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The Raab Collection

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Former President John Tyler Eloquently Supports the Compromise of 1850, Attacking Its Opponents on Both the Pro- and Anti-Slavery Sides, and Hoping “there is still intelligence and patriotism enough in the community to baffle their narrow and illiberal designs.”

John Tyler On northern anti-slavery opponents: "The Democratic Party can only hope for success by discarding from among them the free soilers, abolitionists and all such cattle. Let?true lovers of the Union repudiate them as unworthy of their association. They do indeed deserve the deepest curses of the patriot for having put in jeopardy the noblest and fairest fabric of government the world ever saw."On southern opponents and John C. Calhoun's speech: "It is too ultra and his ultimata impracticable. How is agitation to be quieted or an amendment to the Constitution to be obtained and how above all, can it be expected, that the North will concede a power which has grown up under the Constitution and by our own concessions??I regard his speech as calculated to do injury to the Southern Cause, and in that view I regret its delivery?"He denies that President Zachary Taylor and his position on the compromise are popular"General Taylor was quite communicative ? mistook all the demonstrations of popular feeling as evidences of his popularity, in all which he was in great error."Victory in the Mexican War paradoxically brought the U.S. to a crisis. The issue was the new territories and what to do with them as regards slavery. The subject had immediacy because with the huge number of people (the 49ers) who were flooding into California seeking gold, that territory was already seeking statehood. President Zachary Taylor was a slaveholder from Louisiana who defended the institution where it was, but who did not see himself as representing a sectional interest. Feeling that slavery was unnecessary in the western territories, and would prove troublesome, he supported organizing all the former Mexican lands into the territories of California and New Mexico, and bringing them into the Union immediately as free states. He believed that he could thus bypass the question of slavery in Federal territories, as there would be no such territories, just states. And with only two new states, the balance between slave and free states in Congress would scarcely be disturbed. Many southerners, especially in the deep south, felt closed out of the territories by this plan, and betrayed by Taylor, and threatened to secede.On January 29, 1850, in an attempt to seek a compromise and avert a crisis between North and South, border state Senator Henry Clay introduced an omnibus bill that came to be known as the Compromise of 1850. It consisted of laws admitting California as a free state, creating Utah and New Mexico territories with the question of slavery in each to be determined by popular sovereignty, which would favor the pro-slavery interests in New Mexico at least, settling a Texas-New Mexico boundary dispute in favor of slave state Texas, ending the slave trade in Washington, D.C., and instituting a strong fugitive slave law requiring northerners to find and return runaway slaves.South Carolina's John C. Calhoun was clearly a dying man as he was assisted to his desk on the Senate floor on March 4, 1850. A black cloak, which he had pulled around his emaciated body, added to the drama of the scene. Too weak to deliver the forty-two-page speech himself, Calhoun had a colleague read it for him. The emphasis of the speech was wholly on northern aggression and against conciliation and compromise. Calhoun believed that two separate nations now existed, and that if the differences between them could not be settled, the two entities should agree to part in peace. Three days later Daniel Webster backed Clay, throwing his support to the compromise at the cost of antagonizing his anti-slavery supporters. He both cautioned Southerners that disunion would lead to war and advised Northerners to forgo antislavery agitation. Northerns such as Senator William H. Seward of New York opposed the compromise; he earned an reputation for radicalism by claiming that a "higher law" than the U.S. Constitution required the checking of slavery.President Taylor, rightly fearful that it would lead to division and war, opposed the Compromise of 1850 and stated he would veto it and personally put down any secession movement. But fate intervened, and on July 9 he was suddenly taken ill and died. The incoming president, Vice President Millard Fillmore, supported the compromise, and when it was passed, sign it into law.Former president John Tyler was from the border state of Virginia, a state that would have much to lose in a north-south conflict. He supported the compromise, castigating at the same time and in the same degree the northerners he lumped in as abolitionists and southerners who pushed to avoid all concessions and confront the north with maximal demands. In this historic letter to his son Robert, dated days after Calhoun and Webster had spoken, he assails opponents of the compromise and warns of consequences to the country if cool heads do not prevail.Autograph letter signed, Sherwood Forest Plantation [Virginia], March 12, 1850, to his son, Robert. In it, supporting the compromise, he advocates purging his Democratic Party of anti-slavery activists and reading them out of the decision-making process; excoriates extremist southerns who are doing nothing but hurting their cause; denies that President Taylor has a base of support for his plan; and then ends discussing personal family matters in a way that is itself interesting. In this letter Tyler refers to the Democrats of Philadelphia, who had just passed a resolution at a town meeting that supported admitting California as a free state, declared slavery to be legal and unassailable in state where it then existed, and denied that slavery should be brought into every new territory the country might obtain. This was tantamount to support for the compromise. Also referenced, on February 22, 1850, Virginia Governor John Floyd commissioned a monument to President George Washington in Virginia Capitol Square in Richmond, and laid the cornerstone in the presence of President Taylor and former President
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James Madison, Former President and Father of the U.S. Constitution, Says the American Revolution Is “Distinguished in the Annals of Liberty”

James Madison And the Battle of Bunker Hill, he states, "holds so distinguished a place in our Revolutionary History"This is the first letter of Madison we have had extolling the American Revolution and its international impact on the struggle for liberty; It letter has never been publicly offered for sale beforeOn June 17, 1775, the British army under General William Howe, supported by Royal Navy warships, attacked the defenses the colonists had erected on Bunker and Breeds Hills. The British troops moved up Breeds Hill in perfect battle formations. Patriot leader William Prescott allegedly encouraged his men "not fire until you see the whites of their eyes." Two assaults on the colonial positions were repulsed with significant British casualties; the third and final attack carried the position after the defenders ran out of ammunition. The colonists retreated to Cambridge over Bunker Hill, leaving the British in control of Charlestown but still besieged in Boston. The battle was a tactical victory for the British because they held the ground, but it proved to be a sobering experience, involving more than twice the casualties than the Americans had incurred, including many officers. The battle had demonstrated that inexperienced Continental militia could stand up to regular British army troops in battle, at a time when the British were considered to have the finest army in the world. It encouraged revolutionaries throughout America, and made the success of such a revolution actually seem possible.In 1823, Edward Everett, Daniel Webster, famed physician John C. Warren, and others co-founded the Bunker Hill Monument Association, which sought to memorialize that battle with a grand monument. They petitioned the Massachusetts House and Senate for recognition and support and a subsequent Act was passed giving both. Then began the work to draw interest, raise money, design the monument, and build it, a years-long effort that created the first major monument to the American Revolution, and the first public obelisk in the United States. In 1824 and 1825 they began notifying the public of their work, elected their officers, and then wrote a circular eliciting donations, and elected prominent men honorary members. They informed these men, and the responses the committee received back were from many great men of the era, including Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, Oliver Wolcott, Joseph Story, and the Marquis de Lafayette. During the Revolutionary War, James Madison was a member of the legislature assembled to write an independent constitution for the state of Virginia. There he helped change the convention's policy of religious tolerance to one of absolute religious freedom. Fully dedicated to the Enlightenment ideals of the rights of the people, it went on to set the bar for nearly every state constitution to follow. Madison then became the youngest member of the Continental Congress, where he was considered Thomas Jefferson's protege. After the war, Madison played a major role in establishing the U.S. Constitution and is considered its father. At that time he, with Alexander Hamilton, co-authored influential The Federalist Papers. He was then instrumental in creating the Bill of Rights.On March 25, 1825, Edward Everett wrote Madison to inform him that he had been named an honorary member of the association. Madison responded.Autograph letter signed, Montpelier, Va., April 22, 1825, to Everett, lauding Bunker Hill, but lauding even more the role the American Revolution played in promoting liberty worldwide. "I have received your letter informing me that I have elected an honorary member of the Bunker Hill Monument Association. The event which is to receive the Monumental commemoration, holds so distinguished a place in our Revolutionary History, itself so distinguished in the annals of Liberty, that the object of the association can not be too highly commended; nor the honorary relation to it offered me, be otherwise regarded than to as a claim to my particular acknowledgements."This is the first letter of Madison we have had extolling the American Revolution and its international impact on the struggle for liberty; It letter has never been publicly offered for sale before
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As He Prepares for the First Formal American Inspection of Its Prisoners of War in New York, Elias Boudinot, Washington’s Commissary General of Prisoners, Sets Prisoner Exchange Policy of the Continental Army

Elias Boudinot In a detailed and unpublished letter, he writes his deputy, accusing the British of treachery: "I have sent to General Howe a proposal for exchanging all the officers in our hands on parole?Congress have discontinued all allowance to them of every kind, unless they are close confined & then only a common ration. They are not to be allowed either horse or carriage, but at their own expense, and if they do not satisfy their landlords of the certainty of payment for their board, they are to be confined. This is severe, but is precisely on the plan, the enemy have marked out in the treatment of our prisoners, and my orders from Congress are to follow them exactly in every step."Boudinot sends word of the capture of a valuable British vessel to General Washington, then camped at Valley Forge, by way of the Mersereau spy ringLetters relating to the establishment of the first American POW agency are very rare, this being our first everThe number of Americans taken prisoner during the American Revolution was about 20,000, with half that amount dying in captivity. The harsh treatment of Americans taken by the British began after the Battle of Bunker Hill when twenty Americans out of the thirty-one taken captive were reported to have died in prison. The Continental Congress at first took no formal action to deal with the problem of prisoners, whether in American or British hands. On December 3, 1776, Gen. William Howe reported that during the New York and New Jersey campaigns the British captured 4,430 American troops. He noted that he released about 2,000 enlisted men, mainly militia, telling them to return to their homes. This still left him with 2,000 prisoners, to be held in what was an already overcrowded New York City. With no special prisoner of war camps, the prisoners were held in local jails, various warehouses, particularly sugarhouses, churches, and most infamously, the prison ships. According to British custom, prisoners of war were allotted two-thirds the daily ration of a British soldier. The British did not feel responsible for supplying prisoners with any amenities such as clothing, bedding, or firewood; these were to be provided by their own countrymen.At that point Gen. George Washington called upon Congress to set up a centralized authority to deal with the handling of prisoners of war. On December 27, 1776, Congress authorized the establishment of the post of Commissary General of Prisoners. On April 1, 1777, from his Morristown, New Jersey Headquarters, Washington wrote Elias Boudinot, saying "Sir, I am authorized by Congress to appoint a Commissary of Prisoners", and asking him to take the post. At first Boudinot turned down the offer. But Washington retorted with an impassioned plea: "That if men of character and influence would not come forward and join him in his exertions, all would be lost." Boudinot then relented and became the Continental Army's first Commissary General of Prisoners.Boudinot had been elected to the New Jersey provincial assembly in 1775. In the early stages of the Revolutionary War, he was active in promoting enlistment; several times he loaned money to field commanders to purchase supplies. In 1777 Boudinot was commissioned as a colonel to take his post as Commissary General of Prisoners, and as commissary managed enemy prisoners, in addition to being responsible for supplying American prisoners who were held by the British. He served until July 1778, when he resigned to assume a seat in Congress. From 1782-3 he was President of Congress, the seat John Hancock had held. In that capacity, on April 15, 1783, he signed the Preliminary Articles of Peace that ended the American Revolution.As Boudinot knew, the success of his efforts as Commissary General of Prisoners would be based on the principle of reciprocity, which would require his office to have at least some control over the British and Hessian prisoners of war in American hands. He expressed great disappointment that between all the branches and levels of revolutionary government, "no clear chain of authority was outlined." Congress, its Board of War, individual states, local committees, and General Washington all issued orders to him or gave him directions. On April 29, 1777, for instance, Richard Peters from the Board of War wrote to Boudinot that "by the Constitution of the Board of War Prisoners are put under their Direction." Boudinot, Peters continued, would "no Doubt think it proper to consult [the Board of War] on Occasions of Importance."But Boudinot pressed on in his important work. By January 1778, he had managed to appoint a number of American deputies in various places where British and German prisoners of war were held. His deputy in Massachusetts was Joshua Mersereau; at Albany, New York, Daniel Hale; at Fishkill, New York, John Adam; at Easton, Pennsylvania, Robert E. Hooper; at Reading, Pennsylvania, Henry Haller; at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, William A. Atlee; at York, Pennsylvania Thomas Peters; at Winchester, Virginia, Joseph Holmes; and in Connecticut, Ezekiel Williams, who handled financing matters for Connecticut's soldiery. With the assistance of these men, Boudinot pursued his assigned task of putting together the first ever American prisoner of war effort.Autograph letter signed, 3 long pages, Baskingridge (NJ), January 16, 1778, to Ezekiel Williams, lamenting the state of affairs and weakness of his situation, striving to put together an organization and set policy, and accusing the British of treachery. "Your favor of the 4th instant was just brought to me from camp, being engaged here on a little business. I am much surprised at your being yet without my letter of the 1st December, copy of which is enclosed, and which was sent I think by post. I hope you have received it ere this, especially as I have heard that General Prescott is arrived in New York. [British General Richard Prescott and American General Charles Lee, both prisoners of war, would be exchanged soon afte
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Virginia Governor Patrick Henry Calls for the Annapolis Convention

Patrick Henry Formerly in the permanent exhibition of the National Constitution Center: this very letter carried with it the call, which set the stage for the Constitutional Convention the following yearCongress tried to establish a basic governmental framework with the Articles of Confederation, ratified by the states in 1781. But the central government remained little more than a loose alliance of independent states, and Congress experienced difficulty in restoring a war-torn economy, guaranteeing an effective defense, and in regulating both domestic and foreign trade. These problems had at their source a deficiency in the national government's capacity to raise and collect money.In November 1785 the Virginia House of Delegates began debates to consider the commercial state of the union. Resolutions were offered supporting a permanent grant of power to Congress to regulate foreign and domestic commerce. On January 13, 1786, the legislature passed this bill: "Resolved: That the damages on foreign bills of Exchange protested ought to be the same in this State and the State of Maryland and that foreign protested bills of exchange should be considered in all cases and to all purposes as of equal rank with debts upon Contract in writing signed by the party; Resolved: That it is essential to the commerce and revenue of the State of Maryland and of this State that Duties on imports or exports if laid should be the same in both States and that it is proper for the Legislatures of the said States at their annual meeting in the autumn to appoint Commissioners to meet and communicate the regulations of Commerce and duties proposed by each State and to confer on such subjects as may concern the Commercial Interests of both States and within the power of the respective States and that the number of the said Commissioners be equal not less than three nor more than five from each State and that they annually meet in the third week of September if required by the Legislature of either State or the Commissioners thereof at such place as they shall appoint; Resolved: That the said Resolutions shall be Communicated to the Legislatures of all the States in the Union and that they be requested to nominate Commissioners for the purposes expressed in the last resolution and that His Excellency the Governor be requested to transmit immediately copies of the said Resolutions to those States."On January 21, 1786, on the last day of that session, both houses of the Virginia legislature passed a bill: "Resolved, That Edmund Randolph, James Madison, jun. Walter Jones, Saint George Tucker and Meriwether Smith, Esquires, be appointed commissioners, who? shall meet such commissioners as may be appointed by the other States in the Union? to examine the relative situations and trade of the said States; to consider how far a uniform system in their commercial regulations may be necessary to their common interest and their permanent harmony; and to report to the several States, such an act relative to this great object, as, when unanimously ratified by them, will enable the United States in Congress, effectually to provide for the same."Patrick Henry was Governor of Virginia from 1776 to 1779 and then again from 1784 to 1786, and while in office he was charged with communicating acts of the legislature to other states, when these acts had inter-state implications and might require the other states to act. Virginia's government operated with several layers of checks and balances at the time. In addition to receiving instructions to forward acts from the legislature, a Council of States, composed of other leading officials, had to grant their consent that it be done. Minutes of the Council of State from January 26, 1786, show that Henry was given authority to communicate acts of the legislature to the Continental Congress or to governors of neighboring states, as was appropriate.Letter Signed as Governor of Virginia, Virginia Council Chamber, January 30, 1786, to Richard Caswell, Governor of North Carolina, sending him the above acts, the famed call for the Annapolis Convention. "I am desired by the Assembly to communicate the enclosed Resolutions to you, & with Regard am Your Excellency's most obedient humble servant, P. Henry." The State Records of North Carolina note that along with this letter from Henry, published from a letterbook copy, were the Resolutions passed on January 13 and nothing else, meaning the sole purpose of this letter was to notify the neighboring governor of the call for a convention.The Virginia commissioners fixed the first Monday in September 1786 as the time, and the city of Annapolis as the place for the meeting. The formal title of the convention was a Meeting of Commissioners to Remedy Defects of the Federal Government. James Madison, the architect of the proposal, had little expectation for the Annapolis Convention but thought it "better than nothing." George Washington himself saw the country in jeopardy and felt "something must be done or the fabrick must fall, for it is certainly tottering."In the end, only four other States were represented: Delaware, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania; the commissioners appointed by Massachusetts, New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Rhode Island failed to attend. Unable to act for lack of numbers, they nonetheless produced a report that was sent to the Congress and the states. The report asked support for a broader meeting to be held the next May in Philadelphia and expressed the hope that more states would be represented and that their delegates would be authorized to examine areas broader than simply commercial trade. The direct result of the report was the Constitutional Convention of 1787.Formerly on display at The National Constitution Center.
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An Original and Famous Printing of Jefferson’s Words of Advice: “Adore God. reverence and cherish your parents. Love your neighbor as yourself; and your country more than life.”

Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson This document came directly from the descendants of General Robert Milroy and is unknown copy, never offered for sale before.It also contains a reproduction of Jackson's later note on the same sheet of paperOn March 15, 1813, Sarah Grotjan, wife of Philadelphia newspaper publisher Peter Grotjan, wrote to Thomas Jefferson, notifying the former president that she had been caring for an unfortunate and unfamiliar woman "called Mrs. Bradley, whose name she tells me, was formerly Julia Webb and that she had the honour to be known and reside in your family." Eleven years later, Mrs. Grotjan wrote Jefferson for "the second and perhaps the last, time." After refreshing the former president's memory about their previous correspondence in 1813, Mrs. Grotjan writes that she has long held respect for Jefferson's "character, which will only expire with my life." Consequently, she informs him that she has a newborn son and had "resolved to bestow upon him the name of Thomas Jefferson Grotjan. . . . The favour I request of you on the present occasion, as the chosen Godfather of my child, is, to honour me with a letter addressed to my son, acknowledging the behest made by me, if it contains but two lines, signed by your ever revered name."Jefferson responded to Mrs. Grotjan's letter on January 10 with his own addressed to "Th: Jefferson Grotjan." In his letter to the infant, Jefferson writes ten lines of advice such as "Adore God. reverence and cherish your parents. Love your neighbor as yourself; and your country more than life." It is signed from Monticello in January 1824. Interestingly, during a visit to Philadelphia ten years later, President Andrew Jackson paid Peter Grotjan a visit. Grotjan asked the President to add his own thoughts below those of Jefferson's. Jackson wrote that he could "add nothing to the admirable advice given to his son by that virtuous patriot and enlightened statesman, Thomas Jefferson. The precious relic which he sent to the young child, contains the purist morality, and inculcates the noblest sentiments." The following year, 1834, an engraving was made of that single-sheet letter by Samuel Maverick. That same year, Benjamin Owen Tyler published the engraving, entitled "A Fac Simile of Jefferson and Jackson's Letters." The "Fac Simile" (10? x 13?) contains explanatory text printed in the margins.This document came directly from the descendants of Union General Robert Milroy and is unknown copy, never offered for sale before.
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An Important, Unpublished Archive From the Golden Age of Aviation, Including the Original Entry Forms From Many of the Great Men and Women of the Era

Louise Thaden The 1936 National Air Races Original Entry Forms: The great aviators of the era sign and list the specs of theirs planes and motors, their aviation information, and other detailsThis would be the first race in which women were allowed to compete in all races; Louise Thaden won the Bendix race and her form and entry letter are presentWomen dominated the races for the first time, and the forms are filled out and signed by Jacqueline Cochran, Louise Thaden, Laura Ingalls, Grace Prescott and Helen MacCloskeyAlso by top men pilots Roscoe Turner, Ben Howard, Rudy (Speed King) Kling, and Harold NeumannThe National Air Races were a series of speed and cross-country races that started in 1920. The science of aviation, and the speed and reliability of aircraft and engines, grew rapidly in the ensuing 19 years, and the National Air Races were both a proving ground and showcase for this. By the 1930s the National Air Races had grown into the nation's outstanding aeronautical event. They drew the best flyers of the time, and for America's air racers nothing on earth could compare with the it. The races included a variety of contests, including cross-country races, landing contests, glider demonstrations, airship flights, and parachute-jumping contests. The more popular events were the Thompson Trophy Race, a closed-course race where aviators raced their planes around pylons, and starting in 1931 the Bendix Trophy Race across most of the USA. During the 1930's additional events were added to the National Air Races. The Shell Trophy was a speed dash. In 1934 the Greve Trophy was added for smaller planes, and in 1935 there was the Ruth Chatterton Air Sportsman Pilot Trophy Race, which was a test of precision flying.But women were not readily welcomed into the men's events. In 1929, the National Air Races included the Women's Air Derby (nicknamed the "Powder Puff Derby"), in which Amelia Earhart was bested by Louise Thaden. That same year, the Ninety-Nines Women's Aviation Organization was founded by Earhart and Jacqueline Cochran to promote women in aviation, literally under the wing of an airplane at the race. In the early 1930s women continued to be excluded from the National Air Races, except in the separate women's events. Chief among these events were the Aerol Trophy, the closed-course, free-for-all race that served as the women's equivalent of the Thompson Trophy, and the Amelia Earhart Trophy, a special handicap race for women pilots. Pressure to allow women to compete in some of the men's events grew. In 1932, women were permitted to compete with men in all the air-racing events except the Thompson Trophy. But women's events were dropped altogether from the 1934 National Air Races, and in 1935 were limited to separate all-women's events that were restricted to stock, commercially licensed aircraft with an airspeed of less than 150 mph. Notable women pilots opposed the restrictions, and they scored a complete victory when for the epochal 1936 races women were permitted to participate in all the men's events. And they did it in style.The National Air 1936 Races site was Los Angeles. There were unexpected incidents in these races that served to emphasize that race flying was a distinctly hazardous occupation. With the races at Los Angeles the Bendix was started at Floyd Bennett Field, New York. The starting line-up included an impressive list of aircraft-pilot combinations. Benny Howard who won the 1935 Bendix was back, this time with wife Maxine as co-pilot. Joe Jacobson entered a Northrop Gamma, Louise Thaden flew a Beechcraft Staggerwing, Laura Ingalls a Lockheed Orion, and George Pomeroy was in a DC-2.In the Bendix, women dominated as Louise Thaden won in a plane pulled off the production line so she could fly it, becoming the first woman to win the race. Laura Ingalls came in second, and George Pomeroy was fourth. One of the notable pilots, Roscoe Turner, crashed on the way to New York before he even got started. Pomeroy got stuck in the mud at Wichita, which slowed him down.Benny and Maxine Howard made their scheduled stop at Wichita for food and fuel. While over Crown Point, New Mexico, the propeller shed a blade which caused the plane to crash on a Indian Reservation. Both Benny and Maxine were trapped in the cockpit. The engine had come back into the cabin and rested on Benny's right foot and Maxine's left foot. They were also setting in a pool of gasoline. It was hours before a young Native American boy came upon the wreckage and went for help. Benny was in bad shape and lost his right foot, but both survived. In another dangerous mishap, Joe Jacobson's plane actually exploded. He found himself in mid-air, and instinctively pulled the ripcord and landed without serious injury.In the Greve Trophy, Americans took places 2, 3, 4 and 5, with the finishers being Harold Neumann, Art Chester, Rudy King, and Joe Jacobson in a different plane. Neumann had won the Greve and Thompson Trophy Races in 1935. Betty Browning won the Earhart Trophy. In the Shell Trophy race, the top three finishers were Harold Neumann, Art Chester, and Joe Jacobson. In the Thompson Trophy, Frenchman Michel Detroyat was the winner, making this the first and only year that a foreign aircraft and pilot were entered in the Thompson Trophy Race. Harry Crosby had been doing well in the race when his oil breather pipe broke and oil covered the windshield. Harry had to settle for 6th.The 1936 National Air Races ending in Los Angeles, September 4 ? 7; The Original Air Race Entry FormsThe application forms to participate in the races were 6 pages, 4 of which were filled with printed information, rules and regulations, and the like. The pilots (and in a few cases just the planes owners) filled out the remaining 2 pages, in the first of these writing in information about their planes, engines, propellors, and servicing. On the second of these pages the pilots gave their names and addresses, licensing information, and some more about
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Signed Image of Martin Luther King, Jr. in a 1962 Event Program, Where at Age 33 He Was Honored as the “Champion of Civil Rights in the South”

Martin Luther King, Jr The award ceremony was hosted by the Baptist Minister's Conference of Philadelphia and Vicinity, at its first President's Award Night, held at Irvine Auditorium at the University of PennsylvaniaThe Philadelphia region was an important place in Martin Luther King's formative years from the age of 19, and was also where he built important alliances and conducted civil rights activities. This Philadelphia connection in King's life shows the development of King's southern strategy with northern supporters, particularly in the African American community.In 1948 King entered Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania (just outside of Philadelphia), and studied there for three years. King also audited courses at the nearby University of Pennsylvania. It was in Philadelphia in 1949 that he became a disciple of the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. In December 1958, King delivered a sermon at Bright Hope Baptist Church, 12th and Oxford Streets, where he told the audience, "Segregation is dead, but the time of the funeral hasn't been fixed!" The next year King was in Philadelphia with Rev. Ralph Abernathy at a fundraising drive to help Southern leaders in their all-out effort to get Negroes registered and voting. In 1961 King was in Philadelphia six times, once speaking at the Academy of Music.In April 30, 962, King, Jackie Robinson, Mahalia Jackson, James L. Farmer of the Congress on Racial Equality and Bishop George Baber received citations from the Baptist Minister's Conference of Philadelphia and Vicinity, at its first President's Award Night, at Irvine Auditorium at the University of Pennsylvania. King was cited in the program as the "Champion of Civil Rights in the South." A few days later King spoke at the American Baptist Convention in Philadelphia's Convention Hall.This is an original program for the event on April 30 at the University of Pennsylvania, featuring a photograph of the 33-year-old King, and signed by him by his picture in ballpoint pen. We obtained this from the relative of a man who attended the event, and it has never before been seen by the public. Above King's photo is the signature of a woman named Mary, but the attendee does not recall who she was, and we have not determined her identity.This is the first signed program of King we have ever carried, and it is particularly interesting to note that by 1962 ? at age 33 ? he was already considered the leader of the civil rights struggle in the South.
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The Nation Celebrates the Anniversary of the Battle of Bunker Hill, A Rare Print From the Library of the Family of Joseph Warren, the First Great Fallen Hero of the War

Bunker Hill Rare Print This rare print, still in its original form, belonged to George Washington Warren, the grandnephew of General Joseph Warren, and has never before been offered for saleThe only known copies of this document are at Brown University, the Massachusetts Historical Society, and the Boston Atheneum. We found no record of this print having ever reached marketOn June 17, 1775, the British army under General William Howe, supported by Royal Navy warships, attacked the defenses the colonists had erected on Bunker and Breeds Hills. The British troops moved up Breeds Hill in perfect battle formations. Patriot leader William Prescott allegedly encouraged his men "not fire until you see the whites of their eyes." Two assaults on the colonial positions were repulsed with significant British casualties; the third and final attack carried the position after the defenders ran out of ammunition. The colonists retreated to Cambridge over Bunker Hill, leaving the British in control of Charlestown but still besieged in Boston. The battle was a tactical victory for the British because they held the ground, but it proved to be a sobering experience, involving more than twice the casualties than the Americans had incurred, including many officers. The battle had demonstrated that inexperienced Continental militia could stand up to regular British army troops in battle, at a time when the British were considered to have the finest army in the world. It encouraged revolutionaries throughout America, and made the success of such a revolution actually seem possible.In 1823, Edward Everett, Daniel Webster, famed physician John C. Warren, and others co-founded the Bunker Hill Monument Association, which sought to memorialize that battle with a grand monument. They petitioned the Massachusetts House and Senate for recognition and support and a subsequent Act was passed giving both. Then began the work to draw interest, raise money, design the monument, and build it, a years-long effort that created the first major monument to the American Revolution, and the first public obelisk in the United States. In 1824 and 1825 they began notifying the public of their work, elected their officers, and then wrote a circular eliciting donations, and elected prominent men honorary members. They informed these men, and the responses the committee received back were from many great men of the era, including Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, Oliver Wolcott, Joseph Story, and the Marquis de Lafayette.During Lafayette's celebrated return to America in 1824-5, he visited all 24 states, and traveled more than 6,000 miles. More than 80 American counties, cities, towns, and countless roads were named in his honor. He toured the northern and eastern states in the fall of 1824, including Boston, where in September 3000 children ages 8-12 lined up to receive him. They "wore ribbons in their breasts, stamped with a miniature likeness of Lafayette." There Lafayette was informed of the Bunker Hill monument project. He then headed south. It was businessman and future congressman Abbott Lawrence who first suggested to the Bunker Hill Monument Association that it enlist the Marquis de Lafayette and invite him to lay the cornerstone of the monument during his trip. In the end, Lafayette would lay the cornerstone on June 17, 1825, the anniversary.Leading patriot Dr. Joseph Warren was part of the battle. He was killed during the fighting, the first prominent martyr to the cause.At the time, a printed broadside was prepared to be sold to people celebrating that day.Two printed broadsides, still together as they were printed. ?Battle of Bunker Hill : Tune?"Yankee Doodle."? Verse in fourteen four-line stanzas printed in two columns separated by a single rule, including ornamental border. Printed on same sheet with: "Ode, for the 17th of June, 1825." The Battle of Bunker Hill is on the left within an ornamental border and Ode is on the right within an identical border.This document belonged to George Washington Warren, the grandnephew of the fallen hero of Bunker Hill, General Joseph Warren, and has never before been offered for sale.The only known copies of this document are at Brown University, the Massachusetts Historical Society, and the Boston Atheneum. We found no record of this print having ever reached market.Our gratitude to the Massachusetts Historical Society for their aid in the research of this document.
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President Abraham Lincoln Demonstrates Great Empathy, Allowing a Woman He Thought Had Lost Her Children in Battle to See Her Imprisoned Husband, a Confederate Colonel Whose Brother Was a Confederate General

Abraham Lincoln A shining exemplar of the kindness and humanity of Abraham LincolnWe obtained this from the descendants of the captain to whom this note was presented in 1864, and it has never before been offered for saleHart Gibson was born to a prominent plantation-owning family in Kentucky on May 22, 1835, and in 1855 received his degree from Yale. Following that he studied law at Harvard and philosophy and political science at Heidelberg University. While abroad he had entree to court circles, including in his group of friends Alexander von Humboldt and other intellectuals, artists and musicians. On returning to his native land he took possession of his estate, Hartland, and read law with George Blackburn Kinkead of Lexington. Gibson married Mary Duncan in 1859.With the Civil War breaking out, he was commissioned colonel on the staff of his kinsman, Governor Beriah Magoffin. Gibson's brother Randall Gibson became a noted Confederate general, while in 1862 Hart himself was commissioned a colonel of cavalry in the Confederate Army by General Kirby Smith. At the Battle of Murfreesboro he was adjutant general to General Burford's Brigade, and accompanied General John Morgan on his famous Ohio raid, again serving as adjutant general. Gibson was captured by Union forces in 1863 and was held prisoner first in Ohio and then at Fort Delaware in the state of that name. He spent sixteen months was a Federal prisoner of war before being exchanged in early 1865. After exchange he was assistant inspector general of the Confederate Department of Southwestern Virginia, and surrendered with Gen. Joseph Johnston in North Carolina on April 26, 1865.His wife Mary was active during the war as well. A biographical notice of her praises her, saying that "though unchronicled, her services for deeds of kindness and generosity, her fortitude and courage, run parallel to those of Colonel Gibson's, who gave to the South all of which he was possessed in valorous acts and material substance, for his entire holdings in Kentucky were confiscated by the Government under the Act of Congress in 1864." It is said that while Gibson was in the Ohio prison, Mrs. Gibson sent him in the heel of his newly made boots funds for the use of General Morgan in escaping.Ship captain Walter Chess ran a ferry that passed to and from Fort Delaware. His son picks up the story in a notation attached to the back of the frame of this note and picture. "This engraving belongs to David W. Chess, 261 High St., Milford, Conn. The card signed by Mr. Lincoln was presented to Walter Chess of Pittsburgh, father of David Walter Chess, during the Civil War. He was serving as the captain of a small packet which traveled up a tributary of the Delaware River to a prison camp where Confederate soldiers were kept. Occasionally a prisoner exchange would take place and the prisoners would be transported on my father's packet. One day a small woman dressed in deepest mourning met the river boat as it came in to dock. She told my father she had lost her only two sons in the war for the Confederacy, and that now she wished permission to go see her husband at the prison camp. My father said ?Madam, only one man in the U.S. can do that ? that is President Lincoln.' When he arrived at the same wharf some days later, the card inscribed here was the result."This is the actual pass issued to Mrs. Gibson by President Lincoln. Autograph note signed, Washington, August 6, 1864. "Allow Mrs. Gibson to visit her husband now imprisoned in Fort Delaware. A. Lincoln." We obtained this directly from the Chess descendants and it has never before been offered for sale. It appears to be unpublished."So assuming that Mrs. Gibson gave President Lincoln the same story as she gave Captain Chess, she posed herself as a woman who had lost two sons in the Confederate service, that she wanted to see her husband who was a Confederate colonel captured on a raid against the North, and Lincoln likely knew that the colonel's brother was a Confederate general. Lincoln was a deeply empathetic man, and gave the pass anyway. We cannot recall a less deserving application for a pass being granted by Lincoln, but that's the kind of man he was. He could not have known that the woman's story was, in part, a subterfuge. Married in 1859, the Gibsons had one son, born in 1862. The claim that two of her sons were killed in the war, which is why she was dressed in mourning, was specious, but probably worked for her on other occasions as well.After the war, the Gibsons became breeders of Kentucky thoroughbreds, and he was one of the incorporators of the Confederate Veterans Association.
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Theodore Roosevelt on His Mediation of the Russo-Japanese War, For Which He Received the Nobel Peace Prize

Theodore Roosevelt Just days after negotiations ended, he states his own satisfaction with the peace treaty, and reveals that he carefully prepared for his role, willingly took risks, and had a game plan for the negotiationsAcquired by us from the Theodore Roosevelt AssociationWar broke out in 1904 between Russia and Japan because the Russian and Japanese empires both wanted greater influence in Asia. Fighting began when the Japanese fired on the Russians at Port Arthur in Manchuria. The Japanese maintained the military upper hand throughout the conflict, but Russia, despite being riven by civil strife, continued the fight. Lacking financial means to continue the war, Japan asked President Theodore Roosevelt to mediate a peace. Both sides accepted.Roosevelt invited Russia's Count Sergei Witte and Japan's Baron Jutar? Komura to Sagamore Hill to begin the personalized diplomacy that he favored. Once they arrived with their delegations, the negotiators then went to the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Maine and finally on to the presidential yacht, the Mayflower. Talks lasted from August 6 to August 30, 1905, and the Treaty of Portsmouth was signed a week later on September 5, which officially concluded the Russo-Japanese War. The results were, thanks in part to Roosevelt's adroit negotiating, that both sides agreed Russia would give up any rights to Port Arthur and to the southern half of Sakhalin Island, but would not pay indemnities to Japan, and that Japan could exercise control over Korea. Russia and Japan promised to evacuate Manchuria. Roosevelt's goal was to create a balance of power between the two empires, and he succeeded, at least for the immediate future. TR's efforts also elevated the United States to a position of greater authority and high visibility in world affairs, and won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize. He was the first U.S. president to garner this prestigious award. Roosevelt was heaped with praise, at home and abroad.Typed letter signed, on White House letterhead, Washington, August 31, 1905, the day after the negotiations concluded and five days before the treaty was signed, to his friend and brother-in-law, Douglas Robinson. In it, TR reveals that he carefully prepared for his role, says frankly that he willingly took risks, makes clear that he had a game plan for the negotiations, and tells of his own satisfaction with the peace treaty. And though thankful for the honors, he confided that he doubted the sincerity of many of the congratulations."That was an awfully nice letter of yours, old fellow, and I deeply thank you for it. But don't be misled by the fact that just at the moment men are speaking well of me. They will speak ill soon enough. As Mr. Loeb remarked to me to-day, sometime soon I shall have to spank some little brigand of a South American Republic, and then all the well-meaning idiots will turn and shriek that this is inconsistent with what I did with the Peace Conference, whereas it will be exactly in line with it in reality."Of course I am very much pleased at the outcome. I tried as far as it was humanly possible to get the chances my way, and looked the ground over very carefully before I took action. Nevertheless I was taking big chances and I knew it, and I am very glad things came out as they did. I can honestly say, however, that my personal feelings in the matter have seemed to be of very, very small account compared to the great need of trying to do something which it seemed to me the interests of the whole world demanded to be done." Roosevelt mentions this very letter in his autobiography, and his statement "Don't be misled by the fact that just at the moment men are speaking well of me. They will speak ill soon enough" is a well-known one.This is essentially a family letter ? from TR to his brother-in-law. Provenance: acquired by Raab from the Theodore Roosevelt Association.
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General William T. Sherman is Privileged to Have His Name Associated With The Heroes of the American Revolution, and With the Principle Union Military Leaders of the Civil War

William T. Sherman "To have my name associated with those who now grace your roll is a great honor indeed. And I shall treasure this diploma as one of the most agreeable honors that I have received since the close of the Great Civil War."This letter was at one time in the papers of George Washington Warren, president of the association and its chief historian and has never before been offered for sale.On June 17, 1775, the British army under General William Howe, supported by Royal Navy warships, attacked the defenses the colonists had erected on Bunker and Breeds Hills. The British troops moved up Breeds Hill in perfect battle formations. Patriot leader William Prescott allegedly encouraged his men "not fire until you see the whites of their eyes." Two assaults on the colonial positions were repulsed with significant British casualties; the third and final attack carried the position after the defenders ran out of ammunition. The colonists retreated to Cambridge over Bunker Hill, leaving the British in control of Charlestown but still besieged in Boston. The battle was a tactical victory for the British because they held the ground, but it proved to be a sobering experience, involving more than twice the casualties than the Americans had incurred, including many officers. The battle had demonstrated that inexperienced Continental militia could stand up to regular British army troops in battle, at a time when the British were considered to have the finest army in the world. It encouraged revolutionaries throughout America, and made the success of such a revolution actually seem possible.In 1823, Edward Everett, Daniel Webster, famed physician John C. Warren, and others co-founded the Bunker Hill Monument Association, which sought to memorialize that battle with a grand monument. They petitioned the Massachusetts House and Senate for recognition and support and a subsequent Act was passed giving both. Then began the work to draw interest, raise money, design the monument, and build it, a years-long effort that created the first major monument to the American Revolution, and the first public obelisk in the United States. In 1824 and 1825 they began notifying the public of their work, elected their officers, and then wrote a circular eliciting donations, and elected prominent men honorary members. They informed these men, and the responses the committee received back were from many great men of the era, including Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Marshall, Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, Oliver Wolcott, Joseph Story, and the Marquis de Lafayette. Soon Simon Bolivar was added to the list.In 1869 Gen. William T. Sherman, Union hero of the just-concluded Civil War, was named an honorary member of the association and presented with a certificate of membership. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, Adm. David Farragut, and Gen. Philip H. Sheridan were named honorary members at the same time. Thus, with this recognition, were the greats of the Civil War conflated with those of the Revolution. George Washington Warren was then the President of the Bunker Hill Monument Association and the man who communicated with Sherman on the subject. Warren was also a judge and historian who was writing a history of the association.Autograph letter signed, Headquarters Armies of the United States, Washington, March 7, 1870, to Warren, making clear he saw the joining of his name with those of the Founding Fathers, and now Grant, Farragut and Sheridan, was an honor indeed. "I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your kind letter of the 4th instant accompanying the handsome diploma of the Bunker Hill Monument Association for which I feel indebted to you. To have my name associated with those who now grace your roll is a great honor indeed. And I shall treasure this diploma as one of the most agreeable honors that I have received since the close of the Great Civil War."On June 16 and 17, 1875, the centennial of the Battle of Bunker Hill was celebrated with a military parade and a reception featuring notable speakers, chief among them being Sherman himself.This letter was at one time in the papers of George Washington Warren, president of the association and its chief historian and has never before been offered for sale.
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Former President John Tyler Eulogizes General Joseph Warren, Killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill, as “the first great martyr to the cause of freedom and independence”

John Tyler No one, he says, would have witnessed the dedication of the statue of Warren "with deeper emotion than myself"On June 17, 1775, the British army under General William Howe, supported by Royal Navy warships, attacked the defenses the colonists had erected on Bunker and Breeds Hills. The British troops moved up Breeds Hill in perfect battle formations. Patriot leader William Prescott allegedly encouraged his men "not fire until you see the whites of their eyes." Two assaults on the colonial positions were repulsed with significant British casualties; the third and final attack carried the position after the defenders ran out of ammunition. The colonists retreated to Cambridge over Bunker Hill, leaving the British in control of Charlestown but still besieged in Boston. The battle was a tactical victory for the British because they held the ground, but it proved to be a sobering experience, involving more than twice the casualties than the Americans had incurred, including many officers. The battle had demonstrated that inexperienced Continental militia could stand up to regular British army troops in battle, at a time when the British were considered to have the finest army in the world. It encouraged revolutionaries throughout America, and made the success of such a revolution actually seem possible.In 1823, Edward Everett, Daniel Webster, famed physician John C. Warren, and others co-founded the Bunker Hill Monument Association, which sought to memorialize that battle with a grand monument. They petitioned the Massachusetts House and Senate for recognition and support and a subsequent Act was passed giving both. Then began the work to draw interest, raise money, design the monument, and build it, a years-long effort that created the first major monument to the American Revolution, and the first public obelisk in the United States. In 1824 and 1825 they began notifying the public of their work, elected their officers, and then wrote a circular eliciting donations, and elected prominent men honorary members. They informed these men, and the responses the committee received back were from many great men of the era, including Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Marshall, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, Oliver Wolcott, Joseph Story, and the Marquis de Lafayette. Soon Simon Bolivar was added to the list.On the 80th anniversary of the battle, June 17, 1857, the Bunker Hill Monument Association planned a celebration of the inauguration of a statue of Gen. Joseph Warren. The Speaker of House and President of the Senate of the State of Massachusetts invited President James Buchanan and former President John Tyler to attend the festivities, but both had to decline. Tyler sister-in-law, Margaret Gardiner, had died on June 1, 1857, of an overdose of morphine given by a doctor, and the household was in mourning.Autograph letter signed, Sherwood Forest, Va., June 5, 1857, to the Speaker of House and President of the Senate of the State of Massachusetts, declining the invitation but eulogizing Warren in the warmest terms. "I have felt myself highly flattered by your kind letter of the 25 May written on behalf of the Joint Committee of the two branches of the Legislature and expressing the earnest hope that I would be present in Boston on the 17th Inst. at the inauguration of the Statue of General Warren. And may you be assured that few things would afford me more true pleasure than a compliance with your wishes. But a heavy family bereavement which has plunged into deep affliction all who surround me precludes the possibility of my doing so. There is no one who had he permitted to do so would have witnessed the august ceremonies of the 17th in memory of the first great martyr to the cause of freedom and independence with deeper emotion than myself. Be pleased to make acceptable to the committee you represent my cordial salutations, and accept for yourselves individually assurances of my high consideration."This letter was at one time in the papers of George Washington Warren, president of the association and its chief historian and has never before been offered for sale.
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Winston Churchill Deals With a Question of Rationing and the Growth of Agriculture, as the Country Recovers from World War II

Winston Churchill He encourages the inventor of Swiss-process butter making, saying the invention has potential to boost production, but rationing rules stand in the way at presentChurchill himself would end butter rationing in his second term as prime minister, but not until 1954War rationing in the United Kingdom began on January 8, 1940, as a means of ensuring the fair distribution of food and commodities when they were scarce. On that date, bacon, butter and sugar were rationed. By 1942 many other foodstuffs, including meat, milk, cheese, eggs and cooking fat were also ?on the ration'. Every week an adult was entitled to one egg, two pats of butter, a quarter pound of ham or bacon, and 1/8 pound of cheese. These were stringent amounts indeed. Ration books were given to everyone in Britain, who then registered in a shop of their choice. When something was purchased the shopkeeper marked the purchase off in the customer's book. All knew that rationing was needed to defeat a principal strategy of the Germans ? to attack shipping bound for Britain, restricting British industry and potentially starving the nation into submission. But rationing was the greatest complaint on the British Home Front during the war.The war ended in 1945, but not rationing or austerity. In some aspects rationing actually became stricter, as many British men still mobilized in the armed forces, recovery from the war was painstakingly slow, there was an austere economic climate, and resources were not available to expand food production. In 1946 bread was added to rationing, causing much anger. Inventive people sought ways to increase production of rationed goods and ease the burden of rationing. Rationing in Britain would not be ended until 1958. By way of comparison, rationing was mostly ended in the United States in August 1945. The British people knew this, and there was a growing public anger at rationing, scarcity, and austerity.In 1944, Dr. James Sen invented a method of making butter by creating a device that used CO2 (carbon dioxide), and he received a patent for it in his native Switzerland. The patent states, "This arrangement facilitates the manufacture of carbon dioxide butter and it avoids the well known disadvantages of the usual butter making methods. It further permits reduction of the duration of the whole process,?" It became known as Dr. James Senn's C02 Swiss Process. In 1946 he sent a sample of his product to Winston Churchill, who was now the leader of the opposition, his prime ministership having ended the year before. Churchill had a well-known interest in raising cows, so doubtless Senn's gift had the aspect of both a personal present and a product promotion.Churchill responded encouraging Senn, and giving him hope for the use of his invention after rationing ended, but saying that rationing would not permit its use at present. Typed letter signed, on his personal letterhead, London, October 21, 1946, to Dr. Senn. "I write to thank you for your letter of September 27, and to let you know that I am very much interested in your CO2 butter machine, and in the various papers which you have sent me about it. At present in England no-one is allowed to make butter for sale, but only for personal use. All that I have heard, however, about your machine makes me believe that it would play a growing part in agricultural economy in proportion as normal conditions are restored." Butter rationing did not end until 1954, during Churchill's second term as prime minister.
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President Abraham Lincoln Promotes a Union Soldier Badly Wounded at Second Bull Run

Abraham Lincoln The 11th Pennsylvania Reserves, also known as the 40th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, was one of the great fighting regiments of the Union Army. It served in the battles on the Peninsula, at Second Bull Run, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, and throughout Grant's Virginia campaign in 1864. It lost over 300 men, and left the front in May 1864. Some of its survivors were transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps, a military reserve organization created within the Union Army to allow partially disabled or otherwise infirm soldiers to perform light duty, freeing able-bodied soldiers to serve on the front lines.One of these was Rowland M. Jones, who started as a sergeant in the 11th Pennsylvania Reserves, was promoted to 2nd lieutenant on June 16, 1862; and to 1st lieutenant on April 19, 1863. In the summer of 1864, just after his regiment left the front, he was assigned to the Veteran Reserve Corps. He had been seriously wounded at Second Bull Run, yet continued to actively serve until then.Document signed, complete with engravings of an eagle, flags, and military accoutrements, Washington, August 1, 1864, appointing Rowland M. Jones "First Lieutenant in the Veteran Reserve Corps". The document is countersigned by Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton. Jones was discharged from the Veteran Reserve Corps on Christmas Eve 1864 because of the pain he was in. He died in 1885, aged 46.
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President Abraham Lincoln Appoints One of the Earliest 49ers and President of “The Society of California Pioneers” to a Senior Treasury Position in San Francisco

Abraham Lincoln William Farwell was a prominent California editor, who had campaigned for him in that stateIn September 1848, the print on the newspapers announcing the discovery of gold in California had barely dried before some enterprising young men began preparing to go there. One ship was chartered by 152 well-educated young men, of whom Willard B. Farwell was one, who named it after the famous statesman, Edward Everett. At that time Everett was president of Harvard college, and was a mentor to some of the wayfarers. As a going away gift, he presented the company with 300 volumes of the works of major authors. The vessel left Boston January 10, 1849, and arrived at San Francisco July 7th. The company brought with it a knock-down steamer hull, cabin, boilers and engine. A smaller boat was obtained and christened The Pioneer, and it would be the first steamer to reach the gold fields themselves. The Pioneer launched on August 12, and five days later, wrote Farwell himself, the little Pioneer sailed up the Sacramento River, reaching its destination early in the morning on August 19th. The miners already on site cheered until they were hoarse, and the day was given up to jollification and whisky. Farwell stayed in California, and became editor of a popular newspaper that supported the policies of the new Republican Party.Dr. Anson Henry, Sen. Edward D. Baker, and Abraham Lincoln were friends and prominent Illinois Whig politicos back in Lincoln's Springfield days. Henry moved there to practice medicine when Lincoln was assistant surveyor of Sangamon County. Henry emigrated to Oregon when he was appointed Indian agent for that territory, at the specific suggestion of Lincoln. The two men stayed in contact. In fact, states "Mr. Lincoln & Friends," Anson "acted as the Administration's eyes and ears" on the west coast. President Lincoln appointed him surveyor-general of Washington Territory in 1861. Edward D. Baker moved to California in 1852, and when Henry advised him that he could win the upcoming Senate election there, Baker went to Oregon. He was elected and started serving in the U.S. Senate in late 1860. Lincoln was so close to Baker that he named one of his sons after him, and was devastated when Baker was killed in action leading a Union regiment at the Battle of Balls Bluff in 1861. Henry and Baker were friends of Farwell, who was also Baker's biographer. One of these men clearly placed Farwell in touch with Lincoln, and Farwell became involved in the Lincoln election campaign in California. As the Lincoln Papers in the Library of Congress point out, Farwell was in direct communication with Lincoln about events on the West Coast during that campaign. Farwell predicted to Lincoln accurately that he would do well in the Golden State, and in December 1860 wrote the President-Elect, "I trust the result gave you sincere gratification."he President-Elect asked Baker to make some recommendations for appointments to be made for posts on the West Coast. On April 3, 1861, shortly after Lincoln's inauguration, Baker wrote him a letter on this subject: "I have named Mr Willard B. Farwell for Naval Officer of the port of San Francisco. He has been for four years and upwards the editor of the Daily Alta California, the most influential independent public journal in California. In every crisis he has caused it to evince Republican tendencies, and has rendered us immense aid and service. He has represented the city of San Francisco in the legislature. He has shown high courage, when such a quality was greatly needed. He is a man of character, talents, and education."Lincoln concurred. Document signed, Washington, April 15, 1861, appointing Willard B. Farwell as naval officer for the District of San Francisco. The position of naval officer was not a military one; the naval officer was the chief deputy to the Collector of a port, a Treasury appointment. Thus, this document is also signed by Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase. Lincoln made this appointment during the time when the U.S. Senate was in recess. He reappointed Farwell in July 1861, for the Senate's confirmation. To illustrate the types of tasks this post involved, Farwell went to Europe and the East to ferret out frauds in importations of wines. Later in life, Farwell was President of "The Society of California Pioneers."Document comes matted.
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Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, Writing from Cuba, Reports on the Condition and Casualties of His Famed Rough Riders

Theodore Roosevelt "We have had a pretty rough time of it here. Half of my men have been killed, wounded or prostrated by fever or dysentery and we have utterly lacked good food, shelter, clothing and medical supplies and assistance?"A search of public sale records going back 40 years turns up just two letters of Roosevelt datelined from Cuba, this and another we handled back in 2009The "Rough Riders" is a name given by the press to the First US Volunteer Cavalry, which was raised for the Spanish-American War. Secretary of War Russell Alger offered command of the regiment to Theodore Roosevelt, who resigned as Assistant Secretary of the Navy to take the field. The regiment was mustered-in in May 1898 and many of the volunteers had known Roosevelt from the Badlands of the Dakota Territory as well as his time as New York City Police Commissioner. There were more applicants than positions available and Roosevelt had to turn away large numbers of them. TR's unit formed part of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade.The regiment departed Tampa, Florida on June 14, 1898, landing near Daiquirí, Cuba on June 22. Although officially a cavalry unit, the regiment fought on foot. They immediately began marching toward their objective, Santiago. Two days later, the unit participated in the Battle of Las Guasimas. Though outnumbered, the American contingent was nonetheless able to force a retreat of the Spanish troops to the city of Santiago. On June 30, Roosevelt was promoted to full colonel and given formal command of the Rough Riders.The next day, American forces began an assault on the city of Santiago. The Rough Riders charged up Kettle Hill that was slightly to the north of San Juan Hill, though history recalls this as a charge up San Juan Hill. Roosevelt was the only one who was mounted; the others were on foot during battle. Spanish forces eventually surrendered on July 17. All told, in Cuba, the Rough Riders suffered a casualty rate of about 76% lost in battle, wounded, or down with disease. A few days after the Rough Riders' charge, the Spanish fleet fled Cuba. It was just a matter of weeks before the war had ended and the U.S. was victorious. The Rough Riders made headlines for their role in the battle back in the states, which became stuff of legend thanks to Roosevelt's writing ability and reenactments filmed long after. The unit became famous, and its commander was on the road to the White House.Typed letter signed, "First Regt. U.S. Vol. Cavalry / In camp near Santiago de Cuba", July 27, 1898, to Emily [Mrs. Donald] McLean, President-General of the Daughters of the American Revolution in New York, who had supplied hammocks for the Rough Riders, giving her a report on the condition of the Rough Riders. "My dear Mrs. McLean, Those hammocks will be excellent for our men and I shall accept them with the utmost gratitude. Remember me warmly to your husband."We have had a pretty rough time of it here. Half of my men have been killed, wounded or prostrated by fever or dysentery and we have utterly lacked good food, shelter, clothing and medical supplies and assistance. If only now we are left to let go home to recuperate or sent on the expedition to Porto Rico, I shall be satisfied; but I wish they would not keep us here to catch the yellow fever, unless, of course, there is some real necessity for it. Faithfully yours, Theodore Roosevelt."On August 7, after 47 days in Cuba, the Rough Riders left Santiago harbor aboard the transport Miami headed for Montauk, Long Island. They arrived to a heroes' welcome on August 14.A search of public sale records going back 40 years turns up just two letters of Roosevelt datelined from Cuba, this and another we handled back in 2009.
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Jean-François Champollion, Who Lit the Candle That Illuminated Ancient Egypt, Seeks to Protect the Egyptian Antiquities Under His Care at the Louvre

Jean-François Champollion A very rare autograph: he decoded Hieroglyphics, and a substantial amount of our knowledge of the ancient world stems from his workConcerned about the safety of the artifacts under his care as Keeper of Antiquities at the Louvre, he seeks to avoid military serviceHistorically, scholars thought Hieroglyphics a complete mystery unlikely ever to be solved, and virtually nothing was known of Ancient Egypt nor understood of the writing it had left behind. Then, in 1799, Napoleon's troops discovered a stone in Rosetta, Egypt written in Greek, Hieroglyphics and Demotic, a cursive form of Hieroglyphics. The stone's contents were readily understood from the Greek, but the Hieroglyphic images remained indecipherable. Champollion was a child prodigy who graduated from language courses at age 11, and became a full professor at 19. He turned his attention to the Rosetta Stone to try and solve the puzzle. He determined that figures within ovals, called cartouches, represented proper names, then deciphered the names of Cleopatra and Ptolemy. These became the key to his unravelling the rest of the text. Champollion's feat marked the first time an ancient script had been deciphered; others followed suit inspired by his success. He was appointed Keeper of Antiquities at the Louvre Museum in 1826.During the revolution of July 1830, the Louvre was ransacked by soldiers, damaging many of the artifacts in Champollion's care. And with a draft call out, he was concerned that he would be drafted and the priceless objects under his care and custodianship might be further imperiled.Autograph draft of a petition, signed, Paris, likely dated 21 September 1830. "J. F. Champollion the young member of the Institute states that as he is charged with the public and daily service as curator of the antiquity museum the Louvre, and Professor of Egyptian Language and Archeology at the same museum, he would like to request temporarily and until the promulgation of the definitive law of the National Guard, an exemption from service granted by Imperial Decree not yet repealed, to Professors attached to public institutions. The petitioner leaves the rest entirely to the decision of the family counsel of the legion and will voluntarily conform to whatever that may be."Champollion's work was strongly supported by his brother, Jacques-Joseph Champollion-Figeac, Professor of Greek at Grenoble and later Curator of Manuscripts at the Bibliothèque Nationale, who published his Egyptian grammar and dictionary after his brother's premature death. On July 15, 1832, he sent this draft petition as a sample of his late brother's handwriting to Lérat de Magnitot, author and antiquarian. That cover letter is present and included, and reads "I have the honor to send to to Monsieur Lérat de Magnitot a sample written by my poor brother. It's the manuscript to be exempted from national guard service?"This is only the second time we have ever had Champollion's autograph, the last time being in 2004. It is also just the fourth example we have ever seen.
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Albert Einstein, Long Devoted to the Idea of a Jewish Homeland, Writes Chaim Weizmann Celebrating the Creation of Israel Just Days After Independence

Albert Einstein Einstein expresses confidence in the resilience of "our" Jewish people, who would "overcome" the catastrophe of the Holocaust, and sees the formation of Israel as having "created a happy Jewish community"He congratulates Weizmann on being named President of the Provisional State Council ? effectively first President of Israel ? on May 16, 1948"I am confident that our people will overcome this last scare and that you will live to experience the satisfaction of having created a happy Jewish community"He expresses suspicion of the great powers, saying "The game the English play with us is miserable, and the American attitude appears ambivalent."For almost 2,000 years, ever since the Romans forced the Jewish people to leave their homeland ? the Land of Israel, they yearned for Zion. Over the millennia it has often been at the root of what it meant to be a Jew. It was their spiritual homeland; at every Passover, at the seder, they would say "Next year in Jerusalem", reaffirming the hope that one day the Jewish people might return there. But that hope was forlorn for millennia. The early days of the diaspora saw the Jews scattered, the Middle Ages saw them ghettoed and persecuted, the Crusader era saw them blamed and murdered, then in the Enlightenment and 19th century many emerged from the societies at large to find they were not accepted. Then, in 1896, Theodor Herzl founded the Zionist movement when, in his book "The Jewish State", he envisioned the founding of an independent Jewish nation. Most Zionists emphasized the memory, emotion and myth linking Jews to the Land of Israel, so their dreamed-of state had to be there.In 1917 Chaim Weizmann, scientist, statesman, and Zionist, persuaded the British government to issue a statement favoring the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. The statement, which became known as the Balfour Declaration, was, in part, recognition to the Jews for their support of the British against the Turks during World War I. After the war, the League of Nations ratified the declaration and in 1922 appointed Britain to rule Palestine, which had been under Turkish rule for centuries. This was what the British called their Palestine Mandate. This course of events caused Jews to be optimistic about the eventual establishment of a homeland. Their optimism inspired the immigration to Palestine of Jews from many countries, particularly from Germany when Nazi persecution of Jews began. The arrival of many Jewish immigrants in the 1930s awakened Arab fears that Palestine would actually become a national homeland for the Jews, jeopardizing their position there. By 1936 guerrilla fighting had broken out between the Jews and the Arabs. Unable to maintain peace, Britain threw in its lot with the Arabs and in 1939 issued a white paper that restricted Jewish immigration into Palestine.Then came the catastrophe that befell the Jewish people ? the Holocaust ? that murdered 6 million and consumed the ancient Jewish communities in many nations of Europe. When Second World War ended, and all this became known, there was a growing sympathy for the plight of the Jews. But the British would not change their pro-Arab white paper, and the militant Zionist group the Irgun bombed the King David Hotel in Jerusalem in 1946. The hotel was the site of the central offices of the British Mandatory authorities in Palestine, principally the Secretariat of the Government of Palestine and the Headquarters of the British Armed Forces. The British, who were trying to recover from World War II themselves, became tired of being caught between the Jews and Arabs in Palestine, and began to think of leaving the Holy Land. It was now clear to many that the only realistic refuge for the Holocaust survivors would be a Jewish homeland. Creating such a homeland would not merely help the Jews, but would take pressure off of nations (particularly the United States) who had taken in many refugees but did not want to be pressed to take in more because of domestic politics. The situation grew urgent by February 1947 when Arab-Jewish communications had collapsed. So Britain, anxious to rid itself of the thorny, persistent problem, bucked it to the United Nations, formally requesting on April 2, 1947, that the U.N. General Assembly set up the Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP). This committee recommended that the British mandate over Palestine be ended and that the territory be partitioned into two states ? one Jewish and one Arab. President Truman instructed the State Department to support the U.N. plan for partition, but did so over the objections of many in Congress and the State Department. Secretary of State George Marshall was particularly strong in urging Truman ? unavailingly ? to avoid creation of a Jewish homeland, as it would lead to problems with the Arabs. On November 29, 1947, the partition plan was passed by the U.N. General Assembly. Jews around the world rejoiced. Meeting with President Truman in March 1948, Weizmann impressed upon the President the importance of establishing a Jewish state. This was undoubtedly one of the factors for the speedy recognition of the State of Israel by the United States in 1948.With British withdrawal imminent, the Provisional Government of Israel was formed on April 12, 1948. It would govern the Jewish community in the month remaining of the British mandate, and then the nation of Israel, until official elections could be held. David Ben Gurion was named head of that government. At midnight on May 14, 1948, the Provisional Government of Israel proclaimed a new State of Israel, establishing the first Jewish state in 2,000 years. The proclamation read: "We declare that, with effect from the moment of the termination of the Mandate being tonight, the eve of Sabbath, the 6th Iyar, 5708 (15th May, 1948), until the establishment of the elected, regular authorities of the State in accordance with the Constitution which shall be adopted by the Elected Constitue
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General Zachary Taylor, Writing from Mexico During the Mexican-American War, Obliges a Boy Who Had Requested His Autograph

Zachary Taylor Letters of Taylor from Mexico are uncommon, this being just the fourth we have ever hadIn 1846, with the United States and Mexico at war, General Zachary Taylor established a base of operations at Camargo, on the Rio Grande, while he awaited reinforcements from the War Department, which had issued a call for volunteers. In September 1846, his army now numbering 6,500, Taylor marched south to lay siege to Monterrey, Mexico's largest northern city, which was garrisoned by its 5,000-man Army of the North, commanded by General Pedro Ampudia. After three days of fighting, Taylor took the city, setting off celebrations throughout the United States. In early 1847, Taylor pushed south, encountering the Mexican army at Buena Vista, below Saltillo. Taylor's army repulsed several Mexican assaults on February 22 and 23. Although both sides claimed victory, the battle ended in a stalemate. Nonetheless, Taylor's Army of Occupation remained firmly in control of northern Mexico, and the battle was hailed as a great victory by the American press.Then Taylor returned to Monterrey, remaining until late November 1847, when he set sail for home. While he spent the following year in command of the Army's entire western division, his active military career was effectively over. In December he received a hero's welcome in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, which set the stage for the 1848 presidential election, in which he was nominated by the Whig Party, and elected President.Very uncommon Letter signed, Headquarters Army of Occupation, Camp near Monterrey, November 4, 1847, to Robert J. Hubbard of Utica, N.Y. "In compliance with the request contained in your letter of September, I take pleasure in affixing my autograph hereunto." Hubbard was a 15 years old boy, and the son of a prominent attorney who for years was clerk of the New York Supreme Court. The young man obviously collected autographs.Letters of Taylor from Mexico are uncommon, this being just the fourth we have ever had.
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Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee, On Leave at Arlington Plantation But Hoping to Return to Active Duty, Reports to the Army and General Scott His Location

Robert E. Lee A rare letter of Lee in the service of the United States on the eve of the Civil WarOn November 11, 1857, Robert E. Lee reached Arlington. His father-in law had just died, and Lee found his wife ill ? she scarcely able to move about the house, and, though she was only forty-nine, aging very rapidly. Overnight, and without warning, he had to face the fact that his wife had become an invalid. That was enough to add the deepest gloom to his return. Lee soon found that Mr. Custis's will had put a heavy burden on him. He had been named one of the four executors, and as the others failed to qualify, he had to discharge all the duties of settling a troublesome estate under a complicated testament. He applied for two months' leave soon after he reached home, and before that expired he got an extension to December 1, 1858, by which time he hoped to be able to rejoin his regiment.So Lee settled down in the winter of 1857?58 to become temporarily a farmer ? with scant equipment, little money, many debts, and indifferent help. He soon became restless and unsettled regarding his future. He felt that he was at the crossroads. Should he stay in the army, or was it his duty to resign and devote himself to Arlington, on which $10,000, exclusive of the payment of the debts, would have to be spent? His labor was aggravating and the results doubtful. Arlington was far more difficult to administer than West Point or a fort under construction. The rain interfered, and agrarian discontent, which was as general then as thereafter, overtook him in mid-summer. "I am getting along as usual," he wrote Rooney in August, "trying to get a little work done and to mend up some things. I succeed very badly." Later in the year, two of his daughters were ailing. He had to play the nurse, while attending to the farm, but he contrived to do both and still kept in contact with the army, which he clearly hoped one day to rejoin.Major Irwin McDowell was on General John Wool's staff during the Mexican-American War. By the conflict's end, McDowell had become the Assistant Adjutant General for the Army. Between 1848 and 1861, McDowell also served as a staff officer to higher-ranking military leaders, particularly General Winfield Scott, who was seeking Lee's return to the active duty in the army.Autograph letter signed, Arlington, October 1, 1858, to McDowell, giving him (and Scott) contact information so they could reach him. "I have the honor to report that my address for the current month will be Arlington, near Alexandria, Virginia." He signs as Lt. Col. of U.S. Cavalry.In December 1858 Lee obtained an extension of his leave from the army. He returned to the U.S. service in 1860, but resigned in 1861 to join the Confederate forces.
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John Steinbeck’s Searing Critique of American Politics, and His Refusal to Take a Public Part

John Steinbeck "I have never been a front man?" for a politician"The candidates are howling about the issues, and I am not sure they know there are no issues, at least the issues are all the same. The only issue is getting elected. And now we are cursed with the image ? a thing that works in cigarette advertising and has taken over our national elections. But they aren't images, they are cartoons and mostly they are caricatures. The image is a very dangerous thing?I try to sign nothing i haven't written myself."On the thirst for political power: "Power corrupts, but loss of power also corrupts."Eugene Istomin was a renowned pianist and friend of Hubert Humphrey who tried to get others in the arts to support Humphrey's 1968 campaign for president. In May of that year Humphrey was embroiled in a fight for the Democratic nomination with Robert Kennedy, a formidable adversary that seems poised to win. One of those he contacted to join the effort was novelist John Steinbeck, who had been a friend of Adlai Stevenson and intended to vote for Humphrey, but who refused in this letter to lend his name to the circus of American politics.Typed letter signed, on his personal letterhead, Sag Harbor, NY, 20 May 1968, to Istomin, taking apart American political campaigns. "I intended to write to you before this, but then my lettuces were shrieking to be transplanted, and I afraid I imitated the old emperor who heeded the call of his cabbages."I'm afraid there has been some misunderstanding about my support of Mr. Humphrey, not about its vehemence but about its method ."First, I have never been a front man. I don't want to be in any pictures! I'm not running for anything and personal publicity is the last thing I want. But every one wants to use names without thinking that they can very quickly use up a name through over-exposure ? either that or have it enter the subliminal zone where it has no meaning at all except recognition and familiarity. The trend now is to get one hell of a slough of names which are vaguely recognizable and have them listed in a full page ad in the New York Times. It has got so bad that there are professional signers of things. I try to sign nothing i haven't written myself. Isaac Stern bulldozed me into this Artists for Humphrey thing, so we use our artists against their artists and they cancel each other out. No, names have come to mean practically nothing. If i have been able to help before it has been with ideas, techniques, phrases without my name on them. And that's the way I want to keep it."I don't want to write a life of Hubert Humphrey to order, because it would sound exactly like that. I find the lean and hungry group disgusting. Dean Rusk said it clearly. Power corrupts, but loss of power also corrupts."The candidates are howling about the issues, and I am not sure they know there are no issues, at least the issues are all the same. The only issue is getting elected. And now we are cursed with the image ? a thing that works in cigarette advertising and has taken over our national elections. But they aren't images, they are cartoons and mostly they are caricatures. The image is a very dangerous thing. Push it a tiny bit sideways and it becomes destructive. One of the mostfamous men of all time is not known at all. Juvenal wrote a poem about him. Byron translated it. His name was Dr. Fell. I listen around quite a bit and I think we have a new potential Dr. Fell. Presently I have transposed it and it says what I hear a great deal. In Byronic meter it goes like this:"I do not like thee Bobby K.The reason why i cannot say,But in a deep instinctive wayI do not trust thee Bobby K."Put that on a button, on a sticker, set it to jingle music. The feeling is there in very many people and I will bet that those four lines can neutralize ten millions of Kennedy dollars."Finally ask H.H. for a private address, the kind I had for Adlai. He will understand. Yours, John Steinbeck."This may well be the best political letter Steinbeck ever wrote, and it is beautifully and evocatively written in his inimitable style. And the heart of his concern, that American politics had become just a form of advertising, is as relevant today as when he wrote it.Just 17 days after Steinbeck wrote this letter, Robert Kennedy (Bobby K as he is called here) was assassinated, and Humphrey was nominated at a fractious convention in Chicago that further divided the party. Many Democrats stayed home in November, and Richard Nixon was elected president.
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Huge John F. Kennedy Signed Photograph as President, Inscribed to the Woman Who Was Responsible For Restoring and Reopening Ford’s Theater, Where President Lincoln Was Assassinated

John F. Kennedy She was also the first woman to run a U.S. Senate committee, and the wife of "60 Minutes" producer, Don HewittThe largest signed portrait photograph of JFK that we have ever seenFrankie Childers was the first woman to run a U.S. Senate committee when she ran the committee on juvenile delinquency for Sen. Thomas Dodd. She was also a theater producer and founder of the Ford's Theater Society, responsible for restoring and reopening the historic site as a working theater. She produced over 150 stage shows and more than 15 network television specials broadcast from the theater, and there is a plaque to her there. For her work with the theater she was awarded a 2002 National Humanities Medal. For some years she was married to "60 Minutes" producer Don Hewitt, and is also known as Frankie Hewitt. As a TV newsman, Hewitt was well acquainted with John F. Kennedy, both as candidate and president.This is a huge 11 by 14 inch black and white photograph of JFK, clearly as President, inscribed and signed "To Frankie Childers, with warmest personal regards, John F. Kennedy." There is some fading of the ink, but this is the largest signed portrait photograph of JFK that we have ever seen. The photograph is identified on the verso as taken by Ted Bronstein, whose work appeared in Life Magazine and other major venues of the day.