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Atticus Rare Books

Evolutionary Rate at the Molecular Level

Evolutionary Rate at the Molecular Level, Nature 217, 5129, pp. 624-626, 1968 [NEUTRAL THEORY OF MOLECULAR EVOLUTION]

Kimura, Motoo FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF THE NEUTRAL THEORY OF MOLECULAR EVOLUTION. "The neutral theory of molecular evolution [is] the idea that, at the molecular level, the large majority of genetic change is neutral with respect to natural selection-making genetic drift a primary factor in evolution" (Wikipedia). The paper calculates the rate of evolution in terms of nucleotide substitutions seems to give a value so high that many of the mutations involved must be neutral ones. With this paper, Motoo Kimura became "one of the most influential theoretical population geneticists" (ibid). "The neutral theory of molecular evolution holds that most evolutionary changes at the molecular level, and most of the variation within and between species are due to random genetic drift of mutant alleles that are selectively neutral. The theory applies only for evolution at the molecular level, and is compatible with phenotypic evolution being shaped by natural selection as postulated by Charles Darwin. The neutral theory allows for the possibility that most mutations are deleterious, but holds that because these are rapidly removed by natural selection, they do not make significant contributions to variation within and between species at the molecular level. A neutral mutation is one that does not affect an organism's ability to survive and reproduce. The neutral theory assumes that most mutations that are not deleterious are neutral rather than beneficial" (ibid). ALSO INCLUDED: "Multiphase Development of the Lunar Crater Tycho" by Strom and Fielder, pp. 611-615. CONDITION & DETAILS: Entire issue Nature, No. 5129, 4to. 10.75 x 7.75 inches (268 x 193mm). Bound in original with wraps with ex-libris stamps on front wrap. Light surface wear and rubbing at the edges; still very brightly covered as these issues were. The interior is pristine.
The Motions of Fluids and Solids on the Earth's Surface (Professional Papers of the Signal Service No. VIII pp. 1-51

The Motions of Fluids and Solids on the Earth’s Surface (Professional Papers of the Signal Service No. VIII pp. 1-51, 1882) and The Motion of Fluids and Solids Relative to the Earth’s Surface (American Journal of Science and Arts 31 No. 91 pp. 27-51, January 1861) [BOTH IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS HOUSED IN CUSTOM CASE]

Ferrel, William FERREL'S 19th CENTURY "MAGNUM OPUS" PROPOSING THE FIRST COMPREHENSIVE PHYSICAL THEORY OF THE ATMOSPHERE. Offered are two papers by the American meteorologist William Ferrel, "the Newton or Kepler of meteorology." "Transitioning from observational weather forecasting to mathematical weather forecasting required meteorologists to recognize that the laws of physics could apply to weather, discover the forces that drive wind movements, and apply the equations of physics to these forces and the resulting movements of air" (History of Physics: The Wenner Collection). In work considered "remarkable for its clarity," Ferrel applied Laplace's equations to his rediscovery of the Coriolis effect -- "the apparent deviation from straight line motion perceived by an observer in a rotating frame of reference" (ibid). Ferrel applied the Coriolis effect, in concert with the principles of thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, to establish "the first general formulation of the equations of motion for a body moving with respect to the rotating earth and drew from them the consequences for atmospheric and oceanic circulation" (Dictionary of Scientific Biography, IV, 592). His work demonstrated that it is the tendency of rising warm air, as it rotates due to the Coriolis effect, to pull in air from more equatorial, warmer regions and transport it poleward. It is this rotation which creates the complex curvatures in the frontal systems separating the cooler Arctic/Antarctic air polewards from the warmer tropical air towards the equator" (Wikipedia). The two documents offered here are in very good and near fine condition, both in original wrappers and housed together in a custom clamshell box: (1) A reprint (published in 1882 and the first so issued) of Ferrel's original publications in 1859 and 1860 in an unknown journal run by a friend, Runkle's Mathematical Monthly. We were able to find only institutionally held copy of the original, that in Observatoire de Paris. The few other institutionally held copies held (11 in total) were all of the 1882 publication offered here. (2) Published in 1861, "The Motions of Fluids and Solids on the Earth's Surface" (Professional Papers of the Signal Service No. VIII pp. 1-51, 1882) is a shorter and less technical summary that is of import for a number of reasons, not least of which is because Ferrel's work had initially been published in the obscure journal Runkle's Mathematical Monthly in 1859 and 1860, few in the scientific community saw or knew of it. This 1861 publication "carried Ferrel's "theory and its derivation to a wider audience" (DSB). Based firmly in mathematical analysis, in 1858, "Ferrel made explicit the notion of an inertial circle of motion on the earth and used it to explain the gyratory nature of storms. [In the Runkle papers offered here,] Ferrel developed a general quantitative theory of relative motion on the earth's surface and applied it to winds and currents. Now known as Ferrel's law, [it states that] 'if a body is moving in any direction, there is a force, arising from the earth's rotation, which always deflects it to the right in the northern hemisphere, and to the left in the southern'" (ibid). CONDITION & DETAILS: Two journals in original wraps, housed in a custom 12.5 x 10 inch (Large 4to) clamshell case gilt-titled at the spine and on the front board. The 1882 publication measures 9.5 by 12 inches (4to); the 1861 journal, 9.5 x 6 inches (8vo). Each has an area in the case designed to house its specific dimensions. Both journals are in very good to near fine condition and the case itself is new.
Existence of a Neutron in Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 136 pp. 692-708

Existence of a Neutron in Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 136 pp. 692-708, 1932. [CHADWICK CONFIRMS EXISTENCE OF THE NEUTRON. BOUND FULL VOLUME 1st EDITION]

Chadwick, James FULL VOLUME 1st EDITION OF CHADWICK'S CONFIRMATION OF THE EXISTENCE OF A NEUTRON. Earlier in 1932, Chadwick speculated about the "possible" existence of the neutron, a subatomic particle with no electrical charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. When, three months later - and in the paper offered here -- Chadwick affirmed his discovery, his assertion rewrote then current beliefs in nuclear science: he had proven that elementary particles devoid of any electrical charge existed. "For the discovery of the neutron," Chadwick was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobel Prize Committee). "The discovery of the neutron made by Chadwick led to a much deeper understanding of the nature of matter, explaining for example why isotopes of elements exist. It also inspired Enrico Fermi and other physicists to investigate nuclear reactions produced by neutrons, leading to the discovery of nuclear fission" (Hutchinson, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, I, 227). This discovery provided a new tool for inducing atomic disintegration, since neutrons, being electrically uncharged, could penetrate undeflected into the atomic nucleus. "In contrast with the helium nuclei (alpha rays) which are charged, and therefore repelled by the considerable electrical forces present in the nuclei of heavy atoms, this new tool in atomic disintegration need not overcome any electric barrier and is capable of penetrating and splitting the nuclei of even the heaviest elements. Chadwick in this way prepared the way towards the fission of uranium 235 and towards the creation of the atomic bomb. Prior to Chadwick's discovery and until 1932, the atom was known to consist of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by enough negatively charged electrons to make the atom electrically neutral. Most of the atom was empty space, with its mass concentrated in a tiny nucleus. Chadwick knew that in "experiments in which beryllium was bombarded by alpha particles, a usually energetic gamma radiation appeared to be emitted. It was more penetrating than gamma radiation from radioactive elements. Measurements of the energies involved and the conservation of energy and momentum suggested to Chadwick that a new kind of particle was being produced rather than radiation. "The results pointed towards a neutral particle made up of a proton and an electron. Its mass should thus be slightly greater than that of the proton. Because the mass of the beryllium nucleus had not then been measured, Chadwick designed and carried out an experiment in which boron was bombarded with alpha particles. This produced neutrons, and from the mass of the boron nucleus and other elements and the energies involved, Chadwick determined the mass of the neutron to be 1.0067 atomic mass units, slightly greater than that of the proton" (ibid). NOTE: We offer the earlier paper in which Chadwick speculates about the "possible" existence of the neutron" separately. That paper is titled "Possible Existence of a Neutron". ALSO INCLUDED: Rutherford, Chadwick, Ellis, McLennan, Lindemann, and Mott's extended commentary during "The Discussion on the Structure of Atomic Nuclei", pp. 735-762. CONDITION & DETAILS: London: Harrison and Sons. Quarto. 723pp with 19 plates. Handsomely rebound in calf over marbled paper boards; gilt-lettered black morocco spine label. Tight and solid. Bright & clean inside and out. Small, actually almost invisible, closed tear at the head of the Chadwick paper. Near fine condition.
Uncertainty and the Economics of Medical Care in The American Economic Review 53 No 5

Uncertainty and the Economics of Medical Care in The American Economic Review 53 No 5, December 1963, pp. 941-973

Arrow, Kenneth J. FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS (housed in custom case) OF KENNETH ARROW'S SEMINAL PAPER LAUNCHING THE FIELD OF MODERN HEALTH ECONOMICS. Arrow's paper is famous for many reasons - its "dazzling accuracy", its creation of an entirely new field of study, and also the skill and beauty with which it was written. "One is struck by the frequency with which a single sentence or paragraph opens up a concept, hypothesis, or relationship which will, years later, be expanded into a major subject of research" [for example the issue of 'trust' as it relates to medical care] (Fuchs, Health Affairs, March 8, 2017). To date, Arrow's paper remains "one of the most widely cited articles in the field of health economics" and is sometimes referred to as "the article that launched a thousand studies" (Savedoff, Public Health Classics, BWHO, Feb. 2004, 82). In 1963 Arrow was already a highly regarded economist; by the time of his death in early 2017 many considered him "the foremost economist of the second half of the 20th century" (Fuchs). In 1963, however, he had never written about the economics of health care. The Ford Foundation, attempting "to promote greater exchange between economists and other professions in the areas of health, education and welfare", extended an invitation to Arrow to apply his "pioneering research," on asymmetric information in markets to the issue of medical care (ibid). Arrow was fascinated by "the problems caused by asymmetric information in markets. In many transactions, one party (usually the seller) has more information about the product being sold than the other party. Asymmetric information creates incentives for the party with more information to cheat the party with less information; as a result, a number of market structures have developed, including warranties and third party authentication, which enable markets with asymmetric information to function" (Wikipedia). Before he could even begin to approach the task at hand, Arrow had to educate himself about health care and insurance - like many other economists, he had avoided the field. The paper Arrow ultimately wrote, this paper, did more than exceed the Ford Foundation's goals, it created the field of health economics and remains highly influential to this day. Prior to the article's appearance, economists had largely limited their research to descriptive and institutional studies. After Arrow's paper, the economics of health care became not just a respectable field of study, it was considered an "exciting" one (Fuchs). In this paper, Arrow characterized the differences between the healthcare market and normal competitive markets with regard to (1) the nature of demand - medical services are irregular and unpredictable (2) the expected behavior of the physician (3) product uncertainty (4) supply conditions (5) pricing practices. Arrow endorsed the view that 'the laissez-faire solution for medicine is intolerable' and that the delivery of health care deviates in fundamental ways from a normal free market, thus requiring government intervention to mitigate those deviations. Arrow wrote: "the operation of the medical-care industry and the efficacy with which it satisfies the needs of society differs from. a competitive model. If a competitive equilibrium exists at all, and if all commodities relevant to costs or utilities are in fact priced in the market, then the equilibrium is necessarily optimal" (Hastings, Kenneth Arrow on Healthcare Economics, AHEB, March 7, 2017). The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1972 was awarded jointly to John R. Hicks and Kenneth J. Arrow "for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory" (Nobel Prize Committee). CONDITION & DETAILS: 4to. Original wraps housed in a pristine custom clamshell case gilt-lettered at the spine and on the front board. The issue is also pristine save for some very slight sunning at the spine. Near fine.
Spectrum Analysis: In Its Application to Terrestrial Substances

Spectrum Analysis: In Its Application to Terrestrial Substances, and The Physical Constitution of the Heavenly Bodies

Schellen, H. 2nd EDITION Spectrum Analysis: In Its Application to Terrestrial Substances, and The Physical Constitution of the Heavenly Bodies, A BEAUTIFULLY ILLUSTRATED WORK inclusive of Angstrom's and Kirchhoff's maps. "Spectrum Analysis became a standard work;" here revised and expanded upon the first edition. ( Knight, p. 234). This volume includes 119 illustrations and 6 plates of which frontispiece & 4 plates are chromolithographs by Vincent Brooks, Day & Son of Vanity Fair fame with time exposure photography of total solar eclipses of 1868. "It is not difficult to deliver interesting lectures or to write an instructive book on spectrum analysis. The rapid succession of brilliant discoveries in this new branch of science, the amount of fundamental facts added by it to human knowledge, especially in the field of the cosmical world, assure the lecturer or writer appealing to the intelligent but not scientific public of useful and legitimate success. But what is not so easy to do is to interest at the same time the gens du monde and scientific men, by offering a selection of the most recent discoveries in a bright and literary form attractive to the former, and yet keeping for the latter the appearance of precision, and exactness of the numerical results" (Abstract, Nature 6, pp. 349, 1872). CONDITION & DETAILS: New York Appleton and Company. Complete. This is not an institutional copy and is free of stamps, etc. 455 pages of text; 223 in-text illustrations; 13 plates of which frontispiece & 4 plates are chromolithographs by Vincent Brooks, Day & Son of Vanity Fair fame and inclusive of time exposure photography of the total solar eclipse of 1868. While handsomely and solidly bound in green cloth, there is scuffing at the edge tips and light spotting to the cloth (see photo). Gilt lettered and illustrated at the spine; front board gilt illustrated with black blind stamping.
Spontaneous Symmetry Breakdown without Massless Bosons in Physical Review Volume 145

Spontaneous Symmetry Breakdown without Massless Bosons in Physical Review Volume 145, 1966, pp. 1156-1163 [PETER HIGGS PREDICTS THE 2012 DISCOVERY OF THE HIGGS BOSON]

Higgs, Peter Bound full volume: FIRST EDITION OF THE NOBEL PRIZE WINNING 1966 PAPER IN WHICH PETER HIGGS PREDICTED THE 2012 DISCOVERY OF THE HIGGS BOSON. A type of subatomic particle, bosons are able to occupy the same point in space as do other different matter particles (like electrons) which otherwise can never overlap. "Many Higgs bosons clumped together make up the Higgs field, this field causes particles to have mass. Without the Higgs field, the universe would just be individual particles zipping around at the speed of light, no atoms of any kind would exist. The Higgs field is everywhere so particles travel through it all the time. However, particles with a greater mass will interact more with the Higgs field than particles with a lower mass. This would explain why two particles, which are the same size, can have different masses" (Impact, Univ. of Nottingham, 29 October 2013). "In 1966 [and in this paper], Higgs followed up on his earlier work and wrote a longer paper in which he considered the decay of the massive boson. This showed that if vector bosons have acquired their masses as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the more massive the vector boson is, the greater its affinity for the Higgs boson. In 1967, Steven Weinberg recognized that the electron too can acquire mass by this mechanism. If spontaneous symmetry breaking gives mass to all fundamental particles - whether they are the massive W and Z bosons, or fermions such as the electron, its more massive sibling the muon, and even heavier tau - it will be the decay pattern of the Higgs into these various particles that will prove it. According to the theory, the Higgs boson will tend to produce the massive flavors of a given family more readily than their lightweight counterparts" (Close, The Infinity Puzzle, 167). Understandably unstable, it took until 2012 to prove Higgs correct. At CERN in Switzerland, protons were accelerated nearly to the speed of light and then were smashed together. If Higgs was correct, in one out of every 10 billion collisions, a Higgs boson will be formed. However, even if one is formed, it can't be observed directly because it exists for so short a time before breaking down. To account for this, physicists at CERN recorded the remnants of the collision and worked backwards, piecing together what particles came from the decay of the Higgs. By doing this, they have found the previously undiscovered boson. This paper "launched the concept known nowadays as the Higgs Boson" (DeWiit-Morette, The Pursuit of Quantum, 82). CONDITION & DETAILS: Full volume. Lancaster: American Physical Society. 4to (10.75 x 8 inches; 268 x 200mm). Entire volume, continuously paginated pp. 1-1360. Higgs paper: pp.1156-1163. Ex-libris with minimal markings within (no spine markings whatsoever). Illustration: In-text figures throughout. Exterior: Bound in black buckram with a gilt-lettered spine. Tight, solid. Interior: Bright and very clean throughout. Fine condition in every way.
In-Band Single-Frequency Signaling (Weaver & Newell) in Bell System Technical Journal 33 N0. 6 pp. 1209-1266

In-Band Single-Frequency Signaling (Weaver & Newell) in Bell System Technical Journal 33 N0. 6 pp. 1209-1266, November 1954 WITH Signaling Systems for Control of Telephone Switching (Breen & Dahlbom) in Bell System Technical Journal 39 No. 6 pp. 1381-1444, November 1960 [IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS: BOTH the 1954 and 1960 PHREAKING MANUALS, ALSO KNOWN AS THE INFAMOUS BELL PAPERS]

Weaver, A.; Newell, N.A. WITH Breen, C. Dahlbom FIRST EDITIONS IN ORIGINAL PAPER WRAPS OF THE 1954 & 1960 'INFAMOUS BELL PAPERS' (the Phreaking Manuals) - THE PUBLICALLY PUBLISHED BELL SYSTEM PAPERS THAT UNKNOWINGLY GAVE AWAY 'THE KEYS TO THE KINGDOM.' Without Bell realizing it, the papers laid out for anyone with even the most cursory knowledge of electronics EXACTLY HOW TO MAKE FREE LONG DISTANCE PHONE CALLS during an era when they were very expensive. EXCEPTIONALLY SCARCE IN WRAPS & TOGETHER. In November, 1954, the Bell System Technical Journal published an article -- the 1st paper offered - "that described the process used for routing telephone calls over trunk lines with the then-current signaling system" ("Phreaking"). "The most common signaling on the then long-distance network was multi-frequency (MF) control. The specific frequencies required were unknown to the general public until publication of this paper describing the methods and frequencies used [for] signaling. "The journal.found its way to various college campuses across the US. With this one article, the Bell System accidentally gave away the "keys to the kingdom" and the intricacies of the phone system were at the disposal of people with a knowledge of electronics" (Wikipedia). However, the information in the paper provided enormous but not complete access. Then Bell did it again. In 1960 the other half of the equation was revealed in the 2nd paper offered here, this containing "the frequencies used for the digits used for the actual routing codes. With these two sets of information, the phone system was at the disposal of anyone with a basic knowledge of electronics. Once Bell realized what they had done, representatives visited most college campuses and physically cut out the pages that had the tone frequencies, but the information had already been made public and the error was irreversible" ("Phreaking"). The 1960 paper "laid bare the technical inner workings of the long-distance telephone network with clarity, completeness, and detail: how the long-distance switching machines sang to each other with single-frequency (SF) and multifrequency tones (MF), how 2,600 Hz was used to indicate whether a telephone had answered, what the frequencies were of the tones that made up the MF digits, how overseas calls were made, even including simplified schematic diagrams for the electrical circuits necessary to generate the tones used to control the network. [For anyone who understood it, it] was all there. Nothing was hidden" (Lapsley, Exploding the Phone). Ralph Barclay, an engineering student, happened to see the 1960 journal at his college library. "By the time Barclay finished reading it, the vulnerability in the network had crystallized in his mind" (ibid). And he was right: the paper laid out exactly how to make free phone calls. "The ability to absorb 64 pages of dry, technical mumbo jumbo and spot the vulnerability is a rare one. The engineers from Bell Labs who designed the system and wrote the article didn't see it. Thousands of engineers in the future would read that article and not see it, but 18 year old Barclay did" (ibid). Suddenly, a cultural subset known as 'phreakers' knew how to manipulate telephone call routing. "The term first referred to groups who had reverse engineered the system of tones used to route long-distance calls. By re-creating these tones, phreaks could switch calls from the phone handset, allowing free calls to be made around the world.Electronic tone generators known as blue boxes became a staple of the phreaker community, a group of people that included future Apple cofounders Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. ALSO INCLUDED: "The Secrets of the Little Blue Box" by Ron Rosenbaum and published in Esquire, Oct. 1971, pp.117-125 with pp. 222- 226. CONDITION: 2 complete issues in original printed blue wrappers. The 1954 issue is a bit faded at the edges and spine, otherwise fine. The 1960 issue has a red library stamp on the front wrap and the spine have been professionally repaired; internally, though, it too is fine. The papers are housed in a custom clamshell case gilt lettered on the front board and at the spine.
method-draw-image (23)

A Potentially Realizable Quantum Computer in Science, Volume 261, Number 5128, September 17, 1993, pp. 1569-1571

Lloyd, Seth FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL PICTORIAL WRAPS OF THE 1st PAPER TO ?PROPOSE THE FIRST TECHNOLOGICALLY FEASIBLE DESIGN FOR A QUANTUM COMPUTER? (Wikipedia). PRISTINE condition with no mailing label. ?Quantum computing studies theoretical computation systems (quantum computers) that make direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data? (Gershenfeld, ?Quantum Computing with Molecules? in Scientific American, June 1988). ?Quantum computers are different from binary digital electronic computers based on transistors. Whereas common digital computing requires that the data be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses quantum bits, which can be in superpositions of states? (Wikipedia). Seth Lloyd, a self-proclaimed ?quantum mechanic?, is a professor of mechanical engineering and physics at MIT. His ?potentially realizable? quantum computer is described in this paper as ?arrays of weakly coupled quantum systems. Computation is effected by a sequence of electromagnetic pulses that induce transitions between locally defined quantum states? in a crystal lattice? (Van Loocke, The Physical Nature of Consciousness, 41). This means that in Lloyd?s computer architecture, every ?quit?, or gate, does not need to be addressed individually. Lloyd?s architecture necessitates ?only a few control quits are needed, while the quantum information is stored in a chain of quits that consists of repeated units ABC of only three distinguishable physical qubits. Each group of three physical quits stores one logical quit. Logical operations can be broken down into operations that act on all A, B or C physical quits. It was shown that this architecture is universal, i.e., it can efficiently run all algorithms that are efficient on a network quantum computer? (Stolze, Quantum Computing, 143). Lloyd argues that ?operated with frequent error correction, such a system functions as a parallel digital computer. Operated in a quantum-mechanically coherent manner, such a device functions as a general purpose quantum-mechanical micro-manipulator, capable of both creating any desired quantum state of the array and transforming that state in any desired way? (Lloyd, 1993, p. 1569). In a 1996 paper that we offer separately, Lloyd would go on to prove that Feynman?s 1982 conjecture that quantum computers can be programmed to simulate any local quantum system is correct. In the 1996 paper, Lloyd ?proved that a universal quantum simulator is possible by showing that a quantum computer can be programmed to simulate any local quantum system efficiently? (History of Science: The Wenner Collection; Wikipedia). CONDITION & DETAILS: New York: American Association for the Advancement of Science. 8vo. Complete. Pristine inside and out.
Ultraviolet Behavior of Non-Abelian Gauge Theory in Physical Review Letters 30

Ultraviolet Behavior of Non-Abelian Gauge Theory in Physical Review Letters 30, Issue 26, 25 June 1973, pp. 1343-1346 (Gross, Wilczek) WITHBOUND Reliable Perturbative Results for Strong Interactions? pp. 1346-1349

Gross, David and Wilczek, Frank with Politzer, David FIRST EDITION OF THE 1973 DISCOVERY OF ASYMPTOTIC FREEDOM, the nature of the strong force that binds quarks together in the nucleus. David Gross and Frank Wilczek (working together) and David Politzer (working independently) were the first to understand the importance of these strong interactions and their discovery led to their 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. Asymptotic freedom holds that "the closer quarks are to each other, the less the strong interaction (or color charge) between them; when quarks are in extreme proximity, the nuclear force between them is so weak that they behave almost as free particles" (Wikipedia). This unusual characteristic allows quarks to be bound arbitrarily close together without the attractive force becoming too large. "Asymptotic freedom means that in very high energy reactions and thus at very short distances the interaction between quarks and gluons becomes very weak. QCD is able to predict this behavior" (Vayenas, Gravity, Special Relativity and the Strong Force, 28). CONDITION & DETAILS: New York: American Physical Society. (10.5 x 8 inches; 262 x 200mm). Near fine condition save for a small, quite light spot between "Physical" and "Review" on the front wrap. The images make it look as if the edges are quite faded and they are not -- it's just a product of the lighting. Bright and clean throughout.
Massive spheres in general relativity

Massive spheres in general relativity, Proceedings of the Royal Society, A, 282, 1964, pp. 303-317

Bondi, H. [Hermann] FIRST EDITION OFFPRINT of "famous paper in classic astrophysics" (SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System). This paper by the Anglo-Austrian physicist Hermann Bondi studies whether redshifts could be of gravitational origin and "served as a theoretical guidepost for planetary and super-planetary relative motion calculation" (ibid). In it he proves that "whatever equation of state is chosen, provided it is physically realistic (i.e., with sound speed in the material not exceeding the speed of light), the gravitational surface redshift due to the presence of a massive object like a white dwarf or neutron star cannot exceed 0.62" (Kembhavi, Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei, 6). For this paper, Bondi adopted the field equations of general relativity "and physically plausible equations of state. in order to calculate the maximum surface redshift. Bondi [states] that his models give the largest values of surface redshifts among spherically symmetric massive objects" (Yabushita, MNRAS, 174, 1976, p. 637; MNRAS, 177, 1976, p. 595). Spherical in nature, Bondi's "models are such that a core is surrounded by a thin mass shell or an adiabatically stable envelope. The equation of state in the core is p = qp, where p and p are pressure and energy-density, respectively and q a constant (q = 1/3 or 1)" (ibid). I In 1957 and in a paper we also offer, "Plane gravitational waves in general relativity", Bondi had "firmly established the physical reality of gravitational waves" (Denef, Science, Feb. 2016). This 1964 paper is one of a series of papers that Bondi and his collaborators wrote in the early 1960s as they further studied gravitational waves. Their work put "the physical properties [of gravitational waves] such as energy and momentum flux on a rigorous mathematical footing" (ibid). Gravitational waves, or ripples in the fabric of spacetime, were first predicted by Einstein's 1916 general theory of relativity. In February 2016, the September 2015 detection of gravitational waves - waves first predicted by Einstein over a hundred years ago - was announced. CONDITION & DETAILS: Offprint, Proceedings of the Royal Society. London: Harrison and Sons. Quarto (10 x 7 inches; 250 x 175mm). Bright and clean (the toning evident in the scan is not actual; it is from the brightness of the scanner light). Very good condition in every way.
Measurements of general relativistic effects in the binary pulsar PSR1913 + 16

Measurements of general relativistic effects in the binary pulsar PSR1913 + 16, Nature 277, 8 February 1979, pp. 437-440 [FULL VOLUME]

Taylor, J. H., L. A. Fowler & P. M. McCulloch FIRST EDITION OF THE FIRST DISCOVERY OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES IN THE BINARY PULSAR - the gravitational waves Einstein predicted in his 1916 theory of general relativity. This is the first proof that "radiation leaves the system of a binary pulsar at exactly the speed of light and as gravitational waves" (Spotts, Einstein Verified, CSM, 11 Feb, 2016). While the discovery was considered indirect, it is also regarded as "the first proof [of] the existence of gravitational waves" or, put another way, the first proof that "radiation leaves the system of a binary pulsar at exactly the speed of light and as gravitational waves" (van Haasteren, Gravitational Wave Detection, 8; Spotts, Einstein Verified, CSM, 11 Feb, 2016). The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993 was awarded jointly to Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor Jr."for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation" (Nobel Prize Committee). "Gravitational waves are ripples in spacetime that occur when an object moves with an accelerated motion that is not "spherically symmetric. The movement of the object causes the curvature of spacetime to change, causing gravitational waves to spread outward like a three dimensional analog of ripples on the surface of a pond" (History of Physics: The Wenner Collection). "In 1975, Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. and Russell Alan Hulse discovered a pulsar (a highly magnetized rotating neutron star) in a binary star system with a dark companion, labeled PSR-1813+16. Taylor, Fowler, and McCulloch then used the 1975 binary pulsar discovery to create highly precise tests of general relativity. The team tracked their binary pulsar over the following several years and as the two objects spiraled toward each other. In this paper, they announced that they had found a change in the orbital period of the double star - specifically, that the orbit of this binary system was slowly shrinking, or losing angular momentum, as it lost energy due to the emission of gravitational radiation. The reduction amounted to 75 millionths of a second per year and just equaled the predicted energy loss due to the radiation of gravitational waves" (ibid). This figure precisely equaled the rate of loss or shrinkage Einstein's theory of relativity predicted (ibid). As Taylor et al. wrote: "Measurements of second- and third-order relativistic effects in the orbit of binary pulsar PSR1913+16 have yielded self-consistent estimates of the masses of the pulsar and its companion, quantitative confirmation of the existence of gravitational radiation at the level predicted by general relativity, and detection of geodetic precession of the pulsar spin axis" (Abstract). Again, it is important to note that their discovery of gravitational radiation - and it was exactly that - was an indirect discovery. "No one had yet observed the direct action of gravitational waves on detectors" but in September of 2015, that day would come (Zeldovich, My Universe, 137). But as Zeldovich wrote of this paper, it is "in this way [that] gravitational radiation was discovered and gravitational astronomy began" (ibid). CONDITION & DETAILS: Full bound volume, 4to. (11 x 8 inches; 275 x 200mm). Ex-libris: Minor ghosting at spine from the removal of a spine label; three tiny marks on the rear pastedown. Tightly and solidly bound in red buckram; gilt-lettered at the spine. Clean and bright inside and out.
Radiation Phenomena in a Strong Magnetic Field in The London

Radiation Phenomena in a Strong Magnetic Field in The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, 5th Series. January to June 1898. [Full volume: ANOMALOUS ZEEMAN EFFECT]

Preston, Thomas FIRST EDITION OF THOMAS PRESTON'S DISCOVERY OF THE ANOMALOUS ZEEMAN EFFECT accompanied by a photographic plate of his experimental results. ALSO INCLUDED: Papers by Thomson, Zeeman, Michelson, and Kelvin. This was published concurrently (April 1898) in Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society. When studying the spectral lines of elements in the presence or absence of a magnetic field, the Irish scientist Thomas Preston noted a phenomenon, an effect, in which the use of a stronger magnetic field led to results that were clearly at variance with the normal triplet structure reported by Zeeman and predicted by the Lorentz theory. Preston presented his findings to the Royal Dublin Society in December 1897. In early 1898, he furthered his initial findings and published his findings [in the paper offered] describing the anomalous Zeeman effect completely for the first time, including additional spectral lines that he called the 'weak middled quartet,' 'double doublet,' and 'sextet' (History of Physics: The Wenner Collection). The Zeeman effect -- the effect of splitting a spectral line into multiple closely spaced lines in the presence of an external magnetic field -- was first reported by Zeeman in 1896 and agreed with the classical theory as interpreted by Lorentz. Observed in atoms with no spin, the Zeeman effect, the splitting, is caused by the interaction between the magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moment when associated with the orbital momentum of the electrons; in these cases the magnetic fields "separating the energy levels associated with the angular momentum of the electrons in an atom into three parts. When they settle back to their normal state, they yield three spectral lines" (ibid). The effect that Preston discovered, the anomalous Zeeman effect occurs in atoms with non-zero spin and involves further splitting of the spectral line into four, six, or even more lines (or triplets exhibiting wider spacing than the norm. This effect was a deviation - hence, 'anomalous' - and it was very puzzling to the scientific community. The explanation of these differing patterns of splitting took time to emerge because it depends on electron spin -- quantized electron spin - which had yet to be discovered when the effect was first observed. In other words, the deviations Preston discovered were explained by the quantum mechanics effects of spin. CONDITION & DETAILS: London: Taylor & Francis. (8.5 x 5.5 inches). Complete. [viii], 548, [4]. 24 plates; in-text illustrations throughout. Not ex-library. Solidly and tightly rebound in three quarter brown calf over original boards with normal wear. Four gilt-ruled raised bands at the spine; gilt-lettered at the spine as well. Near fine.
Energy dependence of 209 Bi fragmentation in relativistic nuclear collisions in Physical Review C 23 Issue 3 pp. 1044-1046

Energy dependence of 209 Bi fragmentation in relativistic nuclear collisions in Physical Review C 23 Issue 3 pp. 1044-1046, March 1981 [ALCHEMY. MODERN PHILOSOPHER’S STONE]

Seaborg, Glenn T; Morrissey, David C. FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF "THE FIRST SUCCESSFUL ALCHEMICAL EXPERIMENT IN HISTORY" (Valijak, Vintage News, 2017). Seaborg and his team transmuted several thousand atoms of bismuth into gold for the first time by accelerating carbon and neon nuclei to near light speed and then directing them into foils of bismuth, splitting off parts of the bismuth nucleus. This technique, while too costly for routine manufacturing, is the modern version of the "Philosopher's Stone," a legendary method for turning base metals into gold. "In 1980, he used his extensive knowledge of nuclear chemistry and nuclear physics to conduct the first successful alchemical experiment in the history of humanity. He employed a particle accelerator to remove protons and neutrons from several thousand atoms of bismuth and managed to transmute them into atoms of gold. Although several thousand atoms is a quantity so small that it is not even visible to the naked eye, Seaborg proved that alchemy has been pursuing a completely achievable goal for the past several thousand years. Well, one might ask, if Seaborg managed to produce gold out of a non-precious metal, why aren't people using his revolutionary technique today to produce massive amounts of gold? The answer to that question is the fact that the process discovered by Seaborg is so incredibly complex and so immensely expensive that it would require quadrillions of dollars to produce just an ounce of gold. The process requires a particle accelerator, huge amounts of energy, and a lot of time. Therefore, Seaborg's technique will likely never be used to produce significant amounts of gold as contemporary science has far more important projects that are not as expensive and time-consuming. Nonetheless, he was indeed the first person in history who managed to produce something very similar to the fabled Philosopher's Stone" (ibid). NOTE: Listed separately, we also offer Seaborg's 1946 work, "The Transuranium Elements", "one of the most significant changes to the periodic table since Mendeleev's 19th century design. Seaborg Obituary, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete. 4to. 10.25 x 7.5 inches. Individual issue in original wraps. Spine professionally repaired and light library stamp on front cover, otherwise pristine. Housed in custom pamphlet case, gilt-lettered and ruled at the spine. Bright and very clean throughout.
The Quantum Theory of Optical Coherence in Physical Review 130

The Quantum Theory of Optical Coherence in Physical Review 130, June 15, 1963, pp. 2529-2539, 1963 WITH Photon Correlations in Physical Review Letters 10, February 1, 1963, pp. 84-86 ORIGINAL PAPER WRAPS, 2 ISSUES

Glauber, Roy. J. FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF GLAUBER'S TWO NOBLE PRIZE WINNING PAPERS PRESENTING HIS QUANTUM THEORY OF OPTICAL COHERENCE -- the quantum mechanical basis of different types of light. "No real in-depth theory of light based on quantum theory existed before Roy Glauber established the foundation for quantum optics in 1963" (Nobel Prize Committee). In the first paper, Glauber's seminal theory, at first controversial but now widely used in the field of quantum optics, differentiates between laser (coherent) light and normal (blackbody) light. In the second, also published in 1963, Glauber wrote: "We have developed general quantum mechanical methods for the investigation of such correlation effects and shall present here results for the distribution of the number of photons counted in an incoherent beam" (Glauber, 1963). Arguing that photon correlation experiments must be based on a consistent application of quantum electrodynamics, Glauber showed how the quantum theory has to be formulated in order to describe the detection process. "This also served to bring out the distinction between the behaviour of thermal light sources and presently common coherent sources such as lasers and quantum amplifiers. [Glauber's] theory uses the formalism of quantum electrodynamics to describe the absorption of a photon in a detector. By correlating several such detectors, [Glauber showed how] one may obtain higher order correlations, which [then] display clearly the characteristic features of quantum radiation" (Nobel Prize Website). Glauber's work formed the basis for the development of Quantum Optics when it was written and still does to this day. Glauber was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work in optical coherence in 2005. CONDITION & DETAILS: 2 issues in original paper wraps. "The Quantum Theory of Optical Coherence" in Physical Review has some chipping to the paper at the head of the spine, otherwise near fine condition inside and out. "Photon Correlations" in Physical Review Letters is pristine inside and out.
Voyage fait par ordre du roi en 1768

Voyage fait par ordre du roi en 1768, pour éprouver les montres marines inventées par M. le Roy, avec le mémoire sur la meilleure manière de mesurer le tems en mer, qui a remporté le prix double au jugement de l’Académie Royale des Sciences. Contenant la description de la montre à longitudes, présentée à sa majesté le 5 août 1766 (1770)

Cassini, Jean Dominique [Pierre Le Roy] FIRST EDITION OF A VOYAGE BY CASSINI TO TEST THE NEW MARINE CLOCK - CHRONOMETER -- OF PIERRE LE ROY. Le Roy's chronometer superceded one by John Harrison that had been used for many years. Le Roy's invention - as Cassini's report makes clear -- became the most accurate sea chronometer and was described by Rupert T. Gould of the British Royal Navy as the first modern chronometer. Notably, this book bears the bookplate of Commodore F. H. Kjolsen, a Danish naval officer engaged in WW II and who went on to be the Danish naval attache in Washington. The commodore took part in blowing up and sinking the Danish fleet in Copenhagen in 1940 to prevent its falling into enemy hands. At that time he was seized and placed in a German prison camp. Two months later he escaped and sailed to Sweden in a fishing boat with his wife and three children. John Harrison, an English self-educated carpenter and clock maker, invented the first practical marine chronometer, which enabled navigators to compute accurately their longitude at sea. Harrison's invention revolutionized the problem of longitude at sea; still, Harrison spent 31 years of experimenting, testing, and fine-tuning an invention that had already revolutionized navigation and enabled the Age of Discovery and Colonialism to accelerate. In 1766, Pierre Le Roy, watchmaker to King Louis XV, constructed his own chronometer. Though Le Roy had championed Harrison's invention, his own differed from Harrison's in a number of significant ways. Le Roy's chronometer incorporated a detached escapement, something he invented in 1748. This type of escapement incorporated "a temperature-compensated balance and an isochronous balance spring, innovations which would be adopted in subsequent chronometers" (Wikipedia). Le Roy presented his invention to the Royal Academy and proposed that it be tested. Undertaken at his own expense along the coasts of France and Holland, Le Roy's chronometer performed admirably. The members of the academy, ready to reward Le Roy a prize and disseminate this invention, decided that it should be submitted to a longer voyage. The Minister of the Navy, M. de Praslin, ordered and financed an expedition to be led by Jean Dominique Cassini. Traveling to to the island Saint-Pierre and to the coasts of Africa and Spain, this work is Cassini's report of that voyage - a meticulous accounting of the testing of Le Roy's chronometer. In 1769 Le Roy was awarded the double prize offered by the French Academy for the invention of the best method of measuring time at sea. Le Roy's detached escapement created the most accurate regularity at sea, further enabling the 18th centuries' Age of Discovery. In 1766, Pierre Le Roy, watchmaker to King Louis XV, constructed his own chronometer. Though Le Roy had championed Harrison's invention, his own differed from Harrison's in a number of significant ways. Le Roy's chronometer incorporated a detached escapement, something he invented in 1748. This type of escapement incorporated "a temperature-compensated balance and an isochronous balance spring, innovations which would be adopted in subsequent chronometers" (Wikipedia). CONDITION & DETAILS: Paris, Charles-Antoine Jombert, 1770. 4to (264 x 210 mm.) Stamp on title-page. Provenance: see details in the beginning of this description. iv pp., Vii pp., 144 pp., Xxiv pp., 60 pp., (2) ff. Bound in full mottled calf with 5 raised bands at the spine, each compartment gilt-tooled. The binding is tight and very solid; minor scuffing at the edges. Gilt lettered at the spine. Marbled endpapers. Wide margins within. Internally clean and bright.
Vier Vorlesungen über Relativitätstheorie gehalten im Mai 1921 an der Universität Princeton

Vier Vorlesungen über Relativitätstheorie gehalten im Mai 1921 an der Universität Princeton, Braunschweig: Viewer & Sohn, 1922 WITH the English translation, The Meaning of Relativity, Fourth Edition Including the Generalization of Gravitation Theory, Princeton: New Jersey, 1953

Einstein, Albert 1922 FIRST GERMAN EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF EINSTEIN'S FOUR LECTURES ON RELATIVITY DELIVERED AT PRINCETON UNIVERSITY IN THE SPRING OF 1921 (Norman 697; Weil 124). Included with this is a 1953 fourth edition (hardbound with original wraps) of the English translation of those lectures, The Meaning of Relativity, inclusive, significantly, of both the Appendix for the Second Edition and Appendix II: Generalization of Gravitation Theory. The 1953 fourth edition of Appendix II is Weil 235, Einstein's last attempt at and most important final formulation of the topic of greatest important to him: the unification of his general theory of relativity with electromagnetism. "This was Einstein's ultimate response to the mechanical-electromagnetic crisis in physical theory he had first talked about in the opening of his 1905light quantum-paper" (Nandor, D.S.B., p. 330). The English titles of Einstein's four lectures are: "Space and Time in Pre-Relativity Physics", "The Theory of Special Relativity", "The General Theory of Relativity I", "The General Theory of Relativity II". While the most important item is obviously the German first edition, fourth edition, specifically, of the English translation, Appendix II: Generalization of Gravitation Theory is an important work unto itself. Appendix II did not begin appearing in The Mean of Relativity until the 1949 third edition; he revised it for the 1950 edition and then heavily revised it for the volume offered there, the 1953 fourth edition. It is in Appendix II that Einstein "described his most recent work on unification" (Pais). In his own words, "The last step of the theory concerns the unification of the field concept, which is characterized by the transition to non-symmetric fields. The difficulty in the choice of the field laws has been fully overcome only in the last few months" (Einstein, 1953). It is Appendix II that The New York Times hailed- though of course Einstein had no hand in their title - under the heading "New Einstein theory gives a master key to the universe". CONDITION & DETAILS: (1) Braunschweig: Viewer & Sohn (Vier Vorlesungen, 1922). Octavo. (9 x 6 inches; 225 x 150mm). [2], 70pp., [1]. Bound in original paper wraps; front wrap and first few pages are detached as is the rear wrap. Minor scuffing and chipping at the edges; 2 light ownership stamps reading "G. J. Weimar, 4621 Morris St., GTN" and on the title page (see image). Some minor chipping at the edges of some pages. Withal, clean and bright. A nice copy in original wraps. (2) Princeton: Princeton University Press (The Meaning of Relativity, 1953). Octavo. (8 x 5.5 inches; 200 x 138mm). Complete with original dust jacket. The jacket, book, and interior are all in fine condition. Exceptionally bright, clean, and solid.
The Inflationary Universe: A Possible Solution to the Horizon and Flatness Problems in Physical Review D23 Issue 2

The Inflationary Universe: A Possible Solution to the Horizon and Flatness Problems in Physical Review D23 Issue 2, 15 January 1981, pp. 347-356 [ORIGINAL WRAPPERS. INTRODUCING CONCEPT OF ‘COSMIC INFLATION’

Guth, Alan FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS of Alan Guth's landmark paper introducing the concept of "cosmic inflation," a new cosmological model he called 'inflation theory'. Though just a theory for 30 years, Guth's paper "utterly transformed scientific thinking about the origin of the universe" (Focus: Landmarks, The Inflationary Universe). In March 2014, scientists found what they say is the first direct evidence of Guth's inflation. "From studying the cosmic microwave background (CMB -- the leftover radiation from the big bang -- they have spotted traces of gravitational waves -- undulations in the fabric of space and time -- that rippled through the universe in that infinitesimally short epoch following its birth. The imprint of these gravitational waves upon the CMB matches what theorists had predicted for decades. The findings. also show that gravity -- at the smallest scale -- follows the rules of quantum mechanics [in ways] similar to other forces such as electromagnetism" (Science Magazine Online). In importing new ideas from particle physics into theoretical cosmology, Guth alters conventional big bang theory, offering essentially, a bigger, faster bang. "The classic Big Bang theory," Guth explains, "?says nothing about what banged, what happened before it banged, or what caused it to bang" (Guth). "Inflation theory suggests a superfast early-universe expansion in a tiny sliver of a second of time, the explosion driven by gravitational repulsion, the repulsion of matter and antimatter, which stretched the universe toward its present size and scale unimaginably faster than conventional cosmology had predicted. Earlier accounts of the big-bang theory depicted a universe that cooled so quickly it prevented homogeneity, but Guth's period of inflation establishes a period of time before the big bang, when the universe was small enough to evenly distribute its contents. The inflationary universe model seems to more accurately explain the spectrum of density fluctuations that gave rise to the rapid expansion that created the universe as we know it" (NNDB). As the result of Guth's research and the findings of March, 2014, cosmologists now think the just-born universe -- "a hot, dense soup of matter and energy -- went through a burst of expansion faster than the speed of light. Like a magical balloon, the cosmos doubled its size 60 times in a span of 10 (-32) seconds. This phase [Guth's inflation] ended well before the universe was even a second old" (Science Magazine Online). CONDITION & DETAILS: Lancaster: American Physical Society. Physical Review D, Volume D23, Issue 2, 15 January 1981, pp. 347-356. Quarto (11.25 x 8.25; 275 x 200mm). Original wraps. Light stain at the inner margin of the wraps. See photo. Very good.
Numerical Relation between the Atomic Weights

Numerical Relation between the Atomic Weights, with some thoughts on the Classification of the Chemical Elements in American Journal of Science and Arts 17 pp. 387-406, 1854 [ORIGINAL WRAPPERS FORESHADOWING THE NUMERICAL RELATION OF ATOMIC WEIGHTS PRE MENDELEEV]

Cooke, J. P. [Josiah Parsons] FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPER OF COOKE'S PAPER FORESHADOWING MENDELEEV'S PERIODIC TABLE by proposing that the chemical elements be arranged into six groups or "series" based on their physical properties and their propensity to form compounds. Cooke's pre-Mendeleev classification scheme for the elements and atomic weight research were motivated by his interest in numerical order in nature, which reflected his belief in a divine lawgiver" (Contakes, Josiah Parsons Cooke, JPC 17, 1, 2011). The historian of science Bernard Cohen described Cooke as the first university chemist to do truly distinguished work in the field of chemistry in the United States. "Inspired by homologous organic compounds, Cooke grouped elements with analogous chemical properties into six "series". Because some of these bear significant resemblance to modern groups, his classification scheme is sometimes considered an imperfect precursor to the periodic table. Cooke allowed elements, notably oxygen, to be members of multiple "series". Second, whereas Mendeleev's table recognized periodically recurring chemical properties when elements were arranged by atomic weight, Cooke developed simple algebraic relationships involving multiples of whole or half-integers to relate the atomic weights of elements with similar properties" (Kauffman 1969, pp. 128-31). CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete issue bound in original paper wrappers. 4to. 9.5 x 6.25 inches. 460pp. Fold-out plates. The wrappers have light toning and marks; minor chipping, most noticeably at the head of the spine where a half-inch piece is missing. (Wrappers for this particular journal are rarely found and noticeably fragile. Despite the noted issues, in this particular journal they are in remarkably good condition.) Regardless, the text block remains solid and the wrapper are tightly attached. (See image and note that the darkening at the lower quarter of the spine is not actual but is due to a shadow).A light spot appears at the top of some pages, not impacting the Cooke paper whatsoever. The interior is otherwise clean and bright. Very good.
Abstracts of Distinguished Constituents (pp. 323) Semantical Analysis of Modal Logic (pp. 323-324) WITH The Problem of Entailment (p. 324) in The Journal of Symbolic Logic Issue #4

Abstracts of Distinguished Constituents (pp. 323) Semantical Analysis of Modal Logic (pp. 323-324) WITH The Problem of Entailment (p. 324) in The Journal of Symbolic Logic Issue #4, 1959

Kripke, Saul A. First edition, first impression in original wrappers of issue #4 of the 1959 Journal of Symbolic Logic. This, the December issue, includes important abstracts of Kripke papers received by the Journal in 1959: "Distinguished Constituents", "Semantical Analysis of Modal Logic", "The Problem of Entailment". All three papers in this listing relate to Kripke's seminal first paper on modal logic, "A Completeness Theorem in Modal Logic" - a paper in which Kripke's initial intuitive idea was that a proposition is necessary if and only if it is true in all possible worlds. NOTE: We offer separately all four issues of The Journal of Symbolic Logic for this same year including "A Completeness Theorem in Modal Logic." As the story goes, in 1959 and at the age of seventeen, Kripke wrote his completeness theorem in modal logic at age 17; he mailed the paper to the journal and it was sent out for comments, to, among a number of others, the head of the Mathematics at Harvard. This person then wrote Kripke urging him to apply for a job at Harvard. The reply he received read: "My mother said that I should finish high school and go to college first" (Wikipedia). CONDITION & DETAILS: Princeton:Association for Symbolic Logic,1959.Issue #4. 10 x 7 inches; 250 x 150mm. Pristine condition inside and out.
method-draw-image (23)

Abhandlungen zur Wellenmechanik, 1927 [Provenance: Joseph E. Mayer]

Schrodinger, Erwin [Schroedinger; Schrödinger] FIRST EDITION IN BOOK FORM OF 6 FAMOUS PAPERS THAT SCHRODINGER HAD PUBLISHED A YEAR EARLER: including "Quantisierung als Eigenwertproblem", Parts I-IV, and "Über das Verhältnis der Heisenberg-Born-Jordanschen Quantenmechanik zu der meinen" (all in Annalen der Physik. This work bears the ownership signature of Joseph E. Mayer (Joseph Edward Mayer) a University of California chemist who worked with James Franck in Germany in the late 1920s. "In January 1926, Schrödinger published in Annalen der Physik the paper 'Quantisierung als Eigenwertproblem' on wave mechanics and presented what is now known as the Schrödinger equation. In this paper he gave a derivation of the wave equation for time independent systems, and showed that it gave the correct energy eigenvalues for a hydrogen-like atom. This paper has been universally celebrated as one of the most important achievements of the twentieth century, and created a revolution in quantum mechanics and indeed of all physics and chemistry" (Wikipedia). This paper contains "the first appearance in the literature of his famous wave equation, written out for the hydrogen atom" (DSB XII, 220). "A second paper was submitted just four weeks later that solved the quantum harmonic oscillator, the rigid rotor and the diatomic molecule, and gave a new derivation of the Schrödinger equation. "A third paper in May showed the equivalence of his approach to that of Heisenberg and gave the treatment of the Stark effect. "A fourth paper in this most remarkable series showed how to treat problems in which the system changes with time, as in scattering problems. These papers were the central achievement of his career and were at once recognized as having great significance by the physics community" (Wikipedia). CONDITION & DETAILS: Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth. 4to [6.75 x 9.75 inches]. ix, 169 pp; 12 illus. Bound in slightly soiled original green cloth with minor fraying at the top of the spine. Tightly and solidly bound. Bright and very clean throughout. PROVENANCE: This work bears the ownership signature of Joseph E. Mayer (Joseph Edward Mayer) a University of California chemist who worked with James Franck in Germany in the late 1920s.
The Quantum Postulate and the Recent Development of Atomic Theory in Nature

The Quantum Postulate and the Recent Development of Atomic Theory in Nature, Vol. 121, pp. 580-590, 1928 [BOHR’S COMPLEMENTARITY/COPENHAGEN INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS]

Bohr, N. [Niels] FIRST EDITION, FULL VOLUME, OF BOHR'S SEMINAL INTRODUCTION OF HIS 'complementarity' principle, the basis of what became known as the 'Copenhagen interpretation' of quantum mechanics. Handsomely rebound in half calf. "Immediately after Heisenberg's work on uncertainty relations, Bohr presented his concept of complementarity at a conference. Bohr's lecture marked the first attempt to provide a genuine philosophical underpinning to the new advances in physics. The uncertainty relations had provided Bohr a concrete measure of the consequences of the wave-particle duality and thereby a physics-based justification for his ideas. "Bohr had already embraced the wave-particle duality underlying quantum theory and he presented the concept of complementarity as the fundamental feature of a new conceptual framework. For Bohr, complementarity was an almost religious belief that the paradoxes of the quantum world must be accepted as fundamental, not to be 'solved' or trivialized by attempts to find out 'what's really going on down there.' Bohr used the word in an unusual way: the 'complementarity' of waves and particles, for example (or of position and momentum), meant that when one existed fully, its complement did not exist at all" (Louisa Gilder). "The lecture was published in Nature in 1928 in a revised form. It sparked significant debate in the years that followed and solidified the boundaries between those who accepted Bohr's view of the consequences of quantum theory and those who were seeking a more 'realistic' microscopic theory or a more realistic interpretation of quantum theory itself" (McEvoy). "It is hard to overestimate was Bohr has done. The principle of complementarity. is possibly one of the greatest discoveries in the scientific history of mankind, with ramifications on many other levels of science." (Josef Jauch). "From the epistemological point of view, the discovery of the new type of logical relationship that complementarity represents is a major advance that radically changes our whole view of the role and meaning of science." (DSB). ALSO: "New Results on Cosmic Rays" by R. A. Millikan and G. Harvey Cameron pp. 1-8 [Millikan paper concludes that cosmic rays come from outside the Milky Way]. ALSO: "A New Type of Secondary Radiation" by C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan pp. 501-502; "A Change of Wave-length in Light Scattering" by C. V. Raman pp. 619; "The Optical Analogue of the Compton Effect" by C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan pp. 711. [Raman's three papers announce Raman scattering, for which he was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics]. CONDITION: London: Macmillan. 4to. (11 x 8.25 inches; 275 x 206mm). Entire volume, not ex-libris. Handsomely and professionally rebound in half leather. 5 raised bands at the spine, gilt-ruled. The boards are purposefully scuffed a bit (see picture) to imply aging. One red morocco label; one black morocco label; both gilt-lettered. Tightly and very solidly bound. Clean and bright throughout. Near fine condition.
Fluctuations in the Primordial Fireball in Nature 215 No. 5106 pp. 1155-1156

Fluctuations in the Primordial Fireball in Nature 215 No. 5106 pp. 1155-1156, September 9, 1967 [First Tentative Sightings of CMB Anistropies]

Silk, Joseph I. FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS. Shortly after Wilkinson and Partridge published the first tentative sightings of CMB anistropies, Joseph Silk, in this paper, demonstrated that only very large density irregularities in the early universe (larger than 1,013 solar masses) would survive and be visible in the CMB. We separately offer the Wilkinson & Partridge paper as well as the related Rees & Sciama paper. The Gruber Foundation, writing about Silk in their Cosmology Prize Laureate Profile, noted the following: "The validation of the Big Bang interpretation of the universe arrived, in 1965, just as a 22-year-old Joseph Silk was entering the field of cosmology. The discovery came in the form of an observation of microwave radiation suffusing all of space in every direction. This cosmic microwave background, or CMB, matched a theoretical prediction of what temperature a universe born in a Big Bang would have reached today if the universe had been expanding and cooling for 13 billion years. The radiation, however, was featureless-yet features are what a CMB would need if it's going to grow into a universe full of galaxies. "Presumably more precise observations would detect those irregularities, and in 1967 and 1968 [in a separate paper], Silk calculated that when observations of the CMB attained a far more subtle level of precision, those features would emerge in the form of infinitesimal temperature fluctuations" (Gruber Foundation Cosmology Prize Laureate Profile). CONDITION & DETAILS: London: Macmillian & Sons. Complete issue in original wraps. Discreet ex-libris stamp on the front wrap. As is not uncommon, three neat holes near spine (for keeping given issues together) are present and do not affecting text. Evidencing no wear, this issue is also clean and bright inside and out. Very good+ condition.
Large-scale Density Inhomogeneities in the Universe in Nature 217 No. 5128 pp. 511-516

Large-scale Density Inhomogeneities in the Universe in Nature 217 No. 5128 pp. 511-516, February 10, 1968 [REES-SCIAMA EFFECT IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS]

Rees, Martin; Sciama, Dennis FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS OF REES & SCIAMA'S PREDICTION OF WHAT IS NOW CALLED THE "REES-SCIAMA EFFECT," an important correlation between galaxy density (the number of galaxies per square degree) and the temperature of the CMB in different parts of the universe. The effect is a nonlinear anistropy in the CMB caused by large scale density inhomogeneities in the universe such as quasar clusters. "The CMB radiation is a direct relic of the early universe. It is a unique and deep probe of both the thermal history of the early universe and the primordial perturbations in the matter distribution" (Tuluie, "Cosmic Microwave Background" AJ, 1996, 15). In this paper, English physicists Martin Rees and Dennis Sciama argue and predict that these large scale density inhomogeneities and their "effect on the angular distribution of the cosmic black-body radiation" are the result of perturbations caused by photon passing through an inhomogeneous, expanding universe (Rees & Sciama, 1968, 511). Furthermore, they argue that this effect on the angular distribution could potentially be observable (ibid). Rees & Sciama imagine "a photon passing through a sphere that is expanding differently than the rest of the universe" and from there, consider four effects (1) Blue shift due to photon falling into a larger potential well than it climbs out of. (2) Doppler shift due to the observer receding from the source. (3) Gravitational Redshift from expanding universe. (4) Time delay from the gravitational field" (Asai, Rees-Sciama Effect and Superstructures). As a result of these considerations, Rees & Sciama argue that their effect "takes place when the gravitational potential well crossed by the photons varies during the flight travel time. Indeed, if the photons fall into a gravitational potential well different from the one they go out of, this induces a gravitational redshift (of the Sachs- Wolfe type). The variations in the potential wells are due essentially to the non-linear evolution of the structures. In the case when the potential well is deepened, the photons gained energy and are blue shifted while going towards the centre of a structure, and they lose even more energy than what they gain while going out. This difference results in a net red shift along that line of sight" (Lachièze-Rey. Theoretical and Observational Cosmology, 321). NOTE: We separately offer two related papers (also in original wrappers): "Fluctuations in the Primordial Fireball" by Joseph I. Silk (Nature 215 No. 5106 pp. 1155-1156, September 9, 1967) AND "Large Scale Density Inhomogeneities in the Universe" by D. T. Wilkinson and R. B. Partridge (Nature 215 No. 5102 p. 719, August 12, 1967). CONDITION & DETAILS: London: Macmillian & Sons. Complete issue in original wraps. Discreet ex-libris stamp on the front wrap. As is not uncommon, three neat holes near spine (for keeping given issues together) are present and do not affecting text. Evidencing no wear, this issue is also clean and bright inside and out. Very good+ condition.