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L’Arte del Navegar in laqual si contengono lere gole, dechiarationi, secreti, & avisi

Medina, Pedro de The first practical treatise on navigation. 1555 (colophon 1554). Venice. Giovanni Pedrezano. 8vo, (202 x 147 mm). 11 ff., 1 [blank], cxxxvii (including 7 sectional titles). Later vellum, possibly 18th century, lettering piece to spine, a little soiled; flyleaves renewed, blank at end integral. Contemporary inscription to title page, several pages with damp staining, stronger to some corners but overall a fresh and clean copy. 19,000 $ First Italian edition, one of the most influential practical treatises on navigation of the 16th century, widely used by pilots sailing to the Americas for over a century, including Drake, who carried a copy in his circumnavigation; this is the second issue, the only difference from the first being the altered title. The original edition was published in Spanish at Valladolid in 1545 under the title “Arte de Navegar”, it is today very scarce. It’s appearance changed the curse of navigation and redefined as it was understood in the century of discoveries; the map that illustrates it was one of the first of the Atlantic, shows the trade routes to and from Spain and represents cartographically the Papal demarcation dividing the Americas between Spain and Portugal. It was subsequently reproduced in Cortes’ Breve compendio and Medina’s Regimiento de Navegacion in 1552. Medina (1493–1576) was a cleric appointed cosmografo de honor in 1549 by Emperor Charles the V, after having served as librarian to the Duke of Medina. The work is filled with woodcut diagrams, the title page with a splendid vignette of sailing ships. Sabin, 47346; Medina, (BHA), 123; Palau, 159679; Burden 21 (for the map).
Colombia Prima or South America

Colombia Prima or South America, in which has been Attempted to Delineate the Extent of our Knowledge of that Continent Extracted Chiefly from the original manuscript maps of His Excellency the late Chevalier Pinto Likewise from those of Rocha Ferreira. El Padre Francisco Manuel Sobreviela and from the most authentic edited accounts of those countries

Rochette, Louis Stanislas De La; Faden, William Magnificent English map of South America. 1807. London. William Faden. Several sheets joined and backed on linen, measuring in total c.2460 x 1710 mm. Preserved in the original brown calf case, gilt to spine, worn. The map in exceptional condition, coloured in outline, scattered but light foxing here and there, overall perfect. 5,000 $ Beautiful example of this wonderful map, both for the care and attention to detail in its creation, as for its beauty and size, this is simple one of the best maps of South America in the 19th century, reproduced well into the second half of the 19th century –though incorporating the sensible geopolitical divisions the continent was in the verge of seeing; the cartography used by De La Rochette was based on the manuscripts of Chevalier Pinto, Joaquim da Rocha and Father Sobreviela. Faden was not an amateur when mapping South America was concerned, he had previously done a version of the wonderful Cruz y Cano map; this map however, is much updated with up-to-date information and corrected. Its size, aside from making it visually striking, made room for considerable detail to both geography and hydrography. Rare, we can only trace smaller examples at auction, only two of the 1807 edition in 40 years. Institutionally the map is also uncommon, we trace 8 copies of this edition, 5 of which in the U.S.
Estatutos y constituciones reales de la imperial y regia Universidad de Mexico

Estatutos y constituciones reales de la imperial y regia Universidad de Mexico

First University established in America; Education, Mexico] [Solis y Haro, Marcelino de]. First edition of the Statutes of the first University established in America; only one copy in the United States. 1668. Mexico. Viuda de Bernardo Calderon. Folio. [21], 84, [11] ff. Contemporary vellum, ties as fragments, moderate wear; endpapers renewed. Minor dampstaining, final leaf perhaps supplied from another copy. 4,500 $ First edition, and the first printing of the constitutions and regulations of the first University of the Americas, the University of Mexico, founded in 1551; the book is prefaced by a short history. Its creation has origin in the Real Cedula of Emperor Charles V of 1551, following the incentive of Fray Juan de Zumarraga, first Bishop of Mexico snd eventually the introducer of the printing press to Mexico (the first ever brought to America) and Antonio de Mendoza, first Viceroy of Mexico, although its inauguration was not until 1553, and shortly presided by Francisco de Cervantes Salazar, a significant Spanish humanist. Although no longer in existence today, both the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and the Universidad Pontificia de Mexico considered themselves their successors. As can be understood, the erection of such a relevant institution, first of its kind in America was a significant event, and this first printing of their statutes an important source of information on it. Extremely rare, according to Worldcat we can only trace institutional copies at: Biblioteca Nacional de Mexico, Biblioteca Nacional de Chile, UC Berkeley (only copy in the United States), Bibliotecas del Tecnologico de Monterrey; we also located copies at the Real Academia de la Historia (Spain), Universidad Complutense (Spain). We couldn’t find a copy at John Carter Brown. Also rare at auction, no copy traced other than this in nearly 30 years. Provenance: early inscription on half-title, partial marca de fuego on bottom edge; bookplate of collector Federico Gómez de Orozco (1891-1962) on front free endpaper. Medina, Mexico 1011.
The Transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society. From January 1868 to December 1873. Volume XIX [including Memorandum on the Tribal Divisions in the Principality of Oman

The Transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society. From January 1868 to December 1873. Volume XIX [including Memorandum on the Tribal Divisions in the Principality of Oman, with a map showing the general distribution of the Tribes, and a table showing the genealogy of the ruling Dynasty of Muscat and Journal of an Excursion made by Capt. S. B. Miles in company with Mons Munzinger returning to Aden through the Fudhli Country, giving a general description of the country and of the several Arab Tribes occupying it, as also a report upon the geography of the district].

Oman] [Bombay Geographical Society] [Ross, E. C.] [Miles, Capt. S. B.]. Extremely early and important accounts on Oman and the Gulf, illustrated with a fascinating map of the region and a genealogical table locating the Tribes; published as part of the Transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society; the copy of the author. 1874. Bombay. Education Society’s Press, Byculla. 8vo (212 x 130 mm). iv, xc, 206 pp., 5 folding maps and charts. Nineteenth century half calf over dark green cloth, red and green gilt lettered labels to spine, raised bands to spine, minor chipping to spine, joints starting, worn. Scattered foxing to some pages, overall perfect; one folding map torn -without loss- and detached, old tape repairs to pp. 185-186. 60,000 $ First edition of these accounts of the Oman and the Gulf, by Ross and Miles, wonderfully illustrated with maps and charts, including a large map of the Arabian Coast from Abu Dhabi (“Abu Thebi”) and Dubai (“Debay”) to Ra’s Jibsh, published as part of volume 19 of the Transactions, doubtless one of one of the most significant publications of India of the time, which is composed of first-hand news of the member’s explorations, journeys, and scientific researches in Asia, the Middle East, and India, most being here published for the first time. The volume -as all- include the papers submitted by the members of the Society, which vary in nature however encompass mostly subjects of scientific research, even when dealing with explorations in the region (India, Africa and the Golf), we find observations on the geological, hydrographical, historical reality of the places visited, not mere accounts of pleasure. The map of Oman “Map of Oman showing distribution of the Principal Tribes. Compiled for Official use by E. C. Ross, Political Agent, Muscat”, is excessively rare and impressive, it represents the entire peninsula from Abu Dhabi and Dubai (Debay) to Ra’s Jibsh; the map was composed by Lieutenant-Colonel E. C. Ross, British Political Agent at Muscat and is based on a chart by Constable and Stiffe (1857 – 37), with corrections of spelling and “some additions from original native sources”. The Hinawi tribes are shown on the map in red letters and the “Ghafiri” tribes are in blue letters, together with known routes. It is included in the volume to accompany article VIII (pp. 187-198) “Memorandum on the Tribal Divisions in the Principality of Oman, with a map showing the general distribution of the Tribes, and a table showing the genealogy of the ruling Dynasty of Muscat, by Lieut.-Colonel E. C. Ross, Political Agent at Muscat. It measures 880 x 620 mm and its coloured in outline. Of considerable interest is the large genealogical folding table “Genealogical Table of Descendants of the Imam Ahmed Al-Bu-Sa-idi” issued to accompany Article VII (pp. 167-186) “Journal of an Excursion made by Capt. S. B. Miles in company with Mons Munzinger returning to Aden through the Fudhli Country, giving a general description of the country and of the several Arab Tribes occupying it, as also a report upon the geography of the district”; it measures 690 x 480 mm. Significant association provenance, from the library of the famous traveler and Political Agent in Muscat, and author of one of the articles in the volume, Samuel Barret Miles (1838 – 1914); Miles was a British officer, Arabist, political agent in the Arabic-speaking region -mainly Oman- and the leading authority on Oman, he studied at Harrow and entered the East India Company’s military service in 1857, his first contact with Arabia came with a regimental posting to Aden In 1866; Miles came to Oman during the reign of Turki bin Said, whom the British had assisted in ending a religious revolution of Azzan bin Qiasin, he travelled the interior learning the about the people, social conditions, geography, etc. In 1872 Miles was appointed Political Agent and Consult at Muscat, a position he held intermittently until 1887, it is during this series of appointments when he would organize and accomplish several expeditions into.
Rto. Sacado del Dante

Rto. Sacado del Dante, o Gran Bestia que ha venido del Brasil y al presente se halla en la Casa de las Fieras del Buen Retiro de esta Corte Entre otras particularidades de dicho animal, tiene la de que su peil es muy appreciable, su carne es del sabor de Ternera, sus Unas son las afamadas, y de mucha estimacion que vulgarmente llaman las de la gran Bestia, y que se han experimentado admirables contra la gota Coral tomando de sus polvos, y colgando una de las Unas al cuello del doliente. Entre Zeja y Zej tiene un Hueso con el qual rompe quanta maleza y palos halla por delante. Vive del mismo modo en la Tierra que en lo profndo de un rio. Su tamano es como el Jumento de un ano, y es el primero que ha venido a Espana

Brazil; Natural History] [Muela, Andrea de la]. Brazilian beast in exhibition in Madrid in the 18th century, exceptionally rare engraving. N.d. [c.1760-1800]. [Madrid]. Se hallara en la Libreria de Esparza Puerta del Sol. Drawn and engraved by Andres de la Muela. 198 x 250 mm. Manuscript inscription by a contemporary hand on lower margin “Vease la palabra Tapir en el Diccion. de Histora Naturl de Valmont de Bomare”, some inconsequential foxing, else fine. 2,000 $ Exceptionally rare engraving of a “beast” from Brazil, taken from the examples at the Casa de las Fieras del Parque del Buen Retiro (Madrid), a zoo built by Charles III (1774) in the Garden of Buen Retiro; during the 18th century, the animals that inhabited it came mostly from the Americas, sent by Viceroys and Colonial governors to the King, as well as species collected by Crown-appointed surveyors and scientists, such as Malaspina, Ruiz, Pavon and Azara. There is no indication however, of who might have sent this species. As part of the Enlightenment, publications responding to curiosity about the natural history of the colonies grew, and prints like this, with species largely explained proliferated; however their ephemeral constitution prevented them from surviving in large numbers. This is in fact one of only two copies known. It shows a genre of mammals, at the time grouped as Tapirs, originary from Asia and South America; this one in particular isprobably a Tapirus Terrestris). The inscription below the image explains the animal and details its virtues regarding their skin, nails and flesh. The rarity is exceptional, we couldn’t trace a single example in OCLC, Worldcat, or CCPBE, neither has a copy ever appeared for auction, only one copy can be found, at the Museo de Huesca.
Journal Written on Board of His Majesty's Ship Cambridge from January

Journal Written on Board of His Majesty’s Ship Cambridge from January, 1824, to May, 1827

Salvin, Hugh]. Rare account of a voyage to Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. 1829. Newcastle. Edward Walker. 8vo. Frontispiece, 3 ff., 245 pp. Original cloth, rebacked, edges worn. Light browning and foxing spots, else an excellent example, uncut. 2,400 $ First edition. A fascinating account of a voyage through South America, and an important political mission from England to Argentina, Chile, Peru and Uruguay; first landing in Rio de Janeiro, from there they travelled to Montevideo, Buenos Aires, and then through Patagonia towards Chile and Peru; the party boarded H.M.S. Cambridge, one of the largest ships of the line. The author narrates his journey day by day, and narrates with considerable amount of details all he saw and did, especially focusing on his experiences, visual records, slavery and black population, buildings, costumes of the inhabitants, etc. The relevance given to recently-independent and emerging countries of Argentina, Chile, Peru and Uruguay by the English government is proven by the important ship sent for the mission; this was apparently the first ship of the line since Anson s Centurian to enter the Pacific. The town of Monte Video disappointed me a good deal; its population is said not to exceed 10 or 15,000, of which blacks form but a small part; the streets are ill paved, and the houses, to an English eye, appear mean and comfortless (pp.18). The destination of the Cambridge to South America was to carry four consuls, Mr. Rowcroft to Lima, Mr. Nugent to Valparaiso, Mr Parish to Buenos Ayres and Mr. Hood to Montevideo. The illustration is composed of a hand-colored frontispiece depicting two women one from Peru and the other from Lima. Includes Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Valparaiso, Santiago, Coquimbo, Callao, Lima, Chorillos and Huacho. Hill 1520; Sabin 74614; Borba de Moraes, 764.

Ovalle, Alonso de

Relacion verdadera de las Pazes que capitulo con el Araucano Rebelado, el Marques de Baides, Conde de Pedroso, Governador, y Capitan General del Reyno de Chile. Sacada de sus informes, y cartas, y de los Padres de la Compañia de Jesus, que acompañaron el Real exercito en la jornada que hizo para este efecto el año passado de 1641 Peace with the Araucanos Tribe of Chile; by Ovalle, the foremost chronicler of the 17th century, pre-dating his seminal history of Chile. 1642. Madrid. Francisco Maroto. Folio, (288 x 210 mm). 4 ff. Unbound. Some light toning, else fine. 8,000 $ First edition. Exceedingly rare work by Father Ovalle concerning the Peace made with the Araucanos of Chile, narrating the campaign to put an end to the long rebellion of the Indians, the internal conflicts between the Caciques [Indian Chiefs], and the release of the Spaniards made prisoners –some of whom had been held for 40 years. At the end, it transcribes the treaty signed between the Governor of Chile, Marques de Baides, and the Araucano leader to pacify the region; it was accomplished after the Araucanians were persuaded to accept the Spanish King´s authority, by witnessing miraculous portents. Ovalle praises the Spanish commander for his compassion and humanity, despite a strong claim for punishment of the natives. The title reads “True account of the Peace which the Governor of Chili, has made with the rebellious Araucanian Indians. Drawn up from the Jesuit Fathers who accompanied the royal expedition. Containing the strange wonders that preceded this peace. A volcano that burst out with flaming ashes heated the springs and cooked the fish in the rivers. Treating the liberation of the Spanish captives and the solemnity and ceremonies with which the enemy concluded the Peace” (Maggs, VI, 247, 1927). Alonso de Ovalle (1601 – 1651) was a Chilean born Jesuit Priest, historian, and educator, member of a prominent colonial family; his studies were carried out in Cordoba (Argentina) and finished in Chile, where he would work until the Society sent him to Rome, to solve matters for the Vice-Province of Chile with the General of the Order, staying for several years. His fame was gained through his seminal history of Chile “Historica relacion del reyno de Chile” (1646), immediately translated into Italian. His perilous return to Chile was undertaken in 1650, sailing back from Spain through Panama; at Paita Ovalle missed his ship, so he “set out overland for Lima, over an almost trackless region, with little preparation to meet his need for food and water. He arrived in Lima suffering a violent fever from which he died a few days later” (Maggs). Very rare in the market, the last copy available according to RBH was 1943, with dealer Lathrop Harper, and before that a copy held by Maggs Bros. (London) in the 1920’s. Institutionally we locate copies at JCB, Library of Congress, NYPL, University of Minnesota, Bryn Mawr and Boston Athenaeum. Primera edición. Impreso de singular importancia y rareza, que narra la historia de las guerras contra los Araucanos de Chile, la campaña iniciada por los españoles para poner fin a la rebelión de los Indios, la liberación de los españoles prisioneros –alguos de los cuales permanecieron en cautiverio por casi 40 años- y la paz lograda con el líder de la feroz tribu. Al final, el impreso transcribe el tratado firmado entre el Gobernador de Chile, Marques de Baides, con el líder Araucano, para la pacificación de la región, supuestamente lograda luego del sometimiento de los Araucanos a la autoridad del Rey Español, siguiendo la observación de milagros. Ovalle, en clara actitud favorable hacia los Indios, hace alabanza al comandante español por su actitud compaisva y humana para con los rebeldes, a pesar de los reclamos generales de mano dura y castigo. Alonso de Ovalle (1601 – 1651) es posiblemente el mas temprano historiador de Chile de nacionalidad Chilena, se ordeno como Jesuita y trabajo como educador y escritor; como descendiente de una importante familia colonial, Ovalle realizo sus estudios en Cordoba (Argentina), y los culmino en Chile, hasta que su orden lo llamara a Roma, para resolver problemas entre el Provincial de Chile y el General de la Orden. Su fama como escritor y cronista se la da su “Historia relación del reyno de.
Carta suplicatoria a los senores arçobispos

Carta suplicatoria a los senores arçobispos, y obispos, de los Reynos del Peru, Tierra-Firme y Chile: Para que sus señorias illustrissimas se sirban concurrir con las noticias de sus diocesis à la historia general dela Santa Iglesia Metropolitana Arçobispal de Lima, primada del Reyno del Perù. Qué escrive su coronista. el P. Lic. D. Alonso de la Cueva Ponce de Leon abogado en las Reales Audiencias de Lima y Panama, consultor y abogado de presos en el Santo Officio de las Inquisiciones de Lima y Cartagena: examinador sinodal del Arzobispado de Lima, y Obispado de Panama

Book project] Cueva Ponce de Leon, Alonso de la Requesting news of Chile, Peru and Tierra Firme to compile a History of the Church. 1725. Lima. Imprenta de la calle de Palacio. 4to, (200 x 142 mm). 62 pp., 1 [blank]. Contemporary limp vellum recased and adapted. Washed, title page with short tear restored, overall good condition. 1,000 $ First edition of this rather unusual topic for a Lima printing, in which the author requests the Archbishops and Bishop of Chile, Peru and Venezuela to contribute notes and news of their dioceses to be added to the general history of the Church being written; the work was finally published anonymously in 1873 under title: Apuntes para la historia eclesiastica del Perù hasta el gobierno del VII arzobispo (Cf. Medina). Cueva Ponce de Leon (1684-1754), author of this letter, was also author of the Synopsi de la Historia General de la Sta. Cathedral Iglesia Metropolitana de Lima Primada del Reyno del Peru. The JCB and Yale copies have at the end an appendix which is only present in their copy, and absent in the other institutionally held copies according to OCLC, it is the "Auto para que se entregue, en Archibo de la Santa Iglesia y Audiencia Arȯbispal de Lima, al R.P. Lic. D. Alonso de la Cueva”, which occupies pp. [63]-[76]. Institutionally we trace copies at JCB, Yale University, DIBAM (also with 60 pp.), NYPL (also 60 pp., the last blank, as in our copy). “There may be two versions of this work. The copy held by the New York Public Library does not include "Auto para que se entregue, en Archibo de la Santa Iglesia y Audiencia Arobispal de Lima, al R.P. Lic. D. Alonso de la Cueva" (p. [63-76]). The copy described by Medina does. That described by Vargas Ugarte is the John Carter Brown Library copy./ The work here projected was published anonymously as vol. 1 of: Apuntes para la historia eclesiástica del Perù hasta el gobierno del VII arzobispo ((Lima : Tipografía de "La Sociedad," 1873;1876; 2 v.). See G.R. Moreno, Bib. peruana, 114, and J.T. Medina, Lima, 828. Not everyone agrees, however, that Cueva was the author of said Apuntes. Other candidates include Fernando Villavicencio, d. 1756, the pastor of San Sebastian (Lima), and Manuel Clerque, the curate of Huaraz, according to R. Vargas Ugarte, Impresos peruanos, 1301.” Brown, J.C. Cat., 1493-1800, III:364; Sabin 63967; Palau 66182; Medina, J.T. Lima, 828; Vargas Ugarte, R. Impresos peruanos, 1301.
The Tears of the Indians: being an historical and true account of the cruel massacre and slaughters of above 20 millions of innocent people

The Tears of the Indians: being an historical and true account of the cruel massacre and slaughters of above 20 millions of innocent people

Las Casas, Bartolome de First English edition of one the seminal works in defense of the Indians of America; the “most gruesome” of its age (Church). 1656. London. Printed by J.C. for Nath. Brook. 8vo (163 x 102 mm). Complete, though folding plate provided in excellent facsimile. Full brown calf, bound by Worsfold, covers with multiple gilt rules, spine with raised bands in six compartments, second and third with green and red morocco lettering pieces, others with repeat overall gilt filigree motif, all edges marbled, inner dentelles gilt, marbled endpapers; joint a bit rubbed. An excellent copy, title neatly repaired and remargined, a few leaves with minor marginal repairs, minor foxing. 6,000 $ Very rare first English edition of this translation of the “Brevisima relacion de la destruccion de las Indias” (1552); a work described by Church as the “most gruesome” of its age. It contains graphic accounts of the cruelty of the Spaniards towards the Indians. Bartolomé de las Casas was the most fervent and influential advocate of Indian rights during his time. He lived during a period in which Spanish conquistadors viewed the Indians as natural slaves and barbarians. This translation is by John Phillips (1631-1706), a nephew of John Milton, and in his preface Phillips denounces the Spanish in language that recalls his uncle's fallen angels: “the Indians. received (the Spanish) as Angels sent from Heaven, till their excessive cruelties, the torments and slaughters of their countrymen mov'd them to take Arms against the Spaniards.” The book is dedicated to "Oliver, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth," who is encouraged to punish "the bloody and popish nation of the Spaniards." Milton was Cromwell's official censor and it appears probable that this populist and gory translation by his nephew is intrinsically an extension of Milton's remit to promote the dissemination of pro-Protector propaganda. Las Casas was a known enemy of the conquest of the Indies by force, and an early advocate for the right of the Indians to be treated humanely; by 1542 he had the Leyes Nuevas approved, which were printed in 1543 (these constitute the first document from an official authority printing regarding the proper treatment of Amerindians). “This is the best known of the two English translations of Las Casas’ Tracts. It contains his accounts of the cruelty of the Spaniards towards the Indians, but does not include his controversy with Sepulveda. It was translated by J. P., i.e., John Phillips, a nephew of John Milton, and is dedicated to Oliver Cromwell. The preface reminds Englishmen of the proud position they hold in civil and religious liberty, denounces the Spanish as “a Proud, Deceitful, Cruel, and Treacherous Nation, whose chiefest Aim hath been the Conquest of this Land”, and closes with an appeal to them to aid the Protector in the conquest of the West Indies.” (Church). The folding plate, present here in facsimile, is not in Sabin. Extremely rare, only one other copy has appeared for sale in the last 50 years, the Macclesfield copy (Sotheby’s, 2006, for 7,800 GBP). Provenance: Daniel Liberman — Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, February 23, 1966, lot 26; Sotheby's New York, June 3, 1997, lot 9. Church 549; Sabin 11289; Wing C799.
Breve Noticia de las Fiestas en la muy Ilustre Ciudad de Zacatecas Explico su Agradecimiento en la Confirmación del Patronato de Ntra. Sra. de Guadalupe

Breve Noticia de las Fiestas en la muy Ilustre Ciudad de Zacatecas Explico su Agradecimiento en la Confirmación del Patronato de Ntra. Sra. de Guadalupe

Zacatecas fete book] [Orrio, Francisco Xavier Alexo de; Beltran, Luis de; Alfaro, José Jorge Rare Mexican printing narrating the parties in celebration of the Patronage confirmation of the Virgin of Guadalupe, considerable contents about women. 1759. Mexico. Imprenta de los Herederos de Doña María de Rivera. 4to, (205 x 150 mm). 1 ff., 38 pp., 64 pp., 1 ff., 28 pp., 1 ff., 29-54, 1 ff., p. 55-78, 1 ff., p.79-108, 1 ff., p. 109-130, 1 ff., p.131-150 -including divisional titles. Contemporary vellum, spine lettered in ink; slightly soiled. Text block detached, waterstain in the top corner of some pages at the end of the volume, otherwise in very good condition. First Edition; rare account of a celebration in Zacatecas in honor of the Virgin of Guadalupe, the work is divided in two parts, the first one is the description of the Holidays, the second part is 6 sermons. Included are the following sermons: La Confirmación de Nuestra Dicha Oración Eucharistica (Beltran de Beltran, Luis) / Claro Testimonio de la Gloria de María Santíssima en su Mialagrosissima Imagen de Guadalupe. Sermón Panegyrico (Alfaro Y Azevedo, Joseph George de) / Excessos de la Mayorazga Americana, a la Promogenita Española. Sermón Panegyrico (Cassares, Manuel Joseph) / Última Perfección de la Imagen de Guadalupe en la Confirmación de el Patronato. Sermón (Camacho y Plama, Joseph) / La Americana Confirmada en la Gracia, o Favor de María en su Bellissima Imagen de Guadalupe. Sermón Panegyrico (Ruíz, Juan de Dios) / La Confirmación del Patrocinio Guadalupano en la Conquista de Zacatecas. Sermón (Espinosa, Miguel de). Rare: we can only trace one auction record, Swann, 2019 (lot 297, 5,000 $). Provenance: contemporary ink inscription to title page. Medina, Mexico 4532; Palau 35364 (listing the parts and authors).
Account of a voyage to South East Asia and the East Indies] Wahrafter

Account of a voyage to South East Asia and the East Indies] Wahrafter, klarer, eigentlicher Bericht von der weiten, wunderbarer und die bevor getaner Reiss oder Schiffahrt bis in Indien Aus Niderlandische sprach in hochteutch bracht durch Conrad Lew

Houtman, Cornelis de] [East Indies] Earliest obtainable news of the first Dutch voyage to the East Indies, which ushered the creation of the Dutch East India Company and presence in the Spice Trade. 1598. Cologne. Bertram Buchholz. Folio, (275 x 175 mm). 2 ff., 12 ff. Bound in old vellum made of a musical leave, recently. In excellent condition, tall copy, light toning. 28,000 $ Extremely rare account on Cornelis de Houtman’s 1595 to 1597 voyage to the East Indies, a pioneering enterprise which initiated Dutch presence in the East Indies and which set the standard for Dutch exploration, being organized by the Company of Distant Lands, the immediate forerunner of the more famous Dutch East India Company, the VOC, established in 1602. This anonymous, firsthand journal, first published in Dutch as Verhael vande Reyse de Hollandtsche schepen ghedaen naer Oost Indien (Middleburg: Barent Langenes, 1597), was the first printed account describing the voyage. Two versions of the text appeared of which the Verhael was the briefer but also the earlier of the two (cf. Rouffaer, De eerste schipvaart der Nederlanders naar Oost-Indië onder Cornelis de Houtman). It was translated into German by Conrad Loew. Two editions of this German edition were printed in Cologne in 1598 for which priority has not been established but both are now extremely rare: four copies of that published by Peter Reschedt are listed in USTC; and no copies of this Bertram Buchholtz imprint are recorded on USTC or elsewhere. De Houtman’s voyage was motivated by the precariousness of Dutch access, as a result of the Dutch Revolt, to the largely Iberian-controlled spices and bullion markets. The tenuousness of this access to these markets led the Dutch to examine the possibility of sailing directly to the East in their own ships. As a result, De Houtman was sent to Portugal in 1592 to investigate the conduct of the spice trade. He returned two years later urging the dispatch of direct voyages to the East and in 1595 led the first such venture. De Houtman’s fleet sailed into the Atlantic to Brazil before rounding the Cape of Good Hope on 7 February 1595, it then sailed across the Indian Ocean from Madagascar to the Sunda Straits and en route touched on Sumatra, traded for a time in Bantam – a famously wealthy spice port –, and made several other stops on the north coast of Java and on Bali; on its homeward journey, the fleet sailed along the south of Java. De Houtman’s brother, Frederick, a talented astronomer who also sailed on the voyage, greatly contributed along with the Dutch navigator Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser to mapping the southern skies recording a great number of new constellations. ‘The voyage was not a financial success, and barely recovered its expenses. The nearly empty holds held only 245 bags of pepper, 45 tons of nutmeg, 30 bales of mace, and a selection of Chinese porcelain. The backers were aghast at the terrible loss of life [only 87 out of 249 men on the voyage returned and those that survived were too weakened on their return to even bring their ships into anchorage]. But the voyage was, in another sense, a resounding success in that it showed to the Dutch that they might successfully reach the Indies. In the following year no fewer than twenty-two ships distributed over six expeditions ventured out, and the rush to the East had begun’ (F. Swart, ‘Lambert Biesman (1573–1601) of the Company of Trader-Adventurers, the Dutch Route to the East Indies, and Olivier van Noort’s Circumnavigation of the Globe’, The Journal of the Hakluyt Society, December 2007). The Compagnie van Verre, which Houtman helped create, merged to form the Dutch East India Company. Houtman’s voyage is now known for being the starting point of the Dutch spice trade and colonization of Indonesia. Lach notes that: ‘Firsthand reports of insular Southeast Asia arrived in the Netherlands with Cornelis de Houtman’s (d. 1599) fleet in August 1597. An anonymous Verhael vande reyse was published by Barent Langenes.
Collection of Republics in 27 volumes

Collection of Republics in 27 volumes, in uniform bindings

Elzevier Republics] A fine collection of Elzevier Republics in uniform contemporary binding, including Africa, Russia, Turkey, Persia. 1626 and later. Officina Elzeviriana. Leyden. 12mo, (ca. 110 x 60 mm). Uniform contemporary limp vellum gilt, double gilt fillet with central device to boards, flat spine, elegantly gilt with fleurons. Excellent condition overall for the bindings, only occasionally light soiling. A fine set, almost showing no traces of use. 9,000 $ First editions. A particularly handsome set of Elzevier´s famous Republics, all in pocket-book format, a collection created around 1626 and later by the association of Bonaventure Elzevier, and his nephew Abraham; the enterprise was aimed at providing an overview of the current political, geographical, and historical reality of a country or region, mixed with older accounts of past empires and historical descriptions of continents and countries (such as Leo Africanus’ Africa). Each volume is illustrated with an engraved title page. The set, which comprises a considerable amount of countries and regions, is extremely handsome. The collection reunites Leo Africanus’ Africae Descriptio (both parts), De Imperio Magni Mogolis sive India vera, Persia seu Regni Persici, Gallia, Scotland, Hispania (Spain), Graecorum Respublicae (first and second part), Republica Anglorum (England), Bosporo Thracio (Bosphorus), Respublica et status regni Hungariae (Hungry), Suecia (Sweden), Leodiensi Republica, Republica Romana (Rome, both parts), Leidani de quatuor summis Imperiis, Republica Hebraeorum (Holy Land), Constantinopoleos (Constantinople / Istabul), Iure Regni, Russia seu Moscovia itemque Tartaria, Holland, Tractatus de Constitutione Imperii Roman-Germanici (Holy Roman Empire), Rhetia, Moscovia et Urbes, De Regno Daniae et Norwegiae (Denmark and Norway), and Belgii Confederati (Low Countries).
Breve relacion sobre la persecucion de nuestra Santa Fe en la Provincia de Kiamnan

Breve relacion sobre la persecucion de nuestra Santa Fe en la Provincia de Kiamnan, y otras Provincias del Imperio de la China, ilustres vidas de los PP. Ant. Joseph Henriquez, y Tristan de Atimis, por el P. Luis de Sequeyra y el P. Juan Simoes, de la Compañia de Jesus.

Sequeira, Luis de; Simoes, Juan Remarkably rare Manila imprint, narrating the persecution of Jesuits in China; one of three known copies 1751. Manila. Imprenta de la Compañia de Jesus, Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay. 4to. 3 ff., 72. Twentieth century speckled calf, boards tooled in blind, spine gilt with lettering piece. Printed on rice paper. Title with minor marginal repairs, else a very good copy. 25,000 $ First edition. The work deals with the persecution, arrest, imprisonment and execution of a group of Jesuit missionaries under the Qianlong Emperor. “During the violent outbreak of persecution in Fukien, in 1746, Hukwang and Kiangnan enjoyed a relative peace that lasted until the end of 1747 when two Jesuits working in Kiangnan, Antonio Jose Henriques and Tristano Francesco de Attimis, were arrested, condemned to death and executed” (China Missions in crisis, Joseph Krahl). After De Attimis and Henriquez’ capture, they were subdued to torture “De Attimis who was new in the mission and did not speak the language well, was not treated badly, but Henriques was cruelly tortured on several occasions”, apparently Henriquez got the worst part. “Relatan las persecuciones sufridas por los cristianos en 1746 y años siguientes. La Relacion del P. simoens es relativa a la Provincia de Pekin.” (Medina). The book is divided into chapters, entitled: “Principio de la persecucion, y castigos con que Dios en este tiempo afligio a los Chinas” [Origin of the persecution and punishments with which God in this time inflicted the Chinese]; “Persecucion del Kiamnan, y su autor. Prision de los Missioneros, y su examen” [Persecution of Kiamnan and its author ], in this particular chapter, there is a reference to Father Tristan de Attimis, by Father Juan de Sexas, that when the former was captured a map was found amongst his papers, a map arguably to be used for a premeditated rebellion; “La sentencia, y muerte a los venerables Padres” [The sentence and death, of the venerable Fathers]; “Breve noticia de la vida de los VV. PP. hasta su Martyrio ”. The Jesuit presence in China underwent different periods with the local authorities, some of great favor and some less so. This chapter of the Sino-Jesuit relations is to be considered amongst the most agitated. The relations under the Manchu were overall excellent, especially under Kangxi, who had little hesitation to appoint the Jesuits as advisers on mapping and engineering. The persecution, martyrdom and imprisonment of these priests, was one of the few periods of unrest for the missionaries. Medina does not appear to have seen it or collates an incomplete copy. Palau mentions refers to a 1606 edition quoted by Nicolas Antonio, which is impossible as it was written after the events of 1748 and gives a collation which is different than the other 3 known copies, thus a mistake. The copy at the BNE collates as ours; the Yale copy says only 72. A very rare Manila imprint on rice paper, according to OCLC we can only trace copies at the BNE and Yale. Medina, Manila, 236 (quoting 2 ff. instead of 3 ff. as in this copy). Palau, 309407.
Guia Politica

Guia Politica, Eclesiastica y Militar del Virreynato del Peru para el ano 1797

Unanue, Jose Hipolito Rare colonial guide to the Viceroyalty of Peru. [1797]. [Lima]. Imprenta Real de los Niños Huefanos. 8vo, (146 x 101 mm). [8], xii, [2], 259 (i.e. 275), [13] pp., illustrated with a folding map and 6 folding tables. Contemporary Peruvian mottled calf, flat spine, densely tooled in gilt, exactly as others by Unanue, so presumably a binding commissioned by the printer, or at the same shop, in its original condition; gently rubbed at foot and with inconsequential worming to boards. Excellent copy, very fresh and clean, scattered foxing spots, else fine. 4,500 $ First edition of this extremely rare guide to the Viceroyalty of Peru, printed in Lima by the Orphan children, and housed in its contemporary binding; this is the fifth published and the last in the 18th century published in Peru (his first guide was issued in 1793, and this would be Unanue’s last). The illustration is composed of a folding map, “Plano del Virreynato del Peru” by Andres Baleato, which depicts the coastline and partial interior, including portions of the Altiplano, and 7 folding plans (which provide a comprehensive panorama of the production, distances and present state of the Intendencias, mines, posts, population and such of the Viceroyalty). This guide offers detailed information on the provinces of Peru numbers of people (divided into sub-categories i.e. clergy, Indios, Spanish, Mestizos, slaves, etc.), the existing buildings (types and uses, often with amount of rents paid), the names of public officials (administrators, clergy, etc.), then a list of the main staples produced by the town, village or region. The folding plans are financial, showing import and export values, the number and type of mines, their values, and the number of laborers at each. Unanue (1758 – 1833) was a Peruvian scientist, teacher and author; from 1793-97, he conducted a census of Peru, befriended Simon Bolivar and took part of the Independence struggles of Peru. Rare, OCLC lists only four copies. Provenance: two old French library stamps to title; Doyle Galleries, New York, Sale 14BP04, lot 453, 2014. Medina, Lima, 1790 (for the 1794 edition); Sabin, 97718 (for all editions).
Hystoria en la qual se trata dela origen y guerras que han tenido los Turcos

Hystoria en la qual se trata dela origen y guerras que han tenido los Turcos, desde su comienco hasta nuestros tiempos. Con muy notables sucessosque con diversas getes y nasciones les han acotecido: y de las costubres y vida dllos

Rocca, Vicente Remarkable Spanish treatise on the Turks, first and only edition. 1555. Valencia. Juan Navarro. Folio, (303 x 214 mm). 4 ff., cliii. Eighteenth century stiff vellum, raised bands to spine, lettered in ink, head restored. A fine, wide-margined and unsophisticated copy, with only minor scattered foxing. 12,000 $ First and only edition of the best 16th century Spanish work on the Turks. During the greater part of century of discoveries, Soliman the Magnificent’s expansion through the Mediterranean and across central Europe threatened Europe and Spain to the point only a large-scale invasion could; Valencian-born Rocca narrates the campaigns, battles and privateering activities of the Bereberes on the coasts of Valencia and Andalucia. The Hystoria is divided into three parts, the first deals with the crusades done to Jerusalem, the second with victories of Charles V and Venice over the Turks at the African coasts, and the third deals extensively with the way of life and customs of the Turks –which allows us a glimpse of Spanish perception of what was one of the greatest nations of the 16th century. The work has been considered rare and important since the days of Salva. It is considerably rare; no copies are traced at auction in over 30 years. It is handsomely printed in two columns, with large engraved device to title page, gothic type. Though well represented institutionally, we can trace copies at the University of Bern, BNE, Universidad de Valencia, Newberry Library, London Library, Houghton Library (Harvard), BNM, National Library of Israel, BL, Mediatheque de Montpellier, and University of Pennsylvania, plus two others in Spain, it is scarce in the market. Salva, 3388; Palau, 271434.
Relacion del Sucesso que tuvo Nuestra Santa Fe en los Reynos del Japon

Relacion del Sucesso que tuvo Nuestra Santa Fe en los Reynos del Japon, desde el ano 1612 hasta el de 1615, Imperando Cubosama

Piñeyro, Luis The final years of the Jesuit missions in Japan, with a list of the Christian Martyrs; exceptionally fine copy. 1617. Madrid. Viuda de Alonso Martin de Balboa. Folio, (285 x 198 mm). 8 ff., 516, 4 ff. Near contemporary calf, boards with triple gilt fillet, raised bands to spine, tooled in gilt, two morocco lettering pieces, one with cypher. Light soiling, mainly marginal, to a few pages, mostly unobtrusive foxing spots, overall a remarkably fresh and clean copy. 20,000 $ First edition. A rare work on Japanese Western affairs in the early 17th century; it stands as an early source book to the history of Japan. The history spans mostly through the years 1612 1615, and devotes itself to the progress of the Faith in the region, the Japanese, the causes of the persecution of Christians & converts, and the expulsion of the missionaries with its effects- following the Tokugawa Ieyasu edict of 1614, which ordered the expulsion of the missionaries and marked the beginning of the end of the Christian Church in Japan. The work contains a list of the Christian martyrs from 1574 1615 and the location of the Jesuit missions in Japan. For Japanese history, this is also a most relevant work, as it is written during the years of the beginning of the Shogunate that would control the country for two centuries, ending a period of unrest and civil war by the different Daimyos. Muy raro (Palau). Piñeyro (1560 1620) was a Spanish Jesuit missionary; he is believed to have been in Japan during the years of gradually worsening relationships between the Shogunate and the Christian Church. Cordier Japonica, 290. Palau 226932. Streit V, 1163. De Backer Sommervogel, VI, 817.
Histoire de la navigation. aux Indes Orientales. Contenant diverses Descriptions des lieux jusques à present descouverts par les Portugais

Histoire de la navigation. aux Indes Orientales. Contenant diverses Descriptions des lieux jusques à present descouverts par les Portugais

Linschoten, Jan Huygen van Given to every ship sailing from Holland to the East; the final edition of Linschoten´s monumental work. 1638. Amsterdam. Evert Cloppenburgh. Folio, (306 x 196 mm). 4 ff., 205 pp., 2 ff., 181 pp., 1 ff., 86 pp., including three letterpress titles [two within elaborate engraved surrounds, the third with engraved vignette], portrait of Linschoten on verso of Index, 6 folding engraved maps, and 36 engraved plates (5 folding and the rest double page), and views by Johann and Baptiste van Deutecum after Linschoten. Modern, probably mid-20th century vellum, boards with triple gilt fillets forming compartments one with corner pieces, spine elegantly tooled and lettered in gilt. Washed and pressed, some leaves a little browned but mostly very clean; maps in excellent condition without the usual tears to folds. 46,000 $ Third, and last, edition, a fundamental work for the history of exploration and navigation of the age of discovery in South America, the Pacific, and Asia, as well as one of the most useful tools in the early 17th century for navigators, merchants, and sailors travelling to America and Asia; copiously illustrated with 36 plates and views, and a complement of 6 engraved folding maps, including van Langren's maps of the East Indies and South America, and the double-hemispherical World map of Plancius dated 1594 (Shirley 187): the most important of the first hand accounts published independently of the great travel collections (Lach). The Wardington catalogue explains why copies of Linschoten's works are so difficult to find in even reasonable condition, as they were "held in such high esteem that for nearly a century a copy was given to each ship proceeding to India for use as a guide to the sailing directions. The fact that most copies were in continual use is no doubt the reason that so few copies - in any language - remain extant in anything approaching good condition." According to Boies Penrose, Linschoten had an avaricious thirst for knowledge which enabled him to get detailed information of land and sea as far afield as the Spice Islands and China" (Boies Penrose). The Histoire is divided in three parts, the first being the Histoire de la navigation, and the second and third being Le Grand Routier de Mer. Continant une instruction des routes & cours qu'il convient tenir en la Navigation des Indes Orientales, & au voyage de la coste du Bresil, des Antilles, & du Cap de Lopo Gonsalves and Description de l'Amerique & des parties d'icelle, comme de la Nouvelle France, Floride, des Antilles, Iucaya, Cuba, Jamaica. Linschoten (1563-1611), a Dutchman born in Delft in 1590, was in Goa between 1583 and 1589, and with Willem Barents on his second voyage to the Kara Sea in 1594-1595. This practical experience all lent authenticity to the present work, first published in Dutch (Amsterdam, 1595-1596), and it remains one of the most important travel books and went through numerous editions in various languages. It contains the most comprehensive account of the East and West Indies available at the end of the 16th century, and according to Church (and other authorities) it was given to each ship sailing from Holland to India. As well as including important travel accounts taken from contemporary Portuguese, Dutch and Spanish sources, it is the first work to include precise sailing instructions for the Indies and also includes an excellent account of America, to such a point that it was given to each ship sailing from Holland to India. (Church). Furthermore, the importance of Linschoten´s work is that it gave the Dutch a stepping stone to understand navigation to the East, as well as an precise report on the gradual decline of Portuguese power in the East, and the consequential loss of ability to protect the trade routes and monopolies; all lead to the encouragement of Dutch, and English fleets to set sail for the Spice Islands, China, South East Asia, and Japan.
Annaes historicos do Estado do Maranhao

Annaes historicos do Estado do Maranhao, em que se da noticia do seu descobrimento, e tudo o mais que nelle tem sucedido desde o anno em que foy descuberto até o de 1718

Pereira de Berredo, Bernardo A fundamental work on the Maranhao and the Amazon. 1749. Lisbon. Francisco Luiz Ameno. Folio, (283 x 194 mm). 13 ff., 710. Later half vellum over boards, title lettered in gilt and with printed paper label at foot, a bit soiled but else very good. A wide margined copy, a few leaves with mainly marginal small worm holes, hardly noticeable, exceedingly fresh and clean, a splendid copy overall. 6,000 $ First edition. Important and rare work on the Brazilian province of Maranhao, “One of the rarest books and at the same time one of the best private histories of Brazil” (Leclerc). It deals with wide range of subjects up to the year 1718, commencing by its colonization, and focusing on its history, population and struggle with the Dutch in Brazil, also the Amazon and the navigation of its rivers. It would be hard to overestimate the immense importance of this chronic of Brazil. “The first edition is rare and much sought after, as it is a classic on Maranhao” (Borba de Moraes). Berredo was Governor of the Marañon province of Brazil from 1718-1722; he died in 1748 at Lisbon, whilst preparing this work for the press. Sabin quotes Southey saying “(Pereira) has left for himself a more durable remembrance in his historical annals of the state over which he presided”; “A obra fundamental da história do Maranhao” (Correa do Lago). Borba de Moraes, 103; Correa do Lago, Brasiliana Itau, 2009; Palau, 218678; Rodrigues, Bibliotheca Brasilica, 388; Sabin, 4967.
Relacam do que aconteceo aos Demarcadores Portuguezes

Relacam do que aconteceo aos Demarcadores Portuguezes, e Castelhanos, no certam das terras da Collonia; opozicam que os Indios ihe fizerao, rompimiento de Guerra que houve, e de como se alhanarao todas as deficultades

Fonceca, Feliz Feliciano da Native opposition to the King´s surveyors. N.d. [1753]. Lisbon. 8vo. 4 ff. Later quarter calf over boards, spine gilt with lettering piece. Browned throughout, uniformly, as often with this type of pamphlets for the paper used. 2,600 $ First edition. Extremely rare imprint, with first-hand news on the perilous execution of the Treatise of Madrid (1750) between the Kingdoms of Portugal and Spain; the peace treaty traded the bulk of Paraguay, home of the Reductions of the Guarani’s, for Colonia del Sacramento. As per the treaty, Colonia would pass to Spain, eager to control the navigability of the River Plate, whilst Portugal would receive the vast lands of Paraguay. The immense region of Paraguay (between the rivers Ibicui and Uruguay) had several Jesuit missions occupied by thousands of Guarani´s; the Jesuits were by no means anxious to leave the product of their work with the natives and the already self-supporting Missions; the natives (mainly Guarani) weren´t either. As it would be expected, the Indians clung to their farms, homes and land, the conflict arose promptly and sharply, with the Guarani´s and Atalaya natives attacking the Portuguese and Spanish surveyors. Very rare, we could only find copies at the New York Public Library, JCB, Catholic University of AM (Oliveira Lima Library), Getty research Institute, . Not in Sabin. Borba de Moraes, 314.
Noticia e justificacam do titulo

Noticia e justificacam do titulo, e boa fee com que se obrou a Nova Colonia do Sacramento, nas terras da capitania de S. Vicente, no sitio chamado de S. Gabriel nas margens do Rio da Prata

Colonia del Sacramento; Brazil]. Foundation document of Colonia del Sacramento, starting over 100 years of armed conflicts. 1681. Lisboa. A. Craesbeeck de Mello. Folio, (268 x 190 mm). 7 ff., 34 pp. Later full calf, raised bands to spine, lettered in gilt. Fine copy, with only minor toning and light trace of water staining. 6,000 $ First edition. Very rare work justifying Portugal´s right to Colonia del Sacramento (Uruguay), in the River Plate; “defends the rights of Portugal over the Colony of Sacramento, and reproduces the Tratado provisional of May 7, 1681” (Borba de Moraes). It ratifies the Portuguese claim to the territory on the left bank of the Rio de la Plata, an issue that remained cause of conflict until the first decades of Republican life in Argentina and Uruguay, and Empire in Brazil: “document d’une grande importance” (Leclerc). Contains the 17 articles of the peace treaty of Lisbon (1681), which orders the return to Governor Manuel Lobo the artillery taken at the fortress of Colonia, the restitution of people, the King of Portugal obliges himself to look into the behaviour of people from S. Paulo, and many other regulations as prohibition of trade either by land or sea between Buenos Aires and Brazil; at the end there is a recount of the history of explorations and shipwrecks in the River Plate region, Manuel Lobo, Governor of the Captaincy of Rio De Janeiro, officially founded the city in 1680, although previous Spanish settlements were located in the region. The city´s strategic location, in the opposite riverbank of Buenos Aires, gave military and commercial leverage to its occupier, thus extremely important geo-politically. The Spanish, once aware of the foundation, gathered an army to take the city, which they did in 1680. The Portuguese Crown protested, and the city was given back in 1681. “This important document contains the official deeds and the agreement between the two Kingdoms (Spain and Portugal), regarding the establishment of the Colony of Sacramento opposite the City of Buenos Aires The Colony was taken and retaken several times, till finally, in 1777, the Spaniards destroyed it.” (Maggs). “Very rare” (Borba de Moraes), no copies have appeared at auction in over 50 years. We can locate copies at DIBAM (Chile), Catholic University of AM (Oliveira Lima Library), JCB, and British Library, according to OCLC. Sabin 56001; Borba de Moraes, 617; Palau, 193467.
Mining] Puntos

Mining] Puntos, y Capitulaciones, que exponen los Diputados sobre el establecimiento de la Compañia del YC[?] Gremio de Azogueros. Con los que floreceran las Minas: sus duenos familias y herederos tendran mucho alibio: se aumentara en crezido numero la saca de los marcos de plata: Y por consiguiente se acrezentaran los Reales Diezmos

Colonial mining and organization; Potosi mining] Iribarren, Pedro de; Oricaim[?], Juan Antonio Colonial manuscript in defense of the Gremio de Azogueros of Potosi. 1765. Potosi. Folio, (306 x 210 mm). 5 ff. Unbound. Manuscript in brown ink on paper; written in a legible hand –perhaps two. Water stain to upper outer margin, else very good. 1,400 $ Significant historical manuscript in defense of the Ilustre Gremio de Azogueros of Potosi, a predecessor to the Real Banco de San Carlos de Potosi, it was an organization that grouped the owners of mines, with the aim of defending common interests. The Gremio was one of the very few private corporations to be officially recognized –and favored- by the Spanish Crown, it´s labor force was mostly comprised of the native population: “constituida por los indios de trabajo forzoso, es decir, los mitayos, y por los indios de trabajo “voluntario” (minga).” (Rose Marie Buechler, Gobierno, minería y sociedad: Potosí y el renacimiento´ borbónico). The manuscript starts by giving an idea of it´s constitution, establishing that it should have a capital of no more –or less- than 500,000 Pesos, and the provisions to this effect –as stopping contributions when the sum is reached; follows with a proposal to sell the azogue at cost, and not at the prices it has been selling –expressing numbers, clearly a manuscript drafted by someone very much in connection with the industry-, and finally makes references to Royal Decrees and memorials of the 17th century, with privileges and benefices granted to them. Signed at the end by Pedro de Iribarren (businessman from Potosi, mine owner) and an unidentified signature. The azogue, used in the process of amalgamation of silver, was a chemic used for the treatment of silver in colonial-ruled America (including Mexico); both the supply and price of it were controlled centrally from Spain, thus the huge impact it had on what was likely the single most productive enterprise in South America: mining. This was especially relevant for the Villa de Potosi, famously known for it´s Cerro, from which the silver was extracted.