WP Watson Antiquarian Books

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Dialogo . dove ne i congressi di quattro giornate si discorre sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo

Dialogo . dove ne i congressi di quattro giornate si discorre sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo, Tolomaico, e Copernicano; Proponendo indeterminatamente le ragioni filosofiche, e naturali tanto per l’una, quanto per l’altra parte. [bound with other texts; see below]

GALILEI, Galileo (1564-1642) et al 4to (214 x 156 mm), pp [viii] 458 [30 (index), without errata leaf; see below], with engraved frontispiece and numerous woodcut diagrams in the text, the letter ‘H’ added in manuscript to the diagram on p 192 (as usual), and errata corrected in manuscript throughout (75 in all); frontispiece on thick paper in a fine, dark, early impression, a very good copy in contemporary Italian vellum, bound and lettered uniformly with the two-volume Opere (Bologna, 1655-56), and lettered in ms on spine: ‘Opere del Galileo Tom III’, spines partially perished. First edition; all of the errata found on the errata leaf have been meticulously corrected in the text by the owner, who in assembling the volume discarded the errata leaf and added the additional texts as detailed below. The frontispiece is an excellent early impression with rich black tones, printed on thick paper as were all the early issues. This is a remarkable copy, bound as a ‘third’ volume of the Bologna edition of the Opere (1655-56) and uniform in binding with the two volumes of the Opere that accompany it. It contains the texts that could not be published at the time in the Opere: the Dialogo, or Dialogue concerning the two chief World Systems as it is known in English; a manuscript of Galileo’s Lettera to the Grand-duchess of Tuscany, the text of which was instrumental, along with the Dialogo, in bringing about Galileo’s trial by the Inquisition, and two further related texts that were prohibited in Italy, the most famous being Foscarini’s Lettera . sopra l’opinione de’ Pittagorici, e del Copernico. Della mobilita de la terra, e stabilita del sole, e del nuovo Pittagorico sistema del mondo, published in Naples in 1615 and immediately condemned by Cardinal Bellarmine and put on the Index. It is present here in its Latin translation of 1641. The contents of the unique third volume closely anticipate that of the illicit printing of the supposed Florentine edition (Naples in fact, 1710) of the Dialogo, which was accompanied by printings of the same texts here present, and in the same order. Also, some effort seems to have been made to disguise the contents, not only in the spine lettering, but in ‘sandwiching’ two of the most controversial texts, the Lettera, and the Lyons printing of Foscarini, between the end of the main text of the Dialogo and its index. There are two later related documents loosely inserted in the copy, one concerning the reburial of Galileo in Santa Croce in the monumental tomb that his pupil Viviani had commissioned. Carli and Favaro p 28; Cinti 89; Dibner 8; Horblit 18c; Norman 858; PMM 128 A MUCH MORE DETAILED DESCRIPTION IS AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST
Theorie de la Perspective [with:] Nouvelle Theorie du Melange des Coulêurs. Tirée de l'Optique de M. Newton . [Paris

Theorie de la Perspective [with:] Nouvelle Theorie du Melange des Coulêurs. Tirée de l’Optique de M. Newton . [Paris, ca 1757]

LACAILLE, Nicolas-Louis, Abbé de (1713-1762) Folio (370 x 240 mm), ff [10], with one loose folded sheet of tables and one part–sheet of astronomical observations (see below), ink on paper, with numerous diagrams and tables, text and tables with extensive revisions and corrections; in very good condition, unbound. A detailed manuscript on perspective and optics, with extensive tables for calculating the distance of objects, probably used in Lacaille’s courses on mathematics which he taught at the Collège Mazarin in Paris. The work begins with the Théorie de la Perspective. This is followed by Pratique de la Perspective. Five full-page and detailed tables follow, with the vertical columns titled Distances de l’Object au Plan du Tableau, and the horizontal columns titled Distances de l’Object au plan Horizontal ou au plan Vertical, containing 10,000 calculations. The next section is titled Regles pour trouver La Perspective des Objets dont les faces sont inclinées au Plan du Tableau, accompanied by another extensive table with 1700 calculations. The final perspective section is titled Sur Le Point de vuë, et le Lieu de l’oeil. The second part is devoted to Newton’s theory of colours, and seems to be based upon the French edition of Brook Taylor’s work on perspective. The French translation appeared in Amsterdam in 1757 and was titled Nouveau Principes de la Perspective Linéaire, which contained Essai sur le Mêlange des Couleurs, par Newton. However, LaCaille’s text is not a translation of that of Taylor’s, and in fact a radical reworking of the basic geometric principles of perspective. The tables are unique, the result of a massive effort of computation, one of Lacaille’s noted skills. Many of these techniques are related to his observational skills in astronomy and in calculating astronomical positions and distances. The small astronomical manuscript relates to observations he made at the Mazarin: ‘Par un milieu entre six observations d’un coté deduites au 1 Jan 1748 du egard a la observation eu à la precéssion’. LaCaille was an astronomer who was a prodigious observer and calculator, having observed over 10,000 stars in the Southern hemisphere, and named 14 of the 88 constellations. Initally he was assistant to Jacques Cassini and participated in a series of surveying projects, and in 1739 in remeasuring the arc of the meridian. Appointed professor of mathematics at the Collège Mazarin, he built his own observatory where he carried out astronomical observations. In 1752 he made an astronomical expedition to the Cape of Good Hope, where he built an observatory and carried out a prodigious series of observations, including the discovery and cataloguing of 42 nebulae. Lalande stated that he made more observations and calculations than all previous astronomers combined. Upon his return to Paris in 1754 he resumed his post and teaching duties at the Mazarin. His students included the great chemist Antoine Lavoisier
Autograph letter signed to biologist Henry lee

Autograph letter signed to biologist Henry lee, concerning the identification of species of barnacles, dated 23 December 1871.

DARWIN, Charles (1809?Äì1882) DARWIN, Charles (1809?Äì1882). Autograph letter signed to biologist Henry lee, concerning the identification of species of barnacles, dated 23 December 1871. Down, Beckenham, Kent, 23 December, 18718vo (2 pages on a single folded sheet, 200 x 259 mm) on printed letterhead Down, Beckenham, Kent?Äô, in ink, with original envelope addressed in Darwin?Äôs hand, stamped and postmarked; in very good condition, in a quarter-leather folding case. $18,500A fine and fascinating letter (with the original addressed envelope; these rarely survive), written in Darwin?Äôs scientific maturity but reverting to his early expertise in the anatomy of barnacles. Barnalces were the subject of his first major scientific monograph, published in two volumes by the Ray Society in 1851, 1854 (A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with figures of all the species. The Lepadid? ; or, pedunculated cirripedes . ). Darwin undertook the anatomical investigation of barnacles both as a result of specimens he collected during the Beagle voyage and also to demonstrate his mastery of detailed anatomical and taxonomic investigation. His work established the nomenclature and classification criteria that became standard up to this day.The letter concerns specimens of gooseneck barnacles submitted to Darwin by Henry Lee for classification. Darwin replies in detail with his characteristic attention and kindness to any serious scientific correspondent, even while he was engaged in correcting proofs for the sixth edition of the Origin of Species. Darwin conducted microscopic anatomical examinations of Lee?Äôs specimens and writes: ?ÄòI have now looked at both lots of specimens, & I think both are the variable L. ?anatifera.?Äî I have disarticulated the right-hand scutal valve in both & the umbonal teeth are plain in both. This with position of the carina suffices, though the latter ought to be disarticulated and cleaned. But I have hardly any doubt that both are L. ?anatifera . ?Äô.?ÄòDarwin's work on barnacles (Cirripedia), conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his ?transmutation notebooks ?and the ?Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin's species work. Yet when this study is viewed in the context of Darwin's earlier interests, in particular his studies of marine invertebrates carried out during his student days in Edinburgh and later on board the ?Beagle, the ?monograph on the Cirripedia ?seems less anomalous. Moreover, Darwin's study of cirripedes, far from being merely a dry, taxonomic exercise, was a highly theoretical work that addressed several problems at the forefront of contemporary natural history. Treating a group of organisms of considerable interest to mid-nineteenth century naturalists and approaching their classification using the most recent methods available, Darwin was able to provide a thorough taxonomic study that has remained a standard work in cirripede morphology and systematics. For Darwin personally, the barnacle work perfected his understanding of scientific nomenclature, comprising both theoretical principles and technical facility with the methods of comparative anatomy. It also provided him with an empirical means of testing his views on the species question (Crisp 1983) ?Ä Darwin's evolutionary interpretation of the meaning of classification explains why he readily adopted embryology as a methodological tool for revealing homologies?Äô (Cambridge University, Darwin On-line).Darwin exchanged several letters with Henry Lee.Henry Lee, naturalist, succeeded John Keast Lord (1818?Äì1872) as naturalist of the Brighton aquarium in 1872, and was for some time a director there. While at the aquarium he instituted important experiments on the migration of smelts, the habits of herring, and the nature of whitebait and crayfish. His Aquarium Notes (1875) for the use of visitors, was able and attractive. Lee was also author of The Octopus (1874), The White Whale (1878), Sea Fables Explained (1883), and Sea Monsters Unmasked (1883). The last two works were part of a series of handbooks issued in connection with the International Fisheries Exhibition in London in 1883. He also published The Vegetable Lamb of Tartary: a Curious Fable of the Cotton Plant (1887).?ÄòLee was also an energetic collector of natural history specimens, and a skilful worker with the microscope. On 5 April 1866 he was made a fellow of the Linnean Society, and he was founder of the Croydon Microscopical and Natural History Club established on 6 April 1870. He was also a member of the Geological and Zoological societies of London?Äô (ODNB).Darwin Correspondence Project n 8118B (partial transcript only)
Über den Einfluss der Schwerkraft auf die Ausbreitung des Lichtes. Separat-Abruck aus den Annalen der Physik. Vierte Folge. Band 35

úber den Einfluss der Schwerkraft auf die Ausbreitung des Lichtes. Separat-Abruck aus den Annalen der Physik. Vierte Folge. Band 35

EINSTEIN, Albert (1879?Äì1955) EINSTEIN, Albert (1879?Äì1955). ?úber den Einfluss der Schwerkraft auf die Ausbreitung des Lichtes. Separat-Abruck aus den Annalen der Physik. Vierte Folge. Band 35. Leipzig, Johann Ambrosius Barth, 19118vo (222 x 144 mm), pp [897, blank] 898?Äì908; a fine copy in original printed orange wrappers, stamped ?ÄòA. Einstein. ?úberreicht vom Verfasser?Äô above printed title.First edition, Einstein?Äôs presentation copy, from the collection of his son Hans Albert (see below) of Einstein?Äôs ?Äòfirst paper completely devoted to general relativity?Äô (?ÄòEinstein Completes the General Theory of Relativity?Äô, Siegmund Brandt, The Harvest of a Century p 105-106). This epochal paper develops the equivalence principle that the gravitational and inertial mass increase identically with the increase of energy, and that gravitational field strength affects time. As a consequence of this new theory of the?Äògravity of energy?Äô, Einstein derives the gravitational bending of light and gravitational redshift. Einstein would later propose these as the ?Äòclassical tests of general relativity?Äô. The first was the perihelion precession of the orbit of Mercury, the second the bending of light by gravitational fields, and the third the gravitational redshift of light. The first was already known, the second was famously observed by Eddington and team during a solar eclipse in 1919, and the third, gravitational redshift, was the most difficult, with various stages of verification of which the most recent was in the last few years.?ÄòIn 1911, Einstein proceeded to revise and improve his earlier presentation [in 1907], making the principle of equivalence the central feature of his treatment. Einstein now included an elegant proof, based on a cyclic process reminiscent of thermodynamics, that the gravitational mass of a body, as well as its inertial mass, is increased by the amount (E/c2) when the body absorbs energy E. His 1911 paper was specifically prompted by his new realization that it should be possible to observe the gravitational bending of light after all, if one relied on the sun?Äôs field rather than the earth?Äôs. One had to observe a star whose light would travel close to the sun, when such a star would appear to be displaced from its normal position by an angle that Einstein calculated to be 0.87 seconds of arc.?ÄòEinstein took the initiative in consulting experimental colleagues about the possibilities for checking these results. In August 1911 he began corresponding with W.H. Julius of Utrecht about the [gravitational] redshift, among other matters. At about the same time he raised with Erwin Freundlich at Berlin the question of observing the deflecting of starlight by the gravitational field of the sun, a subject on which he corresponded with George Ellery Hale at the Mount Wilson Observatory two years later. There would, however, be no reliable results on either of these subjects for years to come. But whether or not there were experimental results to help in guiding his work, generalizing relativity and creating a new theory of gravitation became the problem that absorbed his attention for the next few years?Äô (Introduction, pp xxix-xxx, The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein vol 3, The Swiss Years: Writings, 1901?Äì1911).?ÄòThus in 1911 we discern the first glimpses of the new Einstein program: to derive the equivalence principle from a new theory of gravitation. This cannot be achieved within the framework of what he called the ordinary relativity theory, the special theory. Therefore one must look for a new theory not only of gravitation but also of relativity. Another point made in this paper likewise bears on that new program. ?ÄúOf course, one cannot replace an arbitrary gravitational field by a state of motion without gravitational field, as little as one can transform to rest by means of a relativity transformation all points of an aribtrarily moving medium.?Äù This statement would continue to be true in the ultimate general theory of relativity.?ÄòEinstein concluded his comments on the equivalence principle by stressing again the great heuristic significance of the assumption that it is true for all physical phenomena rather than for point mechanics only?Äô (Abraham Pais ?Äò1911. The Bending of Light is Detectable?Äô, pp 194-200, in Subtle is the Lord. The Science and Life of Albert Einstein, Oxford University Press 1982).Provenance: author?Äôs presentation offprint; from the collection of his son Hans Albert (1904?Äì1974, professor of hydraulic engineering at University of California, Berkeley) Princeton document 23; Parkinson p 471; Weil 43* (Boni 39)
Mémoires mathematiques

M? moires mathematiques, contenant ce en quoy s?Äôest exerc? le tr?®s-illustre, tr?®s-excellent Prince et Seigneur Maurice Prince d?ÄôOrange, Conte de Nassau. translate en Franois par Jean Tuning.

STEVIN, Simon (1548?Äì1620) STEVIN, Simon (1548?Äì1620). M? moires mathematiques, contenant ce en quoy s?Äôest exerc? le tr?®s-illustre, tr?®s-excellent Prince et Seigneur Maurice Prince d?ÄôOrange, Conte de Nassau. translate en Franois par Jean Tuning. Leiden, I. P. Jacobsz, 1608, 1605, 1605, 1608Four parts in one, folio (310 x 197 mm), I. pp [xii, including blank leaf] 360 [recte 364]; II. 132; III. 91 [1, blank]; IV. 10 [2, blank]; 21 [3]; 6; 58 [2] 8; 108; with woodcut diagrams of the clootcrans, or wreath of spheres, on general title and numerous woodcut diagrams and tables in text, including four pasted on (see below); some browning, a fine, unrestored copy in contemporary vellum over boards, with overlapping edges.First French edition of this collection of works, complete and rare; they were published simultaneously in Dutch, French and Latin. All the works appearing in this volume were first published in this collection (with one exception, where the version here is the earliest extant ?Äì see below). Stevin (1548-1620) was perhaps the most original of latter sixteenth-century scientists: ?ÄòHe was involved in geometry, algebra, arithmetic (pioneering a system of decimals), dynamics and statics, almost all branches of engineering and the theory of music?Äô (Martin Kemp, The science of art, p 113). In 1593 Prince Maurice of Nassau appointed Stevin quartermaster-general of the Dutch armies, a post he held until his death. From 1600 Stevin organized the mathematical teaching at the engineering school attached to Leiden University. ?ÄòThe Prince used to carry manuscripts of [Stevin?Äôs lectures] with him in his campaigns. Fearing that he might lose them, he finally decided to have them published, not only in the original Dutch text [Wisconstighe Gedachtenissen]. but also in a Latin translation by Willebrord Snel [Hypomnenata mathematica)] . and in a French translation by Jean Tuning?Äô (Sarton, p 245). The first part, entitled Cosmographie, is a treatise on astronomy, including references to the Copernican system ?Äòwhich Stevin unconditionally supported, several years before Galileo and at a time when few other scientists could bring themselves to do likewise?Äô (DSB XIII: 48). The first section, on trigonometry, was partly translated and published in German in 1628 (Kurtzer doch grundlicher Bericht von Calculation der Tabularum Sinuum, Tangentium und Secantium). Part II, De la Practique de Geometrie, is a collection of geometrical problems influenced by Archimedes and Euclid. It is similar in content to the separately published Problematum geometricorum libri V (1583), although it is not simply a reprint of that work. Part III, Des Perspectives, is a mathematical treatment of perspective. ?ÄòStevin?Äôs book gives an important discussion of the case in which the plane of the drawing is not perpendicular to the plane of the ground and, for special cases, solves the inverse problem of perspective?Äô (DSB). ?Äò[Stevin?Äôs] approach to perspective belongs in the Commandino ?Äì Benedetti ?Äì Guidobaldo tradition, and his main demonstrations are uncompromisingly geometrical in nature. He also took up the essentially non-pictorial problem of the rotation of the picture plane into the ground plane, formulating one of the basic theorem of homology. However, he does show some of Marolois?Äôs sensitivity to the needs of practitioners. His treatise was occasioned by the desire of Prince Maurice to understand the principles of pictorial representation ?Äì ?Äúwishing to design exactly the perspective of any given figure with knowledge of causes and mathematical proof?Äù. Stevin accordingly provides ?Äúabridgements?Äù of his geometrical techniques for artists ?Äì albeit rather abstract abridgements ?Äì and illustrates a D?ºrer-like perspective machine?Äô (Kemp, pp 113-114). Part V, Meslanges, contains a very important mathematical work, as well as Stevin?Äôs treatise on double-entry bookkeeping. Sections on music, architecture, fortification and other topics, announced on the title page, were never published (in the Dutch, French or Latin editions). The most important mathematical work in this part is Appendice alg? brique contenant r?®gle g? n? rale de toutes Equations. This had been published separately in 1594, but the unique copy, kept at the University of Louvain, was destroyed during World War I and its appearance here is now the earliest available. The significance of this brief treatise is that it contains the first clear statement of what is now known as the ?Äòintermediate value theorem?Äô ?Äì in modern terms, if a function takes a positive value at one point and a negative value at another, then it must take the value zero somewhere between those two points. This principle, which was only rigorously formulated and proved two centuries later by Bolzano and Cauchy, gives rise to a simple but effective method of finding roots of equations. Stevin tells us that his friend Ludolph van Ceulen had also found a general rule for the same purpose, and it was probably also known to Adrianus Romanus, but priority definitely belongs to Stevin as he was the only one to publish it.The treatise on double entry bookkeeping, Livre de compte de prince ?? la mani?®re d?ÄôItalie, en domaine et finance extraordinaire was written at the request of Maruice and dedicated to Sully, the great French economist and minister to Henry IV. This work introduced a rigorous double-entry bookkeeping system as used by merchants into the keeping of princely and public accounts. It was issued separately in 1608.The Dutch and Latin editions of the M? moires were published in five parts, of which the fourth consisted principally of reprints of his great works on statics that were published in 1586. This fourth volume was not translated into French because, we are told at the beginning of the fifth part, of the printer?Äôs impatience ?Äì he was tired of keeping the sheets already printed and suggested that additional materials could be published later whe
De photismi de lumine

De photismi de lumine, & umbra ad perspectivam, & radiorum incidentiam facientes. Diaphanorum partes, seu libri tres: in quorum primo de perspicuis corporibus in secundo de Iride: in tertio de organi visualis structura, & conspiciliorum formis agitur. Problemata ad perspectivam & iridem pertinentia .

MAUROLICO, Francesco (1494?Äì1575) MAUROLICO, Francesco (1494?Äì1575). De photismi de lumine, & umbra ad perspectivam, & radiorum incidentiam facientes. Diaphanorum partes, seu libri tres: in quorum primo de perspicuis corporibus in secundo de Iride: in tertio de organi visualis structura, & conspiciliorum formis agitur. Problemata ad perspectivam & iridem pertinentia . Naples, Tarquinio Longo, 1611'The Best Optical Book of the Renaissance' (Sarton)4to (193 x 145 mm), pp [viii] 84, with numerous woodcut diagrams and illustrations in text; two stamps deleted from title, third inked over, some manuscript corrections to text, otherwise a good, unpressed copy in contemporary vellum.First edition, exceptionally rare, of the most important work on optics in the 16th century. ?ÄòMaurolico did important work in optics; indeed, according to Libri, ?Äúit is in his research on optics, above all, that Maurolico showed the most sagacity?Äù (Histoire, III, 116). The chief record of this research is Photismi de lumine et umbra, in which Maurolico discussed the rainbow, the theory of vision, the effects of lenses, the principal phenomena of dioptrics and catoptrics, radiant heat, photometry, and caustics. Maurolico?Äôs work on caustics was anticipated by that of Leonardo da Vinci (as was his research on centers of gravity), but Leonardo?Äôs work was not published until long after Maurolico?Äôs. Libri further characterized the Photismi de lumine et umbra as ?Äòfull of curious facts and ingenious research?Äô, and Sarton suggested that it might be the most remarkable optical treatise of the sixteenth century outside the tradition of Alhazen, or even the best optical book of the Renaissance.?Äô (DSB).?ÄòThe greatest part of his Photismi was already written by 1554, and the whole work was completed at the end of 1567, that is, before the publication of Risner?Äôs Opticae thesaurus. It does not follow that Maurolycus was not acquainted with Alhazen?Äôs book, because he might have read a manuscript of it, or the Alhazen tradition might have reached him indirectly. However, his own Photismi was very different: it was composed in the Greek mathematical style with which he was familiar. Its full title describes its contents: ?ÄúLight concerning Light, consisting of a Chapter on Shadows & Reflection followed by Three Books on Refraction of which the first deals with transparent bodies, the second with the rainbow, the third with the structure of the human eye & the forms of spectacles?Äù.?ÄòMaurolycus' Photismi may have been the best optical book of the Renaissance, but as it remained unpublished it could not exert any influence before 1611?Äô. (Sarton, p 85).Provenance: manuscript entry and shelfmark on front free endleaf; inscription of Jesuit college on title; bookplate of Thomas Vroom on front pastedownSee Vasco Ronchi, Optics, the science of vision, pp. 39-40, 265; and Henry Crew, trans. The Photismi de Lumine of Maurolycus. A Chapter in Late Medieval Optics; Sarton, Six Wings: Men of Science in the Renaissance pp. 84-85; Vagnetti Aa1; Riccardi I 142 (the 1575 edition he cites is a ghost); Wellcome 4166; OCLC records Cornell, Huntington (Burndy), Northwestern, and Harvard for North America
Die Spermatozoen einiger Wirbelthiere. Ein Beitrag zur Histochemie . Separatabdruck aus den Verhandlungen der naturforeschenden Gesselschaft.

Die Spermatozoen einiger Wirbelthiere. Ein Beitrag zur Histochemie . Separatabdruck aus den Verhandlungen der naturforeschenden Gesselschaft.

MIESCHER, Friedrich (1844?Äì1895) MIESCHER, Friedrich (1844?Äì1895). Die Spermatozoen einiger Wirbelthiere. Ein Beitrag zur Histochemie . Separatabdruck aus den Verhandlungen der naturforeschenden Gesselschaft. [Basel, Verhandlungen der naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 1874The Discovery of DNA8vo (203 x 132 mm), pp 72, with folding lithographed plate; slight browning to edges of the paper, a very good copy in contemporary patterned boards, slightly worn.First edition, extremely rare offprint issue, of Miescher?Äôs great work on the discovery of DNA, which he named ?Äònuclein?Äô and from which the modern term nucleic acid derives. These comprise RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Miescher also suggested that nucleic acid could be the substance involved in fertilisation and the carrier of genetic information, and towards the end of his life he proposed the existence of a molecular genetic code, the first to do so (see below). The present work is accompanied by a three-page autograph letter describing his researches on nucleic acid. It is important to point out that Miescher?Äôs 1869 discovery (published in 1871) was of undifferentiated nucleins; the isolation of DNA, and identifying it as an acid, is first documented in the present work.?ÄòMiescher?Äôs first and most important discovery was a new class of compounds rich in organic phosphorus and forming the major constituent of cell nuclei. He rightly concluded that these ?Äúnucleins,?Äù as he called them, were as important a center of metabolic activity as the proteins. The product he obtained from the pepsin digestion of pus cells in 1869 was nucleohistone; five years later [the present paper] he isolated a purer form of nuclein from salmon spermatozoa and demonstrated the salt-like union between its two major constituents, an acid fraction (?Äùpure nuclein,?Äù or DNA) and a base fraction (which he called ?Äúprotamine?Äù)?Äô DSB. Also in the present paper, he speculated that ?ÄòIf one wants to assume that a single substance is the specific cause of fertilisation, then one should undoubtedly first and foremost consider nuclein. Nucleic substances are invariably the primary constituent [of the spermatozoa body]?Äô (?ÄòSofern wir ?ºberhaupt annehmen wollten, dass eine einzelne Substanz als Ferment oder auf irgend eine andere Art, etwa als ein chemischer Reiz, die spezifische Ursache der Befruchtung sei, so m?ºsste man ohne Zweifel vor Allem an das Nuclein denken. Nucleink??rper haben sich constant als Hauptbestandtheil gefunden?Äô; p 56). He further established that the defining property of any cell nucleus is the presence of nucleic acids, and that spermatozoa consist largely of nucleic acids and therefore that nucleic acids (DNA) play a primary role in fertilisation and the transmission on inherited characteristics. He hypothesised that all living organisms contained nucleic acids and he was able to confirm this in the present work in all the vertebrate samples he was able to test.?ÄòIt might seem as though the role of DNA as the carrier of genetic information was not realized until the mid-1940s, when Oswald Avery (1877?Äì1955) and colleagues demonstrated that DNA could transform bacteria. Although these experiments provided direct evidence for the function of DNA, the first ideas that it might have an important role in processes such as cell proliferation, fertilization and the transmission of heritable traits had already been put forward more than half a century earlier. Friedrich Miescher (1844?Äì1895), the Swiss scientist who discovered DNA in 1869 [in factt 1874, as above], developed surprisingly insightful theories to explain its function and how biological molecules could encode information ?Ä ?ÄòIt is a curious coincidence in the history of genetics that three of the most decisive discoveries in this field occurred within a decade: in 1859, Charles Darwin (1809?Äì1882) published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, in which he expounded the mechanism driving the evolution of species; seven years later, Gregor Mendel?Äôs (1822?Äì1884) paper describing the basic laws of inheritance appeared; and in early 1869, Miescher discovered DNA. Yet, although the magnitude of Darwin?Äôs theory was realized almost immediately, and at least Mendel himself seems to have grasped the importance of his work, Miescher is often viewed as oblivious to the significance of his discovery. It would be another 75 years before Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod (1909?Äì1972) and Maclyn McCarthy (1911?Äì2005) could convincingly show that DNA was the carrier of genetic information, and another decade before James Watson and Francis Crick (1916?Äì2004) unravelled its structure, paving the way to our understanding of how DNA encodes information and how this is translated into proteins. But Miescher already had astonishing insights into the function of DNA?Äô (Ralf Dahm, ?ÄòFrom discovering to understanding; Friedrich Miescher?Äôs attempts to uncover the function of DNA?Äô, EMBO reports, 2010 March; 11(3) pp 153-160).Remarkably, Miescher wrote to his uncle, the embryologist Wilhelm His, 17 days after the letter in the present copy, remarking how ?Äòsome of the large molecules encountered in biology, composed of a repetition of a few similar but not identical small chemical pieces, could express all the right variety of the hereditary message, ?Äújust as the words and concepts of all languages can find expression in twenty-four to thirty letters of the alphabet.?Äù?Äô (H.F. Judson, The Eighth Day of Creation. Makers of the Revolution in Biology, p 28). Miescher?Äôs letter was published in Miescher, Die histochemischen und physiologischen Arbeiten, v 1, pp 116-7 (Leipzig, 1897).See Meyer Friedman and Gerald Friedland, Medicine?Äôs 10 Greatest Discoveries, chapter 10, ?ÄòMaurice Wilkins and DNA?Äô, pp 192-196; they trace the history of DNA?Äôs discovery, opening with Miescher, and concluding with Wilkins, Crick, and Watson.Miescher?Äôs first publication, on the extrac
Description du cerveau

Description du cerveau, des principales distributions de ses dix paires de nerfs, & des organes des sens. Avec les figures.

DROUIN, Vincent Denis DROUIN, Vincent Denis. Description du cerveau, des principales distributions de ses dix paires de nerfs, & des organes des sens. Avec les figures. Paris, Guillaume de L?ºyne, 169112mo (154 x 87 mm), pp [xvi] 125 [3, Approbation, Privilege, and Errata], with 9 folding engraved plates; a fine copy in contemporary French mottled calf, gilt fleurons on spine, a bit rubbed.First edition of this rare work on the brain and the sense organs. The author, about whom little is known, is described on the title as ?ÄòMa?Ætre Chirurgien de l?ÄôH?¥pital General?Äô.?ÄòDrouin enjoyed an excellent reputation as a skilled surgeon in the French army and returned to private life to become chief surgeon at Des Petites Maisons in Paris. This work, important in the development of neuroanatomy during the late seventeenth century, is the result of keen observation and careful dissection. In it, Drouin discusses the skull, the brain and its circulation, and the structure of the nose, eye, tongue, and ear. The nine folding plates were engraved from Drouin?Äôs own drawings?Äô (Heirs of Hippocrates p 247).Drouin clearly relies on his own anatomical dissections, rather than the authority of others. He cites, sometimes critically, Descartes, Duncan, Stensen, Bartholin, and Malpighi.Provenance: manuscript ex libris ?ÄòPt. Cholet M.DCC.LXXX.IIIII?Äô [sic] in ink within floral border, and pasted slip in ms,?ÄôPhilibert Cholet 46?Äô on front pastedown; a similar ex libris of a book belonging to Cholet appears in a copy of Elie Col de Vilars, Cours de chirurgie dict? aux ? coles de M? decine de Paris (Paris 1759)Heirs of Hippocrates 700; Krivatsy 3404; Wellcome II p 487; OCLC records Iowa, NLM, and Minnesota
Selenotopographische Fragmente zur genaueren Kenntniss der Mondfläche

Selenotopographische Fragmente zur genaueren Kenntniss der Mondfl?§che, ihrer erlittenen Ver?§nderungen und Atmosph?§re, sammt den dazu geh??rigen Specialcharten und Zeichungen.

SCHR?ñTER, Johann Hieronymus SCHR?ñTER, Johann Hieronymus. Selenotopographische Fragmente zur genaueren Kenntniss der Mondfl?§che, ihrer erlittenen Ver?§nderungen und Atmosph?§re, sammt den dazu geh??rigen Specialcharten und Zeichungen. Lilienthal, for the author, 1791-1802Two vols., 4to (275 x 211 mm), pp. [18], xx, 676, [1]; [8], xxii, 565, [1], with engraved title vignettes to both volumes, and 75 engraved plates, five folding; a very few leaves with the odd spot; contemporary half calf over speckled board, red leather labels. First edition, a fine, uncut, and complete copy with the rare second volume, of Schr??ter?Äôs famous work, ?Äòthe foundation of modern selenography?Äô (Brown).?ÄòSchr??ter studied law at G??ttingen but also attended lectures in mathematics, physics, and astronomy, the last under K?§stner ?Ä Through his appreciation of music he met the Herschel family, who revived his interest in astronomy. In 1781 he became chief magistrate at Lilienthal, a post that left him free time to devote to astronomy. With the aid of the optician J.G. Schrader he built and equipped an observatory that subsequently became world-famous for the excellence of the instruments. Some were made in his own workshop; others he bought from Herschel, the latter including a reflector with a twenty-seven-foot focal length, the largest on the Continent. George III of England enabled Schr??ter to continue his astronomical work by buying all of his instruments, with the stipulation that they remain in Schr??ter?Äôs possession until his death, when they would become the property of the University of G??ttingen. Schr??ter was also awarded a grant to hire an assistant. K.L. Harding and, later, F.W. Bessel were among those who held the post.?ÄòFor thirty years the observatory at Lilienthal was a center of astronomical research and was visited by foreign astronomers. On 21 September 1800 it was the site of the congress organized to search the space between Mars and Jupiter for a planetary body. Lilienthal was occupied during the Napoleonic Wars by the French, who looted and partly destroyed the observatory, although most of the instruments were saved. In the ensuing fire Schr??ter lost all copies of his own works, which he had published himself ?Ä ?ÄòSchr??ter was the first to observe the surface of the moon and the planets systematically over a long period. He made hundreds of drawings of lunar mountains and other features, and discovered and named the lunar rills?Äô (DSB). ?ÄòThe face of the moon is not only furrowed with craters, valleys, and seas, but it is laced with narrow clefts, or rills, and the honor of discovering the first lunar rills lies squarely in the lap of Johann Schr??ter ?Ä His Fragments of Lunar Topography contains the results of a dozen years of observing; it has a large re-engraving of the Mayer moon map, and more importantly, dozens of engraved views of particular features of the lunar landscape. Especially noteworthy in Schr??ter?Äôs lunar studies was his practice of studying the same feature under different angles of illumination, by which he was able to get a much better idea of actual lunar topography. He even calculated altitudes of many lunar mountains?Äô (Linda Hall exhibition catalogue).Whilst most copies of Schr??ter?Äôs work were destroyed in 1813 during the occupation of Lilienthal by the French, the second volume, published closer to the event than the first, is of the greatest rarity. Complete with all the plates, the copy offered here is enhanced through the addition at the time of binding of three folding plates by Bode, including a large chart illustrating the parabolic paths of 72 comets, and a fine stereographic celestial map, measuring 76.5 x 76.5 cm and 67.5 x 66 cm respectively (these with short tears to folds and lightly offset).The large, apparently separately printed maps by Bode are of similar rarity, with the chart of cometary paths recorded at the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, and Technische Universit?§t Bergakademie Freiburg only, and - whilst a number of different examples of the stereographic celestial chart are recorded in German libraries ?Äì the only copy recorded as engraved by the Berlin engraver ?ÄòC.C. Glassbach?Äô, as here, is at the Burndy Library (giving a date of 1787, whereas the present is undated). For Bode?Äôs celestial chart, see Warner, The Sky explored p 37Face of the Moon 14 (vol. I only); see Ewen Whitaker, Mapping and Naming the Moon, pp 89-109 and Sheehan and Dobbins, Epic Moon, chapter 6 ?ÄòA compulsion to observe?Äô, pp 59-73
Prospectiva co(mmun)is

Prospectiva co(mmun)is

PECKHAM [or PECHAM], Johannes de, Archbishop of Canterbury (ca 1230?Äì1292) PECKHAM [or PECHAM], Johannes de, Archbishop of Canterbury (ca 1230?Äì1292). Prospectiva co(mmun)is. [Milan], Petrus de Corneno, [1482/1483?]From the Circle of Leonardo da Vinci in MilanSmall folio (270 x 196 mm), ff [30], with 77 woodcut diagrams in margins; lower outer portion of A1 recto [blank] restored, some small wormholes throughout, occasionally touching some letters but not affecting legibility, some marginal staining, overall a good unpressed copy, in later vellum, in a morocco box.First edition, rare, of the first publication on optics, and a crucial text that was studied by Leonardo da Vinci. Johannes de Peckham?Äôs (England ca 1230-1292) Perspectiva communis, is illustrated with 77 woodcut diagrams depicting the human eye, the nature of vision, and the eye?Äôs role in the representation of space. Published in Milan by Petrus de Corneno in the first years of the 1480s, this first edition is of particular importance to the history of art for its close connection to Leonardo da Vinci (1452?Äì1519) during the artist?Äôs period of activity in Milan. Leonardo?Äôs friend, Fazio Cardan, ?Äòedited John Peckham?Äôs Perspectiva communis, a major treatise on optics, which Leonardo had the opportunity on many occasions to study and discuss with him. It was through these readings and the long talks with Cardan that Leonardo expanded his thinking about perspective, mathematics, and the function of the eye. The eye was of particular importance to him, not only as an object of study in itself, but because it was the means by which all visible phenomena are brought into the mind?Äô (Sherwin Nuland, Leonardo da Vinci: A Life).Peckham?Äôs work is considered the ?Äòthe most widely used of all optical texts from the early fourteenth until the close of the sixteenth century [and] it remains today the best index of what was known to the scientific community in general on the subject?Äô (DSB). The volume is believed to predate Erhardt Ratdolt?Äôs celebrated edition of Euclid?Äôs Elements (Venice, 1482) which would give it the distinction of being ?Äòthe first printed book illustrated with diagrams?Äô (Mortimer 367; also Thomas-Stanford, p 3 and Gejertsen, p 70).?ÄòThe title Perspectiva communis seems to have originated in the fourteenth century . ?ÄúPerspectiva?Äù means ?Äúoptics?Äù, and ?Äúcommunis?Äù is an adjective used to indicate ?Äústandard?Äù. The work, which draws on Bacon?Äôs Opus maius, dates from after 1263, and was probably written between 1269 and 1279. ?ÄôPecham, of course, drew on Ibn al-Haytham [Alhazen], whose study of optics was of paramount importance, and managed to reduce considerably the bulk of the work. Pecham?Äôs work is indeed an excellent introduction to Ibn al-Haytham. The text is set out in the manner of Euclid with enunciation and proof or demonstration (here distinguished typographically), and Pecham does refer to Euclid, both the Elementa and the pseudo-Euclidian Catoptrica, in the text, as well as to Al-Kindi . He would also seem to have known the work of Witelo, which is very slightly earlier in date, as well as a number of other works, many of them Latin translations of Greek or Arabic originals?Äô?ÄòThe book was hugely influential, being much lectured upon in the Middle Ages and beyond, right up to the time of Kepler and onwards to Ambrosius Rhodius., Risner, and others. It can be divided into three sections: the first with 84 propostions dealing with vision proper by direct rays, considered from both a physiological and psychological standpoint; the second with 56 propositons dealing with reflected light and images formed by reflection; and the third dealing with vision by refracted rays, with 22 propositions?Äô (Geometry and Space, Sotheby?Äôs London, 2002 n 657, p 303).This first edition was edited by Fazio Cardano (1444-1524), mathematician, physician, jurist, expert in perspective, father of the polymath Girolamo Cardano (1501-76), and close friend of Leonardo da Vinci. ?ÄòLeonardo?Äôs manuscripts reveal ample familiarity with Fazio Cardano?Äôs edition of Pecham?Äôs Perspectiva communis?Äô, and indeed ?ÄòLeonardo owned Pecham?Äôs book, which is listed in the book list in the Madrid Codex II: I here record the books I keep locked up in a chest. [fol. 2v]?Äô (Azzolini, p 171). Leonardo, who arrived in Milan in 1482, just as the present volume was being published, frequently refers to Cardano in his notebooks, and the pair undoubtedly discussed Peckham?Äôs theories together. Leonardo even translated into Italian Peckham?Äôs famous paean to vision from the opening of Perspectiva communis (in the Codex Atlanticus, f. 542r). The artist?Äôs writings on the ?Äòvisual pyramid?Äô as a symbolic form useful for constructing the illusion of three dimensions on a two-dimensional surface seems also to have owed much to Peckham?Äôs diagrams (see Kemp, pp 46-7, who discusses this in relation to the composition of the Last Supper). Leonardo's sojourn in Milan lasted from 1482 to 1499 and during this period he is famously known to have collaborated with Luca Pacioli on De divina proportione (written in 1496?Äì98 but not published until 1509), one of the richest sources for studying the interplay of mathematics, vision, art, and perspective in the High Renaissance. (In his notebooks in 1495?Äì99, Leonardo several times reminded himself to ask Cardano for this or that book ?Äòon proportions?Äô, suggesting that their discussions easily ranged from theories of optics and vision to more concrete matters of artistic practice and representation [see Azzolini, pp 171-2].)The Perspectiva communis was crucial in introducing ancient Greek, Arab and medieval theories of vision to early modern artists and scientists, including such luminaries as Leon Battista Alberti (Kemp, p 26), Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378?Äì1455; who discusses Peckham in his Commentarii), Jean P? lerin (Kemp, p 65), and Giambattista della Porta (1535-1615). That the only mathematical work owned by the great humanist Coluccio
La Perspective

La Perspective, avec la raison des ombres et miroir.

CAUS, Salomon de (1576?Äì1626) CAUS, Salomon de (1576?Äì1626). La Perspective, avec la raison des ombres et miroir. [printed by Jan Mommaert, Brussels and Richard Field, London for] London, John Norton, and Frankfurt, widow of Hulsius, 1612Folio (425 x 275 mm), ff [70], with an engraved frontispiece by Cornelis Boel, and a total of 80 engravings comprising 15 small plates in text, 59 full-page and 2 double-page engravings, and four engraved flaps (one flap belonging to plate 31 pasted to plate 30), all flaps present; a fine, large copy in a contemporary silver gilt vellum binding with gilt coat-of-arms and gilt edges, ties absent.First edition (third issue), of the first comprehensive treatise on perspective published in England. A fine association copy with a fascinating royal provenance, with the conjoined arms of the House of Stuart and the Palatine Electorate; Elizabeth Stuart, whose brother was the dedicatee of this work, was tutored by de Caus and her husband, Frederick V, the Palatine Elector, employed de Caus in laying out the Palatine Gardens in Heidelberg (see below).The text is in four parts. The first part lists geometric principles and definitions, including the fundamental law of perspective: ?ÄòThe eye is the center of all things seen.?Äô The second part comprises 31 chapters and treats the following subjects in detail: the drawing of various objects in perspective, trompe l?Äôoeil mural painting, anamorphosis, and the drawing of objects in oblique perspective. The third part, titled ?ÄòDes Ombres?Äô, examines shadows in perspective under varying intensities and directions of light. The fourth part, ?ÄòDes Choses qui apparoissent aux Miroirs planes, & de la raison de Telles apparitions?Äô, provides examples of mirrored objects in perspective on the basis of six theorems. Throughout, de Caus uses a method of ?Äòdouble projection?Äô, which suggests he was familiar with earlier theories on perspective, including those of Leon Battista Alberti (1404?Äì1472) and the Arab polymath Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham, d. c. 1041). La perspective is among the earliest scientific works and the second on perspective to include paper flaps that serve an interpretive and explanatory purpose; the first was John Dee's Euclid, 1570 (see Le Goff). De Caus?Äôs work introduced to England a mathematical and artistic tradition that originated with Piero della Francesca, Leon Battista Alberti, Leonardo da Vinci, and Albrecht D?ºrer. Although the work is not groundbreaking in its treatment of optics or mathematical perspective?Äîit relies heavily on D?ºrer?Äôs Unterweysung Der Messung (1525)?Äîit provides a full and clear treatment of its subject, from optical and geometric principles to complex, annotated illustrations of perspectival forms and figures. The work also includes multiple examples of anamorphosis, with folding paper flaps that prompt the reader to view the distorted image from a correcting angle. The engravings accompanying the work ?Äòare amongst the finest and most sophisticated to be found in books bearing an English imprint from this period?Äô; and although the engravings are unsigned, Alexander Marr has recently attributed them to the Flemish artist Cornelis Boel (ca 1576?Äì1621). Boel is perhaps most well known for designing the engraved title-page of the King James Bible (1611). It is likely that de Caus would have met Boel?Äîa fellow Huguenot and continental ? migr? ?Äîwhile they were in residence at Richmond Palace (see Marr, p 218-219).La perspective ?Äòwas published in one edition with three issues. The first issue appeared under the imprint of Robert Barker with the date 1611, the second bears the imprint of John Norton and is dated 1612. The Hulsius firm [of Frankfurt] published a third issue sometime before 1615.?Äô The STC states that the third issue was published sometime after 1619, but the reuse of La perspective?Äôs engraved title-page in a later work by de Caus?ÄîLes raisons des forces mouvantes (1615)?Äîsuggests that the third issue must have been published in 1613 or 1614, the year in which de Caus became Frederick V?Äôs official engineer and architect in Heidelberg. The publisher of the third issue, Levinius Hulsius, ?Äòhad been a pupil of Galileo, and at his Frankfurt shop he manufactured and sold mathematical instruments as well as books and prints.?Äô Marr theorizes convincingly that Norton or de Caus ?Äòsold surplus stock of La perspective to the Hulsius firm, who issued it under their own imprint?Äô (p. 229) This would fit with de Caus?Äôs peripatetic career, which took him from the Stuart Court in London to the Palatinate Court in Heidelberg in 1613; it also indicates that de Caus retained ownership of the plates after leaving London. As the above outline suggests, the production of La perspective was international, protracted, and complex. ?ÄòThough identified in the imprint of La perspective as the ?ÄòKing?Äôs Printer,?Äô John Norton was not involved in the mechanical process of printing per se. Rather, he was a stationer who facilitated the book-making process and whose main role lay in financing and selling books.?Äô Although Barker?Äîthe ?Äòprinter?Äô responsible for the first issue?Äî?Äòran the largest printing shop in London at the time, [?Ä ] it seems that La perspective was not printed on his own premises. Instead, the printing work was undertaken jointly by Jan Mommaert in Brussels and Richard Field in London. Evidence from the type and decorative woodcut borders indicates that Mommaert printed the majority of the book. Field printed the prelims, the letterpress of chapter ten of ?ÄòOmbres?Äô (Livre II), and all (except the plates) of ?ÄòMiroirs?Äô (Livre III). [?Ä ] As STC records, Mommaert (active as a printer from 1585) was responsible for the sections of La perspective which required the inclusion of engraved illustrations on the same page as letterpress. Although the expertise of British printers could run to the incorporation of woodblocks with letterpress, the combination of en
Méchanique analytique.

M? chanique analytique.

LAGRANGE, Joseph Louis (1736?Äì1813) LAGRANGE, Joseph Louis (1736?Äì1813). M? chanique analytique. Paris, La Veuve Desaint, 17884to (256 x 195 mm), pp xii, 512; a fine copy in contemporary French calf, gilt neoclassical panels on sides and gilt panels with wreaths and urns on spine.First edition of Lagrange's masterpiece, which has been described as ?Äòperhaps the most beautiful mathematical treatise in existence.?Äô This is the scarcest of Lagrange's major works.?ÄòIt was reserved for Lagrange to mould theoretical mechanics into a system, and by combining the principle of virtual velocities with D'Alembert's Principle, to derive fundamental mechanical equations which describe the motion of any system of bodies. These important results were set forth in Lagrange's masterpiece, the M? chanique Analytique (Paris, 1788), which laid the foundations of modern mechanics, and which occupies a place in the history of the subject second only to Newton's Principia. The two works differ in one essential respect, namely, whereas Newton derives his results purely geometrically, or synthetically, with the aid of figures, Lagrange, dispensing with diagrams, treats the subject in an entirely analytical manner. He followed the example of Euler in his analytical treatment and his efforts to find the most comprehensive formulae which should enable as many particular cases as possible to be treated on the same lines. In this sense Lagrange's work has been described by Mach as one of the greatest contributions to the economy of thought?Äô (Wolf, History of science. in the eighteenth century, pp. 69-70).Provenance: gilt arms of the ?âcole centrale du d? partement du Tarn on upper cover and stamp of ?âcole sup? rieure de commerce et d?Äôindustrie, Bordeaux, on title and one other leafDibner 112; En fran?ßais dans le texte 179; Horblit 61; Norman 1257; Parkinson p 216
Specula Mathematica: in qua

Specula Mathematica: in qua, de specierum multiplicatione, earundemque in inferioribus virtute agitur. Liber omnium scientiarum studiosis apprime utilis .[bound and issued with:] Perspectiva. In qua, quae ab aliis fuse traduntur, succincte, nervose & ita pertractantur, ut omnium intellectui facile pateant .

BACON, Roger (ca 1219/20?Äìca 1292) BACON, Roger (ca 1219/20?Äìca 1292). Specula Mathematica: in qua, de specierum multiplicatione, earundemque in inferioribus virtute agitur. Liber omnium scientiarum studiosis apprime utilis .[bound and issued with:] Perspectiva. In qua, quae ab aliis fuse traduntur, succincte, nervose & ita pertractantur, ut omnium intellectui facile pateant . Frankfurt, Wolffgang Richter, 16142 vols in one, 4to (195 x 149 mm), pp [viii] 83 [1]; [viii] 189 [recte 205] [1], with an additional four leaves containing 8 large woodcuts, and over 65 woodcuts in the text; a fine copy in a contemporary binding utilising an antiphonal leaf, remains of ties, from the Donaueschingen library with small armorial stamp on versos of first and last leaves.First editions, the first printing of any of the Opus maius, and two of Bacon?Äôs most important tracts from that work, comprising books four and five. The Opus maius was not printed in its entirety until 1733. The present two titles are the most relevant of Bacon?Äôs work to the experimental sciences. The Specula claims mathematics as the basis of all science and philosophy, and also analyses the the geometry of light transmission. The Perspectiva, Bacon?Äôs treatise on optics, is his single most important scientific work. Bacon utilised the writings of his contemporary Grosseteste, along with Euclid, Ptolemy, al-Kindi and Alhazen. He proposed the use of lenses for magnification, and analysed the properties of convex and concave surfaces in refraction. He also enlarged on Alhazen?Äôs account of the image?Äìforming properties of the eye. ?ÄòHe discusses the structure of the various parts of the eye, the principles of correct vision, the impression of light and colour on the eye, and the reasons for imperfect vision?Äô (B.O.A. catalogue). This work marks the beginning of both physical and physiological optics in the West.DSB pp 377-385; B.O.A. Catalogue 5048 (second title); Albert et al 116; Parkinson Breakthroughs p 9
De inaequalitatibus quas Saturnus et Jupiter sibi mutuo videntur inducere praesertim circa tempus conjunctionis. Opusculum ad Parisiensem Academiam trasmissum et nunc primum editum .

De inaequalitatibus quas Saturnus et Jupiter sibi mutuo videntur inducere praesertim circa tempus conjunctionis. Opusculum ad Parisiensem Academiam trasmissum et nunc primum editum .

BOSCOVICH, Ruggero Giuseppe] (1711-1787) 4to (200 x 127 mm), pp xxiv 187 [1], with woodcut ornament on title, woodcut initials and headpieces, and four folding engraved plates; a fine copy in contemporary Italian vellum, labelled in gilt on spine. First edition of Boscovich's work on the aberrations observed in the orbits of Saturn and Jupiter from the predicted Newtonian paths. Taking into account the Earth, this was a version of the classic three-body problem of determining the paths of three moving bodies which affect each other's gravitational field, and which has no rigourous algebraic solution, and requires approximation techniques.Isaac Newton had suggested in the second and third editions of his Principia (1713, 1726) that the observed perturbations in the motions of Jupiter and Saturn were a consequence of gravitational interaction, but neither he nor Flamsteed could devise equations to solve the problem. As a result the Paris Académie des Sciences had proposed a competition on solving the problem in 1748, 1750, and 1752, with Clairaut and d'Alembert acting as judges. They awarded the prize to Euler for the years 1748 and 1752, but the 1750 prize remained unassigned. Boscovich had submitted a paper on a proposed solution, which received an honourable mention and was considered for publication in the Mémoires of the Academy, but he wasn't awarded the prize. He decided to expand his paper, the result of which was the present work.Boscovich's approach arose from his study of comets and his method for determining parabolic orbits which, as DSB remarks, 'comes close to the classic method of H.W. Olbers (1797). An interesting treatise of 1749 concerns the determination of an elliptical orbit by means of a construction previously employed for resolving the reflection of a light ray from a spherical mirror. Boscovich employed this method again in 1756, in a treatise discussing the reciprocal perturbations of Jupiter and Saturn, which he entered in a competition on the subject set by the Academy of Sciences in Paris.'Riccardi I.1 179 n 9; Sommervogel I 1840 n 61
Opera Philosophica et Mineralia. Tres tomi.

Opera Philosophica et Mineralia. Tres tomi.

SWEDENBORG, Emanuel 3 vols, folio (331 x 198 mm), pp [xvi] 452 [recte 448]; [xii] 386 and leaf 'Mappa Geog. 1734' after p 164; [xiv] 534 [2, instructions to bookbinder on placement of plates]; with engraved portrait, engraved vignettes on titles and dedication leaves, and 157 engraved plates on 127 leaves (50 folding), including two maps; some very light browning occasionally affecting text and some plates, a fine copy in contemporary mottled calf, gilt fillets on sides, spines with gilt panels with coronets and red morocco labels. First edition of Swedenborg's cosmological and metallurgical masterpieces, comprising the Principia rerum naturalium, Regnum subterraneum sive minerale de cupro ., and Regnum subterraneum sive minerale de ferro. In the first work, 'probably conceived as a counterpart to Newton's Principia, he sought a comprehensive physical explanation of the world based on mathematical and mechanical principles. While remaining faithful to the general principles of Cartesian natural philosophy . Swedenborg elaborated upon them. According to his cosmogony the physical reality had developed from the mathematical point, which was an entity between infinite and finite . In contrast to Descartes, Swedenborg believed that the planets had developed from the chaotic solar mass through expansion of its surrounding shell, which finally joined to form a belt along the equatorial plane of the sun. It then exploded, forming the planets and the satellites. Although the basic construction of Swedenborg's thought heralded the later planetary theories of Buffon, Kant, and Laplace, there is nothing to indicate that it exerted any direct influence on posterity' (DSB).The following two volumes, the results of his official duties and investigations as assessor to the Swedish Board of Mines, are on the mining, mineralogy, and metallurgy of copper (and brass), and iron (and steel). They give a highly detailed survey of the industry, the mining techniques employed, the chemistry utilised, and the geology of the ore deposits, and are illustrated with exceptionally fine plates, the best illustrations of mining technology since Agricola in my opinion. In addition, there are several plates devoted to mineral specimens and fossils discovered in the mines.This copy is absolutely complete and conforms to the plate list on the leaf of instructions to the binder, often missing. Vol I has 28 plates on 26 leaves, including one map; vol II has 38 plates on 27 leaves, including a large folding map; plate xxviii was not published, and is not listed in the instructions; vol III has 91 plates on 74 leaves; there is an unnumbered plate signed with a dagger after plate xxix. Plate xxxviii is followed by plate xxxviii n 1 and xxxviii n 2. These are followed by a large folding plate labelled 'Tab 2', in lieu of plate xxxix which again was not published.Provenance: the Earls of Macclesfield, Shirburn Castle, with bookplates and blindstamp Macclesfield crest on blank margins of titlesMacclesfield 1980 (with erroneous plate count); Hyde 228-230; Hoover Collection 773-775 (with erroneous plate count); Parkinson p 151 (for the Principia volume); Ward and Carozzi 2140; Waller 11018; Wheeler Gift 283
Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche

Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche, intorno à due nuove scienze Attenenti all mechanica & i movimenti locali . con une appendice del centro di gravita à d’alcuni solidi.

GALILEI, Galileo (1564-1642) 4to (190 x 137 mm), pp [viii] 306 [recte 314] [6], with numerous woodcut diagrams and illustrations in text; a very clean, crisp copy in untouched contemporary English blind-ruled sheep, paper label on spine, hinges slightly rubbed and small chip to head of spine. First edition of Galileo's most important work, the foundation of modern physics.This work was Galileo's 'greatest scientific achievement ? Mathematicians and physicists of the later seventeenth century, Isaac Newton among them, rightly supposed that Galileo had begun a new era in the science of mechanics. It was upon his foundation that Huygens, Newton and others were able to erect the frame of the science of dynamics, and to extend its range (with the concept of universal gravitation) to the heavenly bodies' (PMM 130). 'Unable to publish this treatise on mechanics in his own country because of the ban placed on his books by the Inquisition, he published it in Leyden. Considered the first modern textbook in physics, in it Galileo pressed forward the experimental and mathematical methods in the analysis of problems in mechanics and dynamics. The Aristotelian concept of motion was replaced by a new one of inertia and general principles were sought and found in the motion of falling bodies, projectiles and in the pendulum. He rolled balls down an inclined plane and thereby verified their uniformly accelerated motion, acquiring equal increments of velocity in equal increments of time. The concept of mass was implied by Galileo's conviction that in a vacuum all bodies would fall with the same acceleration. Newton said he obtained the first two laws of motion from this book' (Dibner).The book has a dedication to the Comte de Noailles, French ambassador to Italy, dated Arcetri, 6 March 1638, in which Galileo praised the publishers for their taste and skill. With all his writings banned by the Inquisition, Galileo had given the manuscript to De Noailles with instructions to have it published in Leiden by the Elseviers, to whom Galileo owed a debt of gratitude for the publicity given to his earlier writings, the Latin translations of the Dialogo and Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina published in 1635 and 1636.The binding is a typical 'cheap' English binding of the period, with no pastedowns, leaving the pasteboards showing.Provenance: eighteenth-century engraved Hopetoun bookplateCarli and Favaro 162; Cinti 102; Dibner 141; Evans 27; Horblit 36; Norman 859; Parkinson pp 80-81; PMM 130; Sparrow 75
De maculis in sole animadversis

De maculis in sole animadversis, &, tamquam ab Apelle, in tabula spectandum in publica luce expositis, Batavi dissertatiuncula .

SNEL, Willebrord] (1580-1626) 4to (193 x 150 mm), pp 18 [2, verses from Lucretius on recto, verso blank]; with woodcut printer's device on title, a very good copy in nineteenth-century plain blue wrappers. First edition of this extremely rare work on sunspots and the telescope, written as an anonymous response to Christoph Scheiner's Tres epistolae de maculis solaribus, 1612, which had been published under the pseudonym 'Apelles'. This tract, the first to respond to Scheiner's Tres epistolae, has been variously catalogued under the names of Scheiner or Fabricius, but Snel has been conclusively demonstrated to be the author. Snel published this work the year before Galileo's own similarly argued response. Snel dedicated it to the Leiden University rector, Cornelius Vandermil.Snel begins by singing the praises of the wonderful invention of the telescope (the opening words of the text, 'Batavica dioptra', the 'Dutch telescope'), and then proceeds to analyse and refute Scheiner's 'three letters' point-by-point. He dismisses Scheiner's arguments about Venus in relation to the sunspots. Scheiner had observed the lower conjunction of Venus with the Sun and had concluded, correctly, that Venus and Mercury revolve around the Sun. He therefore took the sunspots to be miniature planets also circling the Sun. Snel notes how the spots thin at the extremities of the solar disc, sometimes join there and part at the centre, and move faster at the centre than at the extremities. He concludes, correctly, that they must be surface phenomena of the Sun. Galileo uses precisely this argument in his second letter to Welser attacking Scheiner, published in 1613. Finally, Snel recognises that the spots provide evidence for proving or disproving the Copernican system. It is extremely interesting to find a 'proto-Galilean' in Leiden at such an early date. The text of course does not mention Galileo, who hadn't as yet published his own response to Scheiner's sunspot observations, but the congruence of ideas and observations is remarkable, and there must almost certainly be a connection; it seems probable that Galileo must have known about Snel's work. Snel already possessed a telescope in 1610, but complained that while it made things appear larger, it didn't make them appear any clearer.Willebrord Snel, the eponymous discoverer of the law of refraction, had studied with Van Ceulen and Stevin, and later had gone to Prague to work under Tycho Brahe; while there, he met Kepler, and subsequently in Tübingen he met Kepler's teacher, the Copernican astronomer Michael Mästlin. Provenance: nineteenth-century stamp 'Hamburg. Publ. Bibliotheca' on verso of title and 'duplum' release stamp below; 'Dupl DFa III. 37' in pencil on verso of front wrapper, various other pencil notes in German and French, attributing the work to ScheinerSee Rienk Vermij, The Calvinist Copernicans: the Reception of the New Astronomy in the Dutch Republic, 1575-1750 (2002), pp 44-5Carli and Favaro 55; Cinti 41; Lalande p 157; Simoni, Catalogue of books from the Low Countries 1601-1621 in the British Library B35; Sommervogel VII 736; OCLC records Cornell, CalTech, and Yale for North America
Les Oeuvres de Iacques et Paul Contant pere et fils maistres apoticaires de la ville de Poictiers. Divisées en cinq Traictez. 1. Les Commentaires sur Dioscoride. 2. Le Second Eden. 3. Exagoge mirabilium naturae e gazophylacio. 4. Synopsis plantarum cum ethymologiis. 5. Le Jardin & Cabinet Poëtique .

Les Oeuvres de Iacques et Paul Contant pere et fils maistres apoticaires de la ville de Poictiers. Divisées en cinq Traictez. 1. Les Commentaires sur Dioscoride. 2. Le Second Eden. 3. Exagoge mirabilium naturae e gazophylacio. 4. Synopsis plantarum cum ethymologiis. 5. Le Jardin & Cabinet Poëtique .

CONTANT, Jacques and Paul Five parts in one vol, folio (355 x 225 mm), with engraved coat-of-arms on general title, one engraving in text, and 15 engraved plates (including engraved titles) on 12 leaves (for collation details see below); some corners crumpled, paper repair on lower margin of one leaf and at foot and gutter of another, occasional incidental stains but a large, fresh, honest copy in contemporary limp vellum, with remains of ties.First edition, first issue (see below) a great Wunderkammer book of great rarity. The fifth part, Le Jardin et Cabinet poétique, first appeared in 1609; the other four works are published here for the first time.Jacques and Paul Contant were Huguenot apothecaries in Poitiers and great collectors, amongst the first in France to assemble a cabinet des curiosités. The first work, a commentary on Dioscorides, was written by Jacques (who died in 1588) and revised for publication by his son Paul. The text is devoted to the most remarkable plants, animals, spices, minerals, and natural wonders and oddities mentioned by Dioscorides, with a commentary on their unusual features and properties. The frontispiece and plate illustrate 120 of these different specimens, and are keyed with a page number referring to the text. These finely engraved vignettes have the quality of emblems, which is enhanced by the emblematic 'devices', brief verses in French accompanying the text entries. It is stated that Contant was also the designer of the plates. The Dioscorides commentary serves as an introduction to the second work, Le second Eden, a poem devoted to the 'wonder garden' that Adam and Eve created after their expulsion from Paradise. The frontispiece illustrates the garden, filled with remarkable flowers and trees, with various scenes of Adam and Eve working in the garden, making love, discovering fire, etc, surrounded by frolicking beasts of land and sea. A further 24 plants are illustrated, with numbers keyed to the text.The third part opens with a remarkable frontispiece/title depicting one of the 'cabinets' of the Contants, labelled 'Capsulae 32 varia naturae mirabilia complectentes', comprising 32 specimen drawers above and a bookcase containing 15 folio volumes below; these are presumably Contant's hortus siccus. Again, the border illustrates various seeds, shells, and fossils in the collection. The text describes the contents of the Gazophylacium, subdivided into fruits, woods, roots, flowers, gums, various fossils, stones, marine specimens, shells, minerals, fish, and exotic animals. Several hundred specimens are listed. The pagination continues with the fourth part, the Synopsis plantarum. This contains an engraving of in the text of the cedar of Lebanon.The fifth part, Le Jardin, et Cabinet Poetique, is dedicated to Paul Contant's fellow Huguenot, the Duc de Sully. The large floral bouquet plate depicts some 58 flowers and plants, and is presented in a shallow vase, signed by Paul Contant. Each plant or flower is numbered to key it to the corresponding passage in the text. The ten engraved plates that follow are also keyed to the text, which is a verse description of the cabinet. They illustrate 43 animal specimens and feature teratological creatures, such as a pair of Siamese twins, a one-eyed and also a two-headed sheep, various 'sea monsters', a horseshoe crab, sawfish and blowfish, seahorse, a 'canoe' made out of a marine animal skin, a dragon, bird of paradise, etc.Extended description upon requestSee Schnapper, Le géant, la licorne, la tulipe. Collections françcaises au XVIIe siècle, pp 222-225OCLC records Morton Arboretum, University of Kansas, NLM, New York Academy of Medicine, Holden Arboretum, and Harvard for North America
Observations diverses sur la sterilité

Observations diverses sur la sterilité, perte de fruict, fecondité, accouchements, et maladies des femmes et enfants nouveaux naiz .

BOURGEOIS [BOURSIER], Louise (1563-1636) 8vo (167 x 95 mm), ff [12] 12 [recte 3, without terminal blank], with fine engraved allegorical title and two engraved portraits (the author and Marie de Medici, Queen of France); a fine copy, in nineteenth-century French brown morocco, panelled in blind with gilt corner ornaments, spine gilt, slightly worn. First edition, first issue, very rare, of the first obstetrics book written by a woman to be published, and a work that founded obstetrics as a science. It was one of the most popular and influential textbooks of its day, and was credited by Jean Astruc with greatly advancing French midwifery. 'She was one of the pioneers of scientific midwifery; her Observations was the vade mecum of contemporary midwives' (Garrison and Morton).Louise Bourgeois became interested in midwifery after the birth of her first child, with the result that she studied medicine and obstetrics practice under her barber-surgeon husband, Martin Boursier, and his teacher the great Ambroise Paré. The guild of midwives tried to oppose her application for a licence, fearing her increasing reputation amongst Paré's circle of surgeons. Their opposition was of no avail, however, and she was summoned to attend the confinement of Marie de Medici, Queen of France, for the birth of the future Louis XIII. She thus became midwife to the French court for 27 years, and delivered all the children of Marie de Medici. The death by puerperal sepsis of the child of the Duchess of Orléans, the princess Marie de Bourbon-Montpensier, in 1627 brought an end to her reign at the age of 64, and as a result Louis XIV required that at all future royal births a surgeon should be present.Bourgeois drew on the practice of Paré and Guillemeau. She 'advocated the induction of premature labor for contracted pelvis and gave original descriptions of prolapsed umbilical cord and face presentation and their management' (Speert).The collation of this work is a8 e4 A-P8, Q4, with I8 cancelled, with numerous errors in foliation and two in signatures (D3 and E3); the work was reset correcting these errors in the later issue, which can be distinguished by having Q4 blank (or absent)Provenance: presentation inscription on front flyleaf 'Au Docteur L. Santé Amicitior memoria sacrum Langres 1915 Paris [infinity sign] Georges Grappe'; Georges Grappe (1897-1947) was an art historian and curator of the Rodin museumGarrison and Morton 6145; Cutter and Veits pp 73-76; Speert Iconographia gyniatrica pp 72-73; Krivatsy 1625 (imperfect); Waller 1365; OCLC records NLM, UCLA, Yale, Kansas, Johns Hopkins, Duke, Philadelphia College of Physicians, and UBC for North America (both issues, mostly the second)
Gabinetto mineralogico del Collegio Nazareno descritto secondo i caratteri esterni e distribuito a norma de' principi constitutivi.

Gabinetto mineralogico del Collegio Nazareno descritto secondo i caratteri esterni e distribuito a norma de’ principi constitutivi.

PETRINI, Giovanni Vincenzo] (1725-1814) Two vols, 8vo (218 x 145 mm), pp LII 384 [2, errata and blank]; XXXIX [1, blank] 387 [1, blank]; some faint marginal waterstaining to first leaves of second vol, some corners of prelims crumpled, really a very attractive, fresh, and unpressed copy in contemporary Italian patterned boards (differing but both vols with the same provenance), slightly worn. First edition of this extensive catalogue of the mineralogical museum in the Collegeo Nazareno in Rome, founded by the author, Father Petrini and arranged by Scipione Breislak.'Rare. Extensive descriptive collection catalog of the mineral specimens held in at Nazareno College in Rome at the end of the 18th century. The preliminaries of the first volume provide some history of the formation of the collection and a synopsis of the new chemistry of Lavoisier. The catalog then commences, classifying the specimens into a standard structure of salts, earths, bitumens and flammable bodies, and metals. Volcanic objects and fossils are given their own classifications and are treated at the end of volume two' (Curtis Schuh, Biobibliography of Mineralogy online). The organiser of the collection, Scipione Breislak (1750-1826) was '. one of the founders of volcanology in Italy, Breislak was the first to determine that basaltic rocks were of extrusive origin; he also emphasised that the tufaceous deposits of Campania originated under water, and he reconstructed the evolution of Vesuvius' (DSB). He was the author of Introduzione alle Geologia (Milan, 1811).'Antiquarians and polymaths in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries pursued del Riccio's interest in the geological and geographic origins of marble with even greater scientific rigor. The secretary of the papal nephew Francesco Barberini, Cassiano del Pozzo, assembled a vast collection of drawings of the objects, buildings, and other material remains of the ancient world. This corpus of drawings, known as the paper museum (museo caraceo), included a catalogue of stones painted on paper. Dal Pozzo worked with the Venetian painter Jacopo Ligozzi and the director of the opificio fiorentino, Matteo Nigetti, in painting and compiling the samplings. Painted compilations such as Dal Pozzo's became the actual marble-sample panels of the eighteenth century: to this end Father Giovan Vincenzo Petrini (1725-1784) founded a mineralogical museum in the Collegio Nazareno in Rome' (Radical Marble, Architectural Innovation from Antiquity to the Present, J. Nicholas Napoli and William Tronzo, eds)Provenance: early ownership inscription 'C. Guicciardi' on both endleavesWard and Carozzi 1754; OCLC records Smithsonian, Chicago, Illinois, Oklahoma, McGill, and Cornell in North America
De novo telescopii usu ad objecta coelestia determinanda dissertatio .

De novo telescopii usu ad objecta coelestia determinanda dissertatio .

BOSCOVICH, Ruggero Giuseppe, or Rudjer Josip BOSCOVIC] (1711-1787) 4to (220 x 161 mm), pp XI [1], with one engraved plate; a fine, unpressed copy in gilt Buntpapier wrappers. First edition of Boscovich's dissertation on a new telescope design. It presents 'an account of the principle of the circular micrometer based on the idea that the circular aperture of the objective may serve for determination of the times at which a celestial body enters and leaves the field of vision of a telescope; these values, when compared with those of a known star, give the relative positions of the two bodies' (DSB).Boscovich 'was recognized as a gifted teacher, an accomplished leader in scientific enterprises, an inventor of important instruments which are still employed (such as the ring-micrometer, etc.), and as a pioneer in developing new theories . The invention of the ring-micrometer just mentioned, which Boscovich describes in his memoir "De novo telescopii usu ad objecta coelestia determinanda" (Rome, 1739), has been ascribed without reason by some to the Dutch natural philosopher Huygens. The chief advantage of the simple measuring instrument devised by Boscovich consists in its not requiring any artificial illumination of the field of the telescope. This makes it useful in observing faint objects, as its inventor expressly points out in connexion with the comet of 1739' (Catholic Encyclopedia v 2 p 693).This is one of Boscovich's first publications.Riccardi I.1 173 n 5; Sommervogel I 1830 n 5; OCLC records American Philosophical Society, Harvard, Princeton, and Brown for North America
Alcuni opuscoli filosofici . Al serenissimo

Alcuni opuscoli filosofici . Al serenissimo, e reverendiss. principe il sig. cardinale de’ Medici.

CASTELLI, Benedetto (1578-1643) 4to (224 x 160 mm), pp [viii] 79 [1, blank], title with large vignette of the arms of the Medici dedicatee, engraved by Pietro Tedeschi, and five woodcut optical diagrams in text; a fine copy on thick paper, unpressed, in nineteenth-century calf-backed boards, minor wear to spine. First edition of this rare posthumous publication, containing Castelli's most important contributions to the field of optics. The text comprises miscellaneous pieces, including the first publications of two letters to Galileo (dated 27 June 1637 and 2 August 1638, pages 47-79) detailing experiments on the absorption and transmission of radiant heat by differently coloured surfaces.'Castelli's optical investigations were continued in a treatise sent to Giovanni Ciampoli in 1639 and published in 1669 [in the present work]. Included are many observations and conclusions with respect to the persistence of optical images, by which Castelli explained the perception of motion, the illusion of forked tongues in serpents, and other phenomena. In the same treatise he recommended the use of diaphragms in telescopes to impede transverse rays, anticipating Hevelius. His discussions of the camera obscura, the inversion of images on the retina, and of cataract (from which Galileo had recently lost his sight), although less novel, are not without interest.'More celebrated is Castell's discussion of heat in a series of letters to Galileo (1637-1638) and particularly his experiments with the absorption of radiant and transmitted heat by black and white objects. Two of these letters, in which the pursuit of experimental science is even more clearly described than in Galileo's work on bodies of water, were published in 1669 [in the above]' (DSB).In a treatise on the preservation of grains (pp 39-46) Castelli suggests keeping wheat in sealed containers so that pathogens are kept out, anticipating later discoveries by Francesco Redi in microbiology and the discrediting the theory of spontaneous generation.Carli and Favaro 322; Riccardi I 291 n 3; OCLC records Cal Tech, Huntington (Burndy), Yale, American Philosophical Society, Oklahoma, Wisconsin, and UC Berkeley for North America
De viribus vivis dissertatio .

De viribus vivis dissertatio .

BOSCOVICH, Ruggero Giuseppe] (1711-1787) 4to ( 221 x 164 mm), pp XLIX [1, blank], with folding engraved plates; a very faint occasional marginal spotting, a very good copy in plain wrappers.First edition, first issue of Boscovich's earliest published work on his dynamic point theory, and which was the precursor to his great Philosophiae naturalis theoria redacta ad unicam legem virium in natura existentium (1758), a work considered as the 'birth of atomic physics' and praised by Faraday, Maxwell, and Heisenberg. Boscovich stated in the Philosophiae naturalis theoria that his work originated in this 1745 publication.Boscovich's dynamic point theory 'was not only the first general mathematical theory of atomism . but more specifically it was the first scientific theory: to treat all the ultimate constituents of matter as identical; to employ finite numbers of point particles; to eliminate Newtonian mass as a primary quantity, substituting a kinematic basis; to postulate a relational basis for the mathematical treatment of inertia and of all space and time observations; to propose to derive all physical effects from a single law; to eliminate the scale-free similarity property of the Newtonian law, introducing natural lengths into continuous laws so as to determine unique equilibrium positions and other scale-fixed properties; to employ a power series to represent an observable.' (L. L. Whyte in Roger Joseph Boscovich . Studies of his life and work, London, 1961).'The Theory of Natural Philosophy is now recognized as having exerted a fundamental influence on modern mathematical physics . As the title of his book implies, he considered that a single law was the basis of all natural phenomena and of the properties of matter; that the multiplicity of physical forces was only apparent and due to inadequate mathematical knowledge' (PMM).Boscovich's 'heterodoxy in mechanics began to be apparent at least as early as 1745, when he published an important discourse on the subject of living force (vis viva) . This discourse contained the first statement of Boscovich's universal force law.'That law was inspired partly by Leibniz's law of continuity and partly by the famous thirty-first query with which Newton concluded the fourth edition of his Opticks. There Newton raised speculatively the question whether there might not exist both attractive and repulsive forces alternately operative between the particles of matter. From this idea Boscovich proceeded by way of an analysis of collision of bodies to the enunciation of a "universal law of forces" between elements of matter, the force being alternately attractive or repulsive, depending upon the distance by which they are separated. As that distance diminishes toward zero, repulsion predominates and grows infinite so as to render direct contact between particles impossible. A fundamental role is played by the points of equilibrium between the attractive and repulsive forces. Boscovich called such points "boundaries" (limes, the Latin singular). Some of them are points of stable equilibrium for the particles in them and others are points of unstable equilibrium. The behavior of these boundaries and the areas between them enabled Boscovich to interpret cohesion, impenetrability, extension, and many physical and chemical properties of matter, including its emission of light.Extended description upon requestThere are two issues of this publication, an academic one as here, and a commercial one, the latter containing a differing imprint and also naming Boscovich as the author. A comparison of the two makes clear that both were printed from the same standing type, apart from the title page. The commercial issue has the imprint 'Sumptibus venantii Monaldini bibliopole', and also a different title ornament.Manuscript corrections to the text on pages V, IX, and XXXIX, as in the BSB copyRiccardi I.1 174 n 21; Sommervogel I 1832 n 22; OCLC records Huntington, Smithsonian, American Philosophical Society, Harvard, Princeton, and Brown for North
La Dissection des parties du corps humain ?[bound with:] VESALIUS

La Dissection des parties du corps humain ?[bound with:] VESALIUS, Andreas ( ) and Jacques GRÉVIN (ca 1539-1570). Les Portraicts anatomiques de toutes les parties du corps humain ?

ESTIENNE, Charles (1504-1564) and Estienne de la RIVIÈRE (died 1564) 2 vols in one, folio (400 x 255 mm), I: pp [xvi] 405 [3, including terminal blank], with Colines' 'Tempus' device on title, 62 full-page woodcuts (including 6 repeats), 101 smaller woodcuts, and criblé initials; II: pp [viii] 106 [2] with printer's device on verso, and 40 engraved full-page plates; both works ruled in red throughout, both large, fine copies in early reversed calf.First edition in French of the Estienne and the first edition of Grévin's adaptation of Vesalius' Fabrica, and the first appearance of Vesalius in the French language.The Estienne is of one of the most attractive illustrated anatomical books of the sixteenth century. It is the French book which most superbly illustrates the union of art and science in Renaissance anatomy, to paraphrase En Français dans le texte. A Latin edition was published by Colines the year before, but the French version, his penultimate book, is much rarer and also contains two full-page woodcuts not included in the Latin edition, including the famous skeleton on p 13 by Mercure Jollat (dated 1532).The full-page woodcuts are striking examples of Mannerist art and are some of the most memorable images in medical iconography. As an illustrated anatomy it is surpassed only by Vesalius. Although published two years after Vesalius, the woodcuts were begun in 1530 and much of the printing had been completed by 1539, when work was interrupted by a lawsuit brought by the co-author, the surgeon Étienne de la Rivière, against Estienne. It is in fact likely that Vesalius, who was in Paris from 1533 to 1536, saw Estienne's work and was influenced by it.This is the 'first published work to include illustrations of the whole external venous and nervous systems' (Garrison and Morton) and is particularly important in neurology for containing the most detailed pre-Vesalian brain dissections. 'His eight dissections of the brain, made in 1539, give more anatomical detail than had previously appeared, particularly the first graphical presentation of the difference between convolutional patterns of the cerebrum and cerebellum' (McHenry, Garrison's history of neurology). 'In the De dissectione, Estienne stated at the outset the principle of the new anatomical method: "One should not believe in books on anatomy but far more in one's own eyes"' (DSB).Full description provided upon request.