Milestones of Science Books

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Zur Farbenlehre / Erklärung der zu Goethe's Farbenlehre gehörigen Tafeln / Anzeige und Uebersicht des Goethischen Werkes zur Farbenlehre / Sechzehn Tafeln zu Goethe's Farbenlehre und Siebenundzwanzig Tafeln zu Dessen Beiträge zur Optik nebst Erklärung.

Zur Farbenlehre / Erklärung der zu Goethe’s Farbenlehre gehörigen Tafeln / Anzeige und Uebersicht des Goethischen Werkes zur Farbenlehre / Sechzehn Tafeln zu Goethe’s Farbenlehre und Siebenundzwanzig Tafeln zu Dessen Beiträge zur Optik nebst Erklärung.

GOETHE, Johann Wolfgang von I: Zur Farbenlehre. Tübingen: Cotta, 1810. Two parts bound in two volumes. 8vo (198 x 121 mm). xlviii, 654; xxviii, 757 [1] pp. Contemporary dark-green glossy paper boards, spines ruled and lettered in gilt (wear to extremities, corners scuffed and bumped), bound without endpapers. Very light age-toning and occasional minor spotting to final pages of second vol., otherwise crisp and clean. II: Erklärung der zu Goethe's Farbenlehre gehörigen Tafeln. Geistinger: Vienna, 1812. [3] 4-24 pp, with 17 engraved plates (12 hand-coloured, including the extra plate IIa) bound at end. Text little browned and foxed, first 3 plates with brown spot at gutter. The three smaller plates IIa, VI and XII laid down on paper of the time. [Bound with] III: Anzeige und Uebersicht des Goethischen Werkes zur Farbenlehre. Geistinger: Vienna, 1812. [1] 2-12 pp. Text little browned and foxed throughout. Two parts in one volume. 4to (220 x 180 mm). Recent half cloth, new endpapers. IV. Sechzehn Tafeln zu Goethe's Farbenlehre und Siebenundzwanzig Tafeln zu Dessen Beiträge zur Optik nebst Erklärung. Stuttgart and Tübingen: Cotta, 1842. 4to (232 x 190 mm). [2], 24; [2] pp. With 17 (12 hand-coloured) engraved plates und 27 (13 hand-coloured) lithographs on 9 plates. Contemporary dark-green glossy paper boards matching to text volumes, spines ruled and lettered in gilt (wear to extremities, corners scuffed and bumped). Text little browned, stronger foxing to first and final pages. Altogether a very good set. ---- Goedeke IV/3, pp. 14 (IV), 583, 45 (I), 46 (II), 46 alpha (III); Hagen 347 (I), 348b (II), 348c (III), 24b (IV); Kippenberg 386 (I), 389 (II), 388 (III); Roller-Goodman I, 468; Honeyman 1524; DSB V, p.445. Goethe's principal scientific work, the "Farbenlehre", including the quarto-sized "Erklärung der zur Goethe's Farbenlehre gehörigen Tafeln" and the "Anzeige und Uebersicht" in a mixed edition (I and IV in first, II and III in second counterfeit edition). "Goethe's first publication on optics culminated in his 'Zur Farbenlehre', his longest and, in his own view, best work, today known principally as a fierce and unsuccessful attack on Newton's demonstration that white light is composite" (DSB V, p.445). Whereas Goethe?s theories were in fact wrong from a purely physical standpoint, the fact remains that Goethe's theories were epoch-making in their physiological and psychological aspects. Indeed, the science of physiological optics was directly stimulated by it and one of its dominant schools in essence represented his approach long after him. His theories still have great value, and a more than scientific validity, to artists and to all those who want to achieve a personal understanding of the natural world - who want to establish their own relationship with that world rather than merely accept what modern science has to say about it. This first edition, aside from its value as an object, is the only edition to contain the complete text, which is in two volumes. Volume I contains a discussion of physiological, physical and chemical colors and a detailed study of Newton?s Optics. Volume II is a historical study of colors as shown in the work of the famous theorists and artists of Greece and Rome, the Middle Ages, the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. There are important sections on Robert Boyle, Erasmus Darwin and Benjamin Franklin. The plate volume includes 12 handcolored plates. They are of various sizes. The "Anzeige und Uebersicht" with drop title only as issued. In the appendix to the Farbenlehre published in 1842, 13 additional illustrations on 9 lithographed plates were issued (cf. Hagen, p.89). - Visit our website to see additional images!
Physico-Mathesis de Lumine

Physico-Mathesis de Lumine, coloribus, et iride, aliisque sequenti pagina indicatis.

GRIMALDI, Francesco Maria 4to (235 x 180 mm). [24], 535 [1], [16] pp. Signatures: [pi]2 a4 b6 (A-Z)4 (2A-2Z)4 (3A-3Z)4. Including first blank [pi]1, title page printed in red and black and with large engraved vignette, additional letterpress title also printed in red and black and with smaller woodcut device, text in double columns, several woodcut text illustrations and diagrams, 7 leaves of index and ad lectorem leaf at end. Bound in later limp vellum, yapp edges, spine with gilt-lettered red morocco label, red-dyed edges (vellum slightly soiled and spotted). Text only little browned throuhout, light staining and damp-spotting in places, first title with restoration at top corner (possibly from small erased stamp with 4 partially refinished letters). Provenance: Thomas Vroom (pictorial bookplate to front pastedown). All in all a very good copy. ---- DSB V, pp. 542-45; Riccardi I, 631 ('celebrated and scarce work'). FIRST EDITION of Grimaldi's only publication, the discovery of optical diffraction. In this important and celebrated work Grimaldi describes his discovery of the inflection of the solar rays near certain bodies. He was the first to declare that the diffusion of light was instantaneous. The diffraction experiments which Grimaldi describes show "that a new mode of transmission of light had been discovered and that this mode contradicts the notion of an exclusively rectilinear passage of light. Diffraction thus gave prima facie evidence for a fluid nature of light. The name 'diffraction' comes from the loss of uniformity observed in the flow of a stream of water as it 'splits apart' around a slender obstacle placed in its path. He discussed other fluid phenomena analogously with light. To explain color and the varieties of color he decided that a ?change in agitation? of the luminous flow is responsible. A light ray is conceived like a column of fluid in vibration, but not regular vibration. Lighter colors are said to result from a greater density of rays and darker colors from a lower density . Knowledge of his work appears in the work of both Hooke and Newton. Hooke performed his first series of diffraction experiments later in 1672, after the notice of Grimaldi?s book in the Philosophical Transactions. Hooke referred to it, however, as inflexion and may have encountered diffraction phenomena independently. Newton was aware of Grimaldi?s work, but only at secondhand, crediting Honoré Fabri as the source of his knowledge on diffraction. At first (1675) Newton described and attempted to account for only the internal fringes. His description shows that he could not have performed the experiment. By 1686 he came to deny the existence of internal fringes on the basis of experiments. In the Opticks he described and tried to explain only the external fringes, which he never ceased to regard as a sort of refraction." (DSB) - Visit our website to see more images!
Nouvelle arithmetique binaire. - Explication de l'arithmétique binaire

Nouvelle arithmetique binaire. – Explication de l’arithmétique binaire, qui se sert des seuls caracteres 0 & 1; avec des remarques sur son utilité, & sur ce qu’elle donne le sens des anciennes figures Chinoises des Fohy.

LEIBNIZ, Gottfried Wilhelm In: Histoire de l'Academie des Sciences, avec les Mémoires, Année MDCCIII, pp. 58-63 (Histoire), pp. 85-89 (Memoires). Two parts in one volume. Paris: Boudot, 1705. 4to (241 x 182 mm). Title page with large woodcut vignette, woodcut head- and tailpieces, engraved historiated frontispiece, the Mémoires with separate pagination, errata leaf bound at end, 12 (10 folding) engraved plates and a few woodcut text illustrations and diagrams. Entire volume: [10], 148, 467 [1], [2] pp. Bound in 18th century French calf, spine with 5 raised bands gilt-decorated in compartments and with two gilt-lettered morocco labels (boards and extremities rubbed, corners worn). Text only very little browned, occasional minor spotting, faint dampstaining to upper blank margin of several pages, but generally crisp and clean internally. Provenance: Kaiserl. Universitäts-Sternwarte Strassburg (ink stamps to first flyleaf and title leaf recto and verso). ---- FIRST EDITION, FIRST ISSUE of Leibniz' invention of binary arithmetrics. Before Leibniz, Thomas Hariot and Blaise Pascal had already demonstrated number systems other than the decimal and Caramuel y Lobkowitz, in his Mathesis biceps 1670, was the first to publish explicitly on binary arithmetics. However, "Caramuel's contemporaries took so little notice of his work that Leibniz was hailed as the discoverer of the binary system upon publication of his Explication 33 years later in 1703. Many investigators still cite this paper as the first published work on the topic. This technical error is justified in substance, for the test of true publication is the existence of reaction and follow-up, a test failed by Caramuel's work." (Glaser, p.20). The "Explication de l'arithmétique binaire by Leibniz appeared in the 1703 volume of the Memoires de l?Academie Royale des Sciences on pages 85-89. This explanation of binary arithmetic was the first publication on this topic to result in a significant impact on the scientific community. Leibniz, now 57, had been a frequent contributor to the Memoires of this Parisian academy. The Berlin academy was not to begin its publications until 1710." (Ibid., p.39). "Of binary numeration, he writes 'it permits new discoveries (in). arithmetic . in geometry, because when the numbers are reduced to the simplest principles, like 0 and 1, a wonderful order appears everywhere.' Concerning the binary calculations themselves '. these operations are so easy that we shall never have to guess or apply trial and error, as we must do in ordinary division. Nor do we need to learn anything by rote.' Certainly Leibniz was not the first to experiment with binary numbers or the general concept of a number base. However, with base 2 numeration, Leibniz witnessed the confluence of several intellectual ideas of his world view, not just the characteristica generalis, but also theological and mystical ideas of order, harmony and creation. Additionally his 1703 paper contains a striking application of binary numeration to the ancient Chinese text of divination, the Yijing (l-Ching or Book of Changes). Early in life Leibniz developed an interest in China, corresponded with Catholic missionaries there, and wrote on questions of theology concerning the Chinese. Surprisingly he believed that he had found an historical precedent for his binary arithmetic in the ancient Chinese lineations or 64 hexagrams of the Yijing. This, he thought, might be the origin of a universal symbolic language. A hexagram consists of six lines atop one another, each of which is cither solid or broken, forming a total of 64 possibilities, while a grouping of only three such lines is called a trigram (or cova). Leibniz lists the eight possible trigrams in his exposition on binary arithmetic, juxtaposed with their binary equivalents. He had been in possession of his ideas concerning binary arithmetic well before his 1703 publication. . . Visit our website for further reading and to see more images!
Das erst buch der Geometria. Ein kurtze Unterweisung

Das erst buch der Geometria. Ein kurtze Unterweisung, was und warauff Geometria gegründet sey, und wie man nach anweysung der selben mit dem Circkel und Richtscheydt allerley Lini, Flech, und Cörper ausstheylen und in fürgegebner Proportion machen soll.

SCHMID, Wolfgang 4to (195 x 143 mm). [8], 126, [2] pp. Signatures: (A-R)4. Bound in 18th century German half-calf, blind-tooled spine with 4 raised bands, sprinkled paper-covered boards, blue-dyed edges (slight rubbing to extremities, inner upper hinge repaired and first endpaper renewed). Little dust-soiling and browning of title-page, very minor occasional spotting, faint brownstain to first gathering, oversized woodcut diagram on p. 63 shaved at fore-margin, 3 further woodcuts elsewhere only very slightly affected from trimming, but generally crisp and clean throughout. ---- VD16 S 3115; Honeyman 2795; Graesse, VII, 308; M. Friedman, A History of Folding in Mathematics, p. 67/68; Fleur Richter, Die Ästhetik geometrischer Körper in der Renaissance, Stuttgart, 1995, pp. 60-61. VERY RARE FIRST EDITION. The Geometria is one of the oldest treatises on geometry published in the German language. Wolgang Schmid was a citizen and master of calculations for the city of Bamberg. The work is dedicated to his friend the famous writer, calligrapher and creator of characters from Nuremberg, Johann Neudörfer. Inspired by Euclid's Elements, Schmid seeks to simplify the geometry of Albrecht Dürer's Underweysung (1525) for a less learned and more practically oriented readership. The work is divided into four chapters and begins with a general introduction to geometry. He begins with simple demonstrations before arriving at complicated geometric bodies, ending with a figure with 20 facets. Schmid then developed his text with more complex applications of geometry for the use of architects and craftsmen (stonemasons, masons, etc). "The descriptions given for each Platonic solid are extremely short, usually describing only the number of faces, their shape, and the shape of the resulting solid. But despite the short descriptions, Schmid solves with his drawings, as Fleur Richter notes, several problems that Dürer had posed: for example, how is one to draw the Platonic solids from an angle, thus showing not only the distortion that a perspectival drawing causes (i.e., shortening of the edges), something which Dürer did not consider, or drawing the icosahedron from above, thus not implying, as Dürer did, that all of the vertices are on the same circle." (Friedman, p.67). The work is rare. USTC lists only one copy in the United States (Columbia, Butler Library). - Visit our website to see more images!
De Symmetria partium in rectis formis humanorum corporum libri in latinium conversi / De Varietate figurarum et flexuris partium ac gestibus imaginum libro duo.

De Symmetria partium in rectis formis humanorum corporum libri in latinium conversi / De Varietate figurarum et flexuris partium ac gestibus imaginum libro duo.

DÜRER, Albrecht 22 Nov. 1534. Two works in one volume. Folio (323 x 208 mm). 79 (of 80, lacking blank) and 55 (of 56, lacking blank) unnumbered leaves. Signatures: (A-E)6 F4 (G-N)6 O4 (-O4); (a-k)6 (-k6). Gatherings b to k of second work misbound after gathering A of first work. First title with 8-line verse to the reader above Dürer's woodcut monogram, gothic letter, text in single and double columns, more than 150 mostly full-page woodcut illustrations and diagrams. Unsigned leaves a4, e6, f6, i5 split from bifolio and attached to a3, e5, f1, i4 respectively to gain folding leaves (as called for). Errata on k5v. Bound without the final blanks O4 and k6. 19th-century half vellum, spine with hand-lettered paper label (slightly soiled and rubbed). Internally only very little age-toned, a few ink smudges, occasional brown spotting, staining and finger soiling, light dampstaining to lower blank margin of a few pages, old paper repair at gutter of final page and lower blank margin of second title (leaving two small holes in blank area), contemporary ink annotations and corrections in text on two pages, a few anatomical illustration with shading hachures added in sepia, illustration on h2r lightly crayoned. Provenance: Johann Vogler*, Zürich (inscribed on both title-pages "Joannis Vogleri, Tigurum", on 2nd title also with architectural monograms in sepia of both, Albrecht Dürer and Johann Vogler), illegible stamp to first title, Fürstenberg Hofbibliothek, Donaueschingen (old stamp on second title); Thomas Vroom (pictorial bookplate to front pastedown). A very good, wide-margined copy, with all the text leaves and woodcuts present. ---- Adams D-1044; Fairfax Murray German Books 152; Bohatta 20; DSB IV, pp. 259-60. FIRST LATIN EDITION, in two parts, of Vier Bücher von menschlicher Proportion first published 1528 in German. Unlike his Italian contemporary, Leonardo da Vinci, who published nothing, Dürer lived and worked in the world of printing and engraving. Dürer's treatise on human proportion was the earliest of the three theoretical works written in his later years. He began formulating mathematical rules for the proportions of the human form soon after his first trip to Venice in 1494-95. For his mathematical formulations he drew upon the works of antiquity as well as the Italian rediscoveries; as for his other theoretical works, his goal was to establish a scientific basis for aesthetics and to provide practical guidelines for draftsmanship. "The book is the synthesis of Dürer's solutions to his self-imposed formal problems; in it he sets forth his formal aesthetic. Dürer's aesthetic rules are based firmly in the laws of optics--indeed, he even designed special mechanical instruments to aid in the measurement of human form. He used the height of the human body as the basic unit of measurement." (DSB). Book IV is of the greatest interest as it presents for the first time many "new, difficult, and intricate considerations of descriptive spatial geometry. Dürer's chief accomplishment as outlined in the Four Books is that in rendering figures. he first solved the problem of establishing a canon, then considered the transformation of forms within that canon. In so doing he considered the spatial relations of form and the motions of form within space" (DSB). Camerarius' translation popularised the fame of the book throughout Europe. "Without Camerarius' translation, Dürer's writings would not have achieved exceptional dissamination in Europe. Without Camerarius translation, Michelangelo would never have seen Dürer's theory of proportion" (translation from Dürer Katalog, Nürnberg, 1971). The private Royal Fürstenberg Hofbibliothek was disassembled and sold between 1980 and 2001 by their former owners. Of special interest are the two painted monograms on the second title, mostl likely in Johann Vogler's hand, which nicely demonstrate the appeal. . . Visit our website for more images and further reading.
Systême des animaux sans vertèbres

Systême des animaux sans vertèbres, ou tableau général des classes, des ordres et des genres de ces animaux.

LAMARCK, Jean Baptiste de 8vo (198 x 122 mm). viii, 432 pp., including half-title, 8 letterpress tables (6 folding). Contemporary calf, plain spine with gilt-lettered morocco label and gilt decoration, boards with double fillet border, gilt-ruled board edges, red sprinkled edges, marbled endpapers (hinges expertly repaired). Little even browning internally, few pages slightly foxed, but generally quite crisp and clean. Provenance: Hôpital St. Pothin, Lyon (faint ink stamp on title-page and two text leaves), two pages with annotations in pencil. Very good copy. ---- Dibner 194; Garrison-Morton 215.5; Sparrow 122; Norman 1262. - FIRST EDITION, FIRST STATE (without leaf 402bis of "second eddition") of Lamarck's first published statement of his theory of evolution, the inheritance of acquired characteristics. Lamarck's first public presentation of his theory of evolution was in his opening discourse for his course on invertebrates at the museum in 1800; it was published the following year at the beginning of his Système des animaux sans vertèbres. The evolutionary views sketched in the discourse leave much to be desired in terms of organization and explanation. They are, however, very much a part of a total view of nature, many aspects of which Lamarck had long accepted. In the two branches of living organisms, Lamarck pointed out the 'degradations' in structural organization of the larger classificatory groupings or 'masses' as one moved down the series from the most complex to the simplest. Nature, after having formed the simplest animals and plants directly, produced all others from them with the aid of time and circumstance. In 1800 Lamarck did not explain how spontaneous generation occurred or how unlimited time and varied circumstances produced all other organisms. He did suggest that, for animals, changing circumstances and physical needs led to new responses which eventually produced new habits; these habits tended to strengthen certain parts or organs through use. Gradually new organs or parts would be formed as acquired modifications were passed on through 'reproduction' (DSB). Lamarck had first presented his theory of 'evolution' (a term not yet used in this context) in the opening discourse of his course on invertebrates at the Museum d?Histoire Naturelle in Paris in 1800. First printed in the present work, the 48-page Discours d?ouverture contains Lamarck?s first statement of his theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and of his idea of the progressive process of species differentiation, from the simplest to the most complex. The Systeme represented a definite advance in zoological classification. In it Lamarck 'separated spiders and crustaceans from insects, and classified worms into truer categories than had Linne. He separated animals into vertebrates and invertebrates, introducing the latter term' (Dibner). - Visit our website to see more images!
Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire des insectes.

Mémoires pour servir à l’histoire des insectes.

REAUMUR, Rene-Antoine Ferchault de 1734-1742. 6 volumes. 4to (252 x 193 mm). I. [6], 654 pp, 50 plates; II: [4] xlvi [2], 514 pp., 40 plates; III: [4] xl, 532 pp., 47 plates; IV: xxxiv [2], 636 (i.e., 634) pp., 44 plates; V: [4] xliv, 728 pp, 38 plates; VI: [4] lxxx, 608 pp, 48 plates. 267 folding engraved plates by Simonneau, Lucas, Filloeul and Haussard in total, engraved headpieces and initial capitals, woodcut tailpieces, each title-page with engraved vignette. Bound in uniform contemporary mottled French calf, each spine with 5 raised bands, gilt-lettered morocco label and rich gilt-decoration including crowned monogram of Louis XV of France in 5 compartments, boards with triple gilt fillet borders, central gilt vignette of Louis XV, and gilt-tooled edges and turn-ins; marbled endpapers, red-sprinkled edges (joints mostly cracked but firm, boards and extremities rubbed, corners worn). First flyleaf of vol. I with short biography in manuscript, p. 460 of vol. VI with neat ink annotation. Text and plates generally quite clean and crisp with only minor uneven browning (a few gatherings a bit stronger), occasional minor spotting, few leaves with marginal paper flaws not affecting text, light offsetting from plates, some light dampstaining, mostly to lower corners and blank margins. Provenance: Nervet family of Evreux ("A Monsieur Nervet" gilt-stamped on turn-ins of upper and lower boards in each volume). A very good, wide margined and unmarked set in untouched original bindings. Collated complete. ---- Dibner, Heralds of Science 192; Sparrow, Milestones of Science 169; Norman 1804; En francais dans le texte, 145; Garrison-Morton 304; Nissen ZBI 3315; Wellcome IV, p. 484. FIRST EDITION of "a classic in the life history and bionomics of insects" (Sparrow). In addition to investigating insect behaviour, Réaumur also looked at the economic value of insects in the production of silk, honey, wax, lacquer and dye, as well as considering pest control. The Histoire des insectes was originally planned in ten volumes, but the project was halted after the sixth, possibly due to the author's jealous rivalry with his younger and more popular contemporary Buffon. A posthumous supplement was published in 1928. Individual volume titles are: I + II. Chenilles, papillons et insectes ennemis des chenilles. III. Histoire des Vers, des Teignes, des Pucerons et de leurs ennemis, etc. IV + V. Histoire des Gallinsectes, des Progallinsectes, des Mouches à deux ailes, des Mouches à scies, des Cigales et des Abeilles. VI. Mouches à quatre ailes, supplément à l'histoire des mouches à deux ailes. - Visit our website to see more images!
Neurographia universalis. Hoc est

Neurographia universalis. Hoc est, omnium corporis humani nervorum, simul & cerebri, medullaeque spinalis descriptio anatomica. Cum ipsorum actione et usu, physico discursu explicatis. Editio nova.

VIEUSSENS, Raymond de Folio (345 x 227 mm). [16], 252, [2] pp., including half-title, title printed in red and black, engraved frontispiece portrait by Mathieu Boulanger, armorial plate, 22 engraved plates (15 folding) and 8 text engravings, numbered I-XXX in a single series. Contemporary sprinkled vellum, spine with 6 raised bands and gilt-lettered red morocco label (extremities slightly rubbed, hinges partially cracked at head and foot, corners bumped and worn, boards bent outwards, first flyleaf removed). Text somewhat browned, occasional minor spotting and dust-soiling, a few short tears at folds of plates, plate facing p.153 with long repaired tear (without loss), occasional short clean tears at margins of text leaves, former bookplate removed from pastedown. Very good copy. ---- Norman 2153; Heirs of Hippocrates 641; DSB XIV, p.25-26; Parkinson-L. 2522; Garrison-M. 1379; NLM/Krivatsy 12403; Waller 9961; Osler 4171. - First edition, second issue (with imprint date 1685) of the most thoroughly illustrated monograph of the nervous system of the 17th-century, and an important contribution to the study of the brain and spinal cord. Vieussens was chief physician of the Hôtel-Dieu de St. Eloi for over 40 years, a post that permitted him to perform a large number of autopsies. His research into the central nervous system was "of great importance. In Neurographia universalis he sought to continue the work of Thomas Willis, which he greatly admired. The first to make good use of Stends suggestion that the white substance in the brain should be studied by tracing the paths of its fibers, Vieussens described the olivary nucleus and the centrum semiovale; the latter still bears his name. Moreover, his description of the fine structure of the cerebellum, including the discovery of the dentate nuclei, surpassed all previous publications on the subject. The most original part of the work concerns the paths of the peripheral nerves" (DSB). The fine engraved illustrations of his neurological treatise include two large folding plates of the nervous system (plates 28-29), printed from two impressions of a single plate, of which one in reverse, presumably printed through an offset technique: the figure's left side (on the viewer's right), is an exact reverse image of the right side, including the captions and key-numbers. Both the scarcer first issue and the second issue, in which the title is dated 1685, are misleadingly described as editio nova on the title. Our copy includes the rare engraved plate of the coat of arms which is missing in the Norman copy. ---- Visit our website to see more images!
Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie.

Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie.

EINSTEIN, Albert 1916 [but 1919]. 8vo (231 x 155 mm). 64 pp. Second issue with Omnitypie-Ges. imprint on verso of title. Modern cloth, publisher's original printed wrappers bound in (wrappers somewhat brittle and dust-soiled, upper one detached, brittle and slightly chipped at fore-margin and with old repair). Text age-toned and slightly browned at margins. ---- Grolier/Horblit 26c; PMM 408; Weil *80a. Norman 696 (all first issues) - FIRST EDITION, SECOND ISSUE, of Einstein's fundamental statement of the General Theory of Relativity. "Whereas Special Relativity had brought under one set of laws the electromagnetic world of Maxwell and Newtonian mechanics as far as they applied to bodies in uniform relative motion, the General Theory did the same thing for bodies with the accelerated relative motion epitomized in the acceleration of gravity. But first it had been necessary for Einstein to develop the true nature of gravity from his principle of equivalence. Basically, he proposed that gravity was a function of matter itself and that its effects were transmitted between contiguous portions of space-time. Thus the universe which Newton had seen, and for which he had constructed his apparently impeccable mechanical laws, was not the real universe. Einstein's paper gave not only a corrected picture of the universe but also a fresh set of mathematical laws by which its details could be described. [The Haskell Norman Library of Science and Medicine. Part III. R.WE. Clark, Einstein, New York, 1984. "The theory of relativity has transformed astrophysics, and indeed the whole scientific outlook" (PMM 408). "What is today known as the general theory of relativity bears upon the notion of gravity and corrects certain problems in Newtonian physics. It was developed from 1907 until its publication in 1916. The general theory is effectively an extension of the special theory to systems in accelerated motions, such as bodies in space. From the general theory of relativity issues all of 20th-century cosmology - from an explanation of the 'red shift' that indicates the universe is expanding, to the notion of black holes. The great consequence [of the theory] is that gravitation is not simply the force in nature by which all objects are attracted to each other. It is rather the 'warping' of space and time by physical mass. The existence of mass shows that space must be 'curved'-non-Euclidian in shape and measurable, given the speed of light. Although general relativity and classical laws give basically the same results in the ordinary world, Einstein's theory not only can describe the elliptical orbits of the planets, but corrects certain Newtonian anomalies, such as the orbit of Mercury around the sun. Einstein became, virtually overnight, a great public celebrity. On November 7, 1919, the London Times announced: 'Revolution in Science. New Theory of the Universe. Newtonian Ideas Overthrown'" (Simmons, Scientific 100, 11-13). - Visit our website to see more images!
Observations on Mount Vesuvius

Observations on Mount Vesuvius, Mount Etna, and other Volcanos: In a series of letters, addressed to the Royal Society . . . To which are added, explanatory notes by the author hitherto unpublished, new edition.

HAMILTON, Sir William 8vo (192 x 122 mm). iv, 179 [1] pp., five engraved plates, folding engraved map, additional engraved plate showing the eruption of Mt. Vesuve of Aug. 8, 1779, and not belonging to this work, pasted on inner front board. Contemporary sprinkled calf, spine with 5 raised bands gilt in compartments and with gilt-lettered morocco label, gilt-tooled board edges (hinges split, extremities rubbed, corners and spine-ends worn). Text crisp and clean, title page a bit browned, light offsetting from plates as usual. Provenance: William Ambler (signed and inscribed "Durham, 1776" on title-page), St. Hugh's College, Tollerton (ink stamp on first flyleaf). A fine copy internally with wide margins and in untouched binding of the time. ---- Hoover 385; Ward 1002; Zittel 6. THIRD, ENLARGED, EDITION of the observations on the volcanoes of southern Italy and Naples by the diplomat and noted collector Sir William Hamilton (1730-1803). The fine engraved plates are the same as those in the 1772 first edition and show the Vesuve, Aetna and Stromboli volcanoes. William Hamilton is best known for his gathering up examples of classical vases, frescos and other antiquities. The folding map shows the Gulf of Naples with Mt. Vesuve. The final page contains an advertisement for the four folio volumes of 'A Collection of Etruscan, Greek, and Roman Antiquities'. "First collected edition, edited by Thomas Cadell, with additional notes supplied by Hamilton, of papers first published in Philosophical Transactions. Hamilton was elected FRS in 1766, and these papers were the first published the results of his extensive studies on volcanoes - he climbed Vesuvius at least twenty-two times. These detailed reports were important in the development of "vulcanism" (Porter, Earth Sciences 5-14). His great colour plate book of views of volcanoes, Campi phlegraei, was not published until 1776." (Schuh, Curtis, Bibliography of Mineralogy, The Mineralogical Record, Online resources. Visit our website to see more images!
Die Sieben puszpsalm mit deutscher auszlegug nach dem schrifftlichen synne tzu Christi und gottis gnaden

Die Sieben puszpsalm mit deutscher auszlegug nach dem schrifftlichen synne tzu Christi und gottis gnaden, neben seyns selben. ware erkentniß. grundlich gerichtet. 1517.

LUTHER, Martin (LUDER, Martinus) 4to (208 x 155 mm). 46 unnumbered leaves. Signatures: A4 (B-H)6 (H6 blank). Colophon on H5v reads " Gedruckt tzu Wittenbergk yn der Churfurstlichen stad durch Joannem Grunenbergk Nach Christ geburt Tausent funffhundert und im sibentzen jar. Bey den Augustinern." Bound in 18th century xylographic wrappers (light soiling). Text evenly browned, occasional minor, mostly marginal, spotting and dust soiling, fol. C6r with brown staining; one wormhole running all through (affecting some letters of text), and a few further at blank margins. Ink annotation in contemporary hand on title-page and fol. D6v. Provenance: form a Hungarian private collection; no library stamps (including erased stamps) or other ownership entries present. A very good, wide-margined copy. ---- "No book, no Reformation" (Bernd Moeller). IMPOSSIBLY RARE FIRST EDITION, ISSUE B, of Martin Luther's first original publication, Die sieben Busspsalmen (the seven penitential psalms), which appeared in the spring of 1517, about half a year before the nailing of his 95 Theses on a church door at Wittenberg. Only a handful of copies are known to exist (see further below). Before autumn 1517, Martin Luther was not much more than a rather obscure Augustinian friar and preacher in a small German town, but his 95 Theses, in which he vigorously objected to the corrupt practice of the Roman Catholic Church of selling indulgences to absolve sin, changed the world and became the foundation of the Protestant Revolution. Luther intended his 95 Theses, which were written in Latin and in a remarkably humble and academic tone, rather as the basis of a scholarly disputation. No copies of a Wittenberg printing have survived, which is not surprising as Luther was not famous and the importance of the document was not recognized at that time. When Luther posted his Theses, it is likely that no one would have noticed, if not for the press. Luther used the press so well because he knew his audience and used the language of the common people. It was this vernacular and not the Latin that he learned to use in his street orations, and he naturally turned to the vernacular for his message to his German colleagues as he sought a way to embody his new theology. And it was his use of the printing press to get that vernacular message out quickly and effectively that made the difference. (M. McIntosh-Doty). Die sieben Busspsalmen is the first of Luther's biblical commentaries and translations into German vernacular, published just before he changed his name from Luder to Luther. Bluhm notes that it was probably written in January and/or February, 1517, perhaps even in the last months of 1516 according to a letter of Luther to Lang dated March 1, 1517 (Bluhm, p.103). The New Testament epistle of Romans and Israel's Old Testament book of psalms were the two that Luther was predominantly studying and teaching as professor of biblical studies at Wittenberg University in the years preceding his posting of the Theses. "It was these two books of Scripture that radically affected Luther and changed the course of human history. While Romans would principally formulate his doctrine, it was the Psalms that dramatically emboldened him to proclaim God's message to the world. In other words, Romans gave Luther his theology, but it was the Psalms that gave him his thunder. The Psalms gave Luther a towering view of God, so much so that in preaching the gospel, he was ready to fight the devil himself. In so doing, these two biblical books laid the scriptural foundation for the Protestant Reformation." (Steven J. Lawson, Preaching the Psalms, 2012). The success of Luther's Busspsalmen was instantaneous and widespread. His "searching analysis of the human situation made a deep impression upon the many readers who, like the author's superior in the Augustinian order, gave the slender volume an enthusiastic reception. . . Visit our website for additional images and further reading!
Sammelband with three early and rare pharmacological and anatomical works: I. Opus medicum practicum

Sammelband with three early and rare pharmacological and anatomical works: I. Opus medicum practicum, varium, vere aureum, et postremae lectionis : Claudii Galeni . De compositione pharmacorum localium, siue secundum locos, libri decem / II. De anatomicis administrationibus libri novem. De constitutione artis medicae liber. De theriaca, ad Pisonem commentariolus. De pulsibus, ad medicinae candidatos liber / III. Medicorum principis, De compositione medicamentorum [kata gene?] lib. VII.

GALENUS, Claudius I. Opus medicum practicum, varium, vere aureum, et postremae lectionis : Claudii Galeni . De compositione pharmacorum localium, siue secundum locos, libri decem. Basel: Froben & Episcopius, 1537. [28], 549, [3] pp., 1 illustration in text, woodcut initials. Signatures: a4 *10 (b-y)6 z8 (A-Z)6 &4. Colophon on &3r, printer's device on title and &4r. Cornarius' commentary has separate title page. II. De anatomicis administrationibus libri novem. De constitutione artis medicae liber. De theriaca, ad Pisonem commentariolus. De pulsibus, ad medicinae candidatos liber. Basel: Andreas Cratander, 1531. [4], 87 (i. e. 86) leaves, title and final leaf recto with printer's device, fine pictorial woodcut border on p.1, woodcut initials. Signatures: [alpha]4 a-n6 o8. III. Medicorum principis, De compositione medicamentorum [kata gene?] lib. VII. Basel: Andreas Cratander, 1530. [4], 99, [3] leaves, title and final leaf recto with printer's device, fine pictorial woodcut border on p.1, woodcut initials. Signatures: a4 A-R6. Folio (306 x 210 mm). Bound in contemporary pigskin over wooden boards, expertly restored with most of original leather preserved and laid down, new brass clasps and catches, new endpapers (original flyleaf loosely inserted), contemporary hand-lettering to fore-edge. Little even browning of text, minor worming throughout, stronger to work III, which however doesn't affect legibility of the text. Final 16 leaves of work III with paper repairs to blank fore-margin and lower corner, with the 6 final leaves additionally cleaned and silked. A few near contemporary ink marginalia throughout. A well preserved copy in its original binding of three rare and important works by Galen. ---- I. NLM/Durling 1863. FIRST COMPLETE EDITION of Galen's pharmacological work in the translation by Janus Cornarius to which is added a commentary by him. A first Latin translation of the complete 10 books by Johannes Guinterius of Andernach was printed in Paris by Simon Colines already in 1535 after a first part of 7 books dealing with the composition of drugs was published in 1530 by the same printer and reprinted by Cratander the same year in Basel (see III). At the time of publication, Cornarius did not know of the Guinterius' translation printed two year before by Colines in Paris and assumed his was the first, revealed by his dedication of the commentary to the Landgraf Philipp von Hessen in Nordhausen (see Griechischer Geist aus Basler Pressen, Universitätsbibliothek Basel, GG 336). "Three major works on materia medica by Galen still survive: On the Nature and Powers of Simple Medications, On the Composition of Medications according to Places, and On the Composition of Medications according to Kind . . . From the theoretical standpoint, On the Nature and Powers of Simple Medications is of particular relevance . . . Galen's concept of drug action rests ultimately on the same theoretical foundation as does his theory of the structure of the body - the four elements/elemental qualities as the fundamental components of matter. A medication (or drug) acts on the krasis of the body or body part of the patient being treated according to the allopathic principle articulated by Hippocrates - opposites cure opposites. Each medication has specific properties and powers (dunameis), and in Galen's scheme, four degrees of intensity. In treatment, attention must be given to the issue of matching the intensity of the medication with the severity of the dyskrasia. With compound as opposed to simple medications, it is more difficult to determine what the overall effect will be, inasmuch as mixture itself may alter the powers of the individual components. Galen also makes a distinction between the basic and the derivative properties of a drug, the latter being its effect on the body. . . - visit our website to see more information and images!
Physico-Mechanical Experiments on Various Subjects. Containing an Account of several Surprizing Phenomena touching Light and Electricity.

Physico-Mechanical Experiments on Various Subjects. Containing an Account of several Surprizing Phenomena touching Light and Electricity.

HAUKSBEE, Francis 4to (203 x 159 mm). [14], 194 pp. Small engraved plate inserted between pp. 160 & 161 and 7 folding engraved plates at the end. Bound without blanks. Contemporary panelled calf (hinges restored, leather rubbed and worn). Text slightly browned and spotted throughout, a few pages foxed, clean tear to plate II repaired. A very good copy in contemporary binding. ---- Norman 1020; Wheeler Gift 232; Duveen p.282; Gedeon pp. 92-93. RARE FIRST EDITION OF 'ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT EARLY WORKS ON ELECTRICITY' (Duveen). Hauksbee was indebted to Isaac Newton for some of his theoretical ideas, while the results of his important experiments in electroluminescence, static electricity and capillarity in turn influenced Newton's revisions and additions to the new editions of his Principia and Opticks. Hauksbee was the first to demonstrate the optical effects produced by the passage of electricity through rarified air. "His demonstration of the efficacy of glass in producing frictional electricity opened the way for the work of Gray, Dufay and Franklin, and his discoveries in capillarity influenced Laplace nearly one hundred years later" (Norman). The improved airpump which Hauksbee described and illustrated was based on his discovery of the lateral communication of motion in air. His illustration of the optical effects of the passage of electricity through air was, in Duveen's view, "the starting point of modern researches, X-rays and the constitution of the atom." - Visit our website to see more images!
A human cardiac transplant: The interim report of a successful operation performed at Groote Schuur Hospital

A human cardiac transplant: The interim report of a successful operation performed at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town.

BARNARD, Christiaan In: South African Medical Journal, Capetown, Vol. 41, No. 48, December 30, 1967, pp. 1271-1274. 4to (275 x 214 mm). Entire issue (devoted to human heart transplantation), pp. lviii (interspersed adverts), 1257-1278. Original printed wrappers, stapled as issued (slight bumping to lower corner). Little age-toned internally, but generally crisp and clean. ---- FIRST EDITION of the special heart transplantation issue of the South African Medical Journal in which all aspects of the first human heart transplant are described in detail. Christiaan Barnard and his 31 team members operated on Louis Washkansky on December 3, 1967. The operation took 5 hours and the patient survived for eighteen days. One important member of Barnard's team was the colored South African Hamilton Naki, who made significant contributions to the development of the surgical technique, which however were concealed be the apartheid regime. This special issue, published less than a month after the operation and just nine days after Washkansky's death, includes articles on the experimental background of human heart transplantation, issues relating to the selection of a donor, the preoperative assessment of the recipient, tissue typing tests, the anesthetist's view (with a chronology of the operation), the interim report on the case, and the provisional autopsy report on the first human to undergo a heart transplant.
Decas collectionis suae craniorum diversarum gentium illustrata - [prima - sexta

Decas collectionis suae craniorum diversarum gentium illustrata – [prima – sexta, nova pentas].

BLUMENBACH, Johann Friedrich 1790-1828. 7 parts bound in 1 volume. 4to (237 x 198 mm). pp. 30, pl. I-X; pp. 14 [1], pl. XI-XX; pp. 16, pl. XX1-XXX; pp. 16, pl. XXXI-XL; pp. 20, pl. XLI-L; pp. 19 [1], pl. LI-LX; pp. 11 [1], pl. LXI-LXV. Each part with separate title-page and pagination, general title-page with engraved vignette, no separate title-page to first part, 65 engraved plates in total. Text of second part printed on blue paper. Bound in contemporary half calf, spine gilt-lettered and gilt-decorated, marbled endpapers (rubbing of joints and extremities). Print year of part 1 added in manuscript on title. Minor age-toning only, occasional minor spotting, part 1 title-leaf with paper repair not affecting text, part 5 title-leaf and first text leaf with paper repair affecting 3 words of text on first text leaf, 5 plates shaved at foot with partial loss of imprints, part 5 with stronger foxing of text and plates. Very good copy, collated complete. ---- FIRST EDITION, AND EXCEPTIONALLY RARE WITH ALL SEVEN PARTS INCLUDING THE SUPPLEMENT, of Blumenbach's comparative anatomical studies of the human cranium. An eighth volume as mentioned in some bibliographies has never been published and is a ghost (see Lazlo Karolyi, p.195). There has however been a new edition by H. v. Ihering in 1873 of the "Nova Pentas" that includes descriptions of additional 5 skulls. "Blumenbach was the founder of craniology, and his craniological collection served as the principal foundation for his investigations into the natural history of mankind. He used the norma verticalis, the shape of the skull as seen from above, as the means of distinguishing three types: Mongols, Negroes, and Caucasians. The above work includes a description of the uncinate (Blumenbach?s) process" (Garrison-Morton 198). Blumenbach's collection of 250 skulls was the largest of his time. Blumenbach's ambition was to obtain as many skulls as possible from all continents. Several researchers and well known individuals, such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Alexander von Humboldt, Sir Joseph Banks, and Ludwig I King of Bavaria, contributed skulls to his collection (L. Karolyi, p.194). References: Garrison-Morton 198 (incorrectly mentions 7 parts plus supplement); NLM/Blake 51; Waller 1154-1160; Wellcome II, 183; Hirsch-H. I, 576; L. Károlyi, Die Blumenbach-Sammlung in Göttingen (Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Anthropologie), In: Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie, vol. 57, 1966, pp. 192-98.
Geometria indivisibilibus continuorum nova quadam ratione promota. In hac postrema edictione ab erroribus expurgata.

Geometria indivisibilibus continuorum nova quadam ratione promota. In hac postrema edictione ab erroribus expurgata.

CAVALIERI, Bonaventura 4to (228 x 164 mm). [16], 543 [1] pp., half-title, woodcut publisher's device on title, woodcut diagrams in text, historiated woodcut initials, woodcut head- and tailpieces, some mispaginations. Contemporary limp vellum, ink-lettered spine, original endpapers (head of spine frayed, vellum over upper hinge partially split, light soiling and rubbing, binding partially cracked between pp. 542/43, first flyleaf trimmed to half width). Text with some uneven browning, occasional minor spotting, small hole in title-leaf not affecting text. Provenance: Francesco Gonnella (old signature on title page extended onto paper patch which replaces former signature), further inscription dated 1711 on title verso; Tito Gonnelli (signed on front pastedown). A very good, wide-margined copy in untouched binding of its time. ---- Norman 419; Cinti 250; Honeyman 650; Riccardi I 325. RARE SECOND ENLARGED EDITION, of Cavalieri's principal work on the differential calculus. Cavalieri started to write it as early as 1626 which is known from a letter by him to Galilei. The book was first printed in 1635, but the present edition is much corrected and enlarged by pieces omitted in the 1635 edition. The expression "indivisibilia" is very old; it was used by Brad Wardine, but only through Cavalieri it gained significance. The book is divided into seven parts, Cavalieri's law on the figures and bodies is developed in the second part. "Cavalieri's work on the use of "indivisibles" or infinitesmals . . . constitues the first textbook of what are now known as integration method. The work includes the statement of 'Cavalieri's principle' for the determination of areas and volumes, which considers an area as made up of an indefinite number of equidistant parallel line segments, and a solid as made up of an indefinite number of parallel plane areas. Cavalieri's principle provided a simple and speedy alternative to the method of exhaustion, enabling easy calculation of such problems as the area of an ellipse and the volume of a sphere" (Norman 419). Visit our website to see more images!
Principia philosophiae / Specimina philosophiae: seu Dissertatio de methodo recte regendae rationis

Principia philosophiae / Specimina philosophiae: seu Dissertatio de methodo recte regendae rationis, & veritatis in scientiis investigandae: Dioptrice et Meteora. Ex Gallico translata, & ab auctore perlecta, variisque in locis emendata.

DESCARTES, Rene Principia philosophiae. Amsterdam, L. Elzevir, 1644. [22], 310 pp., printer's device on title, woodcut initials, several woodcut illustrations in text, some full page, bound without the blank leaves b4 and 2Q4. [Bound with:] Specimina philosophiae: seu Dissertatio de methodo recte regendae rationis, & veritatis in scientiis investigandae: Dioptrice et Meteora. Ex Gallico translata, & ab auctore perlecta, variisque in locis emendata. Amsterdam, L. Elzevier, 1644. [16], 331 [1] pp., printer's device on title, woodcut initials, several woodcut illustrations and diagrams in text, 10 full page. 2 works in 1 volume. 4to (200 x 155 mm). Contemporary full vellum with yapp edges, spine lettered in manuscript, marbled pastedown, flyleaves gone (some soiling and spotting of vellum). Text generally crisp and clean with only very minor occasional spotting, some light dampstaining in places, short clean tear in two leaves, first title slightly dust-soiled at outer margins. A very-good, well-margined copy in untouched binding of its time. ---- I.: Norman 622; Guibert 118-119 nr. 1. STCN (5, i.a. BL London). BN Paris (2). Willems 1008. Guibert 104-105 nr. 1. STCN (3, i.a. BL London). BN Paris (5). Willems 1008. NLM/Krivatsy 3116. - FIRST EDITION OF DESCARTES? SYSTEM OF PHYSICS, in which he developed his theory of vortices. Based in part on his then unpublished work Le monde, which treated the creation and function of the universe in completely mechanistic terms, Descartes? Principia provides a systematic statement of his metaphysics and natural philosophy. The first part, Dc principiis cognitionis humanae (Of the Principles of Human Knowledge) deals with the nature of motion, rest, force, and action. He defines motion in Book II and distinguishes the difference between translation and 'the force that brings about this translation.' Descartes was careful in the Principia to qualify his mechanistic Copernican views with the idea that all motion is relative. 'His vortical theory allowed him to argue that since the earth is at rest in its surrounding medium it remains unmoved, although it, together with its entire vortex, necessarily circles the sun' (Norman). Descartes? system represents a truly comprehensive look at the universe in a fundamentally new, mechanistic and non-teleological way. His vortex theory was the starting point for all serious work in physical theory in the mid-l7th century, including Newton. The fourth and final part of the work contains the first scientific theory of magnetism. II.: Norman 623; Guibert, p. 104; NLM/Krivatsy 3116; Tchemerzine II, p. 777; Willems 1008. - FIRST LATIN EDITION of the Discours de la méthode, which omits the treatise Géometrie. It includes the first appearance of the Cartesian sound-bite: 'cogito, ergo sum'. Although separate works, these two Elzevir publications often appear together. Visit our website to see more images!
De re medica

De re medica, octo libri eruditissimi . . . Q. Sereni Samonici praecepta medica . . . Q. Remnii Fannii . . . de ponderibus et mensuris. 2 parts in one volume.

CELSUS, Aurelius Cornelius 8vo (160 x 101 mm). [8], 337 (i. e., 339) [1]; [8], 30, [2] leaves. Signatures: A8 (a-z)8 (A-T)8 V4 2A8; (A-D)8 including blanks A7-8, V4, and ²D8. Woodcut initials, separate title-page to second part. Contemporary limp vellum with yapp edges, spine title in ink, additionally lettered in ink on bottom edge (vellum soiled and spotted, minor wear to extremities, lacking ties). Text somewhat browned (stronger to gathering B), occasional spotting, scored contemporary signature in lower margin of title, occasional ink markings and manuscript annotation, small wormtrack at top blank margin of gatherings i-l (affecting one headline letter). Very good, well-margined copy in untouched original binding. ---- NLM/Durling 912; Wellcome b11208831 (fragment, first 28 leaves only); B. M. German STC p. 189, not in Waller. VERY RARE EARLY EDITION of Celsus' De Re Medica by the first printer in Solingen, Johannes Soter who moved from Cologne to Solingen in 1536 where he started operation of a papermill and printing in 1537. He published about 30 books between 1537 and 1543, mainly of humanistic and medical subjects. The Celsus is one of the earliest books printed by him. "The De Medicina is the oldest medical document after the Hippocratic writings. Written about AD 30 it remains the greatest medical treatise from ancient Rome and the first Western history of medicine. Celsus's superb literary style won him the title of Cicero medicorum. De medicina deals with diseases treated by diet and regimen and with those amenable to drugs and surgery. The manuscript . . . was lost during the Middle-Ages and re-discovered in Milan in 1443." (Garrison-Morton, 20). Celsus' work has gone through many editions, translations, expansions, and adaptations since its first appearance in print in Florence in 1478. Visit our website to see more images!
The Method of Fluxions and Infinite Series; with its Application to the Geometry of Curve-lines. Translated from the author's Latin original not yet made publick. To which is subjoin'd

The Method of Fluxions and Infinite Series; with its Application to the Geometry of Curve-lines. Translated from the author’s Latin original not yet made publick. To which is subjoin’d, a perpetual comment upon the whole work, consisting of annotations, illustrations, and supplements, in order to make this treatise a compleat institution for the use of learners. By John Colson.

NEWTON, Isaac 4to (245 x 185 mm). iv, ix-xxiv, 1-140 [2], [143]-[144], [1] 144-339 [1], [2] pp. Engraved plate bound as frontispiece facing title, several woodcut diagrams in text, woodcut initials, head-and tailpices, divisional title, errata/advertisement leaf [T]2 here bound at the end. Contemporary sprinkled calf, spine and boards ruled in gilt, gilt-lettered morocco spine label, original endpapers preserved, red-sprinkled edges (minor repair to hinges and portion of upper board leather, hinges partially cracked but cords holding firmly, minor wear to corners and spine ends). Frontispiece slightly brown-stained at fore-margin, text with occasional faint spotting, but generally very clean and crisp throughout. Provenance: Jan Sniadecki* (neat inscription on title page). A fine copy in original binding. ---- Babson 171; Norman 1595; Wallis 232; Honeyman 2427. FIRST EDITION. Newton's Methodus Fluxionum was originally prepared in 1671, but remained unpublished until this English translation by John Colson. In it he presents a method of determining the magnitudes of finite quantities by the velocities of their generating motions. Newton prepared this treatise for the use of learners just before his death and entrusted the Latin manuscript to Henry Pemberton, who never published it. The original text was not published in Latin until 1779. "Written in 1671, Newton's Fluxions is a key document in the controversy over whether Newton or Leibnitz had priority in discovering differential calculus. Newton did not publish anything on the calculus until after 1700, whereas Leibnitz began publishing papers on the subject in 1684; however, Leibnitz's manuscript notes on the calculus date back only to 1673, eight years after Newton began investigating the subject. By 1671, Newton was in a position to give his clearest statement to date of the fundamental problem of the calculus, and to present a successful general method. The second half of Fluxions is occupied by John Colson's 'perpetual comment' on Newton's work; however, Wallis mentions an issue (Wallis 232.1) without Colson's commentary" (Norman 1595). Colson writes in his preface to the present work: "I thought it highly injurious to the memory and reputation of the great Author, as well as invidious to the glory of our own Nation, that so curious and useful a piece should be any longer suppress'd and confined to a few private hands." *Jan ?niadecki (1756-1830) was a Polish mathematician, philosopher and astronomer. He independently discovered dwarf planet Pallas in 1802. - Visit our website to see more images!