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For General Release

For General Release, AFWESPAC HQ, Manila. (A Piece on Mr. Aung Than, a Burmese politician, diplomat, and national figure.)

Headquarters, US Army Forces Western Pacific, Public Relations Office.__+__For General Release, AFWESPAC HQ, Manila. (A Piece on Mr. Aung Than, a Burmese politician, diplomat, and national figure.) __+__11”x 8.5”, 5 lvs (October 4, 1945 ?). This includes the final mimeographed copy of the paper on Aug Than, plus two draft copies, including one in mimeo form and the first draft a carbon copy on onion paper sheets.__+__ This article discusses the activities of Mr. Aung Than (1915-1969), “a symbol of the Burmese resistance movement during the Japanese occupation”, and who the brother of Aung San, the minister of war of Burma and the Premier of British Crown Colony of Burma 1946-7; he was also the uncle of Aung San Suu Kyi, present state counselor of Myanmar and Nobel Peace Price recipient 1991. Aung was a delegate to the Japanese government during the war, and was also a delegate to London conference in 1947; and was also a leader in the People's Peace Front as well as the AFPFL (Anti-Facist People's Freedom League). This article, printed by the Public Relations Office of the US Army Forces in the Western Pacific, details the early days of Aung Than and contains his observations and memories of the struggles against Japan.__+__ Of particular interest is the article pointing out the terrible nature of what could have been the endgame campaign against the Japanese homeland. Speculation was that the Japanese would fight to the very end and would entail 7 million more US troops to participate in the final battle; also that the atom bombs on hand for use would “only” kill 10 million people, and much more fighting on the ground would need to be done.
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Ethical Issues in the News: The Nazi Surrender. Radio announcement and delivery by Black, “Leader of the Society for Ethical Culture”, May 3rd, 1945, station WQXR.

Algernon D. Black Algernon D. Black, Ethical Issues in the News: The Nazi Surrender. Radio announcement and delivery by Black, “Leader of the Society for Ethical Culture”, May 3rd, 1945, station WQXR. 11”x 8.5”, 5 lvs., about 2000 words. Offset printed from typed originals. Stapled, front page detached. Scarce document. __+__ Black (1900-1993) was a long-time leader of the Ethical Society ("Faith without God") who for decades delivered radio addresses, including this one on station WQXR. The present address discuses the final weeks of the war, and the important steps that need to be taken post-war to understand who the Nazis were and how they manufactured and managed the war. “.even the surrender by Nazi generals and suicides by Nazi leaders is no guarantee of a surrender of Nazi will and the defeat of Nazi ideology. In he moment of defeat, the Nazis have done things to assure the rebirth of the Nazi movement. They have hidden some of their Gestapo, SS and some o their Nazi leaders in the army and among civilians in as a complete disguise as possible.” Distractions fighting the “world's greatest enemy”, the Bolsheviks.they would like us to believe that the mass murders in prisons and concentration camps do not matter because their victims were Jews.” “When we have accepted the Nazi surrender, our real difficulties will begin.” Black goes on to speak about the need to separate out the Nazis from the Nazi supporters and then the anti-Nazis in order to reintroduce Germany "into civilized society". Part of that process is to understand the propaganda and lies that were propagated to facilitate the war, and to know who and what Hitler was. “Let nothing divert us from dealing.with the task of seeing to it that Nazism is really ended in this world.”
Expert Opinion on Post-War Treatment of Japan.

Expert Opinion on Post-War Treatment of Japan.

Three opinion collection documents, printed: 1) Attitudes Toward Japan, Digest of Public Opinion Surveys. 11"x 8.5", offset printed from typed originals. 2 lvs. Stapled. 1944. 2) Expert Opinion on Post-War Treatment of Japan. 11"x 8.5", offset printed from typed originals. 4 lvs. Stapled. 1944. 3) The Treatment of Japan. 11"x 8.5", offset printed from typed originals. 4 lvs. Stapled. 1944.__+__ The three (all quite scarce): I uncovered a few interesting documents this morning from The American Council, Institute of Pacific Relations (in 1944 at the address 744 Jackson Place, N.W., D.C.) relating to collecting opinions on Japan and the Japanese, right at the height of the war. And this is what the American Council was doing--prep work to assess the extent of public opinion on the treatment of Japan post-war, which entailed reviewing existing polling data (from Gallup) was well as conducting their own original research.The "first" issue (so far as I can determine) was perhaps the most aggressive:__+__ Is Japan incurably warlike? The question was asked of an undefined group over three periods of time (February 1942 to June 1943) for both Japan and Germany, the statements the respondents having to choose from being: "always want war", "too easily led" and "do not like war" at three different times, from February 1942 to June 1943. From Feb '42 to June '43, people's opinions that the Japanese "always want war" went up from 48% to 62%, while for the same time the same question regarding the Germans stayed about the same, 22%. The Gallup Poll for June 1943 reported that for 75% of the respondents only 8% of the folks thought that "we can get along" with the Japanese, while 67% favored our chances with the Germans. Get along with them or not, or feeling that they are war-like or not, had little to do with the opinions of people (reported by the National Opinion research Center, August 1942) who thought that reparations should be paid, and paid hard, by the Axis powers across the board, "as much as it is possible to get out of the Axis countries, even if it breaks them".__+__ The following two papers came a little later, closer to the realization that victory was coming, that the war would be over, that victory would be taken--probably at the end of 1944 or the beginning of 1945, when position statements were more circumspect than the earlier public opinions. "Expert Opinion on Post-War Treatment of Japan" was more understanding when speaking to the post-war existence of Japan, stating in a number of different ways that "there should be no attempt to keep Japan permanently repressed" and "the Japanese people must work out their own political salvation". Also that there would be no "continuing burden of reparations done with Germany after the last war". __+__The overall feeling of this and the following document ("The Treatment of Japan") can be found in the section "Teaching Japan a Lesson": "United Nations effort should be directed toward demonstrating to the people of Japan the advantages of making peace rather than the penalties of losing a war". The issue regarding the Emperor and whether or not he should or could stay--an issue that would stay with high command right through the second week of August 1945.
General Merchandise of Japan.

General Merchandise of Japan.

General Merchandise of Japan. Published by the Light Industry Bureau of MITI, 1955. 11.5” x8”, 110pp+28pp. Thick paper wrappers. Printed on good quality semi-glossy paper; illustrations throughout. VG condition. Provenance: Library of Congress, with a few scant rubber stamps. This seems to be fairly scarce for a manufacturer's catalog: it appears there are fewer than 10 copies located in WorldCat. __+__ The Japan External Trade Recovery Organization's General Merchandise of Japan was an "effort is made to introduce every category of general merchandise" being made in the country in 1955.  Ten years after the war the country was still of course recovering from its devastating defeat, though the national economy did make tremendous progress back to some sort of normalcy during that time, particularly during the 'fifties. This is not a Sears catalog, though, as it weighs in at 110 (thick) pages plus 30 pages of advertisements. The merchandise does spread out wide, if not very deep at all, and it makes for an interesting browse to see what sorts of goods were being manufactured and sold overseas so soon after the war.  What caught my eye (following ads for tribal table art, "Japanese-style lanterns", cigarette lights, reed organs, toys, glasses, shoes, scissors, wooden bowls, eyeglasses (two varieties), and so on were the ads for pencils. There were at least four of them, three of which are visually striking. (And speaking of that, there's also a great ad for matches.)  On the "Pencils of Japan" page there is also a peep into perfection, showing an office desktop outfitted with goods manufactured in Japan. There's not much, but the necessaries are there, and it is very tidy in a geo-Spartan way (and nothing like my own desk).
Surrender of Japanese Forces // Surrender of 40

Surrender of Japanese Forces // Surrender of 40,000-70,000 Japanese forces (under command of General Yamashita).

Announcement of the Final Surrenders of Japanese Troops including Gen Yamashita Headquarters, United States Army Forces Western Pacific (AFWESPAC HQ), Manila General Release, APO 707, 25 September 1945 13"x 8" , 2 lvs, 3pp, approximately 500 words. Offset printed. Document produced by the Public Relations Office. Tinted on newsprint, stapled. Good copy of a rare document. $750 This document contains two reports of what were among the very last surrenders of sizable numbers of Japanese troops. General Release 45 (in two parts) [First] Surrender of Japanese forces on Negros Island to troops of the 503d Parachute Infantry. and [Second] Surrender of 40,000-70,000 Japanese forces (under command of General Yamashita).__+__ [First]: Surrender of Lt. Gen. Kono, first meeting on 22 August to arrange with the 503d for final surrender. Surrender continued to 30 Aug to include Kono himself to Lt. Col Joe S. Lawrie, 1,600 troops accompanied Kono. From 30 August to the posting date in September more than 5,900 Japanese troops surrendered. As of that date, only one group of approximately 6090 Japanese remains to surrender . Following the surrender details were two paragraphs of a short history of the 503 Parachute Regimental Combat team, or PRCT) operations during the war, winding up to the 16 Feb 1945 deployment to Corregidor,(campaign from 16-26 February) in an attempt to recapture the Bantaan Peninsula, where they inflicted 10,000 Japanese fatalities. (The totals on this campaign varying from about 6,600 Japanese soldiers killed to 10,00; it seems as though the U.S. Suffered 207 killed.)__+__ [Second] Surrender of more than 40,000 Japanese troops to American forces on Luzon on 19 September to Maj. Gen. Robert S. Beightler (Commanding General, Luzon Area Command). The commander of the Japanese troops was the infamous General Yamashita. The total number of surrenders included about 70,000troops, including dozens of generals and admirals. Yamashita faced war crime charges and was executed for his terrible crimes over the years. __+__ It was determined that the Japanese forces had no U.S. Or Allied prisoners interrogations provided that the claim the POWs were earlier sent to Japan was shown to be false, and that the prisoners had probably been murdered. __+__ Another issue was protecting the surrendered Japanese from Philippine civilians, who in the past sought revenge on their oppressors.
The Importance of the Refugee Problem

The Importance of the Refugee Problem, Radio Address by Myron C. Taylor, November 25, 1938. –White House copy

Myron C. Taylor 11 x 8.5 , 3 leaves, offset printed from typed originals. Provenance: Library of Congress Pamphlet Collections, which received this from the White House Library (on March 9, 1939). (with a small rubber stamp attesting to this on the rear of the first page. __+__ Today this document put the "living" into history--or at least it did for me.  Given how much reading I've done in this area and the amount of exposure I've had to the literature, I knew a fair amount around the edges of this publication.  I remember Myron Taylor--a major domo FDR fixit favorite, a wealthy industrial, who was sent on missions for Roosevelt through the mid-1930's and throughout the war. The "refugee problem" referred to in the title was not the internal U.S. dustbowler issue but the gigantic European refugee catastrophe that was very well established by the date of the publication of this paper for Taylor's address on November 25, 1938. I guess that "problem" was not incorrectly used in the title though by 1938 what was happening to stateless and endangered populations in Europe was far more than that, given  what was happening in Germany in 1938, all of which was bad for the Jewish population there--and then in Austria, and then Czechoslovakia.__+__ I hadn't realized how close in time this was to the failed international conference at Evian, where Taylor was the U.S. representative.  Evian was the 32-nation conference in which critical interest was expressed in the refugee disaster, but after a week spent on the topic, and in spite of a wide expression of sympathy for the situation of the Jews, there was hardly any actual movement to do anything about the crisis of saving those people--only two countries (Equador and Costa Rica, I think) agreed to expand their immigration quotas.  This outcome of course was perfectly well designed for the Nazis, who made a large journalistic play of the affair, citing that national representatives got together and expressed some concern for the Jews but didn't care enough about them to actually do anything.  None of this came out in the Taylor address (reproduced in full, below).  In discussing the refugees he says "The victims of these developments are of many faiths,--Catholic, Jewish and Protestant" and mentions the "urgency" to find homes for hundreds of thousands of people. __+__ He goes on to say that chances for helping the afflicted in Germany within Germany were "dimming"--and what he was talking about was the bettering treatment of these groups of people by the Nazis so that a more orderly multi-year emigration plan could be worked out. __+__  Given that in March of 1938 the Nazis annexed Austrian and made another 200,000 Jews stateless by enacting the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, and that the Nazis seized the Sudetenland in August 1938 making another 120,000 Jews stateless, and that just weeks before this address the massive Kristallnacht Pogrom was initiated throughout Germany--that, yes, there was reason to believe that figuring out a four-year evacuation plan was "dimming".  For whatever reason, Taylor mentions none of this in this speech. __+__ On the immigration issue in general Taylor tells his audience not be afraid of a "flooding" of immigrants ("with aliens of any race or creed"), as he thinks that it is possible to work with the refugees within the existing highly restrictive quota State Department framework.  Given the numbers of people in question and the relatively paltry numbers allowed by the quotas, I do not have any idea as to how Taylor at this point could hope to achieve any of his goals except by somehow cajoling Hitler into giving a suitable number of years allowance to the problem so that the rest of the world could work stuff out.__+__ And even though Taylor was freshly returned from Evian and the issue of the Jewish plight in Germany and its conquered lands, there is only one mention of Jews in this address.
Report of Military Activities in Flood Emergency Relief

Report of Military Activities in Flood Emergency Relief, March 18 to April 4th, 1936.–Very Scarce Mimeo Report on the Johnstown Flood

Edward Caswell Shannon, Major-General; Pennsylvania. Militia; Pennsylvania. Governor (1935-1939). Edward Caswell Shannon, Major-General; Pennsylvania. Militia; Pennsylvania. Governor (1935-1939). Report of Military Activities in Flood Emergency Relief, March 18 to April 4th, 1936. Scarce. $450 __+__ This is a very uncommon and exhaustive summary of the Pennsylvania state response to the disastrous “Johnstown Flood” of 1936, covering the period March 18 through April 14, 1936. There is a 91-lv section with an hour-by-hour summary of responses by the PA National Guard as well as general announcements that they were reacting to. __+__ 11” x 8.5”, 113 leaves (printed one side only). Offset printed—no indicator of printer or author. I suspect that this wasn't so much a “publication” as it was a circular. Gathered at top with a two-pronged metal clasp and in the original heavy manila binder. The text is a solid VG, though the binder has seen better days, as it has dings and tears. The text has been pulled away from the rear of the manila back cover. Overall, still VG. A typewritten annotation on the homemade/typed paper label on the front cover states “Copy #33”. NO copies located in WorldCat (currently; an older Google search found two copies listed). Provenance: Library of Congress, with their tiny 6mm “LC” perforated stamp on the foot of page one and their LC surplus rubber stamp on front top corner page 1. __+__ 3pp introduction, followed by: Overview of troops dispatched and help given, pp 4-9. All 15 sections and commands (Johnstown and Pittsburgh) were evaluated in nine categories of aid and help rendered (including a “remarks”) section, including data of the troops deployed (designated) and who they reported to, area under water (city blocks and %); how many homeless there were and how they how the homeless were fed, clothed, and who housed by. The next section is a listing of city and government officials and who they reported to and for, pp 10-11, along with a graph of deployment if PA National Guard. General Order #2: Flood Emergency Mobilization, Flood Emergency Commendation, pp 12- The last section is a 10pp tabular listing of the every day use of the National Guard during the flood emergency, including the units; deployment duties; types of military personnel, location, and casualties.
The Great Oriental Dream Interpreter

The Great Oriental Dream Interpreter, a Practical Encyclopedia of Dream Interpretations

John Pana-Fermos (Yohanna Ibn al Farmouzi) The Great Oriental Dream Interpreter, a Practical Encyclopedia of Dream Interpretations; 11" X 8.5", CA. 498pp. Cloth binding, with the cover horizontal rather than vertical. Provenance: Library of Congress, with their stamp on the title page. This is a home-made affair, the text being carbon copies of the original typed manuscript. NO copies located in WorldCat. __+__ I have on my desk a carbon copy of a manuscript sent to the copyright office and then on to the Library of Congress, where it went into (I guess) a dead-end collection called the "Pamphlets Collection" (which is not THE pamphlet collection, something that would no doubt contain many millions of items), and then after a number of decades that collection came to me. In any event, that is why I have it--but now, after having discovered it after owning this material for 17 years, I wonder what it is I do with it.__+__ The work is by Yohanna Ibn al Farmouzi, The Great Oriental Dream Interpreter, a Practical Encyclopedia of Dream Interpretations, and copyrighted in 1936 (by John Pana-Fermos, which is Al Farmouzi, Americanized). The subhead reads: "Based upon the study of over 40,000 dreams, extending over a period of forty-six years" with an index of 2,644 keywords (but then confusingly moves on to say "the interpretations of Eleven Thousand Dreams"). In any event, whatever it is that is going on in the manuscript is orderly, neat, fairly well-written, and big. The typescript is 498 pages long, and I estimate contains about 250,000 words, which is a substantial thing. __+__ All that said, it is one man's work on dream interpretation, which means that the reader depends on his insight to lead a conversation on a LOT of different topics. Perhaps it is of interest simply for its extensive index/categorizer of dream elements, which runs 15 single-space pages of four columns. __+__ Mr. Pana-Fermos did publish pieces of this work--one part is a 1000-dream analyzer of 50pp, and another is a love-dream bit. But there is nothing it seems to match this massive work. __+__ I'm just not sure where it should go. No doubt it would be very interesting to some set of people.
Visualized Images Produced by Music"

Visualized Images Produced by Music”, in Nature, 1890

George Newton Visualized Images Produced by Music", in Nature, 1890. vol 41, no. 1062, March 6, 1890. The weekly issue, with the original wrappers and ads, extracted from the half-yearly volume, though in nice condition. __+__ "A studious blind man, who had mightily beat his head about visible objects, and made use of the explication of his books and friends, to understand those names of light and colours which often came in his way, bragged one day, That he now understood what scarlet signified. Upon which, his friend demanding what scarlet was? The blind man answered, It was like the sound of a trumpet."  John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.__+__ This is a big subject for a quick post, the subject of synesthesia having an origin enfogged in mist and with ill-defined boundaries, or at least that is until we get to the 19th century. If we leave aside the earlier thinking (by folks like the quoted Mr. Locke, above) we can speed ahead to Gutav Fechner (the father of psychophysics) with his empirical study of a group of synesthetes in 1871. He was quickly followed by Francis Galton (in 1881, a paper that I write about elsewhere on this blog), though neither Fechner nor Galton's work in this area achieved very much recognition beyond pale acknowledgment. Things speed up somewhat in the early 20thc when the empirical work is taken more seriously.__+__ But stepping back for a moment, I'd just like to share this unusual and interesting 1890 paper from Nature. I never bumped into it before nor could I find more than a couple of bare references to it. So I'm wondering if anyone out there knows anything about it this is done in the spirit of the original author of the paper, George Newton, who posted his story ("Visualized Images Produced by Music", March 6, 1890) to see if anyone else in nature-world recognized anything like the situation he describes.__+__ The opening paragraph of the paper: IN the annexed paper, and in her own words, are related the very curious effects produced on a lady friend by certain musical tones and orchestral combinations. They are so very singular, entirely outside my experience, and, withal, so inexplicable, that I shall be glad if you will give them a place in your columns, in the hope that some of your readers-physiological or psychological-may be able to throw some light on them.
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The Air We Breathe. Being An Essay Upon the Sources, Prevalence, Nature and Morbific Influence of Atmospheric Impurities, As Well As the Principles of Ventilation, and the Most Approved Appliances for Warming Buildings (paper presented at the Western Social Science Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, 7-8 June 1870)

W.H. Churchman W.H. Churchman, The Air We Breathe. Being An Essay Upon the Sources, Prevalence, Nature and Morbific Influence of Atmospheric Impurities, As Well As the Principles of Ventilation, and the Most Approved Appliances for Warming Buildings (paper presented at the Western Social Science Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, 7-8 June 1870). 9" x 5.5", 53pp. Indianapolis, Indiana, 1871. Original wrappers. About a third of the spine cover is missing, otherwise in nice condition. G/VG copy. Provenance: Library of Congress, with their 6mm perforated "LC" on the title page and rubber stamp on the rear cover. $85 Scarce. WorldCat locates 10 copies.__+__ “Writing in 1870, W.H. Churchman of Indianapolis declared that “[p]urity in the air we breathe is one of the prime necessities of life, and, therefore, an essential condition of physical and mental health.”296 While Churchman was primarily concerned with indoor air quality, his essay is noteworthy because its contents demonstrate that certain substances were known to be toxic and lethal if airborne. For example, Churchman listed pollutants such as lead, copper, arsenic, and sulfur, as well as carbonic acid (now known as carbon dioxide), carbonic oxide (the archaic term for carbon monoxide), and carburetted hydrogen (the old term for methane).”-- Ruth Diane Reichard, Infrasructure, Separation, and Inequality.MA thesis, Dept History, Indiana, Univ, 2008.