the Universe in Nature 215 No. 5102 p. 719

Large Scale Density Inhomogeneities in the Universe in Nature 215 No. 5102 p. 719, August 12, 1967 [1st MEASUREMENT OF CMB ANISOTROPY]

Wilkinson, D.T.; Partridge, R.B. FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS of the first tentative measurement of a CMB anisotropy, a slightly elevated temperature in the direction of a known quasar cluster. Wilkinson & Partridge's paper presents results "which appear to set rather stringent limits on the magnitude of possible density inhomogeneities in the universe" (Wilkinson and Partridge, 1967, 719). "The CMB radiation is a direct relic of the early universe. It is a unique and deep probe of both the thermal history of the early universe and the primordial perturbations in the matter distribution" (Tuluie, "Cosmic Microwave Background" AJ, 1996, 15). Following "the discovery of the CMB, early work focused on putting constraints on the isotropy of the radiation field: that would be an important part of establishing its cosmological origin and would put constraints on the peculiar motion of the galaxy relative to the Local Group and the Virgo Supercluster" (ibid). Small "anistropies" (inhomogeneities in directional measurements) of temperature and polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) allow scientists to test cosmological and astronomical theories, including cosmic inflation, the geometry of the visible universe, and the distribution of galaxy clusters. Wilkinson and Partridge's paper, again, presents the first attempt to put experimental limits on the level of anistropy. NOTE: We separately offer two related papers (also in original wrappers): "Fluctuations in the Primordial Fireball" by Joseph I. Silk (Nature 215 No. 5106 pp. 1155-1156, September 9, 1967) AND "Large Scale Density Inhomogeneities in the Universe" by Rees and Sciama (Nature 217 No. 5128 pp. 511-516, February 10, 1968). CONDITION & DETAILS: London: Macmillian & Sons. Complete issue in original wraps. Discreet ex-libris stamp on the front wrap. As is not uncommon, three neat holes near spine (for keeping given issues together) are present and do not affecting text. Evidencing no wear, this issue is also clean and bright inside and out. Very good+ condition.

Wavefront Reconstruction with Diffused Illumination and Three-Dimensional Objects” in Journal of the Optical Society of America 54 No. 11 pp. 1295-1301, November 1964

Leith, Emmett N.; Upatnieks, Juris Journal issue in original wrappers. After first demonstrating three dimensional holography in 1962, Emmett Leith & Juris Upatnieks were, in this paper, the first to introduce the possibility of using holograms to record three-dimensional (3D) objects as well as the first to describe how to realize multicolor wavefront reconstruction (holography). The journal is in its original wrappers and the paper is profusely illustrated with both photographs and technical figures. "Emmett and Upatnieks introduced display holography to the world in fall 1964" at the Optical Society of America (Emmett Leith, Inventor of Practical Holography). Their presentation demonstrated the possibility of recording transmission holograms of 3D objects. At the meeting, they introduced the off-axis reference beam technique and used it to display their hologram of a model railroad engine. This laser-illuminated hologram displayed a very realistic-looking 3D image [and] had a huge impact on the participants at the meeting" (Bjelkhagen, Ultra-Realistic Imaging: Advanced Techniques in Analogue and Digital Colour, 124-126). Leith & Upatniek's work would also establish the foundation for an innovation that would later inspire a global scientific movement - [as well as] make [them the people] who transformed the fledgling field of holography into a technology that has become integral to modern innovations in medical imaging, data storage, entertainment and other disciplines" (Emmett Leith: Inventor of Practical Holography). Also included: M. J. Taylor, G. R. Hanes, and K. M. Baird, "Diffraction Loss and Beam Size in Lasers with Spherical Mirrors," pp. 1310-1314. CONDITION & DETAILS: 4to (10.5 X 8 inches). Original wrappers with slight toning at the spine, otherwise pristine inside and out. Very small (1 inch) ownership sticker on the rear of the front wrap of Marcel Gawartin who was part of the design team for the camera lenses used in NASA's Surveyor program.

Dynamic Programming of Continuous Processes” in Rand Corporation R-271 pp. 1-141, 1954 WITH “The Theory of Dynamic Programming” in Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 60 No. 6 pp. 503-515, November 1954

Bellman, Richard FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS OF TWO PAPERS BY BELLMAN MARKING THE BIRTH OF DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING. "These are the seminal papers by Bellman on Dynamic Programming. The first is a 141-page report on dynamic programming and the second is a speech on the theory underlying it. Richard E. Bellman's invention of dynamic programming in 1953 (published in these two papers) was a major breakthrough in the theory of multistage decision processes - a breakthrough which set the stage for the application of functional equation techniques in a wide spectrum of fields extending far beyond the problem-areas which provided the initial motivation for his ideas. This work marked the beginning of a new era in the analysis and optimization of large-scale systems and opened a way for the application of sophisticated computer-oriented techniques in a wide variety of problem-areas ranging from the design of guidance systems for space vehicles to pest control and network optimization" (Richard Bellman Biography, ETHW). Describing his theory of dynamic programming (in the paper with the same name included here), Bellman wrote: "To begin with, the theory was created to treat the mathematical problems arising from the study of various multi-stage decision processes, which may roughly be described in the following way: We have a physical system whose state at any time / is determined by a set of quantities which we call state parameters, or state variables. At certain times, which may be prescribed in advance, or which may be determined by the process itself, we are called upon to make decisions which will affect the state of the system. These decisions are equivalent to transformations of the state variables, the choice of a decision being identical with the choice of a transformation. The outcome of the preceding decisions is to be used to guide the choice of future ones, with the purpose of the whole process that of maximizing some function of the parameters describing the final state" (Bellman, "The Theory of Dynamic Programming," 503). When Bellman was awarded the IEEE Medal of Honor in 1979 "for contributions to decision processes and control system theory, particularly the creation and application of dynamic programming," the citation continued: "Richard Bellman is a towering figure among the contributors to modern control theory and systems analysis. His invention of dynamic programming marked the beginning of a new era in the analysis and optimization of large-scale systems and opened a way for the application of sophisticated computer-oriented techniques in a wide variety of problem areas ranging from the design of guidance systems for space vehicles to pest control and network optimization" (IEEE Transactions, 24, 3, 385, June 1979). CONDITION & DETAILS: The Rand document is pristine inside and out. The Bulletin is pristine with the exception of a quite light library stamp on the front cover and a professionally (and almost invisibly) repaired spine. Both are exceptionally bright and clean.

On the Significance of Solving Linear Programming Problems with Some Integer variables” Econometrica 28 No. 1 pp. 30-44, January 1960 [DANTZIG ON INTEGER PROGRAMMING]

Dantzig, George Bernard FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL PAPER WRAPS OF DANTZIG'S PAPER ON COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY. Dantzig's work on the use of computational complexity aims to categorize problems by their solution difficulty is considered foundational (New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics). George Bernard Dantzig (1914-2005) was an American mathematician who made important contributions to operations research, computer science, industrial engineering, economics, and statistics. In the paper offered here, "he [presents] a number of techniques for expressing various types of complex constraints as systems of linear inequalities in which some variables are constrained to be integers. The constraints include dichotomies, k-fold alternatives, selection from many pairs of regions, discrete variable problems, conditional constraints and finding a global minimum of a concave function. In particular, he showed that the fixed charge problem, the traveling salesman problem, the orthogonal Latin square problem and the problem of four-coloring a map could be expressed as mixed integer programs" (Karp, George Dantzig's Impact on the Theory of Computation). "Dantzig was one of the three founders of linear programming, a mathematical method used for the optimum allocation of scarce resources among competing activities. Dantzig discovered that many such allocation problems could be formulated as linear computer programs. He also devised an algorithm, known as the simplex method, which allowed these programs to be performed on a large scale and applied to real-world problems" (Origins of Cyberspace, 92). Note: We separately offer Dantzig's "Programming of Interdependent Activities I & II - the first published description of his seminal 'simplex' method of linear programming. CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete first edition in original wrappers. 4to. 250 x 175mm. Slight sunning at spine, otherwise fine. Clean and bright throughout.
Fission of Protactinium (Bohr & Wheeler

Fission of Protactinium” (Bohr & Wheeler, pp. 1065-1066) AND “On Pair Emission in the Proton Bombardment of Fluorine” (Oppenheimer & Schwinger, pp. 1066-1067) in Physical Review, November 15, 1939, Vol. 56, Issue 10 [Single Journal Issue in Original Wrappers CONFIRMS BOHR & WHEELER’S THEORY OF NUCLEAR FISSION]

Bohr, Niels & Wheeler, John AND Oppenheimer, Julius Robert & Schwinger, Julian Single Journal Issue in Original Wrappers, 1st edition. Offered here is Bohr and Wheeler's November 1939 paper confirming their predictions in the September "The Mechanism of Nuclear Fission" paper (which we offer separately). While this work is one of Bohr's three major 1939 papers on fission, the September paper is the more important of the two. BOHR & WHEELER'S "The Mechanism of Nuclear Fission," published in September of 1939 and which we offer separately, is the first fully worked out theory of nuclear fission and it laid the groundwork for atomic and hydrogen bombs. "The paper is a masterpiece of clear thinking and lucid writing. It reveals, at the center of the mystery of fission, a tiny world where everything can be calculated and everything understood. The tiny world is a nucleus of uranium 236, formed when a neutron is freshly captured by a nucleus of uranium 235. The uranium 236 nucleus sits precisely on the border between classical and quantum physics." By studying this process in detail, they show how the complementary views provided by classical and quantum pictures are both essential to the understanding of nature. Without the combined power of classical and quantum concepts, the intricacies of the fission process could never have been understood. Bohr's notion of complementarity is triumphantly vindicated" (Barrow, Science and Ultimate Reality, xvii). OPPENHEIMER & SCHWINGER'S "On Pair Emission" explains the observed effect as the existence of vacuum polarization, the virtual creation, for short periods of time, of electron-positron pairs. CONDITION & DETAILS: Lancaster: American Institute of Physics, 1939. (10.5 x 8 inches); 267 x 203 mm. Original wraps, very tight and solid. Two small and light ex-libris stamps on the front wrapper and the usual slight toning at the edges. Otherwise, it is an exceptional copy bright and very clean throughout.
The Mechanism of Nuclear Fission (Bohr and Wheeler

The Mechanism of Nuclear Fission” (Bohr and Wheeler, pp. 426-50) WITH “On Continued Gravitational Contraction” (Oppenheimer and Snyder, pp. 455-59) in Physical Review, September 1, 1939, Vol. 56, Issue 5. [Single Journal Issue in Original Wrappers, Near fine condition: FIRST FULLY WORKED OUT THEORY OF NUCLEAR FISSION + THE FIRST THEORETICAL PREDICTION OF A SINGULARITY]

Bohr, Niels & Wheeler, John AND Oppenheimer, Julius Robert & Snyder, H. ORIGINAL WRAPS, NEAR FINE CONDITION. 1st EDITION OF TWO (within a single journal issue) SEMINAL PAPERS IN THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS, one by Bohr & Wheeler and one by Oppenheimer & Snyder. BOHR & WHEELER'S "The Mechanism of Nuclear Fission" is the first fully worked out theory of nuclear fission and it laid the groundwork for atomic and hydrogen bombs. "The paper is a masterpiece of clear thinking and lucid writing. It reveals, at the center of the mystery of fission, a tiny world where everything can be calculated and everything understood. The tiny world is a nucleus of uranium 236, formed when a neutron is freshly captured by a nucleus of uranium 235. The uranium 236 nucleus sits precisely on the border between classical and quantum physics." By studying this process in detail, they show how the complementary views provided by classical and quantum pictures are both essential to the understanding of nature. Without the combined power of classical and quantum concepts, the intricacies of the fission process could never have been understood. Bohr's notion of complementarity is triumphantly vindicated" (Barrow, Science and Ultimate Reality, xvii). OPPENHEIMER & SNYDER'S "On Continued Gravitational Contraction" constitutes the very first theoretical prediction of a singularity when a sufficiently large neutron star collapses. This phenomenon was later to be coined as a black hole. "Had J. Robert Oppenheimer not led the US effort to build the atomic bomb, he might still have been remembered for figuring out how a black hole could form" (American Physical Society). This paper has been described as the forgotten birth of black holes. CONDITION & DETAILS: Lancaster: American Institute of Physics, 1939. (10.5 x 8 inches); 267 x 203 mm. Original wraps, very tight and solid. Very slight toning at the edges of the front wrap; the ghost of an old crease at lower right corner. Bright and very clean within. Near fine condition.

Parity Experiments in Beta Decays” (Wu, pp. 783-790) WITH “Status of Weak Interactions” (Gell-Mann, pp. 834-838) in Review of Modern Physics, Vol. 31, 1959

Wu, C. S. [Chien-Shiung]; Gell-Mann, Murray FIRST EDITION OF TWO PAPERS, ONE BY CHIEN-SHIUNG WU & ONE BY MURRAY GELL-MANN. Handsomely bound full volume. WU: Chien-Shiung Wu was a Chinese American physicist with an expertise in radioactivity. She was also known as the "First Lady of Physics," "Madame Curie of China" and "Madame Wu." Wu was "notable for her work on the Manhattan Project and for having designed the 1957 experiment that disproved the "law of conservation of parity"-that subatomic particles decay symmetrically. The law of parity was more than a false assumption, however. Symmetry, uniformity, simplicity, and elegance are core aesthetic values within Western scientific culture. By demonstrating that sub-atomic particles decay in a non-uniform way, Wu's research threatened some of the most foundational values within Modern science. In a profile that appeared in the New York Post in 1959, Wu was described as "small and modest" yet "powerful enough to do what armies can never accomplish: she helped destroy a law of nature" (Diaz 2012). The Wu paper included here is a discussion of the two-component theory of the neutrino and its application to lepton conservation and pi - mu -e decays is given. The interactions responsible for beta decay are enumerated. Furthermore, Wu's paper includes a historical review of numerous experiments checking parity non-conservation in various circumstances. GELL-MANN: Murray Gell-Mann (1929-2019) received the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles. This paper is the first printing of the last in a series of papers presented in 1958 at a Conference on Weak Interactions. In it, Gell-Mann condenses and synthesizes the scientific understanding of weak interactions to date. Wasson, writing in Nobel Prize Winner stated: "In the 1950s physicists - using particle accelerators which fired beams of particles at stationary targets, measured particles created by the resulting collisions - had created many more kinds of subatomic particles than the protons, neutrons, and electrons with which they were familiar. As the number of particles grew, several were found to exhibit what was called "strange" behavior. The rate at which they were created in certain collisions with other particles suggested that their behavior was governed by the strong nuclear force, which characteristically acts very rapidly. The strong force, the weak nuclear force, electromagnetism, and gravity make up the four fundamental forces that are believed to underlie all phenomena. The strange particles took a surprisingly long time to decay, however, which should not have been the case if they were governed by the strong force. The rate at which they decayed seemed to indicate that this process was governed by the much slower weak force" (Wasson, Nobel Prize winners, pp. 370-372). CONDITION & DETAILS: Full volume, complete. Not ex-library. 4to. (272 x 202mm). 1077pp. Handsomely rebound in red cloth over marbled paper boards. Gilt-lettered Morocco spine labels. Pristine condition inside and out.

Hereditary Stature” [Extracts from Presidential Address] pp. 295-8 WITH “Hereditary Stature” [Letter to the Editor], p.317 in Nature33, 1886

Galton, Francis FULL VOLUME FIRST EDITION WITH TWO WORKS BY FRANCIS GALTON. Sir Francis Galton F.R.S. (1822-1911) was a Victorian polymath: geographer, meteorologist, tropical explorer, founder of differential psychology, inventor of fingerprint identification, pioneer of statistical correlation and regression, convinced hereditarian, eugenicist, proto-geneticist, half-cousin of Charles Darwin and best-selling author. "To study humans, Galton founded the Anthropometric Laboratory in 1884. Data was accumulated through the physical measurement of hundreds of individuals, and results published in Natural Inheritance indicated physical characteristics indeed fit the normal law. Galton however, was not merely interested in physical characteristics, as he claimed that intelligence is inherited. "To demonstrate this, he needed a method to show the intelligence of one generation was "co-related" to that of the previous generation, so that he might argue for the causal relationship: children acquired intelligence from their parents. Fortunately, Galton understood that the scientific value of such a method required it be developed apart from the study of human mental characteristics, which were difficult to quantify in numerical measurements. He developed the ideas of correlation and regression in the study of sweet peas and human physical characteristics" (Brutlag, The Development of Correlation and Association in Statistics). CONDITION: 4to. Ex-libris with the usual markings. Half-calf. 5 raised bands at the spine. Marbled endpapers. Clean and bright throughout.

The Monte Carlo Method” in Journal of the American Statistical Association 44 No. 247 pp. 335-341, September 1949

Metropolis, Nicholas; Ulam, Stanislaw FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS OF ULAM & METROPOLIS'S MONTE CARLO METHOD, "A NUMERICAL METHOD OF SOLVING MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS BY TH SIMULATION OF RANDOM VARIABLES. It performs simulation of any process whose development is influenced by random factors, but also if the given problem involves no chance, the method enables artificial construction of a probabilistic model. "The generally accepted birth date of this method is 1949 when an article entitled 'The Monte Carlo method' by Metropolis and Ulam appeared. Curiously enough, the theoretical foundation of the method had been known long before first articles were published. Well before 1949 certain problems in statistics were sometimes solved by means of random sampling - that is, in fact, by the Monte Carlo method. However, because simulation of random variables by hand is a laborious process, the use of the Monte Carlo method as a universal numerical technique became practical only with the advent of computers and high-quality pseudorandom number generators" (Warnock, Random-Number). "Ulam's contribution was to recognize the potential for the newly invented electronic computer to automate such sampling. Working with John von Neumann and Nicholas Metropolis, he developed algorithms for computer implementations, as well as exploring means of transforming nonrandom problems into random forms that would facilitate their solution via statistical sampling. "This work transformed statistical sampling from a mathematical curiosity to a formal methodology applicable to a wide variety of problem" (Holton, Value at Risk, 5.2.1). "The Monte Carlo method has proven to be a powerful and useful tool. In act, "solitaire games" now range from the neutron- and photon-transport codes through the evaluation of multi-dimensional integrals, the exploration of the properties of high-temperature plasmas, and into the quantum mechanics of systems too complex for other methods" (Warnock, Random-Number). CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete journal issue in original wrappers. 8vo. 8.75 X 5.75 inches. Professionally repaired at the spine, otherwise clean and bright inside and out. Near pristine. Fine condition.

Baby Universes” (Modern Physics Letters A 5 No. 2 pp. 145-155, January 20, 1990) WITH “Baby Universes II” (Modern Physics Letters A 5 No. 7 pp. 453-466, March 20, 1990). [HAWKING’S BABY UNIVERSES]

Hawking, Stephen FIRST EDITIONS IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF HAWKING'S TWO PAPERS DISCUSSING BABY UNIVERSES & BLACK HOLES. In his own words: "How can a black hole give off radiation. How can anything get out through the event horizon of a black hole. The answer is, the Uncertainty Principle, allows particles to travel faster than light, for a small distance. This enables particles and radiation, to get out through the event horizon, and escape from the black hole. Thus, it is possible for things to get out of a black hole. However, what comes out of a black hole, will be different from what fell in. Only the energy will be the same. "As a black hole gives off particles and radiation, it will lose mass. This will cause the black hole to get smaller, and to send out particles more rapidly. Eventually, it will get down to zero mass, and will disappear completely. What will happen then to the objects, including possible spaceships, that fell into the black hole. According to some recent work of mine, the answer is that they go off into a little baby universe of their own. A small, self-contained universe branches off from our region of the universe. This baby universe may join on again to our region of spacetime. If it does, it would appear to us to be another black hole, which formed, and then evaporated. Particles that fell into one black hole, would appear as particles emited by the other black hole, and vice versa. "To sum up: it seems that particles can fall into black holes, which then evaporate, and disappear from our region of the universe. The particles go off into baby universes, which branch off from our universe. These baby universes can then join back on somewhere else. They may not be much good for space travel, but their presence means that we will be able to predict less than we expected, even if we do find a complete unified theory. On the other hand, we now may be able to provide explanations for the measured values of some quantities, like the cosmological constant" (Hawking, Black Holes and Baby Universes, 1993). CONDITION & DETAILS: Two individual issues with original wrappers. Library stamps and notations on front wrappers, otherwise fine. Clean and bright throughout.

The Wonders That Await a Micro-Microscope” (The Saturday Review pp. 45-47, April 2, 1960) WITH “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” (Miniaturization pp. 282-296, 1961) WITH “Infinitesimal Machinery” (Nanotechnology: Science, Innovation, and Opportunity pp. 247-268, 2006). [FEYNMAN’S PIONEERING WORKS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY]

Feynman, Richard FEYNMAN'S PIONEERING WORKS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, 3 WORKS HOUSED IN A CUSTOM MADE CASE. Richard Feynman created the science of nanotechnology in his December 1959 speech at the American Physical Society and made further statements about the science in a February 1983 speech at Jet Propulsion Laboratories. The case contains a summary and a transcript of Feynman's first speech and a transcript of his second. "In December of 1959, Richard Feynman gave a talk called "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom" at an annual meeting of the American Physical Society at Caltech. In this famous lecture, Feynman laid the conceptual foundations for the field now called nanotechnology when he imagined a day when things could be miniaturized -- when huge amounts of information could be encoded onto increasingly small spaces, and when machinery could be made considerably smaller and more compact. He asked his audience: "I don't know how to do this on a small scale in a practical way, but I do know that computing machines are very large; they fill rooms. Why can't we make them very small, make them of little wires, little elements, and by little, I mean little?'" ("Richard Feynman Introduces the World to Nanotechnology with Two Seminal Lectures in Physics, Technology, April 23rd, 2013). A summary of and a transcript of this lecture is included in this offering. The second of the lectures was given in 1983 and is considered a sequel to that given in 1959; as with the latter, a transcript of the lecture is included. The lecture is remarkable. In it, Feynman anticipates "the sacrificial method of making silicon micromotors, the use of electrostatic actuation, and the importance of friction and contact sticking in such devices. He explores the persistent problem of finding meaningful applications for these tiny machines, touching a range of topics along the way. And he looks at the future of computation using a register made of atoms, and quantum-mechanical transitions for computation operations" (Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 2, No. 1, March 1993). CONDITION & DETAILS: The Saturday Review issue has an address sticker on the front wrapper; otherwise fine. The two volumes are in fine condition with original dust wrappers. The 1961 volume is signed by the author. The custom case is pristine and is gilt-lettered on both the front board and the spine.

Energy dependence of 209 Bi fragmentation in relativistic nuclear collisions” in Physical Review C 23 Issue 3 pp. 1044-1046, March 1981 [ALCHEMY. MODERN PHILOSOPHER’S STONE]

Seaborg, Glenn T; Morrissey, David C. FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF "THE FIRST SUCCESSFUL ALCHEMICAL EXPERIMENT IN HISTORY" (Valijak, Vintage News, 2017). Seaborg and his team transmuted several thousand atoms of bismuth into gold for the first time by accelerating carbon and neon nuclei to near light speed and then directing them into foils of bismuth, splitting off parts of the bismuth nucleus. This technique, while too costly for routine manufacturing, is the modern version of the "Philosopher's Stone," a legendary method for turning base metals into gold. "In 1980, he used his extensive knowledge of nuclear chemistry and nuclear physics to conduct the first successful alchemical experiment in the history of humanity. He employed a particle accelerator to remove protons and neutrons from several thousand atoms of bismuth and managed to transmute them into atoms of gold. Although several thousand atoms is a quantity so small that it is not even visible to the naked eye, Seaborg proved that alchemy has been pursuing a completely achievable goal for the past several thousand years. Well, one might ask, if Seaborg managed to produce gold out of a non-precious metal, why aren't people using his revolutionary technique today to produce massive amounts of gold? The answer to that question is the fact that the process discovered by Seaborg is so incredibly complex and so immensely expensive that it would require quadrillions of dollars to produce just an ounce of gold. The process requires a particle accelerator, huge amounts of energy, and a lot of time. Therefore, Seaborg's technique will likely never be used to produce significant amounts of gold as contemporary science has far more important projects that are not as expensive and time-consuming. Nonetheless, he was indeed the first person in history who managed to produce something very similar to the fabled Philosopher's Stone" (ibid). NOTE: Listed separately, we also offer Seaborg's 1946 work, "The Transuranium Elements", "one of the most significant changes to the periodic table since Mendeleev's 19th century design. Seaborg Obituary, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete. 4to. 10.25 x 7.5 inches. Individual issue in original wraps. Spine professionally repaired and light library stamp on front cover, otherwise pristine. Housed in custom pamphlet case, gilt-lettered and ruled at the spine. Bright and very clean throughout.

Brownian Motion in the Stock Market” (Operations Research 7 no 2 pp. 145-173, March-April 1959) WITH “Letter to the Editor?Reply to Comments on ?Brownian Motion in the Stock Market'” (Operations Research 7 No. 6 pp. 807-810, November 1959) WITH “Periodic Structure in the Brownian Motion of Stock Prices” (Operations Research 10 Issue 3 pp. 267-290, May-June 1962) WITH and “Financial Analogs of Physical Brownian Motion, as Illustrated by Earnings” (The Financial Review 19 No. 2 pp.153-172, May 1984). [BROWNIAN MOTION IN THE STOCK MARKET]

Osborne, M. F. Maury [Matthew Maury Osborne] FIRST EDITION OF THE FIRST PUBLICATION OF BROWNIAN MOTION IN THE STOCK PRICES. While the theory was initially Louis Bachelier's, Maury Osborne made major corrections and extensions to Bachelier's theory, was the first to study the technical analysis scientifically, the first to demonstrate the substantial contribution physics could make to finance, and the first to publish. Osborne elucidated the periodic structure in the Brownian motion of stock prices as well as the financial analogs of physical Brownian motion as illustrated by earnings. This offering comprises a complete set of his papers (4) on the subject. In the late 1950's, the American astrophysicist, M. F. Maury Osborne began to study stock prices, noticing that they behaved as would a collection of particles moving randomly in a fluid - in other words, they were exhibiting Brownian motion. "Osborne found that stock prices don't follow a normal distribution as Bachelier had suggested; rather, the rate of return on a stock (the "average percentage by which the price changes each instant") is normally distributed. "Since price and rate of return are related by a logarithm, Osborne's model implies that prices should be log-normally distributed" (Weatherall, The Physics of Wall Street). Osborne published his hypothesis that price follows a geometric Brownian motion -- the distribution of price changes is log normal in the first 1959 paper offered. In the second, Osborne was jointly responsible for the earliest literature identifying the fat tails and that price deviation is proportional to the square root of time; in the 1962 paper included, Osborne adds his observation of non-stationarity (Osborne 1962)" (Sewell, History of the Efficient Market Hypothesis). In the final, much later, Osborne wrote "The internal structure of stock prices is examined by comparison with simple random walks [with] the volume measures the rate at which the steps are taken. It is found that there is definite evidence of periodic in time structure corresponding to intervals of a day, week, quarter, and year, these being simply the cycles of human attention span" (Osborne, 1984). In The Physics of Wall Street, Weatherall notes that Osborne's methodology is worth emulating. "First, you study the data and "make simplifying assumptions to derive simple models." Then "you check carefully to find places where your simplifying assumptions break down and try to figure out, again by focusing on the data, how these failures of your assumptions produce problems for the model's predictions. . For instance, Osborne showed that price changes aren't independent. This is especially true during market crashes, when a series of downward ticks makes it very likely that prices will continue to fall" (The Physics of Wall Street, 2013, p.47). CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete. All four issues are in individual issues with original wrappers and all are in fine condition with the exception of the following: The spines of the first two issues have been professionally restored and there is a library stamp on each front cover. The Financial Review issue has one of the articles listed on the front cover circled in red ink. All four issues are housed in a custom clamshell box, gilt-lettered at the spine and on the front board.

Geometrical Researches on the Theory of Parallels, 1892 [NON-EUCLIDIAN GEOMETRY]

Lobachevskii, Nikolai I. [Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky] [Translated into English by George Bruce Halsted] SECOND EDITION OF THE FIRST ENGLISH LANGUAGE TRANSLATION OF LOBACHEVSKIAN GEOMETRY. Lobachevsky created, developed and presented what has come to be known as Lobachevskian geometry in 1826. The document offered here is the second edition of the first English language translation of Lobachevsky's paper that was published a year prior to this one 1891. Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky was a Russian mathematician and geometer known for his development of a non-Euclidean geometry in which Euclid's fifth postulate ("For any given line and point not on the line, there is only one line through the point not intersecting the given line") does not hold. "The boldness of [Lobachevsky's] challenge [to Euclid's geometry] and its successful outcome have inspired mathematicians and scientists in general to challenge other "axioms" or accepted "truths", for example the "law" of causality which, for centuries, have seemed as necessary to straight thinking as Euclid's postulate appeared until Lobachevsky discarded it. The full impact of the Lobachevskian method of challenging axioms has probably yet to be felt. The author of Men of Mathematics wrote, in 1937, about Lobachevsky's influence on the following development of mathematics in his 1937 book stating: 'It is no exaggeration to call Lobachevsky the Copernicus of Geometry, for geometry is only a part of the vaster domain which he renovated; it might even be just to designate him as a Copernicus of all thought'" (Wikipedia). "The non-Euclidean geometry that Lobachevsky developed is referred to as hyperbolic geometry. Lobachevsky replaced Playfair's axiom with the statement that for any given point there exists more than one line that can be extended through that point and run parallel to another line of which that point is not part. He developed the angle of parallelism which depends on the distance the point is off the given line. In hyperbolic geometry the sum of angles in a hyperbolic triangle must be less than 180 degrees. Non-Euclidean geometry stimulated the development of differential geometry which has many applications. Hyperbolic geometry is frequently referred to as "Lobachevskian geometry" or "Bolyai-Lobachevskian geometry'". (Wikipedia). CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete. 8vo. (8.75 x 6 inches). [4], 50, [2]. Handsomely rebound in half-calf over gilt-ruled marbled paper boards. Gilt-lettered at the spine. Tightly bound. Bright and very clean inside and out. Fine condition.

Group Characters and Algebra” in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences Vol. 233, pp. 99-141, 1934

Littlewood, D. E. [Dudley Ernest] FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF THE LITTLEWOOD-RICHARDSON RULE. Offprints are prized because they are separately printed by journals and frequently issued in small quantities intended only for the author's use and distribution to colleagues. "In mathematics, the Littlewood-Richardson rule is a combinatorial description of the coefficients that arise when decomposing a product of two Schur functions as a linear combination of other Schur functions. These coefficients are natural numbers, which the Littlewood-Richardson rule describes as counting certain skew tableaux" (Wikipedia). "Dudley Ernest Littlewood was a British mathematician known for his work in group representation theory. He worked on invariant theory and group representation theory, especially of the symmetric group, often in collaboration with Archibald Read Richardson of Swansea. They introduced the immanant of a matrix, studied Schur functions and developed the Littlewood-Richardson rule for their multiplication. Littlewood was also interested in the application of representation theory to quantum mechanics" (Wikipedia). CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete. 4to. (12 x 9 inches, 300 x 225mm). Original wraps with very slight fading at the edges. Very slight chipping at the head of the spine. Bright and clean throughout.

An Account of the Meteor, which burst over Weston, in Connecticut, in December, 1807″ in Memoirs of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences I Part I pp. 141-162, 1808-1810 [BEGINNING OF METEOR SCIENCE IN AMERICA]

Silliman, Benjamin; Kingsley, James L. FIRST EDITION, full volume bound in original publisher's boards, OF THE FIRST WELL-DOCUMENTED RECORD OF A METEORITE FALL IN THE NEW WORLD & THE BEGINNING OF METEORITE SCIENCE IN THE UNITED STATES. "When a fiery meteor crash in 1807 lit up the dark early-morning sky in Weston, Connecticut, it did more than startle the few farmers in the sleepy village. More importantly, it sparked the curiosity of Benjamin Silliman, a young chemistry professor at nearby Yale College. His rigorous investigation of the incident started a chain of events that eventually brought the once-low standing of American science to sudden international prominence" (Prince, CJ, A Professor, a President, and a Meteor: The Birth of American Science, 2010). Silliman and Kingsley write: "At 6:30 in the morning of December 14, 1807, a blazing fireball appearing to be about two-thirds the size of the moon was seen traveling southwards by early risers in Vermont and Massachusetts. Three loud explosions were heard over the town of Weston in Fairfield County, Connecticut. Stone fragments fell in at least 6 places. The largest and only unbroken stone of the Weston fall, which weighed 36.5 pounds (16.5 kilograms), was found some days later." Interest in the Weston fall "transcended science. The notion that stones could fall from the sky was a threatening one for those who believed that a deity had created the universe and heavens as a perfect entity, devoid of objects except for the predictable celestial spheres" (Meteorite Gallery Portal). "The idea that rocks could fall from space was only recently accepted in Europe by a handful of chemists and mineralogists. Then, in 1803, a huge meteorite shower in L'Aigle, France forced more scientists to concede it could and did happen" (New England Historical Society). "The very idea of an 'imperfect' ether in which rocks were rushing around between bodies willy-nilly wasn't something that a classical religious adherent - even a scientifically minded genius like Thomas Jefferson - could easily accept" (Meteorite Gallery Portal). Thus the "event also embroiled Silliman in politics, pitting him against no less an adversary than President Thomas Jefferson" (NEHS). When told of the Yale professors' theory, Jefferson is said to have commented derisively: "It is easier to believe that two Yankee professors could lie than to admit that stones could fall from heaven" (ibid). CONDITION & DETAILS: 4to. An unsophisticated copy bound, notably, in original publisher's boards. Tightly bound with original spine label still present and intact. The pages are well-toned, but uniformly so. Very good condition.