JF Ptak Science Books

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Certain Topics in Telegraph Transmission Theory"

Certain Topics in Telegraph Transmission Theory”, Bell Telephone Laboratories

Harry Nyquist Harry Nyquist, "Certain Topics in Telegraph Transmission Theory", Bell Telephone Laboratories Reprint B-331, American Institute of Electrical Engineers, August 1928. 9 x 6 , 79pp. Original wrappers. There is a very light more than half-faded rubber stamp on the front cover, plus a small library number written ink at top left and again very small at the base of the spine. There is also a very slight indentation in a narrow stretch of text between pp 64 and 79. Also: this is three-hole punched, which is not unusual for this publication and at this point I do believe I can say that this was done at the printer and not by the owner. VG copy.__+__ In this "classic paper" Nyquist "the founding father of digital communications" (Lisa Maliniak, Electronic design, Oct 2005)--who holds an important place in the history of electrical engineering as a pioneer of the mathematical theory of communication -- gives a "mathematical" in addition to an "engineering" point of view of the subject matter.--(N.C. Beaulieu, Introduction to "Certain topics in telegraph transmission theory , Proceedings of the IEEE, vol 90 #2.) __+__ "The Nyquist Shannon sampling theorem is a theorem in the field of digital signal processing which serves as a fundamental bridge between continuous-time signals and discrete-time signals. It establishes a sufficient condition for a sample rate that permits a discrete sequence of samples to capture all the information from a continuous-time signal of finite bandwidth." --Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem, Wikipedia. [It was proved by Claude E. Shannon  (January 1949) and published in the paper "Communication in the presence of noise", Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers. 37 (1): 10 21. Also, Shannon salutes Nyquist for his essential work in the very first paragraph of his great paper on the mathematical theory of communication (BSTJ 1948) noting "the basis for [this] theory is contained in the important papers of Nyquist and Hartley on this subject". __+__ It is in the section Analysis of D-c. Wave and Appendix I that the famous "Nyquist rate" is established and Nyquist's sampling result is found. (Beaulieu) (There are over 3500 papers addressing some aspect of the Nyquist rate in the IEEE alone.) __+__ Also in Section III and appendix I is the beginning of the Nyquist First, Second, and Third Criterion for distortionless digital transmission. ".we find in the paper an early statement that digital communication systems will clock signaling intervals and the concept that information will be conveyed by altering some property or condition of the signal in each signaling interval. Further, it is specified that there is a finite number of conditions and that in the case of the simple telegraph, the total number of conditions is two, open and close. This is in sharp distinction to the case of telephony where there are neither simple numerical relations between the various time intervals, nor a finite number of possible current values.The Preliminary Discussion concludes prophetically, asserting that In the illustrations given, the sent waves were voltage waves. This is not necessarily the case in order for the discussion to apply. The sent wave may be a current wave, or it need not even be electrical. By providing suitable coupling the sent wave may be in the form of variations of a light beam. Interestingly, the word variations perhaps suggests that Dr. Nyquist was thinking of more than a simple on-off light beam." __+__ Among the honors awarded Nyquist are the EE Hall of Fame (IEEE), IRE Medal of Honor, and many others.
Strange Playfellow"

Strange Playfellow”, in Super Science Stories–Original publication of Isaac Asimov’s first “I Robot” story.

Isaac Asimov Isaac Asimov, "Strange Playfellow", in Super Science Stories, 1940, vol 1 No. 4 pp. 67-77, September 1940). 9.5"x 7", 128pp, occasional black& white text illustrations. __+__ Original publication of Isaac Asimov's first "I Robot" story. ("Robbie was only a machine, but he was Gloria's only friend, and she wanted him back.") The Asimov was preceded by two "novelettes" and two short stories before we get to Robbie (and its oddly suggestive half-page illustration). __+__ A GOOD copy, only—the issue is quite bright, but the paper is a little brittle and browning, and there are little chips around the edges of the covers. The spine is missing a little chip on the bottom—overall I think this is a pretty nice copy, given the newsprint and inferior/ephemeral efforts of printing this in 1940. __+__ “'Robbie' is a science fiction short story by American writer Isaac Asimov. It was his first robot story and writing commenced on June 10, 1939. It was first published in the September 1940 issue Super Science Stories magazine as "Strange Playfellow", a title that was chosen by editor Frederik Pohl and described as "distasteful" by Asimov. A revised version of Robbie was reprinted under Asimov's original title in the collections I, Robot (1950), The Complete Robot (1982), and Robot Visions (1990). "Robbie" was the fourteenth story written by Asimov, and the ninth to be published. The story is also part of Asimov's Robot series, and was the first of Asimov's positronic robot stories to see publication. The story centers on the technophobia that surrounds robots, and how it is misplaced. Almost all previously published science fiction stories featuring robots followed the theme 'robot turns against creator'; Asimov has consistently held the belief that the Frankenstein complex was a misplaced fear, and the majority of his works attempted to provide examples of the help that robots could provide humanity. In 2016 Robbie won a retrospective 1941 Hugo Award for best short story.”--Wikipedia
Further Observations on the Spectra of Some of the Stars and Nebulae

Further Observations on the Spectra of Some of the Stars and Nebulae, with an Attempt to Determine Therefrom Whether These Bodies are Moving towards or from the Earth, Also Observations on the Spectra of the Sun and of Comet II”, extract from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society–The First Measurement of the Velocity of a Star Sirius

William Huggins The First Measurement of the Velocity of a Star Sirius, 1869. William Huggins, "Further Observations on the Spectra of Some of the Stars and Nebulae, with an Attempt to Determine Therefrom Whether These Bodies are Moving towards or from the Earth, Also Observations on the Spectra of the Sun and of Comet II", extract from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1869. vol 158 pp. 529-564. Extract bound in recent paper wrapper with paper label on the front wrapper. __+__ The astronomer Edmond Halley observed Sirius in 1718 and determined its proper motion (that is, its actual motion through space). More than a century later, astronomer William Huggins measured the actual velocity of Sirius by taking a spectrum of its light, which revealed data about its speed. Further measurements showed that this star is actually moving toward the Sun at a velocity of about 7.6 kilometers per second. __+__ As noted by Claire Parkinson in Breakthroughs (p. 369): Observing that the spectral lines in the light spectrum from Sirius are shifted slightly towards the longer wavelengths (a red shift), Huggins applies the Doppler-Fizeau Principle (1848) and calculates the Sirius is receding from the solar system at about 29 miles per second __+__ A quarter of a century had passed between Doppler's .lecture and the application of his ideas to stellar spectra.Huggins [in this paper] announced that he had measured the velocity of.Sirius by comparing the wavelength of a stellar hydrogen line to the spectrum produced by a sample of hot hydrogen gas. Sirius, Huggins claimed, was speeding away at 47 k per second.' ( Laurence Marschall, The Supernova Story , Springer 1988, pg 28). This is different from Sirius' actual speed, which is 8 km/sec towards us, but it must be remembered that Huggins' determination and (non-photographic) visual inspection of Sirius' spectrum was just not precise. That said this paper is still of very high significance as an advancement in measurement and for the employment of Doppler's technique.
Interferenzeigenschaften des durch Kanalstrahlen emittierten Lichtes" AND Emil Rupp

Interferenzeigenschaften des durch Kanalstrahlen emittierten Lichtes” AND Emil Rupp, “Über die Interferenzeigenschaften des Kanalstrahllichtes”, in Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften

Albert Einstein AND with Emil Rupp Albert Einstein, "Interferenzeigenschaften des durch Kanalstrahlen emittierten Lichtes" AND Emil Rupp, "Über die Interferenzeigenschaften des Kanalstrahllichtes", in Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 25, 1926. Berlin, Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften, volume 25/26, pp 333-357, with the Einstein on pp 334-340 and the Rupp on pp 341-351. Original wrappers. There is some slight discoloration to the pale green wrappers along the spine edges, otherwise this is in fine condition. __+__ Aha these two papers are the seat of a famous/infamous scandal in the history of physics, something that I am going to Very Badly Name: "The Famous E Rupptian of 1926". (Oh, by Neptune's Fancy Bloated Pants, that is bad.) The two papers listed here by Einstein and Rupp form the great Einstein/Rupp scandal of 1926. Einstein's paper was a proposition to demonstrate the instantaneous emission of light instead of the classical emission over time. (In the spring of 1926, Albert Einstein proposed to Emil Rupp to do two experiments that were to probe the wave versus particle nature of light: the so-called Wire Grid Experiment and the Rotated Mirror Experiment --Jeroen van Dongen, "Emil Rupp, Albert Einstein and the canal ray experiments on wave-particle duality: Scientific fraud and theoretical bias", Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 37 Suppl. (2007) 73-120.) Rupp was a considerable physicist and turned his powers to the experimental demonstration of the Einstein hypothesis, publishing his supporting results in this same issue (October 1926). Unfortunately, his results were shown to be fake/fabricated, and with that entered into a different sort of history than he expected. This sort of thing doesn't seem to happen all that often so far as I can tell, though this one was a doozy. __+__ In July, 1926, at a session of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, he announced his new conviction that all interference experiments would conform to a classical description of the radiation process. He had corresponded with Rupp on the matter of doing experiments on the question, and the Proceedings of the Prussian Academy (Berlin Academy) for October 1926 [the issue offered here] contain a paper by Einstein presenting at length his new view of the matter, followed immediately by a paper by Rupp describing experiments he claimed to have made in support of Einstein s conclusions.The reported results of both experiments (by Rupp) supported Einstein s conclusion that the interference behavior of the emitted light agreed with what would follow from a classical picture of the emission process. --A.P. French, "The Strange Case of Emil Rupp", Physics in Perspective, I, 3-21, 1999. In any event, these are the source papers for a controversy that would brew, then dissolve, and then return again.
book (2)

The Possibility of Compensating Astronomical Seeing”, in Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific

Horace Welcome Babcock Horace Welcome Babcock, The Possibility of Compensating Astronomical Seeing , in Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1953, volume 65, 308pp, with the paper on pp 229 236.__+__ Stoutly and cleanly bound in library buckram, with the call number gilt-stamped on spine bottom, along with the name of the library, which in this case is the nicely-fitting McDonald Observatory. There is only one other identification mark a small rubber stamped 4-digit number on the title page.__+__ This is Babcock's groundbreaking paper on adaptive optics, ameliorates the effects of the Earth's atmosphere/turbulence on observational astronomy, effectively de-twinkling the little star, vastly improving the quality of the imagery.__+__ Horace Babcock (1912-2003) attended CalTech and the University of California Berkeley (Ph.D.) and worked at MIT and at the CalTech before going off to Mount Wilson and Palomar observatories in 1946. He served as director of the observatories from 1964 to 1978. In the 1950s, working with his father, he developed the solar magnetograph; using the device, the two men demonstrated the existence of the Sun s general field and discovered magnetically variable stars. Babcock s other work included studies of the glow of the night sky, the rotation of galaxies, and telescope design. --Encyclopedia Britannica, which greatly underplays the telescope design part. __+__ At Palomar he invented and built many astronomical instruments, including the solar magnetograph, and microphotometers, automatic guiders, and exposure meters for the 100 and 200-inch telescopes.(he and his father) were first to measure the distribution of magnetic fields over the solar surface. By combining his polarizing analyzer with the spectrograph.(and) discovered magnetic fields in other stars. He developed important models of sunspots and their magnetism, and in 1953 he was the first to propose adaptive optics. -- The Bruce Medalists __+__ In 1953, while preparing a paper about the magnetograph and its use, he also published a seminal paper entitled The Possibility of Compensating Astronomical Seeing, a description of procedures by which it might be possible to produce diffraction-limited images of celestial sources at ground-based telescopes. By publication of this one paper Horace Babcock created adaptive optics, a new discipline that enables highresolution imaging science at several major observatories and, more importantly, is playing a central role in the design of all very large optical telescopes of the future. It is likely that this contribution will prove as important for astronomy as any other of his works. --National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs __+__ Adaptive optics development contains threads from both the astronomical and military communities. The concept was first proposed in a 1953 paper [offered here] by astronomer Horace Babcock.However 1950's technologies were not ready to deal with the exacting requirements needed for a successful adaptive optics system. -- Introduction to Adaptive Optics and its History , Claire Max, NSF Center for Adaptive Optics University of California__+__“Babcock pioneered the measurement of magnetic fields and spectroscopy of stars more massive than the sun, and invented electro-optical instruments and techniques that continue  to be employed throughout the world. He was also among the first to propose the idea of adaptive optics—a technology used in telescopes to reduce the effects of atmospheric distortion.pioneered the measurement of magnetic fields and spectroscopy of stars more massive than the sun, and invented electro-optical instruments and techniques that continue  to be employed throughout the world. He was also among the first to propose the idea of adaptive optics—a technology used in telescopes to reduce the effects of atmospheric distortion.:--National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs
Franklin Gaillard's Civil War Letters

Franklin Gaillard’s Civil War Letters

GAILLARD, Franklin GAILLARD, Franklin. Franklin Gaillard's Civil War Letters . “Copyright 1941 by Fred E. Gaillard”. Offset printed from typed originals, probably privately. 11”x 8.5” (27cm), 89 leaves (printed on one side only). 4-hole punched with metal gathers with a homemade manila folder binding. The wrappers are GOOD at best, and the text is quite nice SAVE for the fact that the last 30pp or so have a 10mm near-puncture hole in the middle of the page, all of which have been mostly fixed with Japanese tissue tape on the reverse—there is no loss of text, though there remains a slight “bump” where the near- puncture is. Rare. WorldCat locates a 1969 version (80pp, portrait, maps) in just 5 libraries. There is another entry for a photocopy of the version that is offered here (“Photocopy of typed transcriptions; originals in private hands in 1967” matching the size and pagination—there is only 1 copy of this version located. For this copy printed in 1941, NO copies are located in WorldCat. __+__ Provenance: Library of Congress, with their tiny "LC" perforated stamp on the title page and surplus/duplicate rubber stamp on the rear wrapper.__+__ Gaillard's (Citadel 1849 class valedictorian, survivor of Pickett's charge, killed at the Wilderness in 1864) letters are literate and very observational, and are evidently of interest to Civil War historians for their clarity and comprehension. __+__ “Letters from Gaillard , a widowed Confederate officer, who was with the 2nd South Carolina Regiment, Kershaw's Brigade, in Virginia, Pennsylvania, and east Tennessee. Most of the letters were written to his sister-in-law, Maria Porcher, who was caring for Gaillard's two children, whose mother had died. The letters contain detailed accounts of battles and other events, Gaillard's evaluations and speculations, description of his surroundings, social life in the areas he passed through, and news of friends and relatives.”--UNC Libnraries, Southern Historical Collection __+__ A sample of the content from one letter about Gettysburg: The battle of Gettysburg was, I think, the most sanguinary of the war and was as clear a defeat as our army ever met with. Our Brigade suffered very severely. The 2nd Regiment I have no hesitation in saying was the hero regiment of the Brigade on the occasion. I can not recur, even in thought, to their gallantry without the proudest emotions. We received order to advance as soon as we started we came under artillery fire of the enemy’s batteries. For four hundred yards our line moved beautifully forward not wavering nor hesitating in the slightest degree. We were to take a battery immediately in our front and I never saw men more resolved upon an accomplishment. We had crossed two fences and our line was unbroken although many gaps had been in the ranks. In the midst of this beautiful advance the regiment to our right commenced moving by the right flank, that is, facing to the right. The directions we receive required us to dress to the right so that this regiment would face to the right and then to the front. We would have to conform supposing that the orders came from General Kershaw. I afterward learned that it did not. The consequences were fatal. We were, in ten minutes or less time, terribly butchered. A body of infantry to our left opened on us, and as a volley of grape would strike our line, I saw half a dozen at a time knocked up and flung to the ground like trifles. In about that short space of time we had about half of our men killed or wounded. It was the most shocking battle I have ever witnessed. There were familiar forms and faces with parts of their faces shot away, legs shattered, arms torn off, etc. Yet moving to the right but not retiring we occupied a piece of woods which gave us protection until the battery was taken by the Mississippi Brigade under Gen. Barksdale. The Regiment of our own Brigade to our right fell back before a very heavy body of infantry.(pg 36)
book (2)

Mesure absolute de l’Intensité du Magnétisme terrestre” in Annales de Chimie et de Physique

Carl Friedrich Gauss Carl Friedrich Gauss, "Mesure absolute de l'Intensité du Magnétisme terrestre" in Annales de Chimie et de Physique; Paris, by Crochard, 1834, vol 57, pp. 5-69 in the volume of 448pp. Beautifully rebound in half-calf and marbled boards, with new endpaper; very usable, quite a lovely job. The only demerit here is an old cellophane tape repair on the title page. Fine copy. __+__ Also bound with: Amedeo Avogadro, "Nouvelles Recherches sur la Chaleur spécifique des Corps solides et liquides" , same volume, pp.113-148, in which Avogadro extends the law of Dulong and Petit. (Elsewhere on ABE this store offers the Dulong/Petit paper as part of another vol of the Annales de Chimie, thi sheadlined by Augustin Fresnel and François Arago, 1819.)__+__ “The new magnetic observatory, free of all metal that might affect magnetic forces, was part of a network that Humboldt hoped would make coordinated measurements of geographical and temporal variations. In 1834 there were already twenty-three magnetic observatories in Europe, and the comparison of data from them showed the existence of magnetic storms. Gauss and Weber organized the Magnetische Verein, which united a worldwide network of observatories. Its Resultate aus den Beobachtungen des magnetischen Vereins appeared in six volumes (1836–1841) and included fifteen papers by Gauss, twenty-three by Weber, and the joint Atlas des Erdmagnetismus (1840). These and other publications elsewhere dealt with problems of instrumentation (including one of several inventions of the bifilar magnetometer), reported observations of the horizontal and vertical components of magnetic force, and attempted to explain the observations in mathematical terms.__+__ The most important publication in the last category was the Allgemeine Theorie des Erdmagnetismus (1839). Here Gauss broke the tradition of armchair theorizing about the earth as a fairly neutral carrier of one or more magnets and based his mathematics on data. Using ideas first considered by him in 1806, well formulated by 1822, but lacking empirical foundation until 1838, Gauss expressed the magnetic potential at any point on the earth’s surface by an infinite series of spherical functions and used the data collected by the world network to evaluate the first twenty-four coefficients. This was a superb interpolation, but Gauss hoped later to explain the results by a physical theory about the magnetic composition of the earth.”--Complete Dictionary Scientific Biography online
Mesure absolute de l'Intensité du Magnétisme terrestre" in Annales de Chimie et de Physique

Mesure absolute de l’Intensité du Magnétisme terrestre” in Annales de Chimie et de Physique

Carl Friedrich Gauss Carl Friedrich Gauss, "Mesure absolute de l'Intensité du Magnétisme terrestre" in Annales de Chimie et de Physique; Paris, by Crochard, 1834, vol 57, pp. 5-69 in the volume of 448pp. Beautifully rebound in half-calf and marbled boards, with new endpaper; very usable, quite a lovely job. The only demerit here is an old cellophane tape repair on the title page. Fine copy. __+__ Also bound with: Amedeo Avogadro, "Nouvelles Recherches sur la Chaleur spécifique des Corps solides et liquides" , same volume, pp.113-148, in which Avogadro extends the law of Dulong and Petit. (Elsewhere on ABE this store offers the Dulong/Petit paper as part of another vol of the Annales de Chimie, thi sheadlined by Augustin Fresnel and François Arago, 1819.)__+__ “The new magnetic observatory, free of all metal that might affect magnetic forces, was part of a network that Humboldt hoped would make coordinated measurements of geographical and temporal variations. In 1834 there were already twenty-three magnetic observatories in Europe, and the comparison of data from them showed the existence of magnetic storms. Gauss and Weber organized the Magnetische Verein, which united a worldwide network of observatories. Its Resultate aus den Beobachtungen des magnetischen Vereins appeared in six volumes (1836–1841) and included fifteen papers by Gauss, twenty-three by Weber, and the joint Atlas des Erdmagnetismus (1840). These and other publications elsewhere dealt with problems of instrumentation (including one of several inventions of the bifilar magnetometer), reported observations of the horizontal and vertical components of magnetic force, and attempted to explain the observations in mathematical terms.__+__ The most important publication in the last category was the Allgemeine Theorie des Erdmagnetismus (1839). Here Gauss broke the tradition of armchair theorizing about the earth as a fairly neutral carrier of one or more magnets and based his mathematics on data. Using ideas first considered by him in 1806, well formulated by 1822, but lacking empirical foundation until 1838, Gauss expressed the magnetic potential at any point on the earth’s surface by an infinite series of spherical functions and used the data collected by the world network to evaluate the first twenty-four coefficients. This was a superb interpolation, but Gauss hoped later to explain the results by a physical theory about the magnetic composition of the earth.”--Complete Dictionary Scientific Biography online
Mémoire Sur l Action que les rayons de lumière polarisés exercent les uns sur les autres" AND "Recherches sur quelques points importants de la Théorie de la Chaleur" in Annales de Chime et de Physique

Mémoire Sur l Action que les rayons de lumière polarisés exercent les uns sur les autres” AND “Recherches sur quelques points importants de la Théorie de la Chaleur” in Annales de Chime et de Physique

Augustin Fresnel and François Arago AND Pierre Dulong and Alexis Petit __+__Two Major Works in One Volume (1819)__+__ Augustin Fresnel and François Arago, Mémoire Sur l Action que les rayons de lumière polarisés exercent les uns sur les autres , in Annales de Chimie et de Physique; Paris, by Crochard, 1819, vol 10 pp. 288 305 in the volume of 448. with two folding plates (one relatively large). Beautifully rebound in half-calf and marbled boards, with new endpaper; very usable, quite a lovely job. The only demerit here is an old cellophane tape repair on the title page. Fine copy. __+__ Fresnel's theory was confirmed by French physicist François Arago who later carried out this experiment. Fresnel discovered that light was a transverse wave instead of a longitudinal wave as had previously been thought, and he presented his results in 1817. --Azooptics. (They) describe experiments demonstrating that light vibrates transversely to its direction of forward movement. (in this paper translated as Memoir on the action that the rays of polarized light exert on one another . --Parkson, Breakthroughs, (1819). __+__ Bound with: Pierre Dulong and Alexis Petit, Recherches sur quelques points importants de la Théorie de la Chaleur , same volume, pp. 395 427. Introduction of the Dulong-Petit Law, .a fundamental step in statistical physics. The Dulong-Petit limiting law for the specific heats of solids, one of the first general results in thermodynamics, has provided Mendeleev with a powerful tool for devising the periodic table and gave an important support to Boltzmann s statistical mechanics. Even its failure at low temperature, accounted for by Einstein, paved the way to the the quantum mechanical theory of solids . -- The strange case of Dr. Petit and Mr. Dulong , Roberto Piazza, 2018. They were concerned with the specific heats of elements; but if these elements really existed as atoms, it seemed possible that there might be a connection between the weight of the atom and the amount of heat acquired to raise the temperature of a given weight of that element by a certain amount."--Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography online. The Dulong Petit law, a thermodynamic law proposed in 1819. states the classical expression for the molar specific heat capacity of certain chemical elements. Experimentally the two scientists had found that the heat capacity per weight (the mass-specific heat capacity) for a number of elements was close to a constant value, after it had been multiplied by a number representing the presumed relative atomic weight of the element. These atomic weights had shortly before been suggested by John Dalton and modified by Jacob Berzelius. --Wikipedia) __+__ Also bound with: Simeon Dennis Poisson, Sur la Theorie des instrumens a vent , pp 129-142 (relating to his Sur le Mouvement des fluides ´elastiques dans les tuyaux cylindriques, et sur la th´eorie des instruments `a vent, M´em. Acad. Roy. Sci. Inst., vol. 2, p. 305, 1819). The propagation of a compressional wave in a three-dimensional fluid medium was first considered by S. D. Poisson in 1819 [23] but it remained, however, for Hermann von Helmholtz to give in 1860 a more thorough treatment of this whole problem. __+__ And with: (William Frederic Edwards), Sur l'Asphyxie , pp 5-29 (being a continuation of two earlier papers from 1817 and 1818). With: Welter and Gay-Lussac, Sur un Acide nouveau forme par ke siufre et l'oxigene , pp 312-320.
The Small World Problem"

The Small World Problem”, in Psychology Today

Stanley Milgram Stanley Milgram, "The Small World Problem", in Psychology Today, 1967 (May), Vol 1 No. 1 pp. 60-67. Individual issue in original wrappers. Prior owner's name printed on front wrapper, otherwise fine.__+__ Milgrim's article appears in the inaugural issue of Psychology Today, and was an interesting and popular presentation that would after two years be supplemented with a longer technical article (and a co-author Jeffrey Travers) in Sociometry as “An Experimental Study of the Small World Problem” Vol. 32, No. 4 (Dec., 1969), pp. 425-443. __+__ Stanley Milgram (1933-1984), is best remembered for his famous obedience experimental studies (loosely in the banality-of-evil category in reference to Nazis simply following orders, the nature of conformity, obedience to authority, etc.) and the Small-World experiment (offered here) in which he investigated the hypothesis that everyone in the world is connected to everyone else via a series of short pathways. It was a study of the growing idea of the shrinking world and its developing interconnectedness, and in time would be better and more famously known as the six degrees of separation hypothesis.__+__ Abstract: “The simplest way of formulating the small world problem is "what is the probability that any two people, selected arbitrarily from a large population, such as that of the United States, will know each other?" A more interesting formulation, however, takes account of the fact that, while persons a and z may not know each other directly, they may share one or more mutual acquaintances; that is, there may exist a set of individuals, B, (consisting of individuals 61, 62 . . . 6,) who know both a and z and thus link them to one another: More generally, a and z may be connected not by any single common acquaintance, but by a series of such intermediaries, a-b-c- . . -y-z; i.e., a knows 6 (and no one else in the chain); 6 knows a and in addition knows c, c in turn knows d, etc.”__+__ “The small-world experiment comprised several experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram and other researchers examining the average path length for social networks of people in the United States. The research was groundbreaking in that it suggested that human society is a small-world-type network characterized by short path-lengths. The experiments are often associated with the phrase "six degrees of separation", although Milgram did not use this term himself.”--Wikipedia __+__ “Guglielmo Marconi's conjectures based on his radio work in the early 20th century, which were articulated in his 1909 Nobel Prize address, may have inspired.Frigyes Karinthy to write a challenge to find another person to whom he could not be connected through at most five people. This is perhaps the earliest reference to the concept of six degrees of separation, and the search for an answer to the small world problem.”--Wikipedia
Cognitron: A Self-organizing Multilayered Neural Network"

Cognitron: A Self-organizing Multilayered Neural Network”, in Biological Cybernetics

Kunihiko Fukushima Kunihiko Fukushima, "Cognitron: A Self-organizing Multilayered Neural Network", in Biological Cybernetics, volume 20, Springer Verlag, 1975, 232pp the article offered here occupying pp. 121 136. Volume bound in black buckram. Original wrappers are bound in at the end for vol 20 #1 and vol 20 #s 3/4; though there is no mention of a #2 the book is continuously paginated and nothing seems to be missing. Fine condition. __+__ "A recognized innovator in neural networks, Fukushima is perhaps best known for the creation of Neocognitron, an artificial neural network that learned how to recognize visual patterns. It has been used for handwritten character and other pattern recognition tasks, recommender systems, and even natural language processing. His work which was heavily influenced by Hubel and Wiesel led to the development of the first convolutional neural networks, which are based on the visual cortex organization found in animals. They are variations of multilayer perceptrons designed to use minimal amounts of preprocessing." --Andrew Fogg, "A History of Machine Learning and Deep Learning", Machine Learning, May 30, 2018.__+__ "He is one of the pioneers in the field of neural networks and has been engaged in modeling neural networks of the brain since 1965. His special interests lie in modeling neural networks of the higher brain functions, especially the mechanism of the visual system. In 1979, he invented an artificial neural network, "Neocognitron", which has a hierarchical multilayered architecture and acquires the ability to recognize visual patterns through learning." --IEEETV (IEEE) 2015 Oral History Project __+__ "Kunihiko Fukushima is a Japanese computer scientist, most noted for his work on artificial neural networks and deep learning. He is currently working part-time as a Senior Research Scientist at the Fuzzy Logic Systems Institute in Tokyo. Fukushima acted as founding President of the Japanese Neural Network Society (JNNS). He also was a founding member on the Board of Governors of the International Neural Network Society (INNS), and President of the Asia-Pacific Neural Network Assembly (APNNA)."--Wikipedia __+__ Abstract from this paper: "A new hypothesis for the organization of synapses between neurons is proposed: The synapse from neuron x to neuron y is reinforced when x fires provided that no neuron in the vicinity of y is firing stronger than y . By introducing this hypothesis, a new algorithm with which a multilayered neural network is effectively organized can be deduced. A self-organizing multilayered neural network, which is named cognitron , is constructed following this algorithm, and is simulated on a digital computer. Unlike the organization of a usual brain models such as a three-layered perceptron, the self-organization of a cognitron progresses favorably without having a teacher which instructs in all particulars how the individual cells respond. After repetitive presentations of several stimulus patterns, the cognitron is self-organized in such a way that the receptive fields of the cells become relatively larger in a deeper layer. Each cell in the final layer integrates the information from whole parts of the first layer and selectively responds to a specific stimulus pattern or a feature."
Memoire sur les equivalents des corps simples"

Memoire sur les equivalents des corps simples”, in Annales de Chimie et de Physique

Jean Baptiste Dumas Jean Baptiste Dumas, Memoire sur les equivalents des corps simples , in a bound volume of Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 1859, volume 55, 3rd series, published in Paris by Victor Masson, 512pp, 8vo, with the article appearing on pp.129 210. __+__Offered in the original wrappers, which have survived quite well for this rather thick publication. This is at least a VG copy, with a little chipping around the edges of the covers; also, the volume is partially uncut. Really a lovely copy.__+__ "After his revision of atomic weights in the 1840 s, Dumas had wanted to revive the speculation about a materia prima in conjunction with Prout s hypothesis that all elements were multiples of the hydrogen atom. In 1851 he read a paper to the British Association in which he attempted to establish how certain regular patterns might be found in arranging elements, such that the heavier atoms were derived from combinations of lighter ones.  He also published two* papers [the work offered here] in which he tried to develop the view that for the classifications of the elements it was possible to discover 'generating' relations similar to those defining the series of organic compounds. The elements could be divided into 'natural families'. The atomic weights of all the members of the same family were linked by a simple arithmetic relationship; they increased by multiples of sixteen." Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography online (Dumas)__+__ (*The work cited here in the DSB is a little more complicated than "two papers: the first paper was published in three iterations in the CRAS from 1857-1858; the second was an expanded and more complete paper following that earlier three-parter, this being the paper offered here, published in 1859. And by the way 1859 was an epochal year, seeing work of tremendous importance by Maxwell, Krichhoff, Riemann, Huxley, and of course Darwin.)
La Mecanique des photons"

La Mecanique des photons”, in Comptes rendus de l’Academie des Sciences.

Vladimir Fock This paper (presented by Maurice de Broglie) appeared on pp 1399-1401 of the Comptes Rednus (CRAS) 16 June 1930 issue (volume 190 #24), in the weekly issue of pp 1397-1464, complete. BINDING: this issue has been removed from a larger bound volume, with spine mostly intact. THis comes with the original wrappers. GOOD copy only. THere is an old vertical fold that goes all the way through the issue. Provenance: Library of the Hygienic Laboratory, Washington DC. __+__ (“Fock's) primary scientific contribution lies in the development of quantum physics and the theory of gravitation, although he also contributed significantly to the fields of mechanics, theoretical optics, physics of continuous media. In 1926, he derived the Klein–Gordon equation. He gave his name to Fock space, the Fock representation and Fock state, and developed the Hartree–Fock method in 1930. He made many subsequent scientific contributions during the rest of his life. Fock developed the electromagnetic methods for geophysical exploration in a book The theory of the study of the rocks resistance by the carottage method (1933), the methods are called the well logging in modern literature. Fock made significant contributions to general relativity theory, specifically for the many-body problems. Fock criticised on scientific grounds both Einstein's general principle of relativity, as being devoid of physical substance, and the equivalence principle, as interpreted as the equivalence of gravitation and acceleration, as having only a local validity. In Leningrad, Fock created a scientific school in theoretical physics and raised the physics education in the USSR through his books. He wrote the first textbook on quantum mechanics Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics (1931, 1978) and a very influential monograph The Theory of Space, Time and Gravitation (1955).”--Wikipedia.
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Sur les radioelements formes dans l’uranium et le thorium irradies par les neutrons”, in Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Academie des Sciences”

CURIE, Irene and Paul Savitch and many others (14 Papers Pertaining to the Atomic Bomb, 1939) The Atomic Bomb--the French Contribution in the Comptes Rendus, 1939 14 major papers (in 12 different weekly issues) in the history of nuclear fission, all published in Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Academie des Sciences, volume 208, January-June 1939, 2250pp, a single bound volume, thick and stout. Ex-libris, with a bookplate--also, each title-page of each weekly issue (of which there are 26 in this volume), has a small round rubber stamp of the library. Cloth binding. ca. 1950. Nice condition. There is a faded, old vertical fold that extends through the text, no doubt from when the original owner folded the issues in half.over the years in binding, the fold is mostly gone. __+__ Included are the following: BECK, Guido and Peter Havas, "La dissymetrie de la rupture de l'uranium", 3 April 1939, no. 14, pp 1084-1086. BECK, Guido and Peter Havas, Sur le ralentissement dans l'air des fragments atomique résultant de l'explosion de l'uranium , 22 May 1939, no. 21, pp 1643-1645; *CURIE, Irene and Paul Savitch. "Sur les radioelements formes dans l'uranium et le thorium irradies par les neutrons", 30 January 1939 (one of two papers in this issue), pp 343-346; DODE, Maurice, Hans von Halban, Frederic Joliot, Lew Kowarski. "Sur l'energie des neutrons liberes lors de la partion nucleairede l'uranium", 27 March 1939, p 995-997; HAENNY, Charles and Albert Rosenberg. Émission de neutrons lors de la rupture provoquée du noyau d'uranium. Possibilité de réaction par chaine 20 March 1939, no 12, pp 898-900; **JOLIOT, Frederic. "Preuve experimentale de la rupture explosive des nayaux d'uranium et de thoriumsous l'action des neutrons" 30 January 1939, p 341-343-- THE FIRST INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATION OF NUCLEAR FISSION. *JOLIOT, Frederic. "Observations par la methode de Wilson des trajecoires de brouillard des produits de l'explosion des noyaux d'uranium", 27 February 1939, p 647-649; MAGNAN, Claude, Sur la cassure des noyaux éléments plus légers que l'uranium, sous le bombardement des neutrons , 6 March 1939, no. 10, pp 742-4; MAGNAN, Claude. "Sur les neutrons emis lors de la bipartition de l'uraniumsous l'action des neutrons", 17 April 1939, pp 1218-1220; *PERRIN, Francis. Calcul relatif aux conditions éventuelles de transmutation en chaine de l'uranium , 1 May 1939, no 18, pp 1394-1396; *PERRIN, Francis. Calcul relatif aux conditions éventuelles de transmutation en chaine de l'uranium , 15 May 1939, no. 20, pp 1573-1575; *THIBAUD, Jean Thibaud and Andre Moussa. Sur la rupture des noyaux d'uranium sous l'action des neutrons et la libération d'énergie qui en résulte , 6 March 1939, no. 10 (second article of the issue) 744-6; von HALBAN, Hans, Lew Kowarski, Paul Savitch. " Sur la capture simple des neutrons thermiques et des neutrons de resonance par l'uranium", 1 May 1939, no 18 (second article in this issue) pp 1396-1398; von Halban, Hans, Lew Kowarski, Michael Magot. "Sur l'intensite des neutrons dans le radiation cosmique", 20 February 1939, pp 572-574.
Über die Differentialgesetze für die Erhaltung von Impuls und Energie in der Einsteinschen Gravitationstheorie"

Über die Differentialgesetze für die Erhaltung von Impuls und Energie in der Einsteinschen Gravitationstheorie”

KLEIN, Felix 19pp. In original paper wrappers. The interior is in near fine condition, but the spine is gone and the wrappers have separated from the body. In an extensive memoir [this paper].[Klein] attempted to unify the different forms of the differential laws for the conservation of energy and momentum that could be found in the papers of Einstein, Lorentz and Hilbert. The important tool which he used in doing this was the theory of invariants.Felix Kelin's work is closely connected with the studies of Emmy Noether concerning the relations between symmetry properties and the conservation laws. Jagdish Mehra, Einstein, Hilbert, and The Theory of Gravitation: Historical Origins of General Relativity Theory. Reidel, 1974, pp 46-49__+__ I must also not omit to thank Miss Noether for encouraging participation in my new work, where the mathematical ideas which I used in the adaptation to the physical question for the integral I have in general been worked out, and will in the near future in these news be published. --from this Klein paper, (that publication being Emmy Noether Invariante Variationsprobleme , Gottinger Nachrichten (1918), pp. 235 257 (presented by F. Klein at the meeting of 26 July 1918 the paper was dedicated to Klein). __+__ This work, which has for too long been neglected, includes some interesting analysis regarding the gravitational energy-momentum expressions of Einstein, Hilbert, Lorentz and Weyl. The topic of gravitational energy momentum and its localization had been at that time and, notwithstanding considerable progress, still remains a century later an unsettled issue. --from the 2019 translation of this paper by Chiang-Mei Chen, James M. Nester, and Walter Vogel.__+__ Sources: Brading, Katherine A.: A note on general relativity, energy conservation, and Noether s theorems, in The Universe of General Relativity (Proceedings of the Conference on the History of General Relativity, Amsterdam 2002), Jean Eisenstaedt and Anne J. Kox, eds., Einstein Studies, vol. 11, Boston: Birkhauser, 2005, pp. 125 135 Kosmann-Schwarzbach, Y., The Noether Theorems: Invariance and Conservation Laws in the Twentieth Century (Springer, New York, 2011). Rowe, David E.: The Gottingen response to general relativity and Emmy Noether s theorems, in Gray, Jeremy J., ed. The Symbolic Universe, Geometry and Physics 1890 1930 (Milton Keynes, 1996), Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, pp 189-233. Emmy Noether proposed and proved Noether s theorem in 1918 after being asked by David Hilbert and Felix Klein to help them understand whether the conservation of energy is violated in Einstein s theory of gravity. This is the result of Noether's work on Hilbert's and Klein's behalf. (This offprint is probably more valuable because of its relationship to Noether's theorem than for what is in the offprint itself.) There is an inscription---quite faded but legible-- G. Mie on the top right corner of the offprint cover. I'm quite sure that this must be the physicist Gustav Mie (1868-1957). Mie's main contributions to science, in addition to his oft-cited light-scattering paper, require recognition. He derived inductively the Maxwellian edifice from the empirical reality, a pursuit that still occupied Mie in his 80th year when the last and revised edition of his Handbook of Electricity and Magnetism was published.' His persistent search for a unified theory encompassing field and matter, although unsuccessful, nevertheless stimulated the work of other notable physicists such as Born and Infeld. Other important pursuits by Mie included research into the dielectric constants of various materials using electromagnetic waves; the solution of the problem of the anomalous dispersion of water leading to the determination of the characteristic dielectric constant of that liquid."- Gustav Mie: the person , by Pedro Lilienfeld, Applied Optics, 20 November 1991 p 4696.
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The Production of New Radiations by Light Scattering. Part I “, in Proceedings of the Royal Society

RAMAN, Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata, and K. S. Krishnan RAMAN, Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata, and K. S. Krishnan, The Production of New Radiations by Light Scattering. Part I , in Proceedings of the Royal Society A 122 pp. 23-35, 1929, in the volume of vi, 719, xxii, vipp. Beautifully bound in leather and boards, marbled page edges. Very slightly ex-lib with edge stamps and stamp on title, otherwise this is a fresh, clean copy. A handsome volume even with the page edge stamps. [There was no part II to this paper.] __+__ Also bound with A.S. Eddington, The Charge of an Electron , pp 358-369 and A.H. Wilson, Perturbation Theory in Quantum Mechanics , pp 589-598. Leading the volume is an interesting review of recent work by Ernest Rutherford, Anniversary Address.:, pp 1-23. This is an expanded description of the Raman effect, the work for which Raman received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930 for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him (Nobel site), that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the light that is deflected changes in wavelength.(a) phenomenon.called Raman scattering the result being the Raman effect .--Encyclopedia Britannica __+__ Raman publishes his paper for the first time a few months earlier in the Indian Journal of Physics, which led to a huge run of publications on the discovery at least 160 in the 1928-1929 period according to the bibliography on papers published on the Raman effect Bibliography of 150 Papers on the Raman Effect, 1928-1929 , by Dr. A. S. Ganesan. Of the 160 papers 12 are by Raman, and it was in the paper offered here (#62 in the bibliography) where he offers material not addressed in his previous papers. __+__ After Compton had discovered the Compton effect Heisenberg (1925) pointed out .that this ought to be true for any em radiation, including visible light. That it was so in practice was shown in 1928 by.Raman.Raman spectra proved to be useful in determining some of the fine details of molecular structure. --Asimov Chronology__+__ One of the most convincing proofs of the quantum theory of light. --R.W. Wood
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Aufladepotentiel und Sekundäremission elektronenbestrahlter Körper”, in Zeitschrift für technische Physik

Max Knoll Max Knoll, Aufladepotentiel und Sekundäremission elektronenbestrahlter Körper , an article in Zeitschrift für technische Physik, volume 16, 1935, occupying pp 467 475 of 657pp of text. The paper includes 14 text images, five of which are reproductions of imagery made by the instrument.__+__ Rebound in black cloth that is simple but elegant (really quite a lovely job); untrimmed. Small library rubber stamp on the back of the title page (the Technische Hochschule in Danzig, now Gdansk Technical University). $500 __+__ First paper ( Static potential and secondary emission of bodies under electron irradiation ) describing the concept of a Scanning Electron Microscope. See C. W. Oatle, The early history of the scanning electron microscope , Journal of Applied Physics 53, R1 (1982). __+__ The earliest known work describing the concept of a Scanning Electron Microscope was by M. Knoll (1935) Bernie C Breton, The Early History and Development of The Scanning Electron Microscope . __+__ Fundamental research by many physicists in the first quarter of the 20th century suggested that cathode rays (i.e., electrons) might be used in some way to increase microscope resolution. French physicist Louis de Broglie in 1924 opened the way with the suggestion that electron beams might be regarded as a form of wave motion. De Broglie derived the formula for their wavelength, which showed that, for example, for electrons accelerated by 60,000 volts (or 60 kilovolts [k]), the effective wavelength would be 0.05 angstrom (Å) i.e., 1/100,000 that of green light. If such waves could be used in a microscope, then a considerable increase in resolution would result. In 1926 it was demonstrated that magnetic or electrostatic fields could serve as lenses for electrons or other charged particles. This discovery initiated the study of electron optics, and by 1931 German electrical engineers Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska had devised a two-lens electron microscope that produced images of the electron source. In 1933 a primitive electron microscope was built that imaged a specimen rather than the electron source, and in 1935 Knoll produced a scanned image of a solid surface. --Encyclopedia Britannica
Zu Kaluzas Theorie des Zusammenhanges von Gravitation und Elektrizität - Erste Mittelung"

Zu Kaluzas Theorie des Zusammenhanges von Gravitation und Elektrizität – Erste Mittelung” , pp 23-25; with in the same issue, “Zu Kaluzas Theorie des Zusammenhanges von Gravitation und Elektrizität – Zweite Mitteilung”, pp 26-30, in Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften

EINSTEIN, Albert EINSTEIN, Albert. Zu Kaluzas Theorie des Zusammenhanges von Gravitation und Elektrizität - Erste Mittelung , pp 23-25; with in the same issue, Zu Kaluzas Theorie des Zusammenhanges von Gravitation und Elektrizität - Zweite Mitteilung , pp 26-30, in Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse VI, Berlin 1927, pp. 17 30, February 17, 1927). Individual issue in original wrappers. Wrappers are a bit sunned along the edges, otherwise fine. __+__ Six years after publishing his paper solving Einstein's equation of general relativity by using field equations in five-dimensional space-time (encouraged by Einstein to publish), Theodor Franz Eduard Kaluza (1885-1954) was a German mathematician and physicist known for the Kaluza Klein theory ( the two pioneers of unified field theory , A Pais, Subtle is the Lord, pp 329), and who in 1921 solved Einstein's (who thought very highly of him, according to MacTutor) equations of general relativity by using field equations in five-dimensional space-time. According to Pais, Einstein wrote to Kaluzain 1921 saying the formal unity of your theory is startling after which he communicated the K paper to the Prussian Academy. It was in these two papers presented above that Einstein wrote on Kaluza's work this some four years after an earlier paper Einstein wrote with Grommer. (Einstein would return to Kaluza in a paper with Peter Bergmann, On a generalization of Kaluza's theory of electricity in the Annals of Mathematics, Vol. 39, no. 3, in July 1938 and which he would address again in Science in 1931 with Meyer and in the Prussian Academy the same year.)__+__ [Kaluaza] was teaching at Königsberg in April 1919 when he wrote to Einstein and told him about his ideas to unify Einstein's theory of gravity and Maxwell's theory of light. Einstein encouraged him to publish his highly original ideas which he did in 1921 in his paper on the unity problem of physics.Kaluza's ideas involved the introduction of a fifth dimension and, although he has been criticised for introducing this as a purely mathematical idea, his work is important and was explored by others.Kaluza is remembered for this in Kaluza-Klein (named after the mathematician Oskar Klein) field theory, which involved field equations in five-dimensional space. The theory, initially a popular topic of research, quickly lost favour with the introduction of quantum mechanics. --MacTutor, St. Andrew's Math History. __+__ As is so often the case, string theory arose from a collection of discredited ideas. When string theory became mainstream, physicists realised that these early insights were extraordinarily prescient. The story begins in 1919 with a little known Polish mathematician, Theodor Kaluza. Inspired by Einstein s revolutionary ideas, he attempted to overthrow a central tenet of physics. What if there are extra dimensions we just can t see? he asked. Working alone, he attempted to incorporate a hidden dimension into Einstein s model for gravity. Unsurprisingly, his five-dimensional theory had more equations than the usual four-dimensional approach. Looking closely at the extra equations he had found, Kaluza spotted something remarkable. They were precisely Maxwell s equations governing the electromagnetic field. -- Whystringtheory (supported by Oxford and the Royal Society)
Girl Scouts as a National Asset

Girl Scouts as a National Asset, Radio Talk of Colonel William J. Donovan over WJZ, October 31, 1930, at 2:30pm.

Donovan, William J. Rare Document on a Liberal-esque Position on Girls and Women by the Founder of the CIA (1930) Author: Donovan, William J. Title: Girl Scouts as a National Asset, Radio Talk of Colonel William J. Donovan over WJZ, October 31, 1930, at 2:30pm. Year: 1930 Publisher: original carbon copies (?) Pages and Size: 11”x 8.5”, 4 lvs, approximately 800 words. Condition: VG/Fine, a 7.5 on a 1-10 scale, with 10 being “new”. Nice and fresh. • (Condition grading is compared to the condition of the publication when it was new; to give a condition quote that states "good for its age" comparing something to a fluid state without a common denominator is almost without value, so the publication is compared to its condition when it was first published.)__+__ Interesting 800-word radio address by the head of the OSS and founding father and patron saint of the CIA on the importance of teaching leadership skills to young girls and the role of the Girl Scouts in bringing home that mission. The address was made on WJZ which at the time (and by 1927) was the flagship station of NBC Blue (which had purchased the station in 1923 from RCA and which would become ABC in 1942), and seems to me to be very modern of the 57-year old Col. Donovan. Although he maintains that the female's “stronghold” was home and motherhood, he declared that “a highly speed civilization (will) call upon her for many other capacities and activities”.__+__ “Any organization that can fit America's girlhood for true American womanhood is a nation's asset.”__+__ “The Scout movement [begun in 1912 by Juliette Gordon Low] meets a demand for social education and training in leadership at a period in the girl's life when that sort of training is most vital” he writes.__+__ “The Nation today demands that women be as well trained and as fully adapted to the national life as men”, which to me appears to be more a more liberated position than most significant men would have in 1930 (and beyond). “The scout troop plan gives the individual girl a sense of duty, a consciousness of ability, an ideal of courage and a recognition of he necessity of remaining an individual while she functions in a group, at the same time making the group achievement greater because of her individual contribution” he continues. __+__ Provenance: Library of Congress Pamphlet Collection (though there are no markings attesting to that, the document did come with others from that collection). On the bottom of the back of the first page is a penciled annotation, “Gift/Author/Dec 5 1930”, which means Gen. Donovan gave this to the LC at that time. __+__ Rare document. I can also find no trace of it using the normal channels. Perhaps there is a record of Donovan's opinions on this matter deep in other sources, but not being expert in this area I would not know if that was the case or not.
Proposal for Development and Preparation of Space Vehicle Design Criteria and Design Criteria Documentation"

Proposal for Development and Preparation of Space Vehicle Design Criteria and Design Criteria Documentation”, plus “Minuteman Structural Design Criteria: and two others 1961-1964

Whitford, R.K. Proposal for Development and Preparation of Space Vehicle Design Criteria and Design Criteria Documentation. 7 February 1964. Submitted to Systems Engineering Group, Air Force Systems Command, USAF, Wright-Patterson AFB. __+__ Volume 1, Technical. TRW Space Technology Laboratories. 11x8.5”, 4 sections: 18, 22, 29, 121, 20pp. NO copies located in WorldCat for this title. The table of contents states the following, though there is one long contribution that is unstated and one that is not included: “Section 8. Related Publications.” 18pp A1—“Overall Systems Design Criteria.” 22pp. A2—Minuteman Structural Design Criteria. (Cover sheet “(Unclassified) Minuteman Structural Design Criteria”), 29pp A3—“Attitude Control of Earth Satellites” [not bound in this collection] A4—“Energy Sources and Power Conversion,” 20pp __+__ Between A2 and A3 is the following, with a separate title page: Whitford, R.K. Design of Attitude Control Systems for Earth Satellites, 30 June 1961. 2313-0001-RU-000 Space Technology Laboratories. 121pp. Plus two appendices, A+B, 10pp+8pp. NO copies located in WorldCat. Scarce. This is a little bibliographically complicated. The front wrapper states that this is “volume 1”, though it has the feel of a volume 2, particularly since it begins with “Section 8”. Some of the contents seem to be stand-alones (as with the Minuteman and the Whitford papers), though the Whitford is the only paper with a title page. __+__ Bound in a TRW paper wrapper with folding clips; all sections three-ring hole-punched. Rarity or scarcity: NO copies located in WORLDCAT/OCLC (NYPL system). NO copies located in the massive database for worldwide library holdings, WorldCat. (“WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 17,900 libraries in 123 countries and territories that participate in the OCLC global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC, Inc. The subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCat's database, the world's largest bibliographic database.”--Wikipedia)__+__ Condition:  VG, a 7.5 on a 1-10 scale, with 10 being “new”.  Nice and fresh. 
The Schools of Greer County

The Schools of Greer County, Oklahoma

Haskell Pruett Author(s): Haskell Pruett Title: The Schools of Greer County, Oklahoma Year: 1921 Publisher: The Principals' Club, Mangum, Oklahoma Pages and Size: 9”x 6”, 86pp.__+__ Illustrations: nearly half of the pamphlet are photos, and about half of the photos are montages of smaller photos. The work is very harming, and there's a real feeling of craftsmanship in the composition of the whole-school photographs, which are lovely in a high-Americana lonely-plains way. __+__ Rarity or scarcity: surprisingly there are only 3 copies of this work is found in the WorldCat/OCLC. 3 copies of this work are located in the massive database for worldwide library holdings, WorldCat. Surprising, given that it was a Chamber of Commerce publication—perhaps it was deemed ephemeral, and not many survived. In any event, there aren't many copies of this work located in the WorldCat system. (“WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 17,900 libraries in 123, the world's largest bibliographic database.”--Wikipedia) Binding: paper wrappers.__+__ Condition:  Solid Very Good copy, a 7.5 on a 1-10 scale, with 10 being “new”. Nice and fresh. __+__ (Condition grading is compared to the condition of the publication when it was new;  to give a condition quote that states "good for its age" comparing something to a fluid state without a common denominator is almost without value, so the publication is compared to its condition when it was first published.) __+__ Provenance: Library of Congress, with their rubber stamp on the rear of the front cover.