Atticus Rare Books

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Memoire sur la nature du Principe qui se combine avec les Metaux pendant leur calcination et qui en augmente le poids [Lavoisier’s Easter Memoir] in Histoire de l’Academie Royale des Sciences. Année 1775. Avec les Memoires de Mathematique & de Physique, pour la meme annee. Tires des Registres de cette Academie, 1780, pp. 318-329 [SECOND EDITION, LAVOISIER’S OFFICIAL EASTER MEMOIR ON THE COMPOSITION OF AIR]

Lavoisier, M. [Antoine-Laurent] LAVOISIER'S OFFICIAL EASTER MEMOIR ON THE COMPOSITION OF AIR. THIS IS THE 1780 edition. WE OFFER THE 1st 1778 EDITION SEPARATELY. In this work, Lavoisier proposed that ordinary air is composed of two different gases, one "highly respirable" (that he named "oxygen") and the other (later named nitrogen) that was unable to support combustion or respiration. This work is commonly referred to as Lavoisier's "Easter Memoir" because he presented an earlier version to the Academy around Easter of 1775; as this is the 1778 revised version, historians regard it as Lavoisier's "official" Easter Memoir (Wikipedia). In April, 1778, "Lavoisier read for a second time the memoir in which he had originally demonstrated, in April 1775, that mercury precipitate reduced without charcoal disengages not fixed air, but the 'air itself entire', or 'the purest portion of the air'. He made some revisions in the text that have attracted widespread attention from historians" (Holmes, Lavoisier, 137). In the time between 1775 and 1778, Lavoisier repeated some of performed some new experiments of his own and repeated some of Priestley's. In the 1778 'official' version, Lavoisier "altered the language in which he had described that air, calling it now 'the most salubrious, the most pure portion of the air', and air 'in an eminently respirable state'. Fastening on to this last phrase, he again referred to the air later in his memoir as 'eminently respirable air'. At the same time he deleted references to it in the original version as 'common air', and eliminated the experimental description that it reacted to the nitrous air test in the same manner as common air. "Historians have tended to treat with suspicion the textual changes Lavoisier made. The implication seems to be that he sought to represent himself as having clearly understood in 1775 that the air released from the mercury calx is a specific portion of the atmosphere when, in fact, he had then still not distinguished it unambiguously from ordinary air. If one couples this suspicion with acceptance of Priestley's charge that Lavoisier had obtained the idea for the experiment from him in the first place, then one creates an image of Lavoisier as one who is known to have had an 'occasional tendency to allow the work of others to pass as his own'. "There is, however, no solid evidence that in making these changes he was attempting to rewrite history. His motivation was probably [simple]. By the spring of 1778, when his new theoretical edifice had solidified, the experiments on mercury calx would have come to appear to him as one of the decisive experimental foundations on which he had erected it. Yet when he looked back on the paper which reported these experiments from the vantage point he had since attained, the descriptions of the air he had identified in it would have appeared confused, ambiguous, and inconsistent. "The embarrassment of allowing such flaws to remain, in what he could now anticipate might someday be regarded as a classic paper, is obvious. Since the paper had yet to appear in the Memoirs of the Academy, chronically two to three years late in publication, he had a convenient opportunity to avoid that outcome" (Holmes). CONDITION: Paris: Hotel de Thou, rue des Poitevins. 8vo. (6.5 x 4). 12 folding engraved copperplates. Marbled endpapers. Contemporary full leather binding. Chipped in several places. Internally fine.
Memoire sur la nature du Principe qui se combine avec les Metaux pendant leur calcination et qui en augmente le poids [Lavoisier's Easter Memoir] in Histoire de l'Academie Royale des Sciences. Année 1775. Avec les Memoires de Mathématique & de Physique

Mémoire sur la nature du Principe qui se combine avec les Métaux pendant leur calcination et qui en augmente le poids [Lavoisier’s Easter Memoir] in Histoire de l’Académie Royale des Sciences. Année 1775. Avec les Mémoires de Mathématique & de Physique, pour la même année. Tirés des Registres de cette Académie, 1778, pp. 520-526

Lavoisier, M. [Antoine-Laurent] FIRST EDITION, LAVOISIER'S OFFICIAL EASTER MEMOIR ON THE COMPOSITION OF AIR. In this work, Lavoisier proposed that ordinary air is composed of two different gases, one "highly respirable" (that he named "oxygen") and the other (later named nitrogen) that was unable to support combustion or respiration. This work is commonly referred to as Lavoisier's "Easter Memoir" because he presented an earlier version to the Academy around Easter of 1775; as this is the 1778 revised version, historians regard it as Lavoisier's "official" Easter Memoir (Wikipedia). In April, 1778, "Lavoisier read for a second time the memoir in which he had originally demonstrated, in April 1775, that mercury precipitate reduced without charcoal disengages not fixed air, but the 'air itself entire', or 'the purest portion of the air'. He made some revisions in the text that have attracted widespread attention from historians" (Holmes, Lavoisier, 137). In the time between 1775 and 1778, Lavoisier repeated some of performed some new experiments of his own and repeated some of Priestley's. In the 1778 'official' version, Lavoisier "altered the language in which he had described that air, calling it now 'the most salubrious, the most pure portion of the air', and air 'in an eminently respirable state'. Fastening on to this last phrase, he again referred to the air later in his memoir as 'eminently respirable air'. At the same time he deleted references to it in the original version as 'common air', and eliminated the experimental description that it reacted to the nitrous air test in the same manner as common air. "Historians have tended to treat with suspicion the textual changes Lavoisier made. The implication seems to be that he sought to represent himself as having clearly understood in 1775 that the air released from the mercury calx is a specific portion of the atmosphere when, in fact, he had then still not distinguished it unambiguously from ordinary air. If one couples this suspicion with acceptance of Priestley's charge that Lavoisier had obtained the idea for the experiment from him in the first place, then one creates an image of Lavoisier as one who is known to have had an 'occasional tendency to allow the work of others to pass as his own'. "There is, however, no solid evidence that in making these changes he was attempting to rewrite history. His motivation was probably [simple]. By the spring of 1778, when his new theoretical edifice had solidified, the experiments on mercury calx would have come to appear to him as one of the decisive experimental foundations on which he had erected it. Yet when he looked back on the paper which reported these experiments from the vantage point he had since attained, the descriptions of the air he had identified in it would have appeared confused, ambiguous, and inconsistent. "The embarrassment of allowing such flaws to remain, in what he could now anticipate might someday be regarded as a classic paper, is obvious. Since the paper had yet to appear in the Memoirs of the Academy, chronically two to three years late in publication, he had a convenient opportunity to avoid that outcome" (Holmes). ALSO INCLUDED: An important paper by P. S. Laplace introducing the concept of the "Coriolis effect" fifty years before Coriolis. Euler had also written about the effect in 1749. "Recherches sur plusieurs points du système du monde" in Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences Année 1775 pp. 75-182, 1778. This is part one of a two part paper. CONDITION: Paris: De l'Imprimerie Royale. 4to (10.5 x 8.25). 11 folding engraved copperplates. Prior ownership name, 'Bernardi' on front free endpaper. Contemporary full leather binding. Front joint between spine and boards cracking but solid. Handsome wide margins throughout. Slight toning throughout, otherwise bright and very clean. Very good condition.
The Botanic Garden; A Poem

The Botanic Garden; A Poem, in Two Parts. Part I. Containing The Economy of Vegetation. Part II. The Loves of the Plants, 1791

Darwin, Erasmus "THE FIRST OF DARWIN'S FOUR MAJOR WORKS, THE BOTANIC GARDEN" IS OFFERED HERE IN TWO HANDSOMELY BOUND VOLUMES (Dictionary of Scientific Biography, III, 578-579). Erasmus Darwin (1732-1802) was a remarkable polymath, working as a physician, naturalist, medical botanist, and inventor. He was also Charles Darwin's grandfather. The Botanic Garden is an annotated scientific poem in Augustan couplets. It appeared in two parts, of which the second, The Loves of the Plants (1789), was published before the first, The Economy of Vegetation (1791). "Darwin decided to publish the second part of the work first because it was better suited "to entertain and charm." The first part of the work is more ambitious than the second, covering all natural philosophy, and embodying many of the researches and inventions of Wedgwood, Watt, Boulton, and others. The design of the totality was, Darwin wrote, 'To enlist Imagination under the banner of Science. to induce the ingenious to cultivate the knowledge of botany. and recommending to their attention the immortal works of the celebrated Swedish naturalist-Linnaeus.' "Darwin believed that prose was suited to abstract ideas, but chose to write poetry for its ability to conjure up visual images; he drew upon the Rosicrucian doctrine of Gnomes, Sylphs, Nymphs, and Salamanders, presiding over the four elements, in his personifications of all scientific, technological, and natural phenomena. Although William Cowper and other early critics greeted The Botanic Garden with praise" (ibid). We offer Darwin's Zoonomia; or, The Laws of Organic Life, Volumes I & II, 1794 & 1796 separately. CONDITION & DETAILS: J. Johnson, London. Complete. Two volumes. 4to. (12 x 9.5 inches; 30 x 24cm). Volume I: [xii], 214, [126], 1; Volume II: [2], [ix], 197 [1]pp. 20 engraved plates, inclusive of five by William Blake and two 2 by John Henry Fuseli. Very handsomely rebound in full calf; blind-stamped on the front and rear boards. The spine is gilt-ruled with decorative devices in the compartments. Also a gilt-lettered black morocco spine label. New endpapers. Minor foxing and offsetting (see photos), otherwise clean and very bright throughout.
Rabdologiae seu numerationis per virgulas libri duo: cum appendice de expeditissimo multiplicationis promptuario. Quibus accessit & arithmeticae localis liber unus. Leiden: Petrus Rammasenius

Rabdologiae seu numerationis per virgulas libri duo: cum appendice de expeditissimo multiplicationis promptuario. Quibus accessit & arithmeticae localis liber unus. Leiden: Petrus Rammasenius, 1628 [NAPIER’S BONE OR RODS, THE 1ST CALCULATING MACHINES]

Napier, John [Baron Merchiston; Laird of Merchiston] THIRD EDITION OF THE INVENTION & DESCRIPTION OF NAPIER'S BONES, THE 1st CALCULATING MACHINES & THE "PRECURSORS OF SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY AND MODERN CALCULATING MACHINES AND COMPUTERS" (Printing and the Mind of Man 116). Napier's invention, essentially a system of rods, offered a mechanical means for facilitating computation. Note that this work "also contains the first printed reference to the decimal point," an act that then made common its usage (Computer History Portal). The first edition was published in 1617, but this, the third edition is considerably more rare. This specific volume was a part of the Tomash collection on the history of computing. John Napier (1550-1617) was born in Scotland into a prominent family of Scottish lairds. At thirteen, he attended St. Andrews University, though there is no record of his having graduated. In addition to running his family estates and actively participating in the Scottish reform movement, Napier worked on his avocation - mathematics, physics, and astronomy. Though he genuinely considered his scientific pursuits "hobbies," Napier is the person responsible for the invention of logarithms. In 1614 and after 25 years of work, Napier published his work on the subject, defining logarithms as a ratio of two distances in a geometric form, as opposed to the current definition of logarithms as exponents. Following the publication of his work on logarithms, Napier sought a way to simplify calculations by some mechanical means. "Looking to ease his own difficulties in calculating logarithmic tables and impatient with the tedious and error-prone process of working with large numbers, Napier invented several mechanical methods of simplifying and speeding up multiplication, the most famous being special rods, later known as Napier's bones [or rods]" (ibid). "These rods, which in essence constitute a mechanical multiplication table, had a considerable vogue for many years after his death (Dictionary of Scientific Biography, IX, 610). Napier's mechanical calculator, his bones, employed rods with numbers marked off on them. "What Napier did. is that he made slips (columns) with all possible 9 columns of squares of the gelosia grid, and thus he can put aside manual drawing of a grid and writing in squares. These slips are written on the surface of ten rods, later on called Napier's rods (the best sets were made of ivory so that they looked like bones - hence Napier's bones) (CH). They function as follows: "A grid of squares, divided into parts by a diagonal, must be cross-ruled, as the number of squares depends on the number of digits in factors, e.g. if we want to multiply 3-digital to 3-digital factor, then the grid must be 3x3 squares. To the upper side and right side of the grid must be written the 2 factors, and intermediate products are written in the squares in such manner, that the diagonal divides the units from the tens. The units of the partial product (the digit from the right by the digit from the upper) are written on one side and the tens on the other, so that when a multiple consists of two figures they are separated by the diagonal. To get the final product, the numbers along the diagonals are added and the result is written to the left of grid (senior digital positions) and below the grid (junior digital positions). PMM 116; DSB, IX, 610; Tomash & Williams N10; Hoogendoorn p.684 Napier 1; Norman 1574; Dibner 107 (1st edition). CONDITION & DETAILS: 12mo (144 x 80mm.), [2], 12, [139 pp]. 9 folding plates (woodcut and letterpress). Contemporary vellum, very slightly soiled. Tightly bound & housed in a handsome linen cloth box. The lower part of the title page has been repaired by a conservator. The missing area supplied in facsimile and is all but invisible to the eye. Pinpoint hole to B7, a few folding plates with slight marginal tears (one professionally repaired). Handsome wide margins; lightly toned within; clean. Very good condition.
Zoonomia; or

Zoonomia; or, The Laws of Organic Life, Volumes I & II, 1794 & 1796 [TRUE FIRST EDITION, London: J. Johnson in St. Paul’s Church-yard]

Darwin, Erasmus TRUE 1st EDITION OF ERASMUS DARWIN'S MOST IMPORTANT WORK, THIS CONTAINING HIS THEORY OF EVOLUTION INCLUDING EVOLUTION OF SPECIES, COMPETITION AND SEXUAL SELECTION. Volume I was issued in 1794; Volume II in 1796. "The Zoonomia contains a system of pathology and a treatise on generation" [reproduction] (Garrison & Morton). Darwin's ideas about animal adaption and sexual selection argue that 'one and the same kind of living filaments is and has been the cause of life'" (ibid). Erasmus Darwin (1732-1802) was a remarkable polymath, working as a physician, naturalist, medical botanist, and inventor. He was also Charles Darwin's grandfather. While not generally recognized, Erasmus Darwin had a theory of evolution that predated that of his grandson. It included how life evolved from a single common ancestor, and how one species could evolve into another - an idea upon which his grandson must surely have drawn. "It is interesting to note that although Charles Darwin wrote that while he had read Zoonomia as a young man, it had had no effect on him; the first draft of On the Origin of Species was, however, entitled Zoonomia" (Dictionary of Scientific Biography, III, 578-9). CONDITION & DETAILS: London : printed for J. Johnson, in St. Paul's Church-Yard, [1794]-96. Complete. 4to. (28 X 21 inches). Volume I: 4, [viii], 586, [2], 4 (fully indexed). Volume II: 6, [xi], 772, [2], 4 (fully indexed). Plates complete with several hand-colored. Handsomely bound with some spotting to the boards (see photo). 5 raised bands at the spine; gilt-tooling in the compartments; gilt-lettered black Morocco spine labels. Marbled endpapers. Bright and exceptionally clean throughout. Very good +.
SAMMELBAND OF THE FULL ISSUES War of the Worlds in Cosmopolitan Magazine April-December

SAMMELBAND OF THE FULL ISSUES War of the Worlds in Cosmopolitan Magazine April-December, 1897 [FIRST EDITION of the FIRST APPEARANCE of H. G. WELLS’ “War of the Worlds”: [SAMMELBAND OF THE FULL ISSUES FROM APRIL to DECEMBER, 1897, TOGETHER INCLUDING ALL 22 CHAPTERS of THE SERIALIZED STORY. THIS PRECEDES THE 1898 PUBLICATION OF THE BOOK BY ONE YEAR.]

Wells, H. G. [Herbert George] SAMMELBAND OF THE FULL ISSUES FROM APRIL to DECEMBER, 1897, TOGETHER INCLUDING ALL 22 CHAPTERS of THE SERIALIZED STORY. It is unusual for all chapters of this serialization to be offered together. The individual issues in which this serialized story appeared have been bound together; the issues are complete, inclusive of the first page of each issue as well as the frontispiece. Large 8vo. Beautifully rebound in half calf over marbled paper boards; five gilt-ruled bands at the spine and two spine labels, the first reading "The Cosmopolitan Apr-Dec 1897," the second "H.G. Wells War of the Worlds Illustrated by Warwick Goble." The binding is in fine condition: solid, bright and clean. The interior is pristine. Fine condition. The Cosmopolitan publication offered here ran concurrently with its serialization in the British magazine Pearson's. Wells' serialization is famously accompanied by the fantastical illustrations of Warick Goble, a well-known late 19th, early 20th century artist. Both publications appeared the year before the book of the same title was published. This precedes the 1898 publication of the book by one year. "H.G. Wells' tales of Martian invasion, never-before-seen beings, time travel, and alien invasion disturbed the public by combining journalistic sensationalism, scientific fantasy, suburban mundanity and fears of invasion. The attitude towards science among the 19th-century intellectual elite was one of amusement. The subject was believed to be slightly remote - as vulgar and inessential as the technology of underground trains, telephones and internal-combustion engines. There was always a little man for such things, an oily-fingered mechanic. 'In those days,' wrote Ford Madox Ford in 1909, 'no one bothered his head about Science. It seemed to be an agreeable parlour-game - like stamp-collecting'. "Herbert George Wells astonished this elite, the weavers of labyrinthine paragraphs, with his boisterous energy, his ability to understand, explain and exploit the substance of the contemporary world. He had emerged from nowhere, the suburbs, without family, a failed shopboy, pupil and later teacher at Midhurst Grammar School, sickly student (on a scholarship) at the Normal School of Science, a disciple of T H Huxley, a jobbing scientific journalist" (Sinclair). Of the serialization Wells' himself wrote to a friend saying: "I'm doing the dearest little serial. in which I completely wreck and sack Woking - killing my neighbours in painful and eccentric ways - then proceed via Kingston and Richmond to London, which I sack, selecting South Kensington for feats of peculiar atrocity."
Erklarung des atomistischen Wesens des tropfbar-flussigen Korperzustandes

Erklarung des atomistischen Wesens des tropfbar-flussigen Korperzustandes, und Bestatigung desselben durch die sogenannten Molecularbewegungen (Wiener, pp. 79-94) WITH Zur Geschichte der Spectral-Analyse und der Analyse der Sonnenatmosphäre, (Kirchhoff, pp. 94-111) in Annalen der Physik und Chemie 118, 1863

Wiener, Christian WITH Kirchhoff, Gustav FIRST EDITION, full bound volume, OF WIENER'S 1863 PAPER PROVIDING THE FIRST SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSE OF BROWNIAN MOTION - THE FIRST QUALITATIVE IDENTIFICATION OF THE INTERNAL MOLECULAR CAUSE OF BROWNIAN MOTION. Information on Kirchhoff's solar spectral analysis paper - the last of three important ones -- appears further down. WIENER: While Brown suspected that the motion has biological causes, Wiener "relates Brownian motion to inherent fluctuations of the suspending fluid" and was the first to prove that Brownian motion is a consequence of the molecular movements of the liquid in question (Philipse, Brownian Motion, 12). Brownian motion is the random movement of particles suspended in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) caused by collisions with molecules of the fluid. It was one of the first indications of the existence of atoms and molecules. In 1863, about 36 years after Robert Brown first wrote about Brownian motion, the German mathematician Ludwig Christian Wiener (1826-1896) "studied Brownian motion by optical microscopy on what we now call colloidal silica sol, which he prepared by precipitation of an aqueous silicic acid solution. Wiener noted that the motion of the silica particles was too erratic to be caused by liquid convection or mechanical undulations" (ibid). Through this work, he was able to rule out external influences such as temperature differences or evaporation as causes for Brownian motion, and in doing so determined that Brownian motion must result from some force within the fluid. Wiener's work is close to the modern theory of Brownian motion was Wiener in 1863 and the mathematical model he built, commonly used in a range of applications, is still known as the "Wiener Process" (Nelson, Dynamical Theories of Brownian Motion). KIRCHHOFF: Kirchhoff's 1863 paper on the history of spectral analysis and analysis of the sun's atmosphere "Zur Geschichte der Spectral-Analyse und der Analyse der Sonnenatmosphäre," pp. 94-111. Published between 1861 and 1863, this is the last of Kirchhoff's three "great papers" on the subject. Working with Fraunhofer, he had cataloged and measured thousands of spectral lines, including many new elements such as rubidium and cesium. By further experimenting with sunlight, the spectra of different elements, and Fraunhofer's spectrum drawings, Kirchhoff was able to decode the sun's spectrum. The dark lines and their position indicated that the sun contained such familiar elements as sodium, magnesium, iron, calcium, copper, and zinc" (NASA, Technology Through Time #39: Solar Spectroscopy). CONDITION & DETAILS: 8vo. Solidly bound in maroon publisher's boards; minor rubbing at the edge tips; gilt-lettered at the spine. Small hand-lettered paper library sticker on spine. Bright and clean throughout. Very good condition. TITLES: "Erklärung des atomistischen Wesens des tropfbar-flüssigen Körperzustandes, und Bestätigung desselben durch die sogenannten Molecularbewegungen" (Wiener) WITH "Zur Geschichte der Spectral-Analyse und der Analyse der Sonnenatmosphäre," (Kirchhoff).
The Production of New Radiations by Light Scattering

The Production of New Radiations by Light Scattering, Part 1 in Proceedings of the Royal Society, 122 A, January 1, 1929, pp. 23-35

Raman, C. V.; Krishnan, K. S. FIRST AMERICAN PRINTING OF A "REMARKABLE" PAPER THAT WON RAMAN THE 1930 NOBLE PRIZE FOR 'THE RAMAN EFFECT' (Jayasooriya, An Introduction to Laser Spectroscopy, 77). In announcing the prize, the Nobel Prize Committee, noted that the prize was awarded "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him" (Nobel Prize Committee). It is worthy of note that "in the first seven years after its discovery, the Raman Effect was the subject of more than 700 papers in the scientific literature" (American Chemical Society Portal). Note that this paper appeared in the Indian Journal of Physics one year prior to its publication here. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was born at Tiruchirappalli in Southern India and his co-author, K. S. Krishna was, like Raman, one of the most distinguished scientists of the 20th century - Indian or otherwise. "Raman spectroscopy is the study of inelastic scattering of light. The inelasticity stems from a transfer of energy between the incident radiation field and the material under investigation. The technique provides, amongst other things, important information about the vibrational state of matter" (Jayasooriya, 77). As the Raman effect clarifies, "when light is scattered from any particle whose size is much smaller than the wavelength of light (such as an individual atom or molecule), most photons are 'elastically' scattered. In an elastic scattering process, the energy (and therefore the frequency) of the incident photon is conserved and only its direction is changed. However, a small fraction of the scattered light (approximately 1 in 10 million photons) is scattered through 'inelastic' scattering, in which the energy of the scattered photon is not conserved. These collisions cause a change in the spin or vibration of a molecule, and the resulting energy change is imparted to the photon. This energy change in the photon can either be a decrease or an increase" (History of Physics: The Wenner Collection). "The significance of the Raman Effect was recognized quickly by other scientists. Professor R. W. Wood of Johns Hopkins cabled Nature to report that he had verified Raman's 'brilliant and surprising discovery . in every particular. It appears to me that this very beautiful discovery which resulted from Raman's long and patient study of the phenomenon of light scattering is one of the most convincing proofs of the quantum theory'" (ACS Portal). Raman also "recognized that his discovery was important to the debate in physics over the new quantum theory, because an explanation of the new radiation required the use of photons and their change in energy as they interacted with the atoms in a particular molecule. Raman also knew that there was a more important result, remarking in his 1930 Nobel Prize address that ". the character of the scattered radiations enables us to obtain an insight into the ultimate structure of the scattering substance" (ibid). CONDITION & DETAILS: London: Harrison & Sons. Complete. 4to. (10 x 7 inches; 250 x 175mm). [2], iii, [718], xxii, [2]. 12 Plates, two of which accompany the Raman paper. In text illustrations throughout. Ex-libris, 3 stamps on the title page, one on the pastedown. Handwritten number on a piece of tape across the foot of the spine. Handsomely bound in black cloth over marbled paper boards. Gilt-lettered at the spine; very slight rubbing at the edges of the board. Bright and very clean throughout. Very good condition.
The Bakerian Lecture. Experimental Researches in Electricity Twenty-Second Series: On the crystalline polarity of bismuth and other bodies

The Bakerian Lecture. Experimental Researches in Electricity Twenty-Second Series: On the crystalline polarity of bismuth and other bodies, and on its relation to the magnetic form of force AND Experimental Researches in Electricity Twenty-Second Series: On the crystalline polarity of bismuth and other bodies, and on its relation to the magnetic form of force, Part II (Faraday: pp. 1-18 and pp. 19-41) WITH On the Motion of Gases (Graham: pp. 349-393) WITH Additional Observations on the Osteology of the Iguanodon and Hylaeosaurus (Mantell, pp. 271-307) in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Parts 1 & 2, Volume 139, 1849, pp. 1-18 and pp. 19-41

Faraday, Michael WITH Graham, Thomas WITH Mantell, Gideon FIRST EDITION OF TWO IMPORTANT PAPERS BY MICHAEL FARADAY, EACH PUBLISHED AS PART OF HIS LANDMARK TWENTY-NINE PAPER "EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES IN ELECTRICITY" SERIES. Also included, a significant paper by Thomas Graham on the motion of gases; also, an important paper by Gideon Mantell on the iguanodon. Handsomely bound, the volume is complete with Parts 1 & 2 and includes 43 plates. FARADAY: Faraday discusses magneto-crystallic force and the abnormal behavior of various crystals in a magnetic field. Faraday "hoped that when 'properly understood' the various phenomena examined in terms of their magnecrystallic, crystallographic and optic axes would come under 'one law [that] will include all these phenomena'" (Kox, No Truth Except in the Details). Faraday was an English chemist and physicist often thought to be the best experimentalist in the history of science. During Faraday's earlier experiments on electro-magnetical theory he had "observed some phenomena that led him to a belief in the existence of another form of force, distinct from either paramagnetic or diamagnetic force, which he called the magne-crystallic force. He had been experimenting with some slender needles of bismuth, suspending them horizontally between the poles of an electro-magnet. Taking a few of these cylinders at random from a greater number, he was much perplexed to find that they did not all come to rest equatorially, as well-behaved bars of diamagnetic bismuth should do, though, if subjected to the action of a single magnetic pole, they did show this diamagnetic character by their marked repulsion. After much experimentation, he ascribed this phenomenon to the crystalline condition of the cylinder. By experimenting with carefully selected groups of crystals of bismuth, he believed he could trace the cause of the phenomenon to the action of a force which he called the magne-crystallic force" (Houston, "Electricity and Magnetism"). We separately offer this paper dis-bound. GRAHAM: Graham was the first to carry out diffusion experiments on gases and in 1833 stated what is now called Graham's law of diffusion. The paper included here, "On the Motion of Gases" reports "a phenomenon which he named effusion of gases into a vacuum through a thin plate, "leaving no doubt of the truth of the general law, that different gases pass through minute apertures into a vacuum in times which are as the square roots of their respective specific gravities, or with velocities which are inversely as the square roots of their specific gravities," and that "the effusion-time of air of different temperatures is proportional to the square root of its density at each temperature" (Science Direct, 24, 2, 2013). MANTELL: Gideon Mantell "is best known for his discovery of the first dinosaur ever to be described properly - "a momentous event" and noted that the Iguanodon "was the first dinosaur ever to be described properly" (Dictionary of Scientific Biography, IX, 87). This paper supplements Mantell's earlier papers and comprises an account of some important additions which he has lately made to our previous knowledge of the osteological structure of the colossal reptiles. ALSO INCLUDED: Richard Owen's On the development and homologies of the carapace and plastron of the chelonian reptiles. CONDITION & DETAILS: Philosophical Transactions Parts 1 & 2 for the year 1849. Complete Ex-libris with bearing only two Royal College of Surgeons stamps. 4to. (11.5 by 9 inches; 288 x 225mm). [18], 523, [1], 15 , [4]. 43 plates. Handsomely rebound in aged calf. 5 raised bands at the spine, each gilt-ruled; gilt-tooled fleur-de-lis at the spine. Red and black, gilt-lettered spine labels. Tightly bound with new endpapers Very slight toning within. By any measure, near fine condition inside and out.
The Distribution and Effects of Fallout in Large Nuclear-Weapon Campaigns (Everett & Pugh

The Distribution and Effects of Fallout in Large Nuclear-Weapon Campaigns (Everett & Pugh, pp. 226-248) WITH Brownian Motion in the Stock Market & Reply to Comments on ?Brownian Motion in the Stock Market (Osborne, pp. 145-174 & pp. 807-811) WITH Application of a Technique for Research and Development Program Evaluation (Malcolm, pp. 646 – 669) WITH On a Linear-Programming, Combinatorial Approach to the Traveling-Salesman Problem (Dantzig, pp. 58-67) in Operations Research Volume 7, 1959 [FULL VOLUME, MANY IMPORTANT PAPERS]

Everett, Hugh; Pugh, George E. WITH Osborne, M. F. Maury WITH Malcolm, D. G., Rosenboom, J. H., Clark C. E. WITH Dantzig, G. B. FIRST EDITION, full volume inclusive of many important papers: one of only two declassified papers written by the physicist Hugh Everett during his long tenure "analyzing the cost-benefits of global and limited nuclear warfare," for the top secret Weapons Systems Evaluation Group [WESG], a sort of Pentagon think tank which generated analysis for the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Aftergood, Secrecy 2010 quoting Peter Byrne). Also included in this volume are Osborne's first two papers on Brownian motion in the stock market; Dantzig's application of linear programming to the 'traveling-salesman problem; and Malcolm on a pioneering technique for project planning and monitoring commonly called PERT. EVERETT: After Hugh Everett's "now celebrated theory of multiple universes [was published and] met scorn, [he] abandoned the world of academic physics [and] turned to top secret military research" (Byrne, Scientific American, 2008). All save for two of his papers have been classified, this being one of the two. Pugh later characterized their work specifically as having "rationalizing and promoted military strategies that were operative for decades" (ibid). The purpose of the paper offered here was "to provide a simple way of evaluating the consequences of radioactive fallout from a large nuclear-weapon campaign without resorting to detailed map studies. A method of optimally distributing weapons among large areas in order to maximize radiation casualties is deduced on the basis of the formulas, and curves are exhibited expressing the casualties produced as a function of total yield delivered. The achievement of optimized attacks does not require a delivery accuracy with probable error less than about a hundred miles. In addition, the formulas are applied to a number of other targeting doctrines, and the resulting curves of casualties versus total delivered yield are presented " (Everett, 226). OSBORNE: 1st publication of Brownian motion in the stock market. Osborne was the first to study the technical analysis scientifically, the first to demonstrate the substantial contribution physics could make to finance, and the first to publish [in the two papers included here]. He elucidated the periodic structure in the Brownian motion of stock prices as well as the financial analogs of physical Brownian motion as illustrated by earnings. In the first of the two papers, Osborne presents his hypothesis that price follows a geometric Brownian motion - "that common-stock prices, and the value of money can be regarded as an ensemble of decisions in statistical equilibrium, with properties quite analogous to an ensemble of particles in statistical mechanics" (Osborne 145). In the second paper, Osborne demonstrates that he was jointly responsible for the earliest literature identifying the fat tails and that price deviation is proportional to the square root of time. MALCOLM: 1st edition of a statistical mathematics tool, Malcolm's pioneering technique for project planning and monitoring commonly called PERT. The paper "describes the development and application of a technique for measuring and controlling development progress" for the Navy's Polaris Fleet Ballistic Missile program" (Malcolm, et al., 1959, p. 646). DANTZIG: Dantzig "was one of the three founders of linear programming, a mathematical method used for the optimum allocation of scarce resources among competing activities. [He] discovered that many such allocation problems could be formulated as linear computer programs" (Origins of Cyberspace, 92). Dantzig's work in this paper on the famed "traveling-salesman problem" was an important early application of linear programming. ALSO INCLUDED: Two papers dealing with the problem of traffic, one by Greenberg, one by Herman & Montroll. CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete volume. 8vo. (9 x 6 inches). Tightly and very solidly bound in blue and grey, silver lettered at the spine. Pristine inside and out. Fine condition.
Zur Quantenmechanik II in Zeitschrift fur Physik 35

Zur Quantenmechanik II in Zeitschrift fur Physik 35, 1926, pp. 557-615 [BOUND FIRST EDITION OF SEMINAL THREE MAN PAPER]

Heisenberg, Werner; Max Born, and Pascual Jordan Bound FIRST EDITION OF BORN, HEISENBERG, & JORDAN'S "MONUMENTAL" THREE-MAN PAPER, 'ON QUANTUM MECHANICS II', THE FIRST COMPLETE STATEMENT OF MATRIX MECHANICS (Peacock, Quantum Revolution, 52). Handsomely rebound. See details below. In this work, Born, Heisenberg, and Jordan extend the methods Heisenberg presented in his initial 1925 paper and apply them to a number of important problems. "This paper definitively set forth [and first named] matrix mechanics - the version of quantum mechanics based on the algebraic manipulation of matrices that represent observable quantities such as position, momentum, and energy. Detailed calculations showed that the new matrix mechanics was very successful in predicting the anomalous Zeeman Effect, other forms of line splitting, and line intensities. The three authors even produced a new derivation of Planck's Law" (ibid). In the early 1920s there were fundamental difficulties in atomic physics. The quantum theory of atomic structure, founded by Bohr and largely developed by Bohr and Sommerfeld, did not describe the properties of complicated atoms and molecules. "In spite of its high-sounding name and its successful solutions of numerous problems in atomic physics, 'quantum theory', and especially the 'quantum theory' of polyelectronic systems, prior to 1925, was, from the methodological point of view, a lamentable hodgepodge of hypotheses, principles, theorems, and computational recipes rather than a logical consistent theory. Every single quantum-theoretic problem had to be solved first in terms of classical physics; its classical solution had then to pass through the mysterious sieve of the quantum conditions or, as it happened in the majority of cases, the classical solution had to be translated into the language of quanta in conformance with the correspondence principle? In short, quantum theory still lacked two essential characteristics of a full-fledged scientific theory, conceptual autonomy and logical consistency" (Jammer, The Conceptual Development, 196). The work of Heisenberg, Born, and Jordan rectified these issues and marked the "starting point for the new quantum mechanics," also called matrix mechanics (DSB). Heisenberg published his initial paper formulating his new quantum theory in 1925, but without reference to matrices. "Later the same year, Max Born and Pascual Jordan published a second paper that introduced the matrix formulation for the special case of one degree of freedom" (History of Physics: The Wenner Collection). Finally, in early 1926, all three scientists collaborated on a third paper, this 'three-man paper', and extended the theory to an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom. In its final form, they argued, Heisenberg's formulation of the new quantum theory is a matrix algebra of quantum operators that "predicts the radiation resulting from electron state transitions between energy shells in the atom without reference to how the transitions occur" (ibid). CONDITION & DETAILS: Berlin: Vieweg und Springer. Large 8vo. (9 x 6 inches; 225 x 150mm). pp. 557-722. Two stamps on the title page; no other markings inside or out. Full volume handsomely rebound in black cloth gilt ruled and lettered at the spine. Tightly and solidly bound. Bright and clean throughout. Very good to near fine condition +.
Existence of a Neutron in Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 136 pp. 692-708

Existence of a Neutron in Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 136 pp. 692-708, 1932. [CHADWICK CONFIRMS EXISTENCE OF THE NEUTRON. BOUND FULL VOLUME 1st EDITION]

Chadwick, James FULL VOLUME 1st EDITION OF CHADWICK'S CONFIRMATION OF THE EXISTENCE OF A NEUTRON. Earlier in 1932, Chadwick speculated about the "possible" existence of the neutron, a subatomic particle with no electrical charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. When, three months later - and in the paper offered here -- Chadwick affirmed his discovery, his assertion rewrote then current beliefs in nuclear science: he had proven that elementary particles devoid of any electrical charge existed. "For the discovery of the neutron," Chadwick was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobel Prize Committee). "The discovery of the neutron made by Chadwick led to a much deeper understanding of the nature of matter, explaining for example why isotopes of elements exist. It also inspired Enrico Fermi and other physicists to investigate nuclear reactions produced by neutrons, leading to the discovery of nuclear fission" (Hutchinson, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, I, 227). This discovery provided a new tool for inducing atomic disintegration, since neutrons, being electrically uncharged, could penetrate undeflected into the atomic nucleus. "In contrast with the helium nuclei (alpha rays) which are charged, and therefore repelled by the considerable electrical forces present in the nuclei of heavy atoms, this new tool in atomic disintegration need not overcome any electric barrier and is capable of penetrating and splitting the nuclei of even the heaviest elements. Chadwick in this way prepared the way towards the fission of uranium 235 and towards the creation of the atomic bomb. Prior to Chadwick's discovery and until 1932, the atom was known to consist of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by enough negatively charged electrons to make the atom electrically neutral. Most of the atom was empty space, with its mass concentrated in a tiny nucleus. Chadwick knew that in "experiments in which beryllium was bombarded by alpha particles, a usually energetic gamma radiation appeared to be emitted. It was more penetrating than gamma radiation from radioactive elements. Measurements of the energies involved and the conservation of energy and momentum suggested to Chadwick that a new kind of particle was being produced rather than radiation. "The results pointed towards a neutral particle made up of a proton and an electron. Its mass should thus be slightly greater than that of the proton. Because the mass of the beryllium nucleus had not then been measured, Chadwick designed and carried out an experiment in which boron was bombarded with alpha particles. This produced neutrons, and from the mass of the boron nucleus and other elements and the energies involved, Chadwick determined the mass of the neutron to be 1.0067 atomic mass units, slightly greater than that of the proton" (ibid). NOTE: We offer the earlier paper in which Chadwick speculates about the "possible" existence of the neutron" separately. That paper is titled "Possible Existence of a Neutron". ALSO INCLUDED: Rutherford, Chadwick, Ellis, McLennan, Lindemann, and Mott's extended commentary during "The Discussion on the Structure of Atomic Nuclei", pp. 735-762. CONDITION & DETAILS: London: Harrison and Sons. Quarto. 723pp with 19 plates. 2 small ex-libris marks on the title page; none on spine or elsewhere. Nicely bound, brown buckrum with two red gilt-lettered labels at the spine; one small spot on front board. Tightly bound. Bright & clean inside and out. Near fine condition.
Uber den anschaulichen Inhalt der quantentheoretischen Kinematik und Mechanik in Zeitschrift fur Physik

Uber den anschaulichen Inhalt der quantentheoretischen Kinematik und Mechanik in Zeitschrift fur Physik, pp. 172-198, Volume 43. Berlin: Julius Springer, 1927

Heisenberg, Werner FIRST EDITION, FIRST PRINTING of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, one of the most significant discoveries in all of modern physics and "one of the most famous and important aspects of quantum mechanics," (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).From the moment of publication, the Uncertainty Principle marked the end to deterministic theories of physics and since, has played a critical role in any and allscientific theories or technologies that follow from quantum mechanics. In its simplest form, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, or quantum mechanical principle, states that it is not possible to simultaneously determine the position and momentum of a particle. Moreover, "the more precisely the position is determined, the less precisely the momentum is known in this instant, and vice versa" ("Uber den anschaulichen," 1927). This principle applies even to particles that are not interacting with other systems, in other words, that are NOT being "observed." Heisenberg's discoveries punctured the firmly held belief that the universe and everything in it operates like clockwork. To predict the workings of the "clock," one needs to measure its qualities and parts at a specific point in time. Classical physics assumed that the precision of measuring is theoretically unlimited. But Heisenberg stated that since you could never with great certainty measure more than one property of a particle, you could only work with probability and mathematical formulations. This was "the first paper in which the question of what is observable and what is not is quantitatively discussed in the context of quantum mechanics" (Pais, Niels Bohr's Times, 304). The implications of Heisenberg's efforts were extraordinary and in 1932 he received the Nobel Prize. ALSO INCLUDES: Wolfgang Pauli's matrices; Wigner's D-matrix; Skobeltsyn on cosmic ray showers. CONDITION & DETAILS: 4to. (9.25 x 6.25 inches; 231 x 156mm). [vii], 936pp. Stamps on title page and at the foot of the index. Handsomely rebound in black cloth, gilt-lettered and -ruled at the spine. Marbled text block. All else exceptionally clean and bright inside and out. Near fine.
Co-relations and their measurement

Co-relations and their measurement, chiefly from anthropometric data in Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 45, 1888, pp. 135-145 WITH Kinship and Correlation in North American Review, 150, 1890, pp.419-431 [TWO VOLUMES, TWOP PAPERS — 1888 & 1890 SEMINAL INVENTION OF THE STATISTICAL CONCEPT OF CORRELATION]

Galton, Francis 1st EDITIONS OF GALTON'S 1888 PAPER & HIS 1890. The1888 paper presents his invention of the concept of correlation coefficient. His extensive & detailed 1890 paper describes the evolution of his thinking & the development of his ideas, culminating in the invention of the concept itself. "The great stimulus for modern statistics came from Galton's invention of the method of correlation;" from the "very modest paper [1888 paper came]. a revolution of scientific ideas" (Porter; Pearson). "If one individual can be credited as the founder of the field of behavioral & educational statistics [it] is Galton . He is responsible for the terms correlation, discovered the phenomenon of regression to the mean, & is responsible for the choice of r (reversion or regression) to represent the correlation coefficient" (Clauser p. 440). "Contemporary scientists often take the correlation coefficient for granted [not] appreciating that before Galton.the only means to establish a relationship between variables was to deduce a causative connection. [Prior to Galton] there was no way to discuss let alone measure the association between variables that lack a cause-effect relationship" (Samuel, Correlation p. 26). Cousin to Charles Darwin, in 1884 Galton founded the Anthropometric Laboratory where he gathered data by physically measuring of hundreds of people. Galton "was not merely interested in physical characteristics, as he claimed that intelligence is inherited. To demonstrate this, he needed a method to show the intelligence of one generation was co-related to that of the previous generation so that he might argue for the causal relationship: children acquired intelligence from their parents" (ibid). To make meaning of his data, Galton drew "on the work of the Belgian mathematician Adolph Quetelet, one of the first to apply mathematical models to frequency distributions of human characteristics" (ibid). "Quetelet was struck by the fact that a plot of variation in the frequency of height around a population mean gave a result that conformed exactly to the bell-shaped curve predicted by the Gaussian law of errors. In other words, the variation of a particular anthropometric characteristic [say, height] in a population of individuals is distributed in precisely the same way as the measurement errors made by astronomers that Gauss analyzed" (UVIC). Inspired by the 'laws of errors' (now the normal curve) & thinking that it might be applicable to the study of heredity, Galton plotted points noting that his anthropometric data tended to fit [Quetelet's] 'normal curve'. He began to estimate the probability of occurrence of given deviations from the norm or average" (ibid). Galton later wrote that his challenge was that "the primary objects of the Gaussian Law of Errors were exactly opposed, in one sense, to those to which [he] applied them. They were to be got rid of or proved a just allowance for errors. But these errors or deviations were the very things I wanted to preserve & know about" (DSB, V, 266). Gradually, Galton developed his ideas of correlation & regression, "ultimately defining correlation in the 1888 paper: "Two variable organs are said to be co-related when the variation of the one is accompanied on the average by more or less variation of the other, & in the same direction" (Galton, 135). CONDITION: 1888 VOLUME: Complete 8vo. Ex-libris, 2 stamps on the title page, a few within, & no others at all. Handsomely rebound half calf over aged marbled paper boards, 5 gilt-ruled raised bands at the spine; each compartment gilt tooled. Marbled text block. Bright & clean throughout. Near fine. 1890 VOLUME: Complete 8vo. Ex-libris, only a few numbers on the rear of the title page; no others at all. Handsomely rebound in half calf over gilt-ruled marbled paper boards. 5 gilt-ruled raised bands at the spine; each compartment gilt tooled. Light small stain at outer text block, minor impact to some pages. Bright & clean throughout. Near fine.
On Harnessing Solar Energy in New York Times

On Harnessing Solar Energy in New York Times, August 14, 1945 [Full paper. PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT. Also includes 3 line large headline announces Japan’s surrender]

Einstein, Albert First edition of the August 14th, 1945 issue of the New York Times, complete with "Certificate of Authentication" by the Historic Newspaper Archives. The certificate is #379910; it is signed and includes the seal of the archive. Einstein's article appears in Calaprice's Einstein Almanac, No. 244). The certificate will accompany the paper. Most assume that Einstein received the Nobel Prize for his theory of relativity and his famous equation, E=mc2. However it was for neither. In 1921, Einstein won the Nobel Prize for discovering the photoelectric effect in 1905. This principle states that, when sunlight shines on a metal, it emits electrons from the surface of the material. The energy from sunlight (photons) then transfers to the atoms' electrons and knocks them loose. This discovery was so significant that it has influenced the development of many types of technology, from electron microscopes to modern solar cells as we know them today. ALSO INCLUDED: An article by Lewis headlined: "Atoms Not Occult, Einstein Declares; Physicist Explains Nuclear and Solar Energy, but Refuses to Discuss Use in Bomb" ALSO INCLUDED: New York Time's announces Japan's surrender in 3 line large headline "Japan Decides To Surrender, The Tokyo Radio Announces As We Resume Heavy Attacks". CONDITION: Historic Newspaper Archives (see above) has placed the issue in archival plastic and then into an Archive snap close bag. (see photo) By any measure, this complete issue appears in very good condition.
Einstein Refutes Attack on Theory: In a Joint Rebuttal with Dr. Rosen He Shows Error in Silberstein Challenge. Discoverer of Relativity Says Opponent's ?Mass Centers' Have No Reality" in New York Times

Einstein Refutes Attack on Theory: In a Joint Rebuttal with Dr. Rosen He Shows Error in Silberstein Challenge. Discoverer of Relativity Says Opponent’s ?Mass Centers’ Have No Reality” in New York Times, March 7, 1936 [EINSTEIN & ROSEN REFUTE SILBERSTEIN’S CONTROVERSIAL ASSERTIONS & CHALLENGE]

Laurence, William First edition of the March 7, 1936 issue of the New York Times, complete with "Certificate of Authentication" by the Historic Newspaper Archives. The certificate is #379913; it is signed and includes the seal of the archive. As the title implies, this article reports Einstein and Rosen's refutation of Ludwik Silberstein's public skepticism of Einstein's results, calculations, and processes of verification. " In 1935, following a controversial debate with Einstein, Silberstein published a solution of Einstein's field equations that appeared to describe a static, axisymmetric metric with only two point singularities representing two point masses. Such a solution clearly violates our understanding of gravity: with nothing to support them and no kinetic energy to hold them apart, the two masses should fall towards each other due to their mutual gravity, in contrast with the static nature of Silberstein's solution. This led Silberstein to claim that Einstein's theory was flawed, in need of a revision" (Wikipedia). Einstein and Rosen joint rebuttal is presented here, and together, they point out a critical flaw in Silberstein's reasoning. In the end, "Einstein was correct and Silberstein was wrong: as we know today, all solutions to Weyl's family of axisymmetric metrics, of which Silberstein's is one example, necessarily contain singular structures ("struts", "ropes", or "membranes") that are responsible for holding masses against the attractive force of gravity in a static configuration" (ibid). CONDITION: Historic Newspaper Archives (see above) has placed the issue in archival plastic and then into an Archive snap close bag. (see photo) By any measure, this complete issue appears in very good condition.
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Ather und Relativitatstheorie. Rede gehalten am 5, Mai 1920 an der Reichs Universitat zu Leiden

Einstein, Albert FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS OF EINSTEIN'S LEIDEN LECTURE EXPLAINING AT LENGTH HIS THEORY OF THE ETHER ALONG WITH THOSE OF LORENTZ & MAXWELL. Very good + condition. "Einstein's lecture at the University of Leiden on the occasion of his appointment as a visiting professor summarized his current views on the ether and retrospectively looked at the development of his opinions on the physical properties of space" (Calaprice, The Einstein Almanac, 86). In this lecture, Einstein recanted his earlier denial of the ether, writing: "Recapitulating, we may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there exists an ether. According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time (measuring-rods and clocks), nor therefore any space-time intervals in the physical sense. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it" (Einstein, Ather, 1920). In this lecture, Einstein also sought "to reconcile his theory of relativity with his mentor's [Lorentz's] cherished concept of the aether. Einstein stressed that special relativity took away the last mechanical property of Lorentz's aether: immobility. However, he continued that special relativity does not necessarily rule out the aether, because the latter can be used to give physical reality to acceleration and rotation. This concept was fully elaborated within general relativity, in which physical properties (which are partially determined by matter) are attributed to space, but no substance or state of motion can be attributed to that "aether" (aether = curved space-time)" (Wikipedia). CONDITION & DETAIL: Berlin, Julius Springer, 1920. Complete in original cream colored wrappers. 8vo. (22 x 15cm). 15pp. Slight toning. Very good + condition. ITEM: Ather und Relativitätstheorie. Rede gehalten am 5. Mai 1920 an der Reichs-Universität zu Leiden.
Probleme de Dynamique in Suite des Memoires de Mathematique et de Physique pp. 504-532

Probleme de Dynamique in Suite des Memoires de Mathematique et de Physique pp. 504-532, Annee 1747 [CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM]

D'Arcy, Patrick [Patrice Darcy] [Chevalier Patrice D'Arci] FIRST EDITION OF D'ARCY'S PROPOSED AN EARLY VERSION OF THE CONCEPT OF CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM FOR ORBITING BODIES. Extract in fine condition housed in a custom pamphlet case; text block complete. "In physics, angular momentum is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum. It is an important quantity in physics because it is a conserved quantity-the total angular momentum of a closed system remains constant" (Wikipedia). "Seen another way, a rotational analogue of Newton's first law of motion might be written, "A rigid body continues in a state of uniform rotation unless acted by an external influence." Thus with no external influence to act upon it, the original angular momentum of the system remains constant" (BK101). Patrick D'Arcy (1725-1779) was an Irish mathematician whose proposal of the concept of conservation of angular momentum included two postulates. "The first is a generalization of Kepler's second law. D'Arcy proposed that the areal velocity of any orbiting body of a particular mass is identical regardless of the radius of the orbit or the position in the orbit. Kepler's second law just proposed the conservation of areal velocity for a specific orbit. "D'Arcy's second concept is that the orbital velocity of any body is inversely proportional to its mass. In other words, Mars has a higher orbital velocity than Earth would have at the same distance, and the ratio of orbital velocities of Earth and Mars at the same distance from the Sun would be the inverse of the ratio of their masses. These two concepts together comprise D'Arcy's 'conservation of momentum for rotary motion,' and for orbiting bodies this is equivalent to 'conservation of angular momentum'" (Wenner Collection). CONDITION & DETAILS: Extract in fine condition housed in custom pamphlet case gilt-lettered at the spine. The text block remains tightly bound. 6 plates. Bright and clean.
Description of the Living and Extinct Races of Gigantic Land Tortoises

Description of the Living and Extinct Races of Gigantic Land Tortoises, Parts I & II. Introduction, and the Tortoises of the Galapagos Islands. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Volume 165, 1875, pp. 251-284. GUNTHER’S FIRST SYSTEMATIC SURVEY OF GIANT TORTOISES, 13 PLATES]

Gunther, Albert VERY SCARCE FIRST EDITION OF THE FIRST SYSTEMATIC SURVEY OF GIANT TORTOISES by Albert Gunther of the British Museum, complete with Gunther's 13 accompanying plates. In all, the volume, inclusive of Parts I & II of Volume 165, includes 68 plates]. Gunther was "the first to dispel the notion that there was only one giant tortoise species in the whole world. There are, he stated, two general populations of giant tortoise: one restricted to the Indian Ocean islands, the other to the Galapagos Islands. The morphological distinctions between the two populations are clear. Never again should the world's giant tortoise population be referred to under the single name of Testudo indica. [Gunther also stated] that within the tortoise populations of the Indian Ocean and Galapagos Islands, it was possible to detect a number of distinctive species. Gunter had divided the once all-encompassing nomenclature of Testudo indica into at least eight species, three in the Indian Ocean and five in the Galapagos" (Chambers, A Sheltered Life: The Unexpected History of the Giant Tortoise, 137). "Gunther's 1875 monograph was to be the foundation for a new era of research on giant tortoises. He had stamped out some of the myths that had been rattling around the scientific community for over half a century. Because of his careful observations and measurements, there could now be no doubt that the giant tortoises were more diverse and endemic than anyone, other than perhaps Darwin, had hitherto expected" (ibid). CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete. London: Taylor and Francis. Entire volume. Large 4to. 12 x 9.75 inches (300 x 244mm). [12], 778 pages, [6]. Ex-libris bearing only a blind (uninked) all but invisible mark on the title page. No spine markings whatsoever. Illustration: 68 plates, many of which fold out. 13 of the plates pertain to the Gunther paper -- all in magnificent condition. Binding: Recently and handsomely rebound in half calf over the original marbled paper boards. 5 raised bands at the spine; two morocco labels (one red, one black) each gilt-lettered. Tightly and exceptionally solidly bound. Interior: original wide margins. Bright and exceptionally clean throughout. Fine condition.
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Energy Production in Stars (Bethe) with Energy Production in Stars II (Bethe) AND Instantaneous Emission of Fast Neutrons in the Interaction of Slow Neutrons with Uranium (Szilárd, Leo and Zinn, Walter H.) AND On Massive Neutron Cores (Oppenheimer, Robert & Volkoff, G. M.) AND Resonance in Uranium and Thorium Disintegrations and the Phenomenon of Nuclear Fission (Bohr, Niels) AND Production of Neutrons in Uranium Bombarded by Neutrons (Anderson, Herbert L, Fermi, Enrico & Hanstein, H. B. AND Static Solutions of Einstein’s Field Equations for Spheres of Fluid (Tolman, Richard) AND The Molecular Beam Resonance Method for Measuring Nuclear Magnetic Moments (Rabi, I, Millman, S., Kusch, P. & Zacharias J. R.) in Physical Review, 55, 1939, pp. 102-103; pp. 364-373; pp. 374-381; pp. pp. 415-419; pp. 797-798; pp. 799-800; & pp. 526-535

Bethe, Hans AND Szilard, Leo & Zinn, Walter H. AND Oppenheimer & Volkoff AND Tolman, Richard AND Bohr, Niels AND Anderson, Herbert L & Fermi, Enrico & Hanstein, H. B. AND Rabi, I. & Millman, S. & Kusch, P. & Zacharias, J. R. FIRST EDITION, FIRST PRINTING of Bethe's seminal papers on neucleosynthesis, "Energy Production in Stars" and "Energy Production in Stars II." Full volume inclusive of many other important papers. Bethe's work on nuclear reactions relied heavily on the development of quantum mechanics, and resulted in the occurance of some classically forbidden reactions; and this same work led him to discover the reactions that supply the energy in stars. Realizing that a far more rapid increase "was needed to explain the vastily larger energy production in hotter stars," Bethe discovered "the CNO cycle and computed its properties, [telling himself that] to obtain a steeper energy dependence he had to find a reaction involving a higher potential barrier, i.e., a nucleus with a higher charge" (Brandt, Harvest of the Century, 261-262). Proceeding systematically through the Periodic Table, Bethe finally got to carbon. As he wrote "in the case of carbon the reaction works out beautifully" (ibid). Bethe's Nobel Prize represents the first time an astrophysical subject was recognized by the Nobel Committee. SLIZARD & ZINN's "Instantaneous Emission of Fast Neutrons in the Interaction of Slow Neutrons with Uranium" confirmed 'instantaneous' neutron multiplication, showing that it meets the requirement for nuclear bombs. Some argue this is one of the most important papers in atomic/nuclear physics. TOLMAN's "Static Solutions of Einstein's Field Equations for Spheres of Fluid" described his method for applying Einstein's field equations to static spheres of fluid. OPPENHEIMER & VOLKOFF applied Tolman's method to calculate the gravitational equilibrium of a neutron star and predict the conditions under which it will continue collapsing into a black hole. BOHR's "Resonance in Uranium and Thorium Disintegrations and the Phenomenon of Nuclear Fission" is Bohr's attempt to begin an explanation of nuclear fission. ANDERSON, FERMI & HANSTEIN's "Production of Neutrons in Uranium Bombarded by Neutrons" provided the first estimation of the magnitude of neutron multiplication showing that it meets the requirement for sustained nuclear fission. RABI, MILLMAN, KUSCH, ZACHARIAS's "The Molecular Beam Resonance Method for Measuring Nuclear Magnetic Moments" is the author's indepth paper on their use of NMR to determine nuclear magnetic moments. 1939 is often spoken of as the second (think Einstein) most productive year in the history of physics. Together with Volume 56 (also listed), this volume includes an astonishingly large selection of important papers. CONDITION & DETAILS: Lancaster: American Institute of Physics, 1939. Royal 8vo. (10.5 x 8 inches); 267 x 203mm. Entire volume in contemporary full black cloth, gilt-lettered at the spine. Ex-libris with minimal markings. Very light and slight ghosting at the spine from the removal of a label -- all but invisible. Small stamp (covered) on the title page. Tightly and very solidly bound. Bright and very clean throughout. Near fine condition.