The Treaty of Amity and Commerce between His Majesty the Magnificent King of Siam and the United States of America, signed in 1833, was the first treaty between the United States and any Asian nation. In 1856, U.S. diplomat Townsend Harris and Siamese King Rama IV negotiated a revised "Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation," which placed limits on import duties and export taxes. That same year, the J.W. Parker Company became the first American firm to open in Bangkok, followed by the American Rice Mill in 1858.On December 10, 1858, Buchanan wrote "To the Senate and House of Representatives: I transmit to Congress a copy of the treaty between the United States and the Kingdom of Siam, concluded on the 29th of May, 1856, and proclaimed on the 16th of August last, and call the attention of that body to the necessity of an act for carrying into effect the provisions of Article II of the said treaty, conferring certain judicial powers upon the consul of the United States who may be appointed to reside at Bangkok. I would also suggest that the extension to the Kingdom of Siam of the provisions of the act approved August 11, 1848, entitled "An act to carry into effect certain provisions in the treaties between the United States and China and the Ottoman Porte, giving certain judicial powers to ministers and consuls of the United States in those countries," might obviate the necessity of any other legislation upon the subject."At a time when trade with Bangkok was at its relative peak, Buchanan looked to install a consul and give him plenipotentiary powers, evidently feeling that revising existing legislation might be all that is necessary.Document signed, Washington, August 16, 1858, authorizing the Secretary of State to affix the Great Seal of the United States "to my proclamation of the Treaty between the United States and Siam, of May 29 1856."
This letter appears in no known compilations of Washington's correspondence and at the time of discovery was unknown to scholarsPerhaps more than any other leader of the Revolutionary Era, George Washington was shaped by his experiences in western lands. Washington came away from his early ventures in the West with a conviction that the destiny of Virginia, and later of the United States itself, would be one of expansion. Washington was a youth when he began surveying in the Shenandoah Valley and was only twenty-one when he made a perilous journey across the Allegheny Mountains to command the French to withdraw from the Ohio region claimed by Britain. When Washington returned to Williamsburg with news of the French defiance, he brought back a vision of the almost inconceivably rich interior beyond the barrier of the mountains. That vision remained with him and he invested in western lands for his whole life and worked to politically and commercially link the west with the eastern seaboard. Through purchases, trades, and as payment for his military service, George Washington eventually amassed more than 70,000 acres in what would today be seven different states and the District of Columbia. The schedule of property he appended to his will in the summer of 1799 listed his then-current land holdings as 52,194 acres, exclusive of the 8000 he also held at Mount Vernon.One of Washington's holdings was a 1,644?acre tract of land, called Washington's Bottom, on the Youghiogheny River in western Pennsylvania. This was his first land acquisition west of the Allegheny Mountains, a remarkable moment in the life of the budding land owner. He obtained the tract in 1768, and first visited it in 1770. In need of a settler to hold the tract against squatters and to begin clearing it for profitable cultivation, Washington was pleased in the fall of 1772 to receive a letter from Gilbert Simpson, Jr., son of a reliable man who for many years rented land from him on Clifton's Neck at Mount Vernon, proposing a partnership to develop Washington's Bottom. Washington would provide the land; Simpson his personal services as manager.Washington found himself shortly of money in 1787. In February of that year he wrote to his mother in response to her request for money, "Those who owe me money cannot or will not pay it without Suits and to sue is like doing nothing, whilst my expenses, not from any extravagance, or an inclination on my part to live splendidly but for the absolute support of my family and the visitors who are constantly here are exceedingly high; higher indeed than I can support, without selling part of my estate which I am disposed to do rather than run in debt."Israel Shreve was colonel of the 2nd New Jersey Regiment in the American Revolution. He was at the battles of Quebec, Brandywine, and Germantown, and then spent the cold winter of 1777, short of clothing and food supplies, with Washington's troops at Valley Forge. In July of 1779, Shreve and the 2nd N.J. Regiment joined Major General John Sullivan in his campaign against the Tory-allied Iroquois Indians. Shreve retired from the military in 1781. He maintained a correspondence with Washington over many years.On March 5, 1787, Shreve first attempted to buy Washington's Bottom. On March 5, Shreve wrote Washington, "?Since which I have Several times heard you have about Sixteen Hundred Acres of Land at or near Redstone In Pennsylvania called Washingtons Bottoms, which you Incline to Sell. I have not Seen the Lands But am Pretty well informed of the Situation Quality and Improvements thereon, by persons of my Acquaintance that Live near the Premises?If you do Incline to Sell the sd tract of Land altogether with the Improvements thereon, and Willing to take final Settlement Notes for pay, I should be glad to Purchase of you, said Notes are on Interest which Interest I am told will pay Tax in Virginia Eaqual to Cash, If So I hope you will oblige me In takeing them &c.?If my proposals are agreeable Please as soon as Convenient, to let me know your price?" Seven days later, Shreve again wrote Washington, saying "Dear Gen., Since Writeing the first Letter dated the 5th Inst. I have had further Information respecting your Determination to Sell the Said Land. I hope I can Bring about a Bargain with you. I am Destitute of a Suitable farm in this State to Live Comfortable upon?and most of my Property is in final Settlement Notes, If you are Desirous to Sell Said Land, I could give a Sum in Such property the Interest of which would be Considerable more than the Rents ariseing from the Lands."By settlement notes, Shreve refers to bounty land warrants. The federal government provided bounty land for those who served in the Revolution. It was first offered as an incentive to serve in the military and later as a reward for service. The federal government reserved tracts of land in the public domain for this purpose. The states of New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia also set aside tracts of bounty land for their Revolutionary War veterans. A veteran requested bounty land by filing an application at a local courthouse. The application papers and other supporting documents were placed in bounty land files kept by a federal or state agency. If the application was approved, the individual was given either a warrant certificate to receive land or scrip which could be exchanged for a warrant. Later laws allowed for the sale or exchange of warrants.Washington responded in this letter. The text is in the hand of Tobias Lear, executive secretary to George Washington from 1786 to 1799, and the signature and closing are in Washington's hand. Letter signed, Mount Vernon, March 20, 1787, to Shreve, admitting he was hard pressed for funds, and outlining his terms to sell the land, terms which did not include bounty certificates. "Your favor of the 5th inst. came duly to hand. The land you mention is for sale, & I wish it was convenient for me to accommodate you with it for m
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Ford had taken that position as a member of the President's Advisory Committee on Labor-Management Policy"I, too, feel that automation can result in increased productivity if intelligence is applied to the problem, and if we encourage the initiative and self-reliance of the American citizen (instead, as seems to be the case) lulling him into letting the central government take over."In the waning days of 1960, President Eisenhower prepared to leave office and hand the presidency to John F. Kennedy. Henry Ford II was a close confidant of Eisenhower's, and during his presidency provided Ike with important assistance. On three occasions, Ford lent one of his senior executives, Leo Beebe, to the U.S. government to supervise the resettlement of refugees and manage similar projects. Beebe became executive vice chairman of Eisenhower's Committee for Hungarian Refugees in 1956, a need that resulted from the Hungarian Revolution and subsequent flight from the country of many refugees. In addition to his committee work, during 1956-1957, while working out of Camp Kilmer in northern New Jersey, Beebe oversaw the relocation and resettlement of 35,000 Hungarian refugees in the United States, eventually finding them permanent residences in this country. In 1959-1960, Beebeorganized the U.S. Center for Cuban Refugees in Miami, Florida, to help with the mass influx of Cuban refugees that fled Castro's Cuba in 1960 (and beyond).Ford backed the refugee aid effort all the way, and it was of incalculable importance.In 1960, Robert McNamara was President of the Ford Motor Company. Kennedy, the President-elect, sought to name McNamara Secretary of Defense. Ford agreed to spare McNamara, yet another example of his Henry Ford II's largess.The friendship and collaboration of Eisenhower and Ford continued after Ike left office.The President's Advisory Committee on Labor-Management Policy, which was established by President Kennedy in February 1961 to promote free and responsible collective bargaining, industrial peace, sound wage and price policies, higher standards of living, and increased productivity. The Committee also considered policies designed to ensure that American products were competitive in world markets, as well as examine the benefits and problems created by automation and other technological advances. Other topics it took on included pensions, railroads, taxes, collective bargaining, and economic recovery.Henry Ford II, president of Ford Motor Company, was a member of the committee. The majority report found that automation causes unemployment. Ford dissented, saying "Its major premise is the assumption that automation and technological advance are in and of themselves significant causes of unemployment?an assumption that neither history nor an analysis of current unemployment supports?The factual evidence strongly indicates that, while automation displaces some individuals from jobs they have held, its overall effect is to increase income and expand job opportunities. History teaches us that, by and large, workers displaced by technological advance have moved rapidly into other employment, ultimately to better paying jobs. If?we would help persons displaced by technological advance, we must focus our attention not on relief or even training, though these properties properly conceived and administered, will help - but on creating new jobs for people who seek them and can perform in them."Eisenhower wrote Ford expressing his agreement with that dissent.Typed letter signed, on his letterhead, Palm Desert, January 30, 1962, to Henry Ford II. "Arthur Burns [who would later become Chairman of the Federal Reserve] sent me a copy of the report of the President's Advisory Committee on Labor-Management Policy, After reading it, I want to congratulate you on your dissent. I, too, feel that automation can result in increased productivity if intelligence is applied to the problem, and if we encourage the initiative and self-reliance of the American citizen (instead, as seems to be the case) lulling him into letting the central government take over."And on a brand new, and far different, subject, Mrs. Whitman asked me to tell you how much she is enjoying the car that you put at her disposal. She says that the joy of driving it, with the sun touching the tops of the mountains, is almost compensation for what she claims is the barbaric hour at which I like to do my morning work. She - and I - are most grateful to you. With warm personal regard (and again: are you coming out this way?)"A very interesting opinion of Eisenhower, expressing that automation is a positive good and helps workers rather than harms them.
ex-GoodspeedHenry Torrens was commissioned as an ensign in 1793 at the age of 14. In 1796 he served in the West Indies, where he displayed great bravery, was wounded, and rewarded with command of a company. He served in Portugal in 1798; in Holland under the Duke of York in 1799; and afterwards in Nova Scotia, Egypt, and India.In 1799 Torrens went to the Netherlands where he was involved in battles at Hoorne and Egmond aan Zee: at the latter, he was wounded. In 1805 he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. After seeing service at Buenos Aires in 1807, he accompanied the Duke of Wellington to Portugal in 1808, and was present at the battles in that country. Torrens rose to be appointed Wellington's Military Secretary in 1809. He attained the rank of major-general in 1814, and then Adjutant General to the Forces in 1820, one of the highest ranks in the British Army.Staff memorandum signed, London, November 26, 1807, and headed "Most Humbly Submitted to His Majesty." "That Lieut. Colonel Henry Torrens of the 89th Regiment of Foot be appointed an Assistant Adjutant General on the Staff in North Britain." Below this, George has written "Approved, G.R."This is the most significant British military appointment we have ever carried.
Franklin D. Roosevelt|Eleanor Roosevelt
FDR had a great interest in Father Damien, who devoted his life to helping lepers, and got the U.S. Navy to transport Damien's casket to Belgium for reburial.Robert Louis Stevenson was a Scottish novelist, poet, and travel writer, and a leading representative of English literature. He is best known for works such as Treasure Island, Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, and Kidnapped.Stevenson is also remembered because of his famous reply, in the form of a published letter, to the Rev. Doctor Hyde of Honolulu about the Catholic martyr Father Damien, undertaken because of Hyde's attack on Damien, who he called, to Stevenson's displeasure, "a coarse, dirty man, headstrong and bigoted?He had no hand in the reforms and improvements inaugurated, which were the work of our Board of Health, as occasion required and means were provided. He was not a pure man in his relations with women, and the leprosy of which he died should be attributed to his vices and carelessness."Stevenson's response has attained the stature of a small classic. Damien's extraordinary devotion to the lepers of Molokai moved Stevenson to compose a response to the offensive charges hurled against Damien. The letter holds the reader with the incisive beauty of its diction, with its irony, its mockery, and its sarcasm. Measured in words, it is brief; but gauged in terms of the scene it evokes, the truths it states, the man it portrays, it is long.Robert Louis Stevenson wrote it with the same clear and accurate insight into human motives and the same depth of sympathy found in all of his great novels and essays. Many books and pamphlets have been written about Father Damien, but this letter is surely the most profoundly moving work about his courageous, dedicated, inspiring life.Originally written in 1890, in 1930 "Father Damien: An Open Letter to the Rev. Dr. Hyde of Honolulu" was published privately for William Andrews Clark, Jr., and John Henry Nash. In the mid-1910s, Clark, a noted philanthropist, began collecting antiquarian and fine press books as a serious hobby. In 1919, he hired bibliographer Robert E. Cowan to consult on book-buying purchases and to help with the compilation of a printed library catalog. The first volume of this was printed in 1920 by San Francisco printer John Henry Nash, who did other books for Clark as well, including the Open Letter.This is Franklin D. Roosevelt's copy of "Father Damien: An Open Letter to the Rev. Dr. Hyde of Honolulu." Eleanor Roosevelt has written an ownership signature in her husband's name, and she has added "his book." Below that she has written own her initials.On his death in 1889 Damien was laid to rest by and among his leper friends on Molokai. 46 years later his remains were transferred to his native Belgium. President Franklin D. Roosevelt provided a United States Navy ship to transport the casket, which was welcomed at Antwerp by the Cardinal Archbishop, King Leopold III and more than 100,000 people.
George H.W. Bush
We obtained this treasured letter from the Kirkpatrick family, and it has never before been offered for saleThe Malta Summit took place from December 2-3 1989. The Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and recently inaugurated President George H.W. Bush met on the cruise ship SS Maxim Gorkiy, which was moored in Marsaxlokk Harbour, Malta. It was the first meeting between the two men. Significantly, the summit took place around a month after the fall of the Berlin wall, and Communist governments in Eastern Europe were collapsing. Hungary had just opened its border with the West. After the fall of Communist leader Erich Honecker, the new East German government lasted just seven weeks.During the Summit, the two men discussed the cataclysmic changes sweeping across Europe after the collapse of the Berlin wall and the end of the Iron Curtain. They declared a planned reduction in troops within Europe and that a reduction in weaponry would be discussed at a meeting scheduled for June 1990.The discussions at Malta marked a significant reduction in hostilities between the USA and the USSR. During a press conference, Gorbachev said he had promised the US president that he would never start a hot war with the US. He stated: "We are at the beginning of a long road to a lasting, peaceful era." President Bush confirmed that the Malta Summit would be "the beginning of a "lasting peace" in East-West relationships". During the summit, Bush and Gorbachev declared an end to the Cold War.The Malta Summit is considered by some to be the most important meeting between the USA and USSR since the Yalta Conference of February 1945, when Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin met to discuss the future of Europe after the end of World War II.As Bush himself said of the Malta Summit, "More important was Malta's positive effect on my personal relationship with Gorbachev, which I thought was symbolized in our joint press conference ? the first-ever in US-Soviet relations. The talks had shown a friendly openness between us and a genuine willingness to listen to each other's proposals. Perhaps the growing trust helped him accept and promote changes in Eastern Europe?"Jeane Kirkpatrick was a lifelong Democrat, working in both state and national campaigns including Hubert Humphrey's 1972 presidential campaign. She grew increasingly dissatisfied, however, with the Democratic Party's liberal faction and in 1972 cofounded the Coalition for a Democratic Majority. Her conservative writings regarding U.S. foreign policy impressed Ronald Reagan, and during his 1980 presidential campaign she was his foreign policy advisor. Under President Reagan, she became the first woman to serve as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, serving from 1981 to 1985. She was also given cabinet rank and was also a member of Reagan's national security team. She remained active in politics as a Republican. Kirkpatrick advised Bush in his preparation for the Summit.An 8 by 10 inch color photograph of the Summit, showing President Bush seated next to his Secretary of State, James Baker; and Gorbachev sitting beside his Foreign Minister, Eduard Shevardnadze, with Bush and Gorbachev shaking hands. Bush has inscribed the photograph, "To Jeane Kirkpatrick, thanks for your sound advice as I got ready for this one, George Bush."This is the first signed photograph from this Summit we have ever had, and a search of public sale records going back forty years disclosing only one. We obtained this from the Kirkpatrick family, and it has never before been offered for sale.
Before 1300|All Medieval Manuscripts|Medieval History, Literature, Law
A glance at the document reveals the types of medical complaints medieval physicians were armed to deal with: fevers, spondylitis, apostema (abscesses).Texts dealing with medicine are relatively rare between the Early Middle Ages and the later part of the High Middle Ages? that is to say between 700 and 1200. During this time, medicine was being practiced, but in Europe the practice was transmitted like much of the literature of the time, through oral tradition. So remedies were passed down from one physician to another, or from family member to family member, rather than being committed to writing.In the late 11th and 12th centuries, this practice of spoken rather than written medical knowledge changed, paving the way for modern medicine through the revival of Classical Greek texts and the incorporation of scientific advancements by the Islamic world. As Greek philosophy and science were being resurrected from illegibility through translations (via Arabic into Latin) and a renewed interest in reconciling the ?pagan' ideas with Christianity, medicine? and science? in Western Europe began to make strides towards modernity.The first medieval medical texts were based on Hippocrates and Galen. Other early medical texts that begin to appear in the 11th and 12th centuries are collections of herbal remedies and descriptions of the medical properties of plants. The Greek physician and botanist, Pedants Dioscorides (active from 40-90 BCE) produced one of the most well-known works on herbal properties which gained popularity and currency during this time. The work was distributed variously as Herbarium, De materia media, and, in the 19th century, published as Synonyma planetarium Barbara (Synonyms for Wild Plants). As this new interest in Greek and Arabic science grew in 11th century Italy, it spread north, to France and calques were developed to help bridge the gap between the Greek terminology and the Latin lingua franca. Thus, books of Latin synonyms of the Greek and Arabic words were composed in the 12th and 13th centuries as a way to make practical sense of the waves of new herbal information that flowed into European hands from medical books discovered by Westerners in the Holy Land during the Crusades. Dioscordie's works were interpolated into a Herbarium attributed to Pseudo-Apulius, further confusing the trail textual transmission and the line of scientific discoveries. With the frenzy for better understanding the Greek and Arabic medical texts, such as those of the Ancient Greek medical writer, Serapion, and the Arabic physicians Rasis and Avicenna, anonymous scribes in the West composed the corresponding Synonyma Rasis, Synonyma Serapionis and Synonyma Avicennae, as well as many others not devoted to a single author or text. In an effort to bring order to the cacophony of such texts with a single unified replacement, Simon de Gênes compiled the Clavis sanationis in the late 13th century.Bifolium from an herbal glossary in the Synonyma tradition, in Latin, manuscript on parchment [France, twelfth century]. Each leaf 185 by 146mm. Two conjoined leaves, each with single column of 25 lines in a small and angular early gothic bookhand, with a few biting curves, plant names underlined in black ink, apparently reused on accounts in sixteenth century with probable date of those accounts "1592" added to bas-de-page of one page upside down, liberated from those accounts by the nineteenth century and with inscription of that date at head ("Live de medicine fin XI ou comment du XII"), cockling and stained areas, a few tears to edges, but without affect to text, overall good and presentable condition.A glance at the document reveals the types of medical complaints medieval physicians were armed to deal with: fevers, spondylitis, apostema (abscesses). We see the transliteration of Greek words such as ????????, which gives apostema, known in English as an abscess. ?????? gives sinoche; that is cohesion. A list of herbs and complaints, transliterated and translated in a formulaic "id est" shows the Greek words ?diaquilon,' (of juices), ?libanotidos,' (rosemary), ?diacausis,' (around the fire), ?epiplocei,' (replenishment of fluids, which is also a Greek word for a specific type of hernia), ?radomes,' (rose and honey), as well as many others. [some of these Greek words are in Greek alphabet, some not. Should this be consistent?]We have not been able to identify the present text among published examples, and this may well be the only recorded witness to this text.This bifolium stands as a bridge in the transition between medieval and modern medicine. While scholars have understood for a long time the importance of this 11th and 12th century period for the development of European science and medicine, the rarity of the manuscripts from this time period has proven a stumbling block in understanding how the knowledge spread and the nuance in its development. These leaves contain numerous entries of medicinal plants (usually Latin transliterations of Arabic or Greek plant names), with brief glosses on alternative names and uses. They are most probably all that survives from a codex with a now-unknown synonyma-text.
Medieval History, Literature, Law|Curator's Selection|All Medieval Manuscripts
This work takes its place on the lineage of great early works, along with the Arthurian talesThese are exceptionally early witnesses to this most important literary text, the most popular secular work of the entire Middle AgesAppearances of this seminal text are uncommon, only a handful having reached the market in decadesLinguistic variations suggest a non-Parisian scribe; evidence of re-use in the 17th century from manuscript markingsThe influence of the Old French allegorical poem, the Roman de la Rose, ripples through the Middle Ages into the Renaissance even into Modernity, attracting the attention, and inspiring the works, of Chaucer, Dante, and C. S. Lewis. Lewis even stated that in cultural importance it ranks second to none except the Bible and the Consolation of Philosophy (Allegory of Love, 1936, p. 157).The Roman de la Rose, according to Lewis, was an important step in the development of Western literature and thought. He wrote, in the above work, "We have seen how? in the hands of a great poet, the Arthurian story, treated in terms of courtly love, produced the first notable examples of psychological or sentimental' fiction? The radical defect in Chrétien's poetry is that these two kinds of interest lie side by side in it without being really fused. The emotions of Lancelot and Guinevere are not really illustrated, save in a very shallow sense, by their adventures; their adventures are not really explained by their emotions."This defect of emotional appeal, of the primacy of love, is rectified, per Lewis, in Roman de la Rose. "But the whole truth about Guillaume (author of the Roman) is missed until we see that he is more of a realist than Chrétien (Chretien de Troyes, fl. c. 1160?1191, was the author of some of the fundamental texts of Arthurian lore). Of the two things that he found in Chrétien it was the fantastic that he rejected and the natural that he used."The great success, then, of the Roman de la Rose, was fairly novel use of allegory to highlight the emotional journey of love as it would have appeared to someone at that time and in a courtly setting.Summary of the Romance of the Rose:In 1230, Guillaume de Lorris began the dream-vision poem, a first-person narrative describing the efforts of a young man, stricken by the arrows of the God of Love, to obtain his beloved, the Rose. Guillaume's Amant (Lover) wished to tell the reader all that he knew of love, and the poem describes a dream in which Amant is taken by Oiseuse (Leisure) into a pleasure garden where he meets the allegorical figures of Deduiz (Pleasure), Deliz (Delight), Cupid and others, finally catching sight of and falling in love with the Rose. He is held back by the figures of Dangier (Danger), Honte (Shame), Mal Bouche (Scandal), and Jalousie (Jealousy) who imprison the Rose in a castle after Amant attains a kiss from the Rose.Death claimed Guillaume before he was able to conclude his work. He is only remembered to us through a mention by the poem's successive author, Jean de Meun, a friend of Dante, who resumed the poem around 1275, adding around 17,700 more lines to the approximately 4,000 extant lines. There are therefore 2 authors for this same work, separately themselves by a relatively great span of time, each with his own milieu and sensibilities.Both authors use the allegory to examine philosophical cruces emerging in the 13th century, through scholasticism, such as free will and determinism, optics, and the adjusting social orders which put mendicant friars in positions of increasing power. However, Jean's vision for how the Lover relates to his beloved? what he is prepared to do? diverges from Guillaume's.Jean provides a mirror for the turn from chivalric romances and courtly love which guided Guillaume. Jean's social and political commentary sees the Lover deceiving and achieving the Rose in a way that that shifts away from the idealized and innocent sensuality of the first part of the poem to a biting satire on contemporary society blended with an overt realization of sexuality. Jean's Amant makes war on the castle, debates with Reson (Reason), Nature and Genius, and finally enters the inner chamber of the Rose. His advice to the lover includes sections on how a man should keep his mistress (study the arts, ignore any infidelities, offer flattery but never advice) and how a lady might keep her male lover (use false hair, make up and perfume, avoid getting so drunk you fall asleep at dinner, only have intercourse in the dark to hide imperfections of the body, and avoid poor men and foreigners - except very rich ones).[caption id="attachment_25767" align="alignnone" width="1600"] Notes from use in the 17th century[/caption]The Manuscript & the Manuscript Tradition:Manuscript scholars have attempted to calculate the survival rate of medieval texts. Usually this calculation is done by comparing the catalogues of library books with known copies. Earlier in 2022, a team at the University of Antwerp has applied statistical principals usually used for tracking wildlife to estimate that approximately 9% of medieval manuscripts have survived to present day.Johns Hopkins University and the Bibliotheque nationale de France have listed 324 known manuscript copies of the Roman de la Rose from the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries, exceeding the number of manuscripts of the works of Dante and Chaucer. With the suggestion of an original 3,600 copies of the Roman de la Rose, based on the 9% survival rate, we are looking at what remains of a medieval best-seller. Yet few of these reach the market.Medieval manuscript poem, 14th century France, consisting of 2 double-sided folia from the Roman de la Rose, from key sections of this great manuscript (see "further details" below for a detailed entry and the Johns Hopkins system of categorization). There are manuscripts notations from use in the 17th century, likely as binding.This fragment opens with Friend's advice to the lover to guard that Scandal doesn't see hi
He admits a New York Christian to his Ashram: "life with me is a very hard life and perhaps much simpler than you have imagined."Gandhi's thoughts on religion are crucial and have gathered much interest and respect. An article on the subject stated that Gandhi "believed in judging people of other faiths from their stand point rather than his own." He welcomed contact of Hinduism with other religions, and "believed a respectful study of other's religion was a sacred duty and it did not reduce reverence for one's own?He expected religion to take account of practical life, he wanted it to appeal to reason and not be in conflict with morality." He believed Jesus "expressed the will and spirit of God but could not accept Jesus as the only incarnate son of God." All good people were also sons or daughters of God. "If Jesus was like God or God himself, then all men were like God or God Himself. But neither could he accept the Vedas as the inspired word of God, for if they were inspired, why not also the Bible and the Koran? He believed all great religions were fundamentally equal and that there should be innate respect for them, not just mutual tolerance." He also conceived that "all religions were more or less true."Gandhi established the Sabarmati Ashram in 1915 which also served as a school to teach basic skills including literacy as a means to promote Indian self-sufficiency. The Ashram was the starting point of his famed Salt March march to Dandi in 1930 to protest the British Salt Law, sparking a mass campaign of civil disobedience that resulted in the jailing of some 60,000 for illegally producing salt. It had a massive impact on the Indian independence movement. In response, the British Raj seized the ashram in 1933. Local citizens decided to preserve the site, but Gandhi vowed only to return when India had achieved independence. Assassinated in early 1948, Gandhi was unable to keep his pledge.Euthymios Chagaris emigrated to the United States from Kalamata, Greece in the early 1920s, and after study at New York University and Columbia, established himself as a teacher in Hoboken, New Jersey. According to a newspaper article at the time, in 1931 Chagaris wrote Gandhi asking permission to join his Sabarmati Ashram. He received a reply from Gandhi, and as the article says, "is planning to start for India in about a month." The newspaper article quotes Gandhi's letter in its entirety.Typed letter signed, from Gandhi's Ashram at Sabarmati, July 26, 1931, to Euthymios Chagaris of Hoboken, admitting him to the Ashram, inviting him to be adventurous, and making his most important statement about religions. "I have your letter. You should know that the climate of India is not suitable for those who are brought up in the rigorous climate of the West. And then, life with me is a very hard life and perhaps much simpler than you have imagined. However, if you have the means so as to enable you to come to India and go back comfortably in the event of disappointment, you may venture out and see things for yourself."Gandhi continues by making a statement on the equality of all faiths. "In no case is it necessary to become a Hindu. The Rule at the Ashram is to enable everyone to make the fullest progress in the faith of his or her forefathers, the belief being that all the great faiths of the world are equal for their respective professors."This is in accord to a statement he made in his book, "My Religion", in which he wrote, "My position is that all the great religions are fundamentally equal. We must have innate respect for other religions as we have for our own. Mind you, not mutual tolerance, but equal respect".It is also interesting that he characterizes life with him on the Asram is "a very hard life" and "perhaps much simpler than you have imagined."This is the most significant letter of Gandhi on religion that we have ever carried. Provenance: The Chagaris descendants.
Now a celebrity, he signs an envelope carried on his Chicago-St. Louis mail route in February 1928Before he tackled the Atlantic Ocean in 1927, Charles Lindbergh had a career as an airmail pilot. Following stints as an Army pilot, test pilot and barnstormer, Lindbergh flew the mail as a contract pilot on Airmail Route #2 between Chicago, Illinois and St. Louis, Missouri. He flew a De Haviland DH-4 over the route, with stops at Springfield and Peoria. During this period he twice had to bail out from the mail aircraft to save his life. Lindbergh was nothing if not courageous.While flying mail from Chicago to St Louis, Lindbergh decided to compete for the $25,000 prize for the first non-stop flight from New York to Paris. Although he was not the only pilot considering the feat, Lindbergh had many things going for him?an indomitable spirit and positive attitude as well as youth, energy, and a natural desire to rise to the challenge of a nonstop transcontinental flight. He obtained funding for a plane, and for months, between work on the small monoplane that was to become the Spirit of St. Louis, he studied charts, weather, flight plans, and memorized any piece of information that could aid him in his trip. On May 20?21, 1927, Lindbergh made the first nonstop flight from New York City to Paris, a distance of 3,600 miles, flying alone for 33.5 hours. He became a hero and celebrity overnight, and everyone sought his services as a pilot and his presence at events.In February 1928 he was asked to fly his old airmail route once again. A special envelope was prepared for him to carry on his plane, with a horseshoe shaped stamp reading "Lindbergh Again Flies the Air Mail", and a U.S. postage stamp showing the Spirit of St. Louis with the words "Lindbergh Air Mail." On the verso is the postmark with the date of February 20, 1928. Lindbergh has signed as Pilot. It is also signed by pioneer mail pilots Harlan Gurney (to whom the envelope was addressed), Philip R. Love, Thomas P. Nelson (who was killed when he parachuted from an aircraft during a snowstorm in 1929, and froze to death), L.H. Smith (who piloted the first airplane to receive a complete mid-air refueling), and one other.A wonderful memento of Lindbergh's popularity after his flight to Paris, and his interest in again flying his old mail route.
The Commission is still in existence todayThe Mexican War up-ended what had been the border between the United States and Mexico. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 fixed the international boundary between El Paso - Ciudad Juarez and the Gulf of Mexico. The Gadsden Purchase in 1853 extended the southern boundary of New Mexico and Arizona southwards to enable the United States to construct a railroad to the west coast along a southern route (plans for which were scuttled by the Civil War), and to resolve a question arising from the 1848 Treaty as to the location of the southern boundary of New Mexico. Temporary commissions were formed by these early boundary treaties to survey and demarcate the boundaries on the ground.As settlements sprang up along the boundary rivers and the adjoining lands began to be developed for agriculture in the late 19th century, questions arose as to the location of the boundary when the rivers marking the boundary changed their course and transferred tracts of land from one side of the river to the other. In July 1882, a temporary commission was established to resurvey and place additional monuments along the western land boundary from El Paso to Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua to San Diego, and in Baja California. Then in 1884 the two governments established the Border Convention, which adopted rules designed to deal with and amicably settle boundary questions.But these measures were not sufficient. So in 1889, another Border Convention was held that resulted in the two governments creating the International Boundary Commission (IBC), to consist of a United States section and a Mexican section. The IBC was charged with the application of the rules of the 1884 Convention, and was designed to resolve differences or questions that might arise on the frontier of the U.S. and Mexico where the Rio Grande and Colorado River formed the boundary, and such questions arose from alterations or changes in the river bed or from construction work along the bed of the river. The IBC, with its name changed to International Boundary and Water Commission, is still very much in existence after 134 years.Document signed, Washington, October 14, 1889, being the original order for the United States to establish the International Boundary and Water Commission. "I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of State to cause the Seal of the United States to be affixed to my proclamation of the Convention between the United States & Mexico, signed Feb. 18, 1889, to revive the provisions of the Convention of July 29, 1882, to survey and relocate the existing boundary line between the two countries west of the Rio Grande and to extend the time fixed in Art. VIII of the said Convention for the completion of the work in question, [my proclamation] dated this day and signed by me, and for so doing this shall be his warrant."
Queen Elizabeth II
A unique visitors book kept by a prominent boutique, filled with the iconic names of the era, from Mick Jagger to Queen Elizabeth II to Donovan to TwiggyWith thousands of signatures, the most complete such collection we have seenSwinging London: Its very name conjures up images of style, culture, excitement and romance. Presided over by a young Queen Elizabeth, London transformed itself from a bleak, conservative, colorless city, only just beginning to forget the troubles of the Second World War, into the focus of all the world's attention, bursting into bloom with color, freedom, optimism and promise. It represented a fundamental and explosive change in attitude, values, and art. And all classes took part, from the Queen's own sister, Margaret, to a hairdresser's daughter, Cilla Black. London was the center of all the action; the city where everything was happening and where anything was possible.London captured the imagination of the world's media, and soon had the full attention of youth everywhere. And when Time Magazine in its April 15, 1966 issue dubbed London: the Swinging City, it cemented the association between London and all things hip and fashionable that had been growing in the popular imagination throughout the decade. London seemed like the capital of the world and all eyes were on it.The importance of London in the making of the Sixties cannot be exaggerated. There, in that one place, at that one time, was the center so many revolutions. There was the fashion revolution, with clothes becoming more playful, colorful, and youthful. This was exemplified by the shops on Carnegie Street and in Chelsea, and the eclectic I Was Lord Kitchener's Valet on Piccadilly. The sartorial splendor of these fashions was exhibited by models like Twiggy and rock stars like Mick Jagger. There was the art and design revolution, which filled London with galleries and studios. There was the music revolution, exemplified by the Beatles and Rolling Stones. In the U.S., all talk was of the British invasion. It's hard to overestimate the impact British music had on the lifestyles and aspirations of the youth of America. Looking back, we can almost close our eyes and see Donovan singing Catch the Wind for Bob Dylan or 73 million Americans watching The Beatles on the Ed Sullivan Show. And then of course there was the recreational drug revolution, with these drugs being normative by the end of the Sixties; and the sexual revolution and the shattering of gender roles.Americans flocked to London to participate in it all. You'd find Bob Dylan and Judy Garland there, the Byrds and Beach Boys were there, and so many others. And not everyone was famous. There was the boy at the New Jersey shore looking out over the ocean and thinking London was just on the other side, and he would go there (and did). And Americans weren't the only ones. People from all over the world came to London.Many of London's most fashionable boutiques of the late 1960's and early 70's were on Fulham Road, which runs through Chelsea, and one of these was owned by Neil Zarach. Zarach partnered with the designer David Hicks (who also happened to be Lord Mountbatten's son in law) in this iconic enterprise. In the '70s Hicks left the business and Zarach took over full ownership.Zarach's client listincluded fashionable London society, as well as many of the world's rulers, mega movie stars, rock stars, tycoons, and others of note in Swinging London. The shop was famous for itsparties, like the "Red Opening" on November 7, 1968.The shop kept a guestbook, which in time became two volumes (one labeled "Visitors), altogether 225pages, with over 1,000 signatures. The first volume covers 1967-1971, the second volume1971-1974, with additional entries for an event on June 7, 1984. The six pages for the "Red Opening" are memorialized here with the names in red pen. These books are a virtual compendium of the people who made Swinging London. Not only the famous names, though there are plenty of them, but also the others in every walk of life. We have never seen a broader and more diverse collection of signatures that reveals all the facets of Swinging London reach the market, and we obtained this one in England.The Visitors Books: The press was at the boutique in force. Signing the guestbook were journalists representing well over a score of leading newspapers, magazines, and television outlets. These included Vogue, which sent Julian West its senior fashion editor, Harpers Bazaar, The Times, Architecture Magazine, Cosmopolitan, House and Garden Magazine (which sent its editor Olive Sullivan), the BBC, New York Journal of Commence, Art Forum, and Italian Television.As for visitors, we lead off with royalty. The book is presided over by signatures of Queen Elizabeth II; her sister Princess Margaret (signing as Margaret Rose), along with her husband Lord Snowden; their cousin Alexandra; Umberto, the last king of Italy; Ali Mirza, Iranian prince; and Elizabeth Oxenberg, princess of Yugoslavia. This is the only time we have seen something signed by both Elizabeth and Margaret, making this exceptional. Then there is Lord Louis Mountbatten, great-grandson of Queen Victoria. He was named Chief of Combined Operations headquarters in World War II, and the last Viceroy of India. Princess Lee Radziwill, a sister of Jacqueline Kennedy, also signed, as has the Shi'a leader the Aga Khan.From the world of entertainment, actors include such giants as Julie Andrews, Elizabeth Taylor, Luise Rainer, Christopher Plummer, Joan Collins, Angela Lansbury, Leslie Caron, Maggie Smith, Lauren Bacall, and Linden Travers (actress for Alfred Hitchcock). Also Swinging London icons Peter Sellers, Michael Caine, and Julie Christie, among many others. Then were were innumerable people associated with theater and film, like Michael Briggs, location manager for the Godfather; Gerald Vaughan-Hughes, writer of plays and TV series; Jack Hildyard, Oscar winning cinematographer; Maurice Bind
Franklin D. Roosevelt
"My administration has sought from the outset to restore agricultural prices to levels which would enable our farm people to share equally with urban people the goods and services of their joint effort?But neither?can we ask our consumers to bear inordinate increases in living costs. Moreover, unless we act promptly to check the inflationary tendencies in evidence all about us, agriculture itself will be burdened with rising debts and higher costs, as it was following the last war."In the spring of 1941, the world war was raging and getting ever closer to American shores. President Roosevelt felt the need to protect rents from inflation, and control the availability and price of commodities that were or were likely to become scarce. For example, Japanese occupations in the Far East had made it impossible to get rubber from plantations in the Dutch East Indies, and what little rubber was available in the United States needed to go straight to airplane and munitions factories. So in April 1941, FDR established the Office of Price Administration to "stabilize prices and rents and prevent unwarranted increases in them; to prevent profiteering, hoarding and speculation; to assure that defense appropriations were not dissipated by excessive prices; to protect those with fixed incomes from undue impairment of their living standards; to assist in securing adequate production; and to prevent a post-emergency collapse of values."Just weeks after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and dragged America into the war, the Office of Price Administration initiated its first rationing program in support of the American war effort. It mandated that from that day on, no driver will be permitted to own more than five automobile tires. Tires went right into war manufacturing.Some were concerned about the impact of these controls. A. Leonard Allen, a member of Congress from Louisiana who represented his district from 1937-1953, was among those who were concerned about what harm the limitations might bring to farmers. He wrote the President, who responded at length about his policy and intentions, insisting that he favored strong prices for farm goods but wanted to protect consumers against inordinate increases in living costs.Typed letter signed, on White House letterhead, Washington, August 30, 1941, to A. Leonard Allen. "I have your recent telegram regarding the activities of the Office of Price Administration and Civilian Supply."May I assure you that I am not insensible to the need for fair and equitable treatment for agriculture in any kind of price control to be undertaken in this emergency. My administration has sought from the outset to restore agricultural prices to levels which would enable our farm people to share equally with urban people the goods and services of their joint effort, and we do not propose to deviate from that objective. But neither, on the other hand, can we ask our consumers to bear inordinate increases in living costs. Moreover, unless we act promptly to check the inflationary tendencies in evidence all about us, agriculture itself will be burdened with rising debts and higher costs, as it was following the last war."As you undoubtedly know, farm prices are approaching parity levels and for some commodities have gone beyond parity. Congress has passed, and I have approved, recent legislation authorizing loans on cotton to 85 per cent of parity."Pending the passage of price control legislation, the Office of Price Administration and Civilian Supply is operating under Executive Order. In every case where it has acted, the purpose has been to check unwarranted, speculative price increases which profit the few and work hardship for many. I can assure you personally that its action has been based on as thorough a study and consideration for all interests as its facilities would permit. If mistakes have been made and inequities perpetrated, I want them called to Mr. Henderson's attention. I'm sure he would welcome whatever counsel or criticism the members of Congress wish to convey regarding the activities of his Office."This is as good a letter on Roosevelt's policy goals as you are likely to find. It comes from Allen's scrapbook and has never before been offered for sale.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent agency of the United States government that supports research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. Its medical counterpart is the National Institute of Health. With an annual budget now well over $8 billion, the NSF funds approximately 25% of all federally supported basic research conducted by the United States colleges and universities. In some fields, such as mathematics, computer science, economics and the social sciences, the NSF is the major source of federal backing.The genesis of the NSF came in late 1944 when President Franklin D. Roosevelt wrote Vannevar Bush, Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, asking how the successful application of scientific knowledge to wartime problems could be carried over into peacetime. In 1950, after three more years of debate, Congress passed and President Harry S. Truman signed Public Law 81-507, creating the National Science Foundation. The act provided for a National Science Board (NSB) which establishes the policies of the National Science Foundation within the framework of national policies set forth by the President and Congress. The first NSB meeting was held December 12, 1950.In the fall of 1950, Truman was searching for appropriate members for the NSB. He thought of Henry Ford II, one of the nation's key business leaders, and thus a logical person for Truman to contact. In World War II, just a few years before this letter, Ford had turned from manufacturing cars and instead made airplanes for the nation's military. In fact, Ford produced 8,685 bombers for the Army Air Force by 1945.Truman invited Ford to serve as a member. Typed letter signed, on White House letterhead, Washington, September 30, 1950, to Ford. "I have been giving very careful consideration through the appointments to be made to the National Science Board, which is to administer the National Science Foundation provided for in Public Law 507 - 81st Congress. This is a most important undertaking because of the impact it will have upon our industrial development and upon the general welfare, and, in these times, the national defense. Recommendations for membership on the Board have reflected the highest thinking toward successful administration and accomplishment of the mission of the foundation. It is essential that we have such membership. May I consider you available for this important assignment?"
A rare letter of Washington to Hamilton, on the status of the post-war developments: The U.S. military establishment and standing army, the location of the new nation's capital, Indian affairs"The debate. on the residence of Congress which is yet in agitation has entirely thrown aside for some time the consideration of the Peace Establishment - when it is resumed I will take care that your application comes into view and shall be happy if any thing in my power may contribute to its success."Public records reveal sales of letters of Washington to Hamilton in 1898 and 1954. We found reference of no other letters of Washington to Hamilton having reached the marketWith the original preliminary agreement signed in November 1782, it was clear that the end of the Revolutionary War was coming. King George III issued a proclamation of cessation of hostilities on February 14, 1783, and Benjamin Franklin, representing the U.S., followed this with a similar declaration on February 20. The news of cessation of hostilities reached America by late March or early April, 1783. British commander Guy Carleton wrote Washington on April 6 acknowledging the official news of peace and making peace arrangements. The formal peace treaty? the Treaty of Paris ? would be signed on September 3, 1783, and the British Army departed from New York on November 25.The Military Peace EstablishmentWhat would be next for the American military? What would it look like post-war? What would be its goals, strength, and priorities? Congress determined to appoint a committee to look into these questions. At this time Alexander Hamilton was a member of the Continental Congress. He presented his credentials to Congress in Philadelphia on November 25, 1782 and would resign in July of 1783. Hamilton wrote Washington on April 9, 1783, of the appointment of a committee, consisting of himself as chairman, plus James Madison, Samuel Osgood, James Wilson, and Oliver Ellsworth, "to consider what arrangements it will be proper to adopt in the different departments with reference to a peace." The committee would also report to Congress on plans for the future defense of the United States and for demobilization of the existing Continental Army. At Hamilton's request, Washington's advice was sought.On May 2 Washington submitted his "Sentiments on a Peace Establishment" to Hamilton. In it, he argued - controversially - for the establishment of a regular standing army. He laid out his recommendations thusly: "A Peace Establishment for the United States of America may in my opinion be classed under four different heads Vizt: First. A regular and standing force, for garrisoning West Point and such other Posts upon our Northern, Western, and Southern Frontiers, as shall be deemed necessary to awe the Indians, protect our Trade, prevent the encroachment of our Neighbors of Canada and the Florida's, and guard us at least from surprises; Also for security of our Magazines [weapons depots]. Secondly. A well organized Militia; upon a Plan that will pervade all the States, and introduce similarity in their Establishment Manouvers, Exercise and Arms. Thirdly. Establishing Arsenals of all kinds of Military Stores. Fourthly. Academies, one or more for the Instruction of the Art Military; particularly those Branches of it which respect Engineering and Artillery, which are highly essential, and the knowledge of which, is most difficult to obtain. Also Manufactories of some kinds of Military Stores." Washington gave details on all these subjects.On maintaining an army he wrote, "Altho' a large standing Army in time of Peace hath ever been considered dangerous to the liberties of a Country, yet a few Troops, under certain circumstances, are not only safe, but indispensably necessary." He favored "preparations for building and equipping a Navy", a "Regiment of Artillery?in proportionate numbers to the Strength and importance of them", "Fortifications on the Sea Board," and "Troops requisite for the post of West Point, for the Magazines, and for our Northern, Western and Southern Frontiers." These should be sufficient to deter the British from causing trouble, and to deal with the Indians, adding it is "better to reduce our force hereafter, by degrees, than to have it to increase after some unfortunate disasters may have happened." These troops should also?keep a watch upon our Neighbors, and to prevent their encroaching upon our Territory undiscovered?" Washington wants officers "well skilled in the Theory and Art of War." He recommended "not less than two General Officers?They will take their Instructions from the Secretary at War."On June 18, 1783, after digesting and discussing this, Hamilton issued a "Report of a Committee to the Continental Congress on a Military Peace Establishment." It stated, "The Committee are of opinion, if there is a Constitutional power in the U.S. for that purpose, that there are conclusive reasons in favor of a federal [military] in preference to state establishments." The report goes on to recommend "The Military peace establishment of the U.S. to consist of 4 Regiments of Infantry, and one of Artillery incorporated in a Corps of Engineers, with the denomination of the Corps of Engineers. Each Regiment of Infantry to consist of two Battalions, each Battalion of 4 Companies, each Company of 64 Rank and File, with the following commisd & non commisd officers, pay, rations & clothing to be however recruited to 128 rank & file in time of war." He also included other specifications for a post-war army. Congress, preoccupied with other matters, did not take up Hamilton's report at that time.A committee consisting of Samuel Holten, James Wilson, Daniel Carroll, Samuel Huntington, and James Duane was appointed on August 7 to confer on the peace arrangements with Washington, who attended Congress in late August 1783. This committee was charged with submitting to Washington the report drafted by Hamilton. Washington reviewed the draft, and h
We obtained this letter from the Kirkpatrick family, and it has never before been offered for saleThe Washington Summit of 1987 was meeting between President Ronald Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev that took place on December 8?10. Reagan and Gorbachev discussed regional conflicts in Afghanistan, Central America, and Southern Africa, arms control issues for chemical weapons as well as conventional weapons, the status of START (limitation on strategy weapons) negotiations, and human rights. Some progress was made in these areas. The notable accomplishment of the Washington Summit was the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty which banned all of the two nations' land-based ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and missile launchers. By 1991, almost 2,700 missiles had been eliminated. Needless to say, the collegial atmosphere of the talks, and the feeling that Gorbachev was a man you could work with, caused great excitement in the United States after half a century of Cold War.In 1988, former President Nixon wrote a book, 1999: Victory Without War, which offered his comprehensive strategy for the West?a vital plan of action that would help ensure peace, prosperity, and freedom in the next century. In it, he provided commentary and suggestions in the area of his great expertise, foreign policy. He began by arguing that the United States should continue to play a central international role. He contended that world peace is inseparable from world power and that real peace is not absence of conflict but living with unending conflict the natural state of world affairs. He sought to tamp down the popularity of Gorbachev, whom he saw as seeking change that would permit the Soviet Union to find hegemony. Still, he cogently argued for a realistic policy toward the Soviets, involving a mix of deterrence, competition, and negotiation. His hard-line views are on display in other areas. On nuclear armaments, he endorsed Reagan's plan for laser-based weapons in space ("Star Wars") and urged "no first-strike vulnerability." He advocated continued support of Nicaragua's contras, covert CIA actions overseas, build-up of nuclear power, more U.S. cruise missiles in Europe, the establishment of U.S. air bases in Saudi Arabia. He blamed Africa's poverty on the terrible governments there. He strongly opposed the adoption of protectionist trade measures against Japan.Jeane Kirkpatrick was a lifelong Democrat, working in both state and national campaigns including Hubert Humphrey's 1972 presidential campaign. She grew increasingly dissatisfied, however, with the Democratic Party's liberal faction and in 1972 cofounded the Coalition for a Democratic Majority. Her conservative writings regarding U.S. foreign policy impressed Ronald Reagan, and during his 1980 presidential campaign she was selected as his foreign policy advisor. Under President Reagan, she became the first woman to serve as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, serving from 1981 to 1985. She was also given cabinet rank and was also a member of Reagan's national security team. She remained active in politics, but as a Republican.Nixon sent Kirkpatrick an advance copy of his book. Typed letter signed, on his letterhead, New York, March 8, 1988, to Kirkpatrick, in which he makes it clear that he does not share the excitement about Gorbachev and still distrusts the Soviets. "The enclosed proofs of 1999: Victory Without War represent my reflections after forty years of observing and participating in U.S. foreign policy. Some of our mutual friends will consider it to be too tough on the Soviets, but I thought it was essential to provide an antidote for the wave of euphoria that seems to have engulfed the West since the Washington summit. I think you may find the last chapter, in which I try to look into the future past the 1988 election, of particular interest."Nixon's distrust of Gorbachev, though hardly unexpected, proved baseless. Under Gorbachev's leadership, the next year the Berlin Wall came down, in 1990 six republics left the Soviet Union, and in 1991 the Soviet Union dissolved altogether.
Perhaps the most significant naval appointment signed by Lincoln we have carried in all these yearsEdward Donaldson, an Annapolis graduate, received his commission as lieutenant in the Navy in October 1847, and was connected with the ships Dolphin, Water Witch, the Merrimac, and the San Jacinto. During 1861, after the outbreak of the Civil War, he commanded the gun boat Sciota and took part in the bombardment of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and the subsequent capture of New Orleans. He participated in the passage of the Vicksburg batteries, and was made Commander in July 1862. He was transferred to the Keystone State as executive officer during its trip to the West Indies in search of the Confederate cruiser Sumter, and was her commander in 1863?1864.During the crucial Battle of Mobile Bay, on August 5, 1864, he commanded the Seminole and rendered efficient service by his coolness and judgment in piloting his vessel while passing Fort Morgan. The war over, Donaldson was made admiral in 1876.Document signed, Washington, February 21, 1863, being Donaldson's very appointment as Commander, and saying: "Reposing special trust and confidence in the patriotism, valor, fidelity and abilities of Edward Donaldson, I have nominated and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate do appoint him Commander in the Navy on the active list, from the 16th July 1862." The document is countersigned by Navy Secretary Gideon Welles.
In the article, he predicts that Britain could not be beaten by a bombing campaign, a prediction that he helped prove trueSoon, as Prime Minister, he would have to lead the nation through the Blitz of German air raids and on to victoryIn 1914, the Germans launched bombing raids on Britain from the sea and sky. Suddenly civilians on the Home Front, as well as soldiers on the Front Line, were at risk. The German military believed that they could use Zeppelin airships to help win the war, but though they caused civilian casualties, the raids contributed little to the war effort. These bombings did set a precedent, however.Among the public men of influence, only Churchill recognized the profound peril to the world that the Nazis represented. He spoke out in Parliament, on the radio, in his newspaper columns, anywhere and everywhere, demanding the government wake up and prepare. As early as 1933, Churchill warned in the House of Commons, "Those Germans are not looking for equal status. They are looking for weapons." But the prime ministers and party leaders not only disagreed with Churchill but considered him a loose cannon and an annoyance. Neville Chamberlain showed the attitude when he later wrote, "The real danger to this country is Winston. He is the warmonger, not Hitler."In 1934, Churchill held clandestine meetings at Chartwell, where he was briefed on the actual situation in Germany by the government and military men in his network, men in positions low enough to be without policy-making influence but high enough to know the true facts and statistics being developed. With this information, Churchill shocked Parliament by revealing the true figures of German military production, figures many colleagues refused to believe. In November of 1934, he made a stirring speech in the Commons demanding an increase in military expenditures: "To urge preparation of defense is not to assert the imminence of war?" These words marked a turning point in his career; he would now primarily devote himself to warning of the threat of Germany. And he would often focus his remarks in Parliament on preparedness in the air as well as on sea.The Nazi regime came into power committed to gain strategic advantage by building up Germany's air power. Hitler's wars of conquest would succeed or fail depending upon whether or not Germany possessed air superiority over the battlefield. The German buildup in air strength represented a revolution in the European balance of power that would pave the way for Nazi conquests. In advocating British rearmament, in these Wilderness years Churchill gave close attention to the threats posed on the sea and in the air to British security. He argued that Britain needed superiority over great power challengers in these strategic domains. He grasped that protection of the British homeland from air assault provided the foundation for Britain's security and international standing in an increasingly hostile world. He urged in Parliament: "We ought to have a large vote of credit to double our Air Force; we ought to have it now, and a larger vote of credit as soon as possible to redouble the Air Force."The march of the dictators now proceeded in earnest. In October 1935, Italy took Ethiopia. Then, on March 7, 1936, Hitler invaded the demilitarized Rhineland, which action conflicted with the Versailles Treaty that ended World War I. Churchill understood the meaning of this invasion, saying "An enormous triumph has been gained by the Nazi regime". In 1937 Chamberlain became Prime Minister, and he held firm to his policy of appeasing the dictators, denying the necessity of rearming, and refusing to allocate significant funds to build planes and ships. Then came the pivotal year of 1938, when Hitler began to implement his grander plans. In the early hours of March 12, German troops marched into Austria. Hitler himself crossed the border shortly after, welcomed by thunderous crowds. Meanwhile, Britain and France registered protests but failed to act. In fact, on April 16, 1938, Chamberlain signed the Anglo-Italian Agreement, which acknowledged Italy's seizure of Ethiopia.The successful annexation of Austria fueled Adolf Hitler's ambition, and he next looked to the German-populated regions of western Czechoslovakia, a region which the Germans called Sudetenland. "It is my unalterable decision to smash Czechoslovakia by military action in the near future", Hitler said to his military advisors, many of whom were worried that the move was too ambitious. What fueled Hitler in moving forth with the gamble was the appeasement sentiment from the British and French political leadership. To resolve the crisis over the threat of an invasion of Czechoslovakia, in September Chamberlain flew to Munich to meet with Hitler and Mussolini. At this, the famed Munich Conference, Britain and France agreed that Hitler could take the Sudetenland in return for his promise that this was his final territorial demand. Chamberlain returned home waving the agreement and announcing he had secured "Peace in our time."Churchill was the lone voice against the Munich agreement, as he told the Commons, "All is over. Silent, mournful, abandoned, broken, Czechoslovakia recedes into the darkness?We are in the presence of a disaster of the first magnitude which has befallen Great Britain and France. Do not let us blind ourselves to that?I do not grudge our loyal, brave people, who were ready to do their duty no matter what the cost?the natural, spontaneous outburst of joy and relief when they learned that the hard ordeal would no longer be required of them at the moment; but they should know the truth. They should know that there has been gross neglect and deficiency in our defenses; they should know that we have sustained a defeat without a war?And do not suppose that this is the end. This is only the beginning of the reckoning. This is only the first sip, the first foretaste of a bitter cup which will be proffered to us year by ye
A century later TR was proven right, showing the depth of his understanding of wildlife"I should be rather surprised if it proved true that the higher monkey did not occasionally teach its offspring on some point or other in a way analogous - even if somewhat remotely analogous - to the way in which a Bushman teaches his or her offspring? It seems to me that no harm will come from its being known that we differ on this point. It is a very interesting and important one, and the fact that there is this difference may serve all the more to attract attention to it."No U.S. president is more popularly associated with nature and wildlife than is Theodore Roosevelt ? life-long naturalist, prodigious hunter, tireless adventurer, and visionary conservationist. As president, Roosevelt provided federal protection for almost 230 million acres of land, an area equivalent to the entire Eastern Seaboard from Maine to Florida. He initiated the U.S. Forest Service, and sat aside 150 national forests; he signed the Antiquities Act and pursuant to it created the first 18 national monuments, including the Grand Canyon and Muir Woods; an ardent ornithologist, he set up the first 51 federal bird reservations; he named five national parks, and added lands to a sixth ? Yosemite; by executive order he established the first four national game preserves, including the National Range; and the instituted first 24 reclamation, or federal irrigation, projects. As a naturalist crusader, TR's impact went far beyond the simple accomplishments; it resulted in changing the way people thought about the need to preserve America's natural treasures.Nature was Theodore Roosevelt's first passion. The young TR started to write natural history essays, which are the first examples of serious scientific scholarship on his part. At age nine he wrote his first long-form essay, "The Natural History of Insects." The area of zoology which interested him the most was ornithology. The family's trip down the Nile in 1872 provided the fourteen year old Roosevelt with a unique opportunity. He approached the trip as an official scientific expedition for the collection of specimens for the Roosevelt Museum of Natural History. With his sister, TR prowled the shores of the Nile, observing and hunting its fowl (in fact, it was his desire to collect specimens that led to his interest in hunting). Often, he ventured further inland from the shore and the result was his essay, "Ornithology of Egypt Between Cairo and Aswan". Roosevelt begins his essay by describing the unique ecosystem of the Nile and then launches into a detailed look at the nine "true desert birds." He pays particular attention to coloration and daily behaviors of each species of bird and tries to compare the birds both to what he has read about them and to other birds he knows.Roosevelt continued his natural history "hobby" throughout his life, writing articles and participating in debates even during his presidency. His two best known expeditions, Africa and South America, were both sponsored scientific expeditions that, in addition to affording TR an opportunity to hunt and obtain specimens for his own collection, gathered valuable natural history data for some of the world's most prominent museums, including the Smithsonian Institution. So as happens sometimes, the youthful passions of one individual can result in the creation of some truly wonderful things. Roosevelt was well acquainted with the noted naturalists of the time. In 1903, he went with John Muir to Yosemite, camping and posing for pictures on Overhanging Rock at the top of Glacier Point . He had written Muir, "I want to drop politics absolutely for four days and just be out in the open with you."John Burroughs contributed to the American understanding of nature through his large literary output, which included works about Henry David Thoreau, and his friend Walt Whitman, whom he admired. In 1903, Burroughs published an article in The Atlantic Monthly that challenged the sentimental and improbable characterizations of animals then being published by those he termed "nature fakers." A battle lasting half a decade ensued as naturalists sided with Burroughs or with those he criticized. Roosevelt became well acquainted with Burroughs. In April 1903, the two men toured Yellowstone Park together and Burroughs wrote about it in Camping and Tramping with Roosevelt. In planning the two-week trip to the park, Roosevelt had written Burroughs, "For the last 18 months I have taken everything as it came, from coal strikes to trolley cars, and I feel I am entitled to a fortnight to myself." TR arrived in time to set the Roosevelt Arch's cornerstone in a grand ceremony. Roosevelt esteemed Burroughs and called him Oom John (the Roosevelts were of Dutch extraction), an affectionate term meaning "uncle" in Dutch. John Burroughs continued to correspondent with TR for years.In the years 1903-1905, TR and Burroughs engaged in a public debate on a very important question of animal behavior: Do animals consciously teach their young?During that time, Burroughs was working on his book, Ways of Nature, a collection of essays published in 1905. In that book, Burroughs took the position he had been espousing to Roosevelt, that animals don't consciously teach their young, and specifically stated that Roosevelt held a different opinion. Burroughs wrote: "I am convinced there is nothing in the notion that animals consciously teach their young. Is it probable that a mere animal reflects upon the future any more than it does upon the past? Is it solicitous about the future well-being of its offspring any more than it is curious about its ancestry? Persons who think they see the lower animals training their young consciously or unconsciously supply something to their observations; they read their own thoughts or preconceptions into what they see. Yet so trained a naturalist and experienced a hunter as President Roosevelt differs with me in this matter
Churchill was keenly interested in science, and was the first British prime minister to hire a science advisor; no other prime minister had done more for science, technology and innovationThis is our first Churchill letter relating to his science writingWinston Churchill's main source of income was not his salary as a Member of Parliament, but as an author. He was a journalist as early as the mid-1890s, and then reported from captivity during the Boer War. As a serving MP he began publishing pamphlets containing his speeches or answers to key parliamentary questions. Beginning with Mr Winston Churchill on the Education Bill (1902), over 135 such tracts were published over his career. He wrote 43 book length works in 72 volumes, including his 6-volume history of the Second World War. His first book was printed in 1898, and the last in 1958, a remarkable span of 60 years. Four of the works were fiction, showing the breadth of his writing genius. There were 28 books published containing collections of his speeches. He also wrote some 10,000 articles for newspapers and magazines over a period of decades on a broad variety of subjects.In many cases, these newspaper articles were for-hire, commissioned by such publications as Colliers, News of the World, the Daily Mail, and the Sunday Dispatch. The News of the World was so fond of his work that from 1936 and 1939, they paid him £400 for article, which would be £12,000 (or over $15,000 ) in today's money. Quite a sum to pay a columnist during the Depression, and enough to keep Churchill enjoying his Pol Roger champagne and Romeo y Julieta brand cigars. Major Percy Davies was director of the News of the World, and Sir Emsley Carr was the editor in the 1930s. When Carr died in 1941 Davies ascended to the editorial position. It was with these men that Churchill dealt.In 1936, Churchill contracted to write a series on "Great Men I Have Known", and he the News of the World executives discussed subjects. Articles were written by Churchill on Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, Admiral Fisher of World War I note, King George V, General Sir John French, General Douglas Haig who was the senior British commander during World War I, Prime Minister Herbert Asquith, Lord Curzon, Prime Minister David Lloyd George, and Georges Clemenceau, among others.In April of that year Churchill wrote Davies with another idea, a way to continue and expand the concept. His new idea: "Great Men of All Time," and included a list of proposed subjects. He encouraged Davies to "pick a dozen of these names?and add any that occur to you. I would then make a further suggestion." Articles would then be written on these historical figures. The list the two men agreed upon contained 27 names, some likely added by Davies as additions to Churchill's list. The articles ran in 1936-1937. The great men were: "Confucius, Buddha, Mahomet, St. Patrick, St. Francis, Julius Caesar, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius; Plato, Aristotle, Alcibiades, Alexander, Cicero, Demosthenes, Solomon, St. Paul, Homer and Moses, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Sir Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Charlemagne, Pope Innocent III, Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, and Napoleon. This list gives you a profound idea of Churchill's most admired figures in history.In the Spring of 1938, Churchill wrote for the News of the World, not on men but events. Like "How Wars of the Future will be Waged", on the importance of machine-guns and tanks in World War I, the need for foresight and initiative amongst generals, and the importance of air power in a future conflict; "Future Safeguards of National Defense", on the importance of the Navy to national defense, the German submarine campaign in World War I, and the threat of air attacks on ships. Later in 1938, he wrote articles some of which would appear in 1939, such as, "Our Rule Britannia Office of State" on the history and structure of the Admiralty, his experience of it during World War I, the replacement of coal-driven ships with oil-powered, and praise for the Navy, "The Cinderella of Our Fighting Services" on the War Office, "Will There Be War in Europe - and When?" on the nature of the Nazi and Italian regimes, their financial needs, the growth of the German army and munitions program, and the state of the RAF; "Air Bombing is No Road to World Domination" on the experience of World War I, Air Raid Precautions, the strength of the RAF, the Spanish Civil War, evacuation and French precautions. In late 1938, he wrote "Memories of Parliament as a Novitiate Member" on the thrill of being an MP, features of the House of Commons, the gulf between the parties in the early years of the century, Joseph Chamberlain, the Free Trade debate, Charles Parnell and the flogging of soldiers; "On Making a Maiden Speech in the House" and the effect of the Irish Nationalists. These articles give you an insight into the historical and political issues of importance.Being the Renaissance man that he was, Churchill was keenly interested in science as well as politics. He was the first British prime minister to hire a science advisor, and no other prime minister did more for science, technology and innovation. In late 1938, he wrote articles on science intended for publication in 1939. These were on extraterrestrial life in the universe, the human body, and evolution (what Churchill called "the river of life"). They would not be completed until the 1950s, and did not run at the time. They would be not be discovered until 2017."The River of Life" was a 14-page typewritten manuscript, and was devoted to the evolution of life on Earth. The article showed that Churchill had a superb grasp of the big picture, and his views were not colored by any nonscientific arguments or sentiments. Churchill starts his brief description of life's history with an account of how the Earth itself formed, cooled down, and settled into the relatively quiescent state which allowed life to take root. Next, Churchill demonstrates a fa
He is, however, skeptical about settler claims of Indian atrocities, but promises to defend the settlers nonetheless"While I am constantly informed of murders committed on our citizens, houses burned and other depredations on their property in situations where they are ten times more numerous than the enemy who they say committed them. I shall however do all in my power to give protection to the Inhabitants even should I be compelled to abandon a part of my original plan of campaign."In 1832 in Florida, a number of Seminole leaders signed a treaty under which they agreed to leave Florida for Indian Territory in Oklahoma. Other Seminoles refused to recognized the treaty, and took refuge in the Florida Everglades. In the Second Seminole War, the military spent seven years putting down resistance at a cost of $20 million and 1500 casualties, and even then succeeded only after the treacherous act of seizing the Seminole leader Osceola during peace talks.Future president Brevet General Zachary Taylor commanded the campaign against the Seminoles. He built 35 forts throughout Middle Florida to assist in the "pacification of the territory." One of these forts, Fort Frank Brooke was built on the lower Steinhatchee River. Early maps refer to the river as "Achenahattchee" or "Esteen-hatchee" and "Esteen-E-Hatachre. "As early as the 1700s, maps labeled the river mouth and bay as "Dead Man Bay." This military presence pressured the Indian groups and accelerated their retreat into southern Florida's everglades region. The white settlers then could populate the area.Roger Jones was Adjutant General of the United States Army, holding that post longer than any other man. Taylor wrote him a report on the state of affairs in Florida,Report signed, three pages, Hd. Qrs. Army of the South, Fort Frank Brooke, Dead Man's Bay, 21st December 1838, to Jones, showing skepticism about settler claims of Indian atrocities, but promising to defend the settlers nonetheless."Sir, I have the honor to inform you that immediately after my communication to you at Fort Clench, I left that place with one Co. of Dragoons for Fort Fanning which I reached on the evening of the 9th inst., having passed four days on the way examining the swamps and hammocks for the enemy, without discovering any, or in fact any recent signs of them, from every appearance they have abandoned that section of country. I found at Fort Fanning two companies of the 2nd Infy. which had reached that place a few days before from the North and having learned on my arrival that the Indians had stopped a train of four wagons belonging to citizens near Waccasassa and robbed the drivers (Negroes) of their clothing and wagon covers, departed without committing any other acts of outrage, I determined to proceed to this place with the Infantry and Dragoons referred to and have the country between the Lawrence and Tallahassee completely scoured and the enemy driven from it before I left it. Having procured transportation I left Fort Fanning on the 15th and reached here on the 17th where I found four companies of the 6th Infy. under the command of Major Noel, and where a small picket work had been constructed and a road laid out to intersect the Federal road near Fort Jackson. Several reconnoitering parties had been sent out by Major Noel in various directions, one of whom fell in with and captured one Indian, who afterwards however made his escape. Many recent signs of them were found indicating that they were in considerable force and although much less has been accomplished in this quarter, than ought to have been done in this season of the year, owing to the reduced number of the 6th Infy. and the late arrival of the recruits from Jefferson Barracks. Yet as the companies have been increased by the arrival of the recruits referred to - it is hoped that the Enemy will be driven from Middle Florida, and entire security given to the inhabitants in a very short time. Since my arrival here I have placed four commands in motion to scour the country, who I will see are actively employed, as long as I can remain in this part of the Territory."Since my last Col. Twiggs reports that some outbuildings within three miles of Black Creek were burnt by the hostiles (where there were from three to four hundred troops) who also fired on the house, in which was a woman and six or seven children, the elder of whom a boy of 15 or 16 having discharged a gun at them. The Indians, if Indians they were, ran off, he also states that a cart accompanied by two men was robbed by the hostiles in the same section of country where Tupper's family was murdered and a man was fired at and shot through the arm between Fort Heilman and Jacksonville - all of which from reports appears to have been committed by a few Indians and one Negro."Three comps. of Dragoons and two of Militia which Col. Twiggs is authorized to receive has been assigned to the protection of the inhabitants residing in that quarter, but I fear nothing else will satisfy the people of East Florida as also a portion of those of Middle Florida short of bringing bringing the whole of them into the service of the United States. It is somewhat singular notwithstanding that Troops have been pushed in where hostiles were supposed to be and where no doubt many of them were skulking. Expresses have been sent and hunters permitted to go singly and in small parties in every direction for several months past up the St. Johns to Fort Mellon and between that river & the Atlantic to New Smyrna on both sides of the Ocklawaha above Fort King, on the Ubithlacoockee Enutaliga, Ubacasassa, and various other directions, without coming in collision with a single Indian. While I am constantly informed of murders committed on our citizens, houses burned and other depredations on their property in situations where they are ten times more numerous than the enemy who they say committed them. I shall however do all in my power to give protection to the Inhab
Lyndon B. Johnson
Robert McNamara, the young phenom and head of the Ford Motor Company, was named Secretary of Defense by President Kennedy. He came to be considered one of the greatest men to hold that Cabinet office. He grew more and more controversial after 1966 because of his differences with the president and the Joint Chiefs of Staff over Vietnam policy. There were frequent rumors that he would leave office. Yet there was great surprise when President Johnson announced on November 29, 1967 that McNamara would resign to become president of the World Bank. The increasing intensity of the antiwar movement in the United States and the approaching presidential campaign, in which Johnson was expected to seek reelection, figured heavily in explanations of McNamara's departure. So also did McNamara's differences with the Joint Chiefs of Staff over the bombing of North Vietnam, the number of U.S. troops to be assigned to the ground war, and construction along the 17th parallel separating South and North Vietnam of an anti-infiltration ground barrier, which McNamara favored and the Chiefs opposed. The President's announcement of McNamara's move to the World Bank stressed his stated interest in the job and that he deserved a change after seven years as secretary of defense, a much longer tenure than any of his predecessors. McNamara left office on February 29, 1968; for his dedicated efforts, the President awarded him both the Medal of Freedom and the Distinguished Service Medal. He served as head of the World Bank from 1968 to 1981.The concept of the "task force" became very popular during the Johnson Administration. These task forces were working groups whose goal was the formulation of specific policy recommendations for the upcoming legislative year. Unlike a commission or committee whose meetings and findings were public, the task force usually functioned under complete secrecy, in an attempt to encourage more candid and innovative thinking. The task force report was prepared solely for use by the Office of the President.In 1964, under Bill Moyer's coordination, the task force developed on an essentially ad hoc basis. This development became more refined in 1965, and by 1966, under Joseph Califano's coordination, a set task force process had developed. Between January and July the task forces were set-up; in October the task forces compiled their reports. After transmittal of the report to the Office of the President, Califano, Larry Levinson (and by 1967 James Gaither, Fred Bohen, and Matthew Nimitz) reviewed the task force proposals, as did the Bureau of the Budget and Council of Economic Advisors, preparing summaries for the President. Upon receipt of the summaries of the proposals, President Johnson would pick his programs for the coming legislative year. The proposals were either highlighted in the State of the Union Message, or in special messages sent to Congress after the State of the Union Message.One of the task forces set up in 1966 but whose work was not completed until 1967, was the Task Force on Government Organization. It recommended such measures as merging the Department of Commerce and Labor into a new department of economic affairs, creating a national statistical data center, establishing a new office of program coordination, and redefining the role of the Secretary of State on foreign policy issues.Robert McNamara was a member of this Task Force, which dissolved in October 1967 after completing its reports. Johnson wrote to McNamara thanking him for his service on the task force.Typed letter signed, on White House letterhead, October 11, 1967, to McNamara. "Dear Bob: I want to thank you personally for your service on the Task Force on Government Organization."I have received the last of your reports and look forward to a thorough review of your recommendations. I am sure that in these reports lie the keys to better government - government that - given the structure, the direction and the will - can fashion a better life for our people."Your work will have a lasting impact on the future of our country. You have provided innovative ideas that are essential if the instrument of government is to serve most effectively the needs of our people in these fast-changing times. You are to be commended - and thanked - for lending your self to this important cause."Just the next month it was announced that McNamara was leaving the Defense Department for the World Bank. Undoubtedly, Johnson knew McNamara was leaving when he wrote this letter.A very uncommon letter of a president to one of his Cabinet members.
"We were all of and from one and the same God, no matter by what names we worshipped Him."In August 1947, when, after three hundred years of rule in India, the British finally left, the subcontinent was partitioned into two independent nation states: Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan. Communities, families and farms were cut in two. Immediately, there began one of the greatest migrations in human history, as millions of Muslims trekked to West and East Pakistan (the latter now known as Bangladesh), while millions of Hindus and Sikhs headed in the opposite direction. Across the Indian subcontinent, communities that had coexisted for almost a millennium attacked each other in a terrifying outbreak of sectarian violence, with Hindus and Sikhs on one side and Muslims on the other. In the middle lay Kashmir, now part of India but an area where the majority of people are Muslims.In Kashmir, on the border between the two new nations, the pro-India Maharaja Hari Singh faced an uprising by his Muslim subjects in Poonch, Kashmir, and lost control of the western districts of his kingdom. On October 22, 1947, Pakistan's Pashtun tribal militias crossed the border of the state. These local tribal militias and irregular Pakistani forces moved to take Srinagar, the largest city in Kashmir and its capital, but on reaching Baramulla, they took to plunder and the advance stalled. A plea to India for assistance was made, and help was offered, but it was subject to the Kashmir government signing of an Instrument of Accession to India. Following the accession of the state to India on October 26, 1947, Indian troops were air-lifted to Srinagar.This set off a major conflict with international and multi-religious connotations. Gandhi, at the same time as a he appealed to God for a just resolution, hoped that the Muslim and Hindu forces fighting side by side might serve as an example for the forming nation, even comparing them to the Spartans.After a prayer time in late October, Gandhi gave a speech on the situation, and spoke on this using remarkable and hopeful words for the future of his nation and the religions of the region. The fragment offered here is his narration, drafted by his aide but containing extensive edits in his hand, so many that he nearly re-wrote the draft, intended for publication.Autograph Manuscript, 3 pages, October 29-31, 1947, ".What was the situation? It was stated that a rebel army composed of the Afridis and the like, ably officered, was advancing towards Srinagar, burning and looting the villages all along the route, destroying even the electric power-house, thus leaving Srinagar in darkness. It was difficultto believe that the entry could take place without some kind of encouragement from the Pakistan Government. He had not enough data to come to a judgment as to the merits of the case. Nor was it necessary for his purpose. All he knew was that it was right for the Union Government to rush the troops, even a handful, to Srinagar. That must save the situation to the extent of giving confidence to the Kashmiris, especially to the Sheikh Saheb, who was affectionately called Sher-e-Kashmir, the Lion of Kashmir."The result was now in the hands of God. Men could but do or die. The speaker would not shed a single tear if the littleUnion force was wiped out, like the Spartans,bravely defending Kashmir nor would he mind theSheikhsaheb and his Muslim, Hindu and Sikh comrades,men and women, dying at their post in defence of Kashmir. That would be a glorious example to the rest of lndia. Such heroic defence would infect the whole of India, and we would forget that Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs ever were enemies. Then we would realize that not all Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs were fiends. There were some good men and women in all religions and races. The universe existed on its good men and women. Indeed he would not be surprised, if even the rebel army was itself converted to sanity, Let them remember the refrain of the Bhajan: "'We were all of and from one and the same God, no matter by what names we worshipped Him.'"'It is interesting to note that Gandhi often used to write his notes and letters on wastepaper or used paper. Sometimes he even opened envelopes and wrote messages on the inside. Here he obviously wrote on the reverse of a typed text and crossed out someone else's earlier text to make use of the same sheet.
An increasingly uncommon letter of Einstein on the role of religions, philosophy, peace, and the dangers of the atomic age (that he helped usher in)Albert Einstein believed that wars stood in the way of human progress, and he was a lifelong pacifist (though he did not believe in pacifism at any price or in all situations). He was also an active promoter of world peace, from the days of World War I right up to his death in 1955. In fact, one of his last acts before his death was to add his signature to a statement of nine scientists warning that the world risked universal annihilation unless the institution of war was abolished.Knowing his stance, people from all over the world appealed to him to assist various causes consistent with these beliefs, and to give statements supporting individuals and groups that did so.Einstein was also not a member or follower of any organized religion. He considered himself a Jew, but was not a practicing Jew. And as for the Christian churches, he felt that it "since Constantine has always favored the authoritarian State, as long as the State allows the Church to baptize and instruct the masses". Their conduct in the years up to World War II was worse than disappointing, he thought, as they made the devil's bargain - the evil compromise - with the Hitler regime. Einstein addressed this saying, "Since when can one make a pact with Christ and Satan at the same time?" He added, "The Church has always sold itself to those in power, and agreed to any bargain in return for immunity?If I were allowed to give advice to the Churches, I would tell them to begin with a conversion among themselves, and to stop playing power politics." This idea of an evil compromise or devil's pact is central to his feelings about organized religion.There was one exception to his criticism of religions - the Quakers. Their community aims at purifying the Christian world and generating social reform by creating direct experience with God, without intervention of clergy or other expressions of church. The Quakers greatly influenced science and industry, and their community is noted for the pursuit of peace and non-violence. Thus Einstein's views fit into their belief system. "If I were not a Jew I would be a Quaker," he once wrote. Speaking to a Quaker gathering in 1938, he said, "With admiration and respect I have seen, in the course of many years, how successfully and selflessly the Society of Friends has worked in the entire world to lessen human suffering and to make the teachings of Christ apply to real life. Everyone who is concerned about a better lot and a more dignified stature for humanity owes deep gratitude to the Society of Friends. This Society is an admirable testimony against the assertion that every organization by its very nature kills the spirit which has called it into life."In 1949 the Australian pathologist Alton R. Chapple, who was a Quaker, wrote to Einstein, in the then-current climate of concern regarding the perils of the atomic age, for "a few words of leadership and hope". Einstein responded, stressing the necessity for moral courage by the individual. He said that power is often in the hands of power-loving persons who know very little restrictions when it comes to the realization of their ambitious goals; and answering negatively the question whether self-restraint on what "productive thinkers and explorers" research might not prevent further development of means of mass destruction. He gave three main reasons: 1) The already existing means of destruction are effective enough to bring about total destruction; 2) People really devoted to the progress of knowledge concerning the physical world like Faraday or Rutherford have never worked for practical goals, let alone military goals. And nobody could know in advance what kind of application might be developed on the basis of their discoveries; and 3) People of technical skill are so numerous and so dependent economically that they cannot be expected to refuse employment offered them by the state or private industry, even if they were able to clearly recognize that their work will lead to disaster on a world-wide scale. He concluded that hope can only be based on the intellectual and moral independence of a sufficient number of people, since "honesty and courage of the individual to stand up for his convictions on every occasion is the only essential thing".Chapple wrote Einstein again in 1954, about the Quakers, and a perceived contradiction that Chapple discerned in the 1949 letter, thinking that Einstein stated that he does not expect people to refuse to work in research that generates knowledge for the means of mass destruction. Einstein responded to Chapple, giving a virtual primer on his world view and opinions on how a religion and religious individuals could live a moral life and contribute something valuable to society and the cause of peace. This he felt the Quakers did.Typed letter signed, on his blind-embossed letterhead, Princeton, February 23, 1954, to Alton Chapple in Australia, illuminating Einstein's judgment and standards of conduct. "Thank you for your letter of February 16th. I consider the Society of Friends the religious community which has the highest moral standards. As far as I know they have never made evil compromises and are always guided by their conscience. In international life, especially, their influence seems to me to be very beneficial and effective."There seems to me to be no contradiction in my remarks in my former letter to you. The rules applying to a moral elite can not be expected to be followed by the rank and file."So here Einstein praises those religions with "the highest moral standards". He especially lays out the need for them, and for individuals, to avoid "evil" compromises, and to always be guided by conscience. If an individual does these things, or a dedicated group like the Quakers, they will gain influence that is both beneficial and effective. Einstein do
Ezra Morse was from a family that had been in Massachusetts since the 17th century. When the Revolutionary War broke out, he early enlisted in the cause. As a historian wrote of him: "Col. Ezra Morse, of Sharon. He was distinguished for high mindedness, patriotism, and combativeness. In the hour that tried men's souls, he was among the foremost in the field, and early enlisted for the war in the Continental Army, in which he commanded a regiment."Governor John Hancock determined to appoint him to serve as a regimental quarter master in the Massachusetts militia. Document signed, Boston, July 23, 1788. "You being appointed Quarter Master of the fourth Regiment in the first Division of the militia of this Commonwealth comprehending the County of Suffolk By virtue of the power vested in me, I do by these presents reposing special trust & confidence in your ability, integrity and good conduct, do commission you accordingly. You are therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of Quarter Master of said Regiment in all things appertaining thereto?" Affixed to a light board.This is a very rare form of appointment. All the others we have seen are records of appointments, not addressed to anyone. This one is specifically addressed to Morse, starting out "You being appointed Quarter Master?"