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Women of the American Revolution: A Powerful Archive

Ellet, Elizabeth and Revolutionary Women From uncovering spy plots, to forging spoons into bullets, burning fields, hiding Continental soldiers, fighting off Native American attacks: the original manuscripts that recorded the exploits of our Founding MothersNearly 200 handwritten letters from descendants of heroines of the American Revolution, many from well known figures like Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, & Washington IrvingMany unpublished letters documenting heroic acts of women throughout the RevolutionA remarkable archive showing the earliest such example of historiographyIn the late 1840's, the Revolutionary War was sixty years in the past, and the men and women of the day looked back at their parents and grandparents, those who had fought, won and experienced the tumultuous era as a "Greatest Generation." Even as they venerated the actors in the revolutionary drama, the survivors were rapidly decreasing in number and the incidents of the war were receding into memory. Volume after volume had been produced detailing the exploits of men, but notable by its absence was any treatment about the experiences and contributions of the women. In fact, only the letters of Abigail Adams and Mercy Warren had been published, and virtually nothing was known about the sacrifices and heroism of both prominent and average women.Elizabeth Ellet, an author, poet and friend of Edgar Allan Poe, was a supporter of the newly-arisen women's suffrage movement and acutely aware that that the role women had played in achieving independence was relevant to their present political goals. Inspired by this, she had the idea of salvaging the memories of women in the Revolution while there was still time. She conducted personal interviews, reviewed original materials still retained by families, and engaged in a significant correspondence, mainly with descendants who shared the memories, the personal triumphs and tragedies, that their parents, grandparents, relatives and friends had related to them. The stories were harrowing, thrilling, humorous, interesting and inspirational ? all that and more. Ellet gathered the narratives into her landmark three-volume set of books ? "The Women of the American Revolution" ? that were published between 1848-1850.More than 175 women's exploits were covered, about one-third receiving lengthy treatment with the rest being the subject of what Ellet termed "anecdotes." Wonderful stories abound of women of every class and position in society. There are scores of prominent women, among them Martha Washington, Abigail Adams, Mercy Warren, Catharine Greene (wife of Nathaniel) and Lucy Knox (wife of Henry), Annis Stockton (wife of Richard Stockton), Sarah Bache (daughter of Benjamin Franklin), Dorothy Hancock (wife of John Hancock), and Catharine Schuyler (wife of Philip Schuyler). Then there are stories of women whose names are unfamiliar but who came to notice because of their relationship to men prominent in Ellet's day, such as Sarah Caldwell (mother of John C. Calhoun) and Elizabeth Clay (mother of Henry Clay). Just as importantly, however, are the myriad tales of average women, whose names nobody would recognize but whose experiences are in every way worthy to be recounted.Ellet corresponded with well over 100 persons during her research, receiving letters from such notables as Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, Charles Francis Adams and Francis Pickens. In addition to relatives relating stories, she received interesting letters relating to her topic from historians such as Jared Sparks and William Prescott, as well as from well-wishers including Dolley Madison. She retained these letters, which in some cases constitute lengthy manuscripts from which she took entire chapters, in some cases they contain material never published in her books, while in others the stories told are of the experience of families and not just the women.More than 120 people corresponded with Ellet sending nearly 200 letters. This is Ellet's letterbook, retained for more than 150 years by her descendents, containing the correspondence she received and comprising a significant portion of the content of the books. Because Ellet used editorial judgment in selecting parts of the letters to use, some of the material is unpublished.A selection of quotations offers a keen sense of the importance of the correspondence. In all cases, the author of the letter was the heir of the person or heard the story from the heir. In some cases, we have noted the author of the letter.Martha Washington at Mount Vernon"During the last decisive action of the war, the siege of Yorktown, my mother remained with Mrs. Washington at Mount Vernon?Often have I heard her describe the agitated life they then led ? the alternations of hope & fear, the trembling that seized them on the arrival of the daily express?Mrs. Washington?was called upon to?mourn the loss of her beloved & only son who died with fever during the siege of Yorktown?" ? Lucy Knox ThatcherMrs. John Walker Delayed the British Troops to Gain the Rebels Time" At the time that Tarleton with his corps of cavalry making a secret and forced march to surprise and capture the Governor and Legislature of Virginia then holding its session in Charlottesville one of the members chanced to be at the house of John Walker distant some twelve miles from the town. This was directly on the route and the first intimation the family had of the enemy's approach was the appearance of Tarleton's legion at their doors. Walker was at the time on service with the troops in Lower Virginia. Having made prisoners of one or two members of the Legislature Colonel Tarleton ordered breakfast for himself and his officers and men. Mrs. Walker who was a staunch Whig knew well that the design of her unwelcome guest was to proceed to Charlottesville and plunder and destroy the public stores there collected. She delayed as long as possible the preparations for breakfast for the purpose of enabling the members who had
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John Hancock Calls the Massachusetts Senate into Session For the First Time Under Its First Constitution

Hancock, John With the Revolution still ongoing, Massachusetts inaugurated a new Constitution with a bill of rights, one that effectively abolished slavery in that stateMassachusetts called a Constitutional Convention in 1779 to draft its first state constitution. John Adams was the document's principal author. Voters approved the document on June 15, 1780. It became effective on October 25, 1780, and remains the oldest functioning written constitution in continuous effect in the world. It was also the first constitution to be created by a convention called for that purpose rather than by a legislative body. Rather than taking the form of a list of provisions, the document was organized into a structure of chapters, sections, and articles. It served as a model for the U.S. Constitution agreed upon seven years later. The Massachusetts Constitution contained a Declaration of Rights, reading "All men are born free and equal, and have certain natural, essential, and unalienable rights; among which may be reckoned the right of enjoying and defending their lives and liberties; that of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property; in fine, that of seeking and obtaining their safety and happiness." This provision was a strong bill of rights, and it effectively abolished slavery in Massachusetts.Col. Seth Washburn was a soldier in the Revolution who commanded a company at Bunker Hill and went on to a career of public service. He was Superintendent for Worcester County, a Representative from the town of Leicester, and was then elected to the first state Senate under the new Massachusetts Constitution. As Senator, he received a document from John Hancock, governor of the state, calling the Senate into session for the first time under the new constitution.Document signed, Boston, May 14, 1781. "You being chosen Senator by a majority of voters in the County of Worcester for this Commonwealth, are hereby in the name of said Commonwealth of Massachusetts commanded to attend and assist at a General Court to be begun and holden at the State House in Boston on Wednesday the thirtieth of the present May at nine A.M. You will therefore give your attendance that there may be a due convention of Senators on the said day. Given pursuant to the Constitution of the government of the Commonwealth aforesaid at the Council Chamber in Boston the fourteenth day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty one, and in the fifth year of the independence of the United States of America."A search of public sale records going back 40 years turns up no other document in which Hancock calls on a member of either house to attend the first session under the Massachusetts Constitution, making this one extremely rare if not unique.
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War Date Signed Free Frank of Gen. George Washington to Gen. John Glover, the Man Who Rowed Him Across the Delaware

Washington, George Docketed by Glover with Washington's name and the date - July 28, 1780Uncommon to find both men's handwriting on one pieceAt the start of 1776, John Glover and his experienced Marblehead seamen became the 14th Continental Army Regiment and in July joined George Washington and the bulk of his forces on Long Island. In a series of maneuvers, British General Sir William Howe outflanked the Americans driving them back against the East River until they were nearly surrounded. Their only hope was to somehow escape across the river to Manhattan. During the night of August 29, Glover and his Marbleheaders ferried 9,000 Continental troops and all of their equipment, guns, horses, and cannon, at night and under adverse weather conditions. More defeats compelled the Americans to flee across New Jersey into Pennsylvania, with the British in pursuit. However, when Howe was unable to get across the Delaware River, he closed his campaign for the year and marched back to winter quarters in New York City. To occupy the conquered colony of New Jersey, the British general left behind a chain of individual garrisons, the principle one of which was at Trenton. Washington grasped quickly the flaw in the British strategy: by establishing separate posts along the river, the British forces were divided and lay wide open to raids. He determined upon a daring plan to cross the Delaware on Christmas night, dash down to Trenton and smash the Hessian garrison stationed there.But could Washington's army and weaponry navigate the ice-strewn Delaware River to reach the opposite bank? The answer again depended on John Glover, whose knowledge and experience of maritime matters made him a master of amphibious operations. Washington came to look upon Glover's men as a kind of ferrying unit ever since the regiment had proven instrumental in evacuating the American army from the precarious position on Long Island. When the attack on Trenton first had been discussed, tradition avers that Washington turned to Glover to ask if his mariners could navigate the icy river. Glover murmured quietly that his boys could manage the task. Only after this assurance, it is said, did Washington proceed with his plan.As dusk fell early on that bleak December afternoon, the boats that Washington had collected and concealed from enemy view were taken down to the riverbank. Built for river commerce, they were ideally suited for military operations because of their large size and light draft. ?Then the 2,400 men in Washington's force were brought to the boats. Christmas night brought with it a howling storm; a wind roared down, churning the river waters and making difficult the handling of the pitching craft. The river was high and the swift and surging current was littered with ice. As the night turned colder and the wind more piercing, new ice formed on the gear. The Delaware at the ferrying place was only about 1,000 feet wide, yet Glover's soldiers were forced to call upon all of their seaman's skill to navigate this span. Great chunks of ice came surging downstream to hit against the boats and became obstacles impeding the forward progress of the craft. Each cake of ice had to be wrestled out of the way before the boats could continue their passage. Yet they worked away and the patriot force on the east side of the Delaware gradually swelled in size. Ferrying the heavy howitzers and guns became the most critical part of the operation. With much effort, Glover's men succeeded. After the crossing came the surprise victory at Trenton, which reinvigorated the American cause at its lowest point and quite likely saved the Revolution. The tale of Washington crossing the Delaware passed into legend as well as history, and became the subject of probably the best known American historical painting.Glover left the army at the end of 1776 in order to put his personal affairs back in order, but Washington wrote him a personal letter asking that he resume a command, which he did in mid-1777. He commanded a brigade in the Saratoga campaign under General Horatio Gates, and the following year went to Rhode Island to participate in a combined American-French attack on the British at Newport. He remained for a time in Providence as commander of the American forces, then was posted to the Hudson River highlands where he served with units assigned to watch the British in New York City and, if necessary, to block their movement up the river. He remained there until 1782.On July 28, 1780, Washington wrote Glover, saying: "I have recd yours of the 19th and am pleased to hear that the Recruits from the State of Massachusetts are in general so good. You certainly took the proper steps with those few deemed unfit for the service. Inclosed is a letter for General Stark who I suppose will have arrived at Springfield before this reaches you, but should he not, and the troops from New Hampshire be still there waiting for him; you will be pleased to order them as expeditiously as possible to Claverac [PA]?"This is the free frank from that letter, the entire panel being present. The balance of the frank is in the hand of Washington's aide, Tench Tilghman. The docket is in the hand of General Glover himself.This is a fascinating and very uncommon association piece, with the handwritings of both Washington and Glover on one piece.
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Jefferson Davis in 1860 on the Threshhold of Civil War: Secession Would Be A Justifiable Consequence of Northern Actions, But There Is Still Time to Avert an Impending War

Davis, Jefferson A quotation from his May 17, 1860, speech on the Senate floor: "That the affection, the mutual desire for the mutual good, which existed among our Fathers, may be weakened in succeeding generations by the denial of right and by hostile demonstrations, until the equality guaranteed but not secured within the Union, may be sought for without it; must be evident to even a careless observer of our race. It is time to be up and doing. There is yet time to remove the causes of dissension and alienation, which are now distracting, and have for years past divided the country."Undoubtedly the most significant Davis piece we have ever carried, containing as it does the carrot and the stick ? peace or warAt the onset of the 1860 election year, the United States was at a breaking point as a result of the long crisis over slavery. The Compromise of 1850 had proven too narrowly based to solve the problems, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, promoted by Sen. Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, had taken a different approach ? the question of whether the territories would be slave or free would be left to the settlers under Douglas's principle of Popular Sovereignty. Presumably, the more northern territories would oppose slavery while the more southern ones would permit it. But the act failed in its purpose. It gave rise to the Republican Party determined to keep slavery from territories. In 1855 and 1856, pro and anti-slavery activists flooded into Kansas with the intention of influencing the popular-sovereignty rule of the territory. Kansas became home to no fewer than four state constitutions, some pro-slavery and some anti-slavery. The issue ended up in the halls of Congress. In 1860, Kansas was still not a state, and southerners, who expected the admission of Kansas as a slave state, were fed up. In the meantime, the Dred Scott case and John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry fanned the flames of disunity.On February 2, 1860, Jefferson Davis submitted a set of resolutions to the Senate, which he called "On the Relations of States." it summarized the position of the South, pulling no punches. The first resolved, "That in the adoption of the Federal Constitution, the States adopting the same acted severally as free and independent sovereignties, delegating a portion of their powers to be exercised by the Federal Government for the increased security of each?and that any intermeddling by any one or more States, or by a combination of their citizens, with the domestic institutions of the others, on any pretext, whether political, moral, or religious, with the view to their disturbance or subversion, is in violation of the Constitution, insulting to the States so interfered with, endangers their domestic peace and tranquillity?and, by necessary consequence, serves to weaken and destroy the Union itself." The second resolved "That negro slavery, as it exists in fifteen States of this Union, composes an important portion of their domestic institutions, inherited from their ancestors, and existing at the adoption of the Constitution, by which it is recognized?" Any attempts to overthrow it "are a manifest breach of faith?" The third pledged to "resist all attempts to discriminate either in relation to person or property, so as, in the Territories?which are the common possession of the United States?to give advantages to the citizens of one State which are not equally secured to those of every other State." Slaveowners would not be excluded from the territories, in other words. On this line, the fourth resolved "That neither Congress, nor a Territorial Legislature?possess the power to annul or impair the constitutional right of any citizen of the United States to take his slaver property into the common Territories." The lastly, fugitive slave laws "have unquestionable claim to the respect and observance of all who enjoy the benefits of our compact of Union; and that the acts of State Legislatures to defeat the purpose, or nullify the requirements of that provision, and the laws made in pursuance of it, are hostile in character, subversive of the Constitution, revolutionary in their effect, and if persisted in, must sooner or later lead the States injured by such breach of the compact to exercise their judgment as to the proper mode and measure of redress." In other words, failure to enforce these laws would justify secession.Two months later, the Democratic National Convention convened in Charleston, South Carolina. When the delegates failed to adopt an explicitly pro-slavery platform, the Convention dissolved. Rival Southern and Northern Conventions were set to reconvene in June 1860, each nominating their own presidential candidate. Stephen A. Douglas was the leading candidate to win the nomination in the North, and his rhetoric on slavery hardened to better win votes there.May 15 and 16, 1860, Douglas answered Davis's resolutions in a speech to the Senate entitled: "Non-Interference by Congress With Slavery In The Territories." He stuck with Popular Sovereignty (that the South thought had failed in Kansas), and suggested that one day the South itself might reject slavery, a suggestion which southerners saw as insulting. "Why cannot we live together in peace on the terms that have bound and held us together so long? Why cannot we agree on this great principle of non-intervention by the Federal Government with the local and domestic affairs of the Territories excluding slavery and all other irritating questions and leaving the people to govern themselves so far as the Constitution of the United States imposes no limitation to their authority? Upon that principle there can be peace. Upon that principle you can have slavery in the South as long as you want it and abolish it whenever you are tired of it?On that principle there can be peace and harmony and fraternity between the North and the South the East and the West?so that the Constitution may be maintained inviolate and the Union last forever." In other words
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Theodore Roosevelt Signed Manuscript on Hunting For His Famed Book On Outdoor Exploration and Adventure, With a Very Rare Sketch of His Favorite Hunting Rifle

Roosevelt, Theodore A remarkable glimpse into his mind as hunter and gamesman, with his assessment of his favorite hunting rifle, along with a description of the animals he hunted.Plus a very rare sketch of what he considered the symbol of hunting and shooting: his rifle and antlers of a moose he himself had shotTheodore Roosevelt loved the outdoor life, and felt the most alive when out in the open air of the wilderness. Born with physical ailments, he saw these as a challenge. His son Kermit tells of TR's trips with his children, in which he would challenge them to get from point A to point B moving only in a straight line, going around nothing, not even a river or mountain, to arrive at the destination. In crucial moments of his life, he sought the solace of the outdoors. When his wife and mother died, he looked to a rancher's life in the West. And when the tumult of politics was over and his second presidential term had passed, he again turned to the outdoors and hunting for reinvigoration. He hunted all over the world, from the old American West to the heart of Africa to Amazonia, looking for large and wild game. On African safari immediately after leaving the White House, he gathered specimens for the Smithsonian. In 1913, after his failed 1912 bid for the Presidency at the head of the Progressive Party ticket, Roosevelt again looked to outdoor exploration, a trip into one of the least hospitable, least known regions of the world ? the heart of the Amazon. In each of these places, he took his trusty Springfield Rifle, which he had acquired as President in 1904 and which was delivered to him at the White House. This rifle traveled with him across the Old West, on safari in Africa, and down the Amazon RiverIn 1916, Roosevelt wrote "A Book-Lovers Holiday in the Open," about hunting and the strenuous life outdoors in North and South America, and Africa, which he dedicated to his sons Archie and Quentin. In the forward, he said, "The man should have youth and strength who seeks adventure in the wide, waste spaces of the earth?.He must be a helmsman and chief, the cragsman, the rifleman, the boat steerer." The forward is a challenge to embrace the outdoors life and live unencumbered. "The beauty and charm of the wilderness lie close beside the beaten roads of present?The joy of living is his who has the heart to demand it."This book was a tour de force, a testament to his accomplishments as hunter and explorer. He discussed cougar hunts, travels across the Navajo desert, his wild hunting companions, and animals he had hunted. He listed only two illustrations inside the book and they related to each other: one is an image of antlers of a moose he had shot in September 1915, and the other of him proudly holding his Springfield Rifle, which he listed by serial number as 6000. This is the rifle he took with him to Brazil and also to Africa, as well as the West. It traveled the world with him.This is his original signed manuscript created for his book, in which he sketches the antlers and the rifle (as included in the book), and below describes the rifle and the game he has used it to hunt.Autograph Manuscript Signed, no date but late 1915, entitled "Tail Piece" with instructions below, " Photo of moose antlers with Springfield rifle across them". Under this appears the sketch of the rifle and antlers, and below that the main text relating to the rifles and the animals. "Antlers of moose shot September 19, 1915, with Springfield rifle No. 6000, Model 1903."This rifle, now a retired veteran, is not heavy enough for steady use on heavy game; but it is so handy and accurate, has such penetration, and keeps in such good order that it has been my chief hunting-rifle for the last dozen years on three continents, and has repeatedly killed heavy game. With it I have shot some three hundred head of all kinds, including the following:"Lion, hyena, elephant, rhinoceros (square-mouthed and hook-nosed), hippopotamus, zebras of two kinds, wart-hog, giraffe, giant eland, common eland, roan antelope, oryx, wildebeest, topi, white-withered lechwe, waterbucks, hartebeests, kobs, impalla, gerenuk, gazelles, reedbucks, bushbucks, klipspringer, oribis, duikers, steinbok, dikdik, monkeys, jaguar, tapir, big peccary, giant ant-eater, capybara, wood-deer, monkey, cougar, black bear, moose, caribou, white-tail deer, crocodile, cayman, python, ostrich, bustard, wild turkey, crane, pelican, maribou, ibis, whale-head stork, jabiru stork, guinea-fowl, francolin."This is a remarkable testament to the breadth of his hunting experience and skill, and is also the first manuscript from one of TR's books that we have ever carried in all these decades.
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Albert Einstein’s Warning to American Jews: Do Not Be Complacent, But Actively Combat Fascism and Discrimination In America Now While It is Not Too Late

Einstein, Albert "Unfortunately, the present Jewish leaders do not understand the seriousness of the situation, much like German Jews in the pre-Hitlerite era. They believe that they are able to put an end to the problem by being silent and disregarding it?"He also discusses his article "The Particle Problem in the General Theory of Relativity", which postulated the famous Einstein-Rosen Bridge, known today as the "wormhole' solution of general relativity"The question is often asked how the German Jews could have found themselves powerless to combat the rise of Naziism. In the late 1920s and into the 1930s, Germany's Jews ? some 500,000 people ? made up less than one percent of the German population. But it was a visible one percent. Most considered themselves loyal Germans, linked to the German way of life by language and culture. They excelled in science, literature, the arts, and economic enterprise. 24% of Germany's Nobel Prize winners were Jewish. Moreover, conversion, intermarriage, and declining birth rates, led some to believe that Jewish life was destined to disappear as Jews eagerly acculturated and sought to be assimilated into the German people. Even as the Nazi ideology of anti-Semitism gained strength, there was a widespread belief amongst Jews that the role they played within industry and trade, their contributions to the German economy, and their friendships with Germans generally would shield them from being excluded from German life. Many thought it was a phase that would pass, like other waves of anti-Semitism that had preceded it. Then, as the Nazis came into power, they did not all at once impose their full panoply of measures against the Jews. Instead it was drip, drip, drip, a little, then a little more, then a little more. After a few years of that, the Jews had been effectively isolated, their friends silenced, and they were stuck at the bottom with no way out.Einstein saw all this happen before his eyes, as he lived in Berlin before immigrating to the United States in 1933. When he got to America, he found discrimination against the Jews there as well, though of a less brutal kind. All but one medical school in the United States had imposed quotas on Jewish matriculants, and most of the best private universities (such a Princeton) did the same with admissions. Many hotels and clubs were closed to Jews. Fascism in Europe was just beginning to spread into the U.S., and anti-Semitic tirades were on the radio (made by such men as Father Coughlin and Henry Ford). Yet Einstein found many American Jews complacent.On July 1, 1935, Einstein and Nathan Rosen published in the "Physical Review" of the American Institute of Physics their article "The Particle Problem in the General Theory of Relativity", which investigated the possibility of an atomistic theory of matter and electricity which, while excluding singularities of the field, makes use of no other variables than the g?? of the Einsteinian general relativity theory and the ?? of the Maxwell theory. By the consideration of a simple example they were led to modify slightly the gravitational equations which then permit regular solutions for the static spherically symmetric case. These solutions involve the mathematical representation of physical space by a space of two identical sheets, a particle being represented by a "bridge" connecting these sheets. This became famous as the Einstein-Rosen Bridge, which physicist John Moffat writes is "known today as the ?wormhole' solution of general relativity. Beloved on science-fiction writers, the wormhole was Einstein's attempt to remove the problem of unphysical singularities in his gravitation theory. The wormhole is a mathematical portal in space-time, allowing a space traveller to move more or less instantaneously through the universe and come out in a distant part of it, or into another universe."Paul S. Epstein was a physicist who wrote a series of important papers on quantum theory and its applications. In his classic paper on the theory of the Stark effect, the splitting of the spectral lines in a hydrogen atom by a strong electric field, he worked out the quantization rules in an invariant form and then used them to calculate the splitting of the hydrogen lines. The splitting effect, first observed by Johannes Stark in 1913, could not be explained along classical lines. Showing that Niels Bohr's Quantum description of the hydrogen atom could solve the problem made Epstein's reputation as a theoretical physicist. The match between his theoretical predictions and Stark's data furnished striking support for the Rutherford/Bohr atomic theory. Like Einstein, Epstein came from a Jewish family in Europe. Epstein immigrated to the United States and joined the faculty of the new California Institute of Technology in 1921 as professor of theoretical physics.Richard C. Tolman was a physical chemist and physicist who demonstrated the electron to be the charge-carrying particle in the flow of electricity in metals and determined its mass. Like Epstein, he was at CalTech, serving as a professor and dean of graduate studies. He published two treatises on relativity theory, one in 1934. His articles often appeared in the "Physical Review". Dr. S. M. Melamed was a philosophy professor and editor of the Zionist publication "Reflex."Einstein's love of sailing is well known. In the summer of 1935, Einstein rented a home in Old Lyme, Connecticut, called the "White House" and did his sailing from there. Typed Letter Signed, on his personal letterhead, Old Lyme, June 8, 1935, Epstein, regarding the plight of Jews, and particularly Jewish intellectuals, in the United States, and the necessity for Jewish teaching institutions. He also discusses his "Particle Problem in the General Theory of Relativity." "I was extremely happy to gather from your letter that you take such an active interest in creating vital connections among the Jewish intellectuals in this country, as well as to read that the excellent wri
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Theodore Roosevelt’s Description of His Last Big Game Hunt: A Bull Moose

Roosevelt, Theodore The most evocative and complete description of a hunt by Roosevelt to reach the market.His original, unique signed statement, quoted in full in his book, "A Book-Lovers Holiday in the Open": "We shouted, but it paid no heed to us; we then reversed our canoe, and paddled in the opposite direction; but following us and threatening us, the bull moose turned and walked the same way we did? I fired into him again; both shots were fatal; he recrossed the little stream and fell to a third shot; but when we approached, he rose grunting and started towards us."Theodore Roosevelt loved the outdoor life, and felt the most alive when out in the open air of the wilderness. Born with physical ailments, he saw these as a challenge. His son Kermit tells of TR's trips with his children, in which he would challenge them to get from point A to point B moving only in a straight line, going around nothing, not even a river or mountain, to arrive at the destination. In crucial moments of his life, he sought the solace of the outdoors. When his wife and mother died, he looked to a rancher's life in the West. And when the tumult of politics was over and his second presidential term had passed, he again turned to the outdoors and hunting for reinvigoration. He hunted all over the world, from the old American West to the heart of Africa to Amazonia, looking for large and wild game. On African safari immediately after leaving the White House, he gathered specimens for the Smithsonian. In 1913, after his failed 1912 bid for the Presidency at the head of the Progressive Party ticket, Roosevelt again looked to outdoor exploration, a trip into one of the least hospitable, least known regions of the world ? the heart of the Amazon. In each of these places, he took his trusty Springfield Rifle, which he had acquired as President in 1904 and which was delivered to him at the White House."When half a mile from our proposed landing place, we saw an old bull moose on the shore. We paddled up to within a hundred yards of it. We supposed that when it saw us, it would take to the woods. It however walked along the edge of the water parallel to our canoe, looking at us. We passed it, and gave it our wind, thinking this would surely cause it to run. But it merely raised its hair on its withers and shook its horns and followed after the canoe."In July 1915, after giving a major political speech and seeing his youngest son off to college, the old "Bull Moose" took some time off to hunt a bull moose. Roosevelt spent most of September hunting moose and caribou with Dr. Alexander Lambert in Quebec Province. He had a game license to shoot one moose. Roosevelt with two guides was hunting from a canoe on a lake in the Ste. Anne River country northwest of Quebec. On the morning of September 19, 1915, he shot a bull with antlers spreading fifty-two inches. The photo of TR with his kill and hunting partner is one of the iconic images of TR the hunter.Late that same afternoon, returning to camp, the party encountered another large bull on the same lake. The bag limit being one moose, TR and his guides tried to evade the moose by landing elsewhere, but the moose followed. In the end, TR had to shoot the moose."After about ten minutes, the trail approached the little stream; then the moose suddenly appeared, rushing towards us at a slashing trot, its hair ruffled and tossing his head. Arthur Lirette, who is one of the game wardens of the Tourilli Club, called out to me to shoot, or the moose would do us mischief, in a last effort to frighten it, I fired over its head, but it paid no heed to this and rushed the stream at us. Arthur again called "Tirez [shoot], monsieur, tirez, vite, vite, vite", and 1 fired into the moose's chest, when he was less than twenty feet away, coming full tilt at us, grunting, shaking his head, his ears back and his hair brindled; the shot stopped him; I fired into him again; both shots were fatal; he recrossed the little stream and fell to a third shot; but when we approached, he rose grunting and started towards us. I killed him. If I had not stopped him, he would certainly have killed one or more of our party; and at twenty feet I had to shoot as straight as I knew how or he would have reached us."Roosevelt described the events of this hunting incident in his book, "A Book-Lovers Holiday in the Open," about hunting and the strenuous life outdoors in North and South America, and Africa, which he dedicated to his sons Archie and Quentin. This book was a tour de force, a testament to his accomplishments as hunter and explorer. He also discussed cougar hunts, travels across the Navajo desert, his wild hunting companions, and animals he had hunted. We have previously carried his original signed manuscript created for this book, with his sketches of the antlers and the rifle. Now we have his original signed description of the incident in the book, as provided to the Quebec authorities and subsequently published. It is the most evocative, powerful, and complete description of a hunt of TR ever to reach the market.Document signed, Province of Quebec, District of Quebec, September 24, 1915, filed September 29, 1915. "I, THEODORE ROOSEVELT, residing at Oyster Bay in the United States of America do solemnly declare as follows: That I have just returned from a trip in the Tourilli Club limits as a Guest of Dr. Alexander Lambert, I had the ordinary game license No. 25 issued to me on the 6th day of September inst. On September the nineteenth, on Lake Croche, having with me as guides, Arthur Lirette and Odilon Genest, I killed an old bull moose as authorized by the license, which only permitted me to kill one moose. That afternoon, shortly after three o'clock, we were returning in our canoe to the West end of the Lake, where a portage trail led to our camp; a small stream runs besides the portage trail; when half a mile from our proposed landing place, we saw an old bull moose on the shore. We paddled up to within a hundred yar
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Secretary of State and future President James Madison Considers What to Do in the Noted Case of the Ship Anna Maria, Detained in 1800 in Tunis by the Bey of Algiers

Madison, James It was seizures like this that led to the Barbary WarsTo determine the loss incurred by the Americans, Madison asks: "I have thought it most consistent with justice to the United States and Mr. Cotton that you should enter into an amicable suit with him in the proper tribunal at New York."Daniel Cotton owned the barque Ann Maria, and it was seized in 1800 by the Bey of Tunis. Cotton made a claim to the U.S. government for his losses. The matter was complicated by partnerships and rental for the vessel and cargo between the U.S. consul at Tunis, William Eaton, and the captain; and one between Cotton and Gen. Ebenezer Stephens, a New York merchant.Letter Signed as Secretary of State, Washington, August 1, 1803, to General Ebenezer Stephens, regarding this noted case, asking that Stephens and Cotton come up with an agreed-upon statement of loss. "Mr. Cotton having waived his claim for the detention of the Ann [Anna] Maria at Tunis and exhibited the enclosed [not present] account against the United States for liquidation, and as the two latter items are founded on representations entirely opposite to your own statements, I have thought it most consistent with justice to the United States and Mr. Cotton that you should enter into an amicable suit with him in the proper tribunal at New York, in which his right to compensation as stated in his account may be litigated and decided. If he chooses to avail himself of the reference to which you were authorized to agree by my letter of the 28th June, 1802 in preference to including it with the two other charges in the amicable suit, he may do it."In 1808 Rep. David Holmes, Chairman of the Congressional Committee on Claims, stated that he referred to the House the memorial of Daniel Cotton, that in 1800 he had chartered the Anna Maria to Ebenezer Stephens, then the agent of the U.S. at New York and the ship delivered its cargo to the Bey of Algiers on December 22, 1802; but the ship was then seized by the Bey. Congress authorized Stephens to "freight Mr. Cotton's ship, the Anna Maria, for Government and pay him at the rate of two shillings sterling per cubic foot?" It was seizures like this that led to the Barbary Wars.
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The Earliest Use of the Term “OK” We Have Ever Seen

American Prints - Harrison/Tyler It also settles the dispute about whether the Democrats and their Whig opponents were referring to Democratic candidate Martin Van Buren as "OK", as the Whigs used it here to mock himOK (or okay, and O.K.) is an American word denoting approval, acceptance, agreement, assent, or acknowledgment. OK is used as a loanword in at least 80 other languages. It has been described as the most frequently spoken or written word on the planet. The earliest known use of OK in print was 1839, in the edition of March 23 of the Boston Evening Post, where it was used to mean "all correct".It was in an announcement of a trip by the Anti-Bell-Ringing Society. Some later claimed that the term achieved national recognition in 1840, when supporters of the Democratic Party during the 1840 United States presidential election were said to have used it to refer to their nominee, Martin Van Buren, who was nicknamed "Old Kinderhook" because he was a native of Kinderhook, NY. Supporters, it is said, held parades with participants shouting "Van Buren is OK". Others have thrown doubt on the claim of connection to Van Buren. The proof that it does relate to Van Buren is right here before us.In the 1840 election, voting was held in New Jersey from November 1 to December 2.A clipping from an 1840 newspaper, likely November, from Warren County, New Jersey, sarcastically entitled "New Jersey, O.K." giving a report on the failure of the Democratic ticket in New Jersey in the presidential election which pitted Whigs William Henry Harrison against the Democrat (and incumbent president) Martin Van Buren. It is a scornful, mocking article, with such phrases as "The triumph in New Jersey will gladden the heart of every true-hearted citizen of the Union. The Eyes of the Whig Party in every state were turned with intense anxiety toward the theater of the vilest of the machinations of the slaves of executive power [by that they meant the Democrats]. They have been utterly and signally vanquished?the spirit of anarchy and misrule has been powerfully rebuked?not only were the halt, the lame and the blind brought to the polls to support the tottering edifice of locofocoism, but, with singular appropriateness, idiots were brought forward and made to vote in support of a cause, which they, and only they, could sustain without shame now, or reproach hereafter?" The Locofocos were a radical faction of the Democrat Party that existed from 1835 until the mid-1840s. Made up primarily of workingmen and reformers, the Locofocos were opposed to state banks, monopolies, paper money, tariffs, and generally any financial policies that seemed to them antidemocratic and conducive to special privilege. They were anathema to the Whigs. The Whigs won New Jersey by 51.74%. Ads on the back indicate the newspaper was from Warren County, New Jersey.This is undoubtedly the earliest use of the term "O.K." that we have ever seen. It also proves that Democrats were indeed referring to Van Buren as OK, so much so that their Whig opponents were used the same term OK to mock him.
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Thomas Edison Thanks Congress for Awarding Him the Congressional Gold Medal for “inventions that have revolutionized civilization”

Edison, Thomas In this letter to the Representative who introduced the resolution to award the medal, he expresses gratitude and calls the medal a "distinguished mark of approbation."The introduction by you in the House of Representatives of a bill to award a gold medal to me culminated last Saturday night in the presentation of the medal?I cannot let this occasion pass without expressing to you the deep gratification I feel?"On May 21, 1928, the House of Representatives voted to approve House Resolution awarding inventor Thomas A. Edison a Congressional Gold Medal. In early April, Rep. Randolph Perkins of New Jersey, chairman of the Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures, reported the bill favorably to the House. The committee report contained a letter from Secretary of the Treasury Andrew W. Mellon. Mellon noted the lack of domestic recognition for Edison given the outpouring of international acclaim for his work in the field of electricity and its applications. "Wearing in the lapel of his coat the ribbon of the Legion of Honor of France, symbolized and honored by eight other foreign nations, the recipient of degrees from 22 colleges," Mellon said, "Mr. Edison has yet to receive a medal at the hands of the United States."The bill, which honored Edison for "inventions that have revolutionized civilization," came to the House Floor with little controversy. The reading clerk read the title of the bill and the Speaker asked if there were any objections. Representative Fiorello LaGuardia, later to become the legendary Mayor of New York, proposed to remove the standardized section two of the Congressional Gold Medal legislation authorizing the Treasury Department to mint replica coins for general sales to the public to defray the cost of Edison's medal. The House agreed to the proposal and passed the resolution, as did the Senate. President Calvin Coolidge signed the legislation on May 29, 1928. Secretary Mellon awarded Edison the medal on October 20, 1928, in his laboratory in West Orange, New Jersey. Coolidge spoke via a radio link from the White House and nearly 50 radio stations broadcasted the ceremony. The Edison Company filmed the broadcast for posterity, a film that still exists.This is Edison's response to Congress, addressed to Perkins who had introduced the bill to award him the medal. Typed letter signed, on his laboratory letterhead, October 27, 1928, to Perkins. "The introduction by you in the House of Representatives of a bill to award a gold medal to me culminated last Saturday night in the presentation of the medal which was subsequently conferred by Congress. The presentation ceremonies were very impressive, and I am great appreciative of the honor thus conferred on me. I cannot let this occasion pass without expressing to you the deep gratification I feel in your advocacy of the measure through which I have been awarded such a distinguished mark of approbation." Backed to a light board.It's highly unusual to find a letter from a recipient of the Congressional Gold Medal to the Congressman responsible for the bill ? in effect to Congress itself ? expressing gratitude, this being our first ever.
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Stunning Full Length Photograph of Gen. Douglas MacArthur in Uniform as Army Chief of Staff, Inscribed and Signed in 1933 to the Man Who Saved His Reputation

MacArthur, Douglas The Bonus Army was a group of 43,000 demonstrators ? made up of 17,000 U.S. World War I veterans, together with their families and affiliated groups ? who gathered in Washington, D.C. in mid-1932 to demand early cash redemption of their war service certificates. These certificates had awarded them bonuses, but they could not redeem them until 1948. Many of the war veterans had been out of work since the beginning of the Depression, and they demanded the money now. President Herbert Hoover ordered the U.S. Army to clear the marchers' campsite. Army Chief of Staff General Douglas MacArthur commanded a contingent of infantry and cavalry, supported by six tanks. The Bonus Army marchers with their wives and children were driven out, and their shelters and belongings burned. The violent dispersal was filmed and in the movie news across the nation within a week, and people were shocked to see veterans treated that way. MacArthur and Hoover were roundly condemned, and then it was claimed Hoover had rescinded his order and MacArthur had acted on his own. Frederick Trubee Davison was an American World War I aviator who showed that MacArthur had never received any such order from President Hoover.A magnificent full length photograph of MacArthur in full uniform as Army Chief of Staff, inscribed and signed on the lower blank margin "To Trubee Davison ? with affectionate regard ? Douglas MacArthur, March 2, 1933."
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The Birth of the Treasury U.S. Budget Process: Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton Orders Financial Information ? Statements of Expenses and Receipts ? from His Collectors, Stationed at Ports to Collect Tariffs

Hamilton, Alexander He acts pursuant to the order of the U.S. Senate, to collect information on national monies spent and received for the use of CongressHe sends a form example of what he needs, which shows salary, fees and emoluments received for a year totaling $3388, and monies actually disbursed and expended of $1395In 1792, the United States was in the early stages of setting a national budget, and to do that effectively required hard information on payments, expenses, disbursements, and receipts. On May 7 of that year, in an effort to obtain reliable data on the salaries being paid to, and the expenses being incurred by, Federal employees, as well as taxes received, the U.S. Senate ordered: "That the Secretary of the Treasury do lay before the Senate, at the next session of Congress, a statement of the salaries, fees, and emoluments, for one year, ending the first day of October next, to be stated quarterly, of every person holding any civil office or employment under the United States (except the judges together with the actual disbursements and expenses in the discharge of their respective offices and employments for the same period; and that he do report the name of every person who shall neglect or refuse to give satisfactory information touching his office or employment, or the emoluments or disbursements thereof."The principal Federal employees, outside the judiciary, were those responsible for collecting taxes in the form of tariffs on imports, and at ports around the country were Collectors who ran the tariff operations at those ports and reported to the Secretary of the Treasury, who was Alexander Hamilton.To gather the information, Hamilton addressed a printed Letter to the Collectors with Instructions, dated Philadelphia, August 31, 1792, and signed in full. "Agreeably to an order of the Senate of the United States, passed on the 7th of May last, a copy of which is herewith transmitted, I have to request that you will furnish me, immediately after the first of October next with the particular statements required by the said order. From these a general Abstract is to be formed at the Treasury; and as Uniformity in the mode of stating the receipts and disbursements will facilitate the business, a form is hereto annexed as a guide."It is my desire that the Collectors will obtain and transmit at the same time similar documents from the Inspectors, Gaugers, Measurers and Weighers, or other persons holding under the Collectors any office or employment from which salaries, fees, or emoluments are derived."The encloses a form, which is still present, consisting of two columns, one entitled "A Statement of the Salary, Fees and Emoluments received by the of during one year, commencing on the 1st of October 1791, and on the 1st of October 1792", and the other "A Statement of the Monies actually disbursed and expended by the ? of ? in the discharge of his office and employments, for the period before mentioned." It is interesting to note that the first category shows as an example salary, fees and emoluments received for a year totaling $3388, and monies actually disbursed and expended of $1395. A stunning artifact of the birth of the U.S. budget process.
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John Hancock Signs a Lottery Ticket to Help Rebuild Famed Faneuil Hall in Boston

Hancock, John Dubbed the "Cradle of Liberty" by John Adams, Faneuil Hall in Boston was built in 1742 at the expense of Peter Faneuil, a wealthy French merchant, as a gift to the city. It was almost completely destroyed by fire in 1761, but was rebuilt a few years later using funds from a series of lotteries that were conducted by the state of Massachusetts. This new structure was the scene of very historic and heated public meetings leading up to the American Revolution. Debates in this hall led to opposition to the Sugar Tax of 1764, the Stamp Act of 1765, and other British political maneuvers. The first meeting to oppose the tea tax was held there in 1773, and after a vote, it was decided that "the town of Boston, in a full legal meeting, has resolved to do the utmost in its power to prevent the landing of the tea." A few years later it was the site of many famous speeches by Samuel Adams, James Otis and others, encouraging independence from England. There is a statue of Samuel Adams in front of the Hall which commemorates his negotiations with British Governor Hutchinson to remove British troops from the city following the Boston Massacre in 1770.The lottery tickets that were issued in 1765 to raise funds for the re-building of Faneuil Hall bear the unmistakable signature of newly elected Boston selectman John Hancock. Document Signed, 2 by 3 1/2 inches, Boston, June 1765, from Faneuil-Hall lottery, No. five. It states that "The possessor of this ticket (No. 3995) is entitled to any prize drawn against said number in a lottery granted by an act of the General Court of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, for rebuilding Faneuil-Hall; Subject to no deduction". It is signed by Hancock, who would later serve as President of the Continental Congress and become the first man to sign the Declaration of Independence. The Faneuil Hall we see today is much the same as the building successfully financed by this lottery.On the verso is the signature of the ticket's purchaser, Joseph Russell, publisher of the Boston Weekly Advertiser. During the Revolution, his newspaper took a loyalist, pro-British stand. One can only wonder how he felt about Faneuil Hall considering the patriots' use of it.Uncommon, the last time we had one of these Hancock signed lottery tickets being in 2006.
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Ronald Reagan’s Letter on God and Heaven

Reagan, Ronald An unpublished document: "We have to trust in God's infinite mercy and wisdom and know that Angela is in a better and happier world as we've been promised"This is the most personal religious letter we have ever seen from a president, nor are we aware of any letter of Reagan professing his own belief in the afterlife ever having come up for saleRonald Reagan's administration brought with a deepened connection between religion and politics. Reagan, a self described born again Christian, had a deep faith that was based on his belief that one day, each person will reach a day of judgment.Autograph letter signed, to Margot and Doug Morrow, his old friend from Hollywood and an Academy Award winning writer and director. No date, but on White House letterhead. "Nancy and I were so sorry to learn of your loss. Please accept our deepest sympathy. Forgive me for being so late with this and know that you are in our thoughts and prayers. We have to trust in God's infinite mercy and wisdom and know that Angela is in a better and happier world as we've been promised. Bless you both, Ron."We are not aware of any letter of Reagan professing his own belief in the afterlife ever having come up for sale. It shows a deep and philosophical belief in Heaven, and is the most personal religious letter we have ever seen from a president.This letter, which is unpublished, was acquired directly from Morrow's heirs and has never been offered for sale before.
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The Famous Photograph of President Theodore Roosevelt and His Family at Sagamore Hill in 1903, Signed by TR to His Wife and Children

Roosevelt, Theodore Essentially unique, this is the only photograph we have ever seen signed by any American president to his entire familyThis large, 12 by 14 inch photograph bears the noted Pach Brothers studio imprintOn July 12, 1903, photographers from the Pach Brothers photographic studio traveled to Sagamore Hill in Oyster Bay, New York, the home of President Theodore Roosevelt and his family, and the summer White House. There TR, his wife and children were taking some time off from the heat of a Washington summer to enjoy the breezes of Long Island Sound.The Pach Brothers, noted photographers of the day, arrived and took a famous photograph of the family in the yard at Sagamore Hill, showing the President and First Lady surrounded by their children, from left to right: Quentin, President Roosevelt, Theodore Jr., Archie, Alice, Kermit, First Lady Edith, and Ethel.This, an oversize 12 by 14 inch version of that photograph with the Pach Brothers imprint and 1903 date, is signed by TR: "To Theodore Roosevelt [Jr.], Edith Kermit [his wife's maiden name], Alice Roosevelt [his daughter by his first marriage], and Archie, Kermit and Quentin [whose three names have faded or been scratched out, but are partly legible]; with all good wishes from Theodore Roosevelt, September 1st, 1903." Professionally conserved.This photograph is a great rarity, as we can only recall seeing three other copies of this image signed by Roosevelt in at least four decades. But far more importantly, it is the only photograph we have seen signed by TR to his entire family (and, in fact, the only photograph we have seen signed by any American president to his family).
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Rutherford B. Hayes Speech Signed as President on the Need for Educating Blacks and Poor Whites in the South, With an Inscription Indicating Rather Emphatically That He Will Not Run Again

Hayes, Rutherford B. The 23rd Ohio Regiment was a battle regiment of the Army of the Potomac, and both Rutherford B. Hayes and William McKinley were officers in the regiment.On September 1, 1880, Hayes was President, and he spoke to his old comrades in arms. Education was his major focus. He stated in part: "I made some remarks on the duty of the General Government to complete the work of reconstruction by affording aid, wherever it is needed, for the education of illiterate white and colored people in the late slaveholding states. I am firmly convinced that the subject of popular education deserves the earnest attention of people of the whole country, a view to wise and comprehensive action by the Government of the United States. This means at the command of the local and State authorities are in many cases wholly inadequate to deal with the question. The magnitude of the evil to be eradicated is not, I apprehend, generally and fully understood?" The speech was printed.Autograph Note Signed at the top of the front page of a 4 page printed pamphlet entitled "Remarks of General R.B. Hayes at the Reunion of the 23rd Ohio Veterans, Canton, Ohio Sept. 1, 1880". At the top Hayes has written "With compliments R.B. Hayes, to Hon. J.McD. No." Beneath Hayes's writing appears a pencil note, presumably by Mr. McD., that reads: "I asked him if he would run again." Since Hayes double underlined the word "No", he was pretty emphatic about it, and indeed, he never ran for public office again, preferring to devote his time to educational charities.It is interesting that the Republican Party had already nominated James A. Garfield for President when this was signed, so the query to Hayes about him running again indicates a degree of dissatisfaction with the party's nominee, and a hope that somehow Hayes might intervene.
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Pioneer Women’s Educator Mary Lyon Writes a Male Clergyman Who Was Applying for a Job as Teacher

Lyon, Mary She was founder and president of Mt. Holyoke College, which she established to promote women's higher educationLyon employed only women as full teachers at Mount Holyoke, so this man's application was an unusual oneMary Mason Lyon was a pioneer in women's education. She established Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (now Mount Holyoke College) in South Hadley, Massachusetts in 1837 and served as its first president (or "principal") for 12 years. Lyon's vision fused intellectual challenge and moral purpose, and her intention was to create an institution to provide women with education equivalent to that provided in the then men-only colleges. She valued socioeconomic diversity and endeavored to make the seminary affordable for students of modest means.Autograph Letter Signed, 2 pages, South Hadley [Massachusetts], August 2, 1843, to a clergyman. "Rev. & Dear Sir. I have received your application for a teacher. I have delayed writing because I have been quite unable to investigate as carefully as I should like to do, & have been unable to specify a time when I could attend to it. There is but little probability that I could recommend a principal, but there is more probability that I might recommend an assistant. Tomorrow when our exercises are over, & our dinner too, I would endeavor to devote a little attention to it, if you were here. We should be happy to see you at our exercises & to have your company at our table at dinner. Respectfully yours, Mary Lyon."Lyon employed only women as full teachers at Mount Holyoke. Whether this gentleman got hired as an assistant is an interesting question.Lyon's is a very rare autograph. A search of public sale records going back 40 years turned up but one other example, and that was 15 years ago.
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John Steinbeck Writes to a Journalist Friend With Praise for the Famous Broadway Producer Who Tried to Make a Musical of Steinbeck’s Classic, “Cannery Row”

Steinbeck, John Steinbeck won the 1962 Nobel Prize in Literature "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humor and keen social perception. Ed Sheehan was a Hawaiian author and columnist for the Honolulu Star Bulletin and longtime friend of Steinbeck about whom he sometimes wrote. Ernest H. Martin was a successful Broadway producer who won Tony Awards for Guys and Dolls and How To Succeed in Business Without Really Trying. He and Steinbeck had tried for years to produce a musical comedy version of Steinbeck's Cannery Row, without success. Maxwell David Geismar was an author, literary critic, and biographer whose 1942 book "Writers in Crisis" gave his not always flattering analysis of Steinbeck, Faulkner, Hemingway, etc.Autograph Letter Signed on a postal card, August 13, 1964 to Sheehan, speaking highly of Broadway producer Martin while denigrating the opinions of Geismar. "I have your letter of July 30 and find it fascinating. Of course I am sensible of Martin's compliments. If I can write for the Martins of this world the confusions of the Geismars fade into nonsense. But more than anything I would like to go with you to South Kona to sit still and see whether Martin would appear or remain invisible. In the past I have been fairly successful with kakus [a type of barracuda] but never of the Hawaiian breed. Again, thanks for your letter."