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De re militari

De re militari

VALTURIUS, Robertus Folio (306 x 192 mm.), 254 leaves, the first and the last blank, roman type, capital spaces, 96 woodcut illustrations, some full page, rubricated in red and blue. Eighteenth Century italian stiff vellum, manuscript title on spine, red edges. A few spots, one paper flaw on the right white margin of one leaf, few contemporary marginal annotations; overall a very good copy, fresh and genuine. Second latin edition, the first was printed in Verona in 1472, of the first book containing tecnical illustrations. ?The historical importance of De Re Militari lies in the fact that it is the first book printed with illustrations of a technical or scientific character depicting the progressive engineering ideas of the author's own time.The woodcuts illustrate the equipment necessary for the military and naval engineer; they involve revolving gun turrets, platforms and ladders for sieges, paddle-wheels, a diver's suit, a lifebelt, something resembling a tank, pontoon and other bridges, a completely closed boat that could be half submerged, etc.The Verona Valturius and its reprints were the handbooks of the military leaders of the Renaissance, and Leonardo da Vinci, when acting as chief engineer to Cesare Borgia, possessed a copy and borrowed some of its designs.' (PMM, 1472 ed.). This edition contains 96 xilographic illustrations, all but one, the illustration of soldiers in a tent on folio r1, are reduced copies of those used in the first edition. Traditionally attributed to both Andrea de' Pasti and Fra Giocondo, the design of these woodcuts is now believed to be derived from military manuscripts of Byzantine origin probably executed in Rimini. ?Le belle xilografie, . dai decisi e taglienti profili non hanno nulla a che vedere con Matteo de'Pasti cui sono attribuite tradizionalmente; né derivano da alcuno dei manoscritti conosciuti . e nemmeno con Fra Giocondo come sarebbe stato più verisimile, ma, al contrario, le miniature di questi e di altri codici derivano dall' edizione a stampa. . Quanto all' iconografia dei disegni, cioè, all'origine di tutta la serie dei disegni e del comune prototipo è assai probabile che essi derivino da una serie di manoscritti di arte militare bizantini con figure di macchine belliche, risalenti a loro volta all'antichità classica. . La non sempre corretta collocazione delle figure nella pagina, spesso fuor di ?giustezza', è originata dalla loro impressione in un secondo tempo, a testo tipografico già allestito.Ma ciò non impedisce di gustare, nella loro asprezza primitiva, la efficace sintesi operata dall'artista quattrocentesco in questi disegni.' (L'introduzione della stampa in Italia e a Milano: mostra di 80 cimeli bibliografici della Biblioteca Nazionale Braidense, a cura di E. C. Pirani e di S. Samek Ludovici. Milano, 1966.) "Valturio was military engineer to Sigismondo Malatesta, tyrant of Rimini, and it was at his court that the above treatise was written. It served as a guide to the military active leaders of the Renaissance including Leonardo da Vinci, chief of engineers to Cesare Borgia, who possessed a copy. The equipment shown in excellent engravings represents apparatus for assault and defence, cannon, bridges, portable scaling ladders, battering rams, armed chariots and naval equipment including a battleship." (Heralds of Science)
Polybii Megalopolitani Historiarum libri priores quinque

Polybii Megalopolitani Historiarum libri priores quinque, Nicolao Perotto Episcopo Sipontino interprete – item, Epitome sequentium librorum usque ad Decimumseptimum Vuolfgango Musculo interprete

POLYBIUS Folio, two parts in one volume, 4 leaves., 282 pages., 1 blank leaf, 4 leaves, 323 (recte 319) pages, 5 leaves, withwoodcut printer's device on title. Bound in contemparary vellum panelled and gilt with fleuron to corners and large elegant Arabesque central piece; monogram E. L. Z. H. on both covers (Ernst Landgraf zu Hessen), gilt edges. Gilt oxidated, ribbons renewed, very light foxing but a very attractive copy. Editio princeps of the fragments from books VI-XVII of Polybius' Histories, with Latin translation by Wolfgang Musculus, and second edition of books I-V, reproducing the Latin translation given by Niccolò Perotti in the early 1450s. This edition was committed to the Basler printer Johannes Herwagen (Hervagius) by Arnoldus Arlenius Peraxylus (c. 1510-1582), a Dutch humanist and a librarian to the Spanish ambassador in Rome, Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, to whom the work is dedicated. As Peraxylus says in his dedicace to Mendoza, the Greek text of books VI-XVII was transmitted by a collection of abridged fragments that he had found in his master's private library, the so-called Excerpta Antiqua. Since Mendoza's manuscript (Scorialensis VI B6) was lost in the Escorial during the fire of 1671, the 1549 edition is now the only source for its readings. Polybius (c. 200-120 BC) was the most important and influential Greek historian of the Hellenistic Age. A leading politician in his own homeland and a man of war before being a historian, Polybius was deported in Rome in 167 BC as a detainee, after the Third Macedonian War. On that occasion, he became a friend and a counsellor of Scipio Aemilianus, the nephew of Scipio Africanus, who was later to become famous as the destroyer of Carthage and Numance. All over the 40 books of his Histories, mostly written during his Roman stay, he narrated as an eyewitness the sudden rise of the Roman State to the dominion in the Greek and Hellenistic World. With this work, he acted as a political and cultural mediator, aiming at providing both the Greeks and the Romans with a useful tool for mutual understanding. "Writing in the mid-second century BC, Polybius had set out to explain to his fellow Greeks ?by what means and under what system of government, the Romans succeeded in less than fiftythree years [220-167 BC] in bringing under their rule almost the whole of the inhabited world, an achievement which is without parallel in human history.' Thirty books followed on ?the formation and the growth of the Roman Empire', subsequently extended by a further ten books in order to accommodate the years 167-146 BC" (Kempshall 2011, 509). Polybius was highly appreciated during the whole Antiquity for his accuracy, for the rigour of his historical analyses, and for his first-hand political and military experience. As a consequence, it was largely read and praised by Greek and Roman authorities like Cicero, Livius, and Plutarch, and soon imposed itself within the canon of Classical historians. "Polybius was rediscovered in Florence as a historian of the first Punic War by Leonardo Bruni about 1420. Though he had been translated into Latin by the middle of the fifteenth century, his reputation as a historian and as a political thinker does not seem to have been widely diffused. It was in Republican Florence, too, that the importance of his Book VI was recognized for the first time by Machiavelli and others at the beginning of the sixteenth century. Even the first philological work on him seems to have been done in Florence, by Politian. The idea of printing the Greek text does not appear to have interested the Italians until it was too late. The publication of Polybius in Germany [Haguenau, 1530] coincided with the opening of a new stage in Greek studies - and with the new didactic and pragmatic mood of European historiography. Polybius' reputation soared rapidly in the second part of the sixteenth century. His fame was based on his expertise as a military and a diplomatic historian" (Momigliano 1974, 3
Discours admirables

Discours admirables, de la nature des eaux et fonteines, tant naturelles qu’arti cielles, des metaux, des sels and salines, des pierres, des terres, du feu and des emaux. Avec plusieurs autres excellens secrets des choses naturelles. .

PALISSY, Bernard Octavo (165 x 108 mm), [16], 361, 23 pages; historiated initials, head and tail pieces. Early XX century brown morocco by Hardy, gilt edges. A very good copy. First edition, very rare. ?A book of great importance in the history of chemistry and science generally, written in a dialogue form. First dialogue is very important and treats of hydrology: Palissy in fact was one of the few men of his day to have a correct knowledge about the origin of rivers and streams. The second of the 11 treatises in the book approaches chemistry in general with a strong attack on the pretentions and obscurities of goldmakers; while the sixth and the seventh dialogues contain definitions of saltpetre, borax and other substances, investigations of the effects of manure and fertilizers on the soil, and describe how by continuous cultivation the ground becomes sterile as it loses its saline contents; and the eleventh treatise discusses marl and its value for improving the soil. The tenth treatise contains an ex position of Palissy's famous discoveries in the field of enamels and the ceramic arts. The eighth treatises discusses gems and precious stones, investigating their weight and hardness in quite a modern scientific spirit.' (Duveen) Bernard Palissy (1509-1590) was a French potter and ceramic artisan, he became famous for constructing elaborated rustic enameled earthenware and was appointed, in or about 1565, ?inventeur des rustiques gulines du Roy et de la Reyne sa mere'. From 1575, although he was an autodidact without any formal education, Palissy gave public lectures in Paris on natural history, which he published as Discours admirables. He became extremely popular, revealing himself to be a writer and scientist, a creator of modern agronomy, and a pioneer of the experimental method, with scientific views generally more advanced than those of his contemporaries. Duveen p.446; Torndike V, pp. 596-599; Norman 1629.
De architectura libri dece traducti de latina lingua in vulgare

De architectura libri dece traducti de latina lingua in vulgare

VITRUVIUS, Marcus Pollio Folio (396 x 269 mm.), Collation: [?8]; A-Z8; 192 leaves. Roman type, a few words in Greek, text with commentary surround. Privileges from Pope Leo X and Francois I on verso of title, errata and editors' note at end (Z8r). 117 woodcuts (including one small repeated cut), of which 10 full-page, printer's large woodcut swan device on title, smaller device on Z7v, large historiated and foliated white-on-black woodcut initials, small foliated initials. Binding: early 17 century Italian plain boards, manuscript title at foot of spine. Provenance: Charles Otway Esq. of Romden, Kent (ex libris). A pale waterstain in the upper margin, first and last leaf reinforced in the gutter a few restorations in the white margins, overall a good copy. First edition in Italian and first edition in any modern language of one of the finest illustrated books of the Italian Renaissance. ?This handbook on classical architecture is the only Roman work inspired by Greek architecture that has come down to us. It is therefore important as our prime source of many lost Greek writings on the subject and as a guide to archeological research in Italy and Greece. By exemplifying the principles of classical architecture it became the fundamental architectural textbook for centuries. Vitruvius, who lived during the time of Julius Caesar and Augustus, and probably composed his book prior to 27 BC, was basically a theoretical rather than a practising architect and his only known work is the Basilica at Fano. . His influence on practical architecture during the Middle Ages was obviously small, . but it was with the Renaissance that Vitruvius' influence began. Alberti, Bramante, Ghiberti, Michelangelo, Vignola, Palladio and many others were directly inspired by Vitruvius.' (PMM) This edition was translated into Italian and commented by Cesare Cesariano who, Vasari reports in his life of Bramante, ?Enraged at not having received the reward which he had expected [for the present work], Cesare refused to work any more, and, becoming eccentric, he died more like a beast than a man." He stopped the work after an argument with the publishers in May 1521 and, as a result, his commentary ends after chapter 6 of book IX; the remainder was completed by Benedetto Giovio da Como and Bono Mauro da Bergamo. An autographed note by Cesariano in the copy of the Biblioteca Melziana supplies details of the publishing contract, including the edition size of 1300 copies. The fine illustrations, of which many were cut by Cesariano himself (one, on folio X6r, is signed with his monogram and dated 1519), clearly show the influence of Leonardo da Vinci, and Kristeller believed them to have been the work of one of his pupils. Although some of the woodcuts follow the classical models of the previous editions, others show water-wheels and various mechanical devices. The plates showing plans and elevations of the Milan Cathedral are said to be ?the earliest authentic representations of Gothic architecture in a printed book.' (Fowler). The present copy shows the earlier version of the errata with ?tuta' for ?tutta' in the headline. Adams V-914; Berlin Kat 1802; Cicognara 698; Fowler 395; Mortimer Italian 544.
Base du système métrique décimal

Base du système métrique décimal, ou mesure de l’arc du méridien compris entre les parallèles de Dunkerque et Barcelone, exécutée en 1792 et années suivantes

DELAMBRE, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph and MÉCHAIN, Pierre-François-André DELAMBRE, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph and MÉCHAIN, Pierre-François-André. Quarto (252 x 195 mm.), 3 volumes, [2] leaves, 180 pages [II], 551 pages with 8 plates; XXIV, 844 pages with 11 plates; [2] leaves, 704, 62 pages with 9 plates. A very fine set bound in slightly later half calf, spines gilt First edition, rare. ?For many centuries there were no general standards for measurement: every trade and craft had its own peculiar units and they differed even in various regions of the same country. Since the development of international trade in the Middle Ages this chaotic situation had become more and more tiresome, but all efforts towards standardization were strongly resisted by vested interest. [?] We owe the introduction of an international metric system to the French Revolution. In 1790 the Académie des Sciences, at the request of Talleyrand, set up a commission to consider the question: among its members were J. C. Borda, Lagrange, Laplace, G. Monge and Condorcet. In 1791 they reported that the fundamental unit of length should be derived from a dimension of the earth: it should be the ten-millionth part of a quadrant of the earth's meridian extending between Dunkirk and Barcelona. As the distance was already approximately known, a provisional meter was at once adopted. The new unit of weight was to be the gram: the weight of one cubic centimeter of water at 4° C. The Constituent Assembly set up a general commission of weights and measures to carry these proposals into effect and in 1795 a law was passed introducing the metric system into France with provisional standards. The astronomers Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre and Pierre Francois André Mechain were charged with the task of measuring accurately the newly adopted length along the meridian arc between Dunkirk and Barcelona. Owing to the disturbances of the revolutionary period their work was much impeded, but in 1799 their measurement was completed. The above work - Base du système métrique décimal ? embodies their report. The length of a meter (equaling 39.37 English inches) was marked on a platinum bar, and the unit of weight was also constructed of platinum, being the weight of a cubic decimeter, or liter, of pure water at its maximum density. These original bars remained the basic standards until 1875 and are still preserved in Paris. The metric system was gradually accepted by most nations ? with the notable exceptions of England and (for weights and measures) the United States; but optional use was legalized in 1864 (England) and 1866 (U. S. A.) and its general adoption in England was proposed in 1965. After meetings of an international commission in 1872 the International Bureau of Weights and Measures was set up in 1875. It is now situated near Sèvres and has since remained the international center for all questions of standards. New units made from a bar of platinum alloyed with 10 per cent iridium were constructed, copies of which were distributed to the various participating countries.' (PMM) PMM 260; Norman 1481; En Francais dans le Texte 212.
Venetia città nobilissima et singolare

Venetia città nobilissima et singolare, Descritta in XIIII libri da M. Francesco Sansovino

SANSOVINO, Francesco Quarto (228 x 160mm.), woodcut printer's device on title-page, tables bound at front, woodcut initials. Red silk binding over pasteboard, gilt edges, old black slipcase lined with patterned gilt paper, some deckle edges, a few small stains, errata leaf damaged and laid down (obscuring colophon on verso), quires Ccc-Ggg, Kkk-Lll and Ppp somewhat browned, extremities slightly worn, lacking 4 pairs of ties. A very fine copy. Rare first edition of Francesco Sansovino's celebrated guide to Venice, the first detailed topographical description of the city, of greatest importance for art history, and one of the earliest books to describe the monuments of Venice for travellers. This work set a standard for all subsequent guidebooks to Venice, and proved invaluable to Ridolfi and Boschini in the seventeenth century, to Zanetti in the eighteenth, and to Moschini in the early nineteenth. "This book established a sixteenth-century provenance for innumerable works of art. It contains detailed topographical descriptions and gives information on works since lost or destroyed. The iconography of many of the paintings inside the Doge's Palace is explained, and it becomes clear that Francesco himself devised the literary programme for those in the Sala delle Quattro Porte" (J.M. Fletcher, in the introduction to the facsimile edition of 1968). "This is the best illustration of Venice not without errors, but based at least on good sources" (Cicognara). The author Francesco Tatti da Sansovino (1521-1583) was a prolific polygraph, author of literary, historical, rhetorical proses, commentaries on classics, translations, poems, guides and writings on art and architecture, and was himself an editor for his own typography. Born in Rome, he fled the Eternal City with his family after its sack in 1527 and reached Venice, bound to become its adoptive homeland. This comprehensive guide is the last episode in a sequence of three publications that Sansovino devoted to the city of Venice, comprising Tutte le cose notabili e belle che sono in Venezia, published in 1556 under the pseudonym of Anselmo Guisconi, and the Cose notabili, published in 1561. Each one of these three works enjoyed great success and went through several reprints long after its first publication. The triptych shared the same aim, that is, the celebration of the greatness of the Serenissima Repubblica, and at the same time the celebration of the author's father, Iacopo Sansovino, one of the major sculptors and architects of the sixteenth century and responsible for the introduction of the High Renaissance style into Venice. As Superintendent of properties (Protomaestro or Proto) to the Procuratori di San Marco, Iacopo Sansovino planned a transformation of Piazza San Marco into a unified arrangement of interrelated structures; although his plan was incomplete at the time of his death (1570), his influence on the urban landscape in the end proved to be decisive. Sansovino articulates his in-depth descriptions following the division of the city in its six sestanti. In addition to the sites and monuments (churches, palaces, libraries, statues, paintings?), he records the laws of the citystate, its main businesses, the contemporary local costumes and fashions, as well as notable historical events. Overall, the book stands as a vivid portrait of Venice during a particularly rich moment of its history, as well as an encyclopaedia on the city from its origins until the author's time. Cicognara 4379-4380; Schlosser Magnino, 367-369; Cicogna 4465-4467; Fossati-Bellani 2393.
El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha

El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha

CERVANTES Saavedra, Miguel de Quarto (290 x 255 mm.), 4 volumes; [4], XIV, CCXXIV, 199 pages; [4], 418 pages; [2], XIV, 306 pages; [4], 346 pages. Engraved frontispiece in each volume, folding map of Spain charting Don Quixote's itineraries, a fullpage portrait of Cervantes and 31 plates, engraved head- and tail-pieces and opening initials, by F. Selma, M.L. Carmona, G.A. Gil, P. Moles, J. Fabregat, J. Ballester, J. de la Cruz, F. Montaner and J. Barcelo after A. Carnicero, J. del Castillo, J. Brunete, B. Barranco, P. Arnal, G. Gil and G. Ferro. Contemporary Spanish red sheep, covers with gilt-tooled frames, spines in compartments richly gilt with two green morocco lettering-pieces, marbled endpapers, gilt edges, red silk ribbon marker. A very fine set from Bibliothecae Heideggeriana (ex libris). First issue of this stupendous illustrated edition by the Spanish Royal Academy Printer Joaquín Ibarra. It is the most famous and the most beautifully produced of all Quixote's editions, and is commonly regarded as the very masterpiece of Spanish printing (Brunet, I 1749: "Cette édition est un vrai chef-d'oeuvre typographique"; Updike, I 7: «The finest edition of Don Quixote that has ever been printed» Right after its first edition in 1605 and 1615, Cervantes' novel met immediate success in Spain and all over Europe; at the same time, its rapid diffusion subverted the text, multiplying the orthographic mistakes and the variations from the original (so the Introduction to Ibarra's edition: "among the many editions that have been made of Don Quixote within and without the kingdom, it can truthfully be said that there is none that does not have substantial defects"). Due to this fact, in 1773 the Spanish Royal Academy commissioned and supervised an ultimate, perfect edition, philologically correct under every point of view and lavishly adorned, in an attempt "both to restore the original text and to frame the work in an edition physically more appropriate to its status as a classic. [?] This edition was monumental in an explicitly metaphorical sense: it erected the work of a founding author of Spanish literature as a national monument. As the writer of the academy's prologue points out, the paper was specially made in the factory of Joseph Llorens, a new typeface designed by Gerónimo Gil, and the printing undertaken by Ibarra; this edition, made of the best and by the best, was physically a completely Spanish monument to the author" (Schmidt 1999, 140). The rich iconographic set was accordingly realized with the cooperation of the most renowned artists of 18th century Spain. The illustrations were committed to Antonio Carnicero and José del Castillo and, in a lesser part, to Bernardo Barranco, Gregorio Ferro, Jerónimo Antonio Gil, José Brunete, and Pedro Arnal; the engravings were committed to the same Jerónimo Antonio Gil, to Manuel Carmona, Joaquín Fabregat, Rafael Ximeno and Fernando Selma. Since philological purity had to match with typographical perfection, the metal plates on which the images were engraved were to be bigger than the paper, in order to avoid the blank impression of the plate's shape. This edition also provides the first attempt to chart Don Quixote's itineraries, thanks to a map of Spain realized by the Royal Geographer Tomás López, with the help of the famous military engineer José de Hermosilla. In so doing, consistent with much of the intellectual enterprise undertaken by scholars in the reign of Charles III (1759-1788), Ibarra's edition was intended as an instrument of cultural politics: while proclaiming Don Quixote a national treasure and granting its author the memorial his contemporaries had failed to erect, it endeavoured to restore Spain's own glory. H.S. Ashbee, Iconography of Don Quixote, 72; Suñé Benages - Suñé Fonbuena, 60; Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid, Exposición Conmemorativa del Quijote, 52; J.C. Brunet, I 1749; H. Cohen - S. de Ricci, 218-19; J. Givanel Mas, Colección Cervantina, 365; A. Palau, 52024; PMM Fine Printing, 123; D
Scriptores historiae Augustae.

Scriptores historiae Augustae.

SUETONIUS TRANQUILLUS, Gaius Folio (320 x 222 mm), [44], 786, [84] pages, printer's woodcut device on title and last page, fine woodcut initials from the Kinderschule. Contemporary Basel binding of blind-tooled pigskin over wooden boards, title in gilt on front cover, brass clasps and catches, from the Pillone library with painted edges by Cesare Vecellio. Edges painted blue with medallion portraits of the twelve Caesars (six on the fore-edge, three each on the other two edges). Provenance: Odorico Pillone (1503-1593, fore-edge painting); Sir Thomas Brooke (1830-1908, bookplate); sold by his heirs in 1957 as part of the Pillone collection to Pierre Beres (catalogue Bibliotheque Pillone, 1957, no. 97); G. Nordback (bookplate). Last gathering with old repairs along gutter, a few foremargins lightly dampstained, decoration on fore-edge lightly faded. A very ne copy. A fine Pillone binding with fore-edge painting by Cesare Vecellio.Th is copy is one of 172 books from the celebrated Pillone library with fore-edge or binding decoration by Titian's cousin Cesare Vecellio (1530-1600). Vecellio's enhancements were commissioned in the 1580s by Odorico Pillone or possibly by his son Giorgio, friends of Vecellio, whose family stemmed from the same valley in the foothills of the Alps, and who mentions the Pillones' collections in his famous costume-book, De gli habiti antichi et moderni (Venice 1590). Vecellio painted the fore-edges of the majority of the books, which are bound in boards, while 21 books are in simple vellum bindings whose covers he and other artists filled with pen-and-ink drawings. Th anks to their unusual decoration and to the fact that the library remained intact until the 1950s, all of the Pillone books have been preserved in their original bindings.This is one of the 59 books in German bindings that Odorico Pillone acquired.This is a fine edition of this collection of texts by ancient Roman historians, incorporating the annotations of Erasmus which were first published in the Froben edition of 1518. Gio- vanni Battista Cipelli (1478-1553), best known under his academic name, Egnatius, edited the work. Adams S-2025; Schweiger II:975.
NO-IMAGE1

Historia del concilio tridentino di Pietro Soave Polano. Nella quale si scoprono tutti gl’artificii della Corte di Roma, per impedire che né la verità di dogmi si palesasse, né la riforma del Papato, et della Chiesa si trattasse

SARPI, Paolo Folio (315 x 205 mm.), [8], 806, [10] pages, woodcut Royal arms on title, woodcut decorated initials. Contemprary oak boarded black fishskin gilt, spine in compartments with gilt tile, blue edges. A few spots, light foxing, joints cracking but a very fine copy on large paper from the libraries of the Venetian merchant Amadeus Svajer (ex libris) and Lord Amherst of Hackney (ex libris). Large paper copies of the first edition are very rare. First edition of this pivotal work of Modern historiography, containing a lucid and accurate reconstruction of the history of the Council of Trent. The Tridentine Council (1545-1563), which proved decisive in laying the bases for the Catholic Counter Reformation, was considered by Sarpi the most relevant event of his recent past and the event mainly responsible for the political situation of his years. Precisely in light of the dramatic consequences that it had on contemporary politics and ideologies, it was epically defined by the author as the "Iliade del secol nostro" ("Iliad of our century"). The Historia is articulated in eight books, without any further subdivision in chapters or paragraphs, encompassing both the history of the Council and of its preparatory phases in an annalistic form. Paolo Sarpi (1552-1623) was a Venetian ecclesiastic, a diplomat and a state theologian of the Republic of Venice, and a polygraph. During Venice's struggle with Pope Paul V (1605-1621), which cost the city a papal interdict, Sarpi wrote powerfully in support of the Venetian case, arguing that the Pope was infallible only in matters of faith. Sarpi's basic tenet was that "princes have their authority from God, and are accountable to none but him for the government of their people." With his work, Sarpi hoped to assume an authoritative position in the European debate questioning the religious and political primacy of the Pope; in so doing, he proved to be one of the earliest advocates in Italy of the separation of church and state and, overall, a forerunner of Modern European thought. Written in Italian for an European public, the work was dedicated to James I Stuart, King of England. As a work of polemic against the outcomes of the Council, which strongly reasserted the Pope's primacy over the Christian Church, Sarpi's Historia was anonymously published in London under the pseudonym of Pietro Soave Polano (that is, the anagram of Paolo Sarpi Veneto), and was immediately put on the Index by the Roman Church. The manuscript was smuggled out of Italy with the help of the British Embassy and was soon translated into Latin, English and French; notwithstanding the early condemnation, the work was widely read for at least the next two centuries. Notwithstanding his anti-papal stance, Sarpi proves to be an attentive and reliable chronicler, carefully redacting his Historia after contemporary documentary information. In a patent contrast with the Italian production of his time, he intentionally adopted an anti-literary, but easy-understandable style, preferring a plain and rigorous syntax to the richly elaborated Baroque period style of writing. STC 21760; ESTC, S116701; Gamba 2080; PMM 118.
Le diuerse et artificiose machine del capitano Agostino Ramelli dal ponte della Tresia ingegniero del christianissimo re di Francia et di Pollonia. Nellequali si contengono uarij et industriosi mouimenti

Le diuerse et artificiose machine del capitano Agostino Ramelli dal ponte della Tresia ingegniero del christianissimo re di Francia et di Pollonia. Nellequali si contengono uarij et industriosi mouimenti, degni digrandissima speculatione, per cauarne beneficio infinito in ogni sorte d’operatione; composte in lingua italiana e francese

RAMELLI, Agostino Folio (325 x 217 mm.), [16] leaves, 338 pages. Text in French and Italian, in roman and italic types respectively. Engraved title within architectural frame, engraved portrait of the author on verso of title, title and portrait by Leonard Gaultier, 194 engravings, of which 174 full-page and 20 double-page, three signed with the monogram "JG", text and engravings printed within borders of typographic floral ornaments, 4-line historiated and 2-line floriated initials, woodcut tail-pieces and corner ornaments. Provenance: Fuggerische Bibliothek Augsburg, stamp on title-page. Contemporary French calf, spine with raised bands gilt in compartments, covers gilt ruled to a panel design, fleurons gilt at corners, gilt arabesques lozenge at centers, gilt edges. A few pages lightly browned, binding restored at jonts and corners. A very good copy. First edition of a fundamental book in the history both of technology and of book design, and ?one of the most elegantly produced of all technological treatises. The scientific import of Ramelli's work resides in his demonstration of the unlimited possibilities of machines. For example, the dozens of water-powered pumps and mills shown in his treatise clearly demonstrated that non-muscular power could be substituted for horse- or human-power in any mechanical task requiring continuous or repetitive application of force, and the portrayal of over twenty types of water pump . destroyed the notion that there were necessary limits the configuration or arrangement of a machine. Approximately half of the engravings depict hydraulic devices, the rest showing military machines as well as fountains, bridges, cranes, foundry equipment, etc., and a smattering of innovative devices such as the famous ?reading wheel' or the bouquet with artificial singing birds. The influence of the illustrations was far-reaching and were copied in a number of technical books over the next two centuries. In his preface, Ramelli explains that the exceptional care lavished upon the design and printing of his treatise was due as much to his wish to foil a crudely pirated publication of some of his designs (probably in the ca. 1583 Timon of Ambroise Bachot, future ingenieur dv roi), as to his desire to show gratitude to his patron Henri III. The work was reprinted only once, in 1620'. (Norman catalogue). Ramelli was born in northern Italy, probably in 1531. As a young man he served under the famous Italian warlord, Gian Giacomo de' Medici, Marquis of Marignano, and became trained in mathematics and military engineering. His reputation grew and he eventually left for France to serve under the Duke of Anjou, later King Henry III. Heralds of Science 173; Mortimer, Harvard French 452; Norman 1777 Riccardi I, 341.
Hypnerotomachia Poliphili

Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, ubi humana omnia non nisi somnium esse docet atque obiter plurima scitu sanequam digna commemorat.

COLONNA, Francesco Folio (301 x 200 mm.), 234 leaves. Collation: ?4, a-y8, z10, A-E8, F4: ?1r title HYPNEROTOMACHIA POLIPHILI . , ?1v dedicatory letter in Latin by Leonardo Crasso to Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, ?2r laudatory Latin poem addressed to Crasso by Giovanni Baptista Scyta, unsigned synopsis of the work in Latin distichs, Italian prose and Italian trecets, ?4v epigrams by Andreas Maro Brixianus; a1r Book I, A1r Book II, F4r errata and colophon; 172 woodcuts in the text, 11 full page, 39 woodcut chapter initials. The misprint "Saneque" on a1r corrected in manuscript, uncorrected misprint signature E1 at the begining of quire C. Late XIX century dark brown morocco richly gilt in the style of XVI century bindings signed by Gruel, gilt edges, brown morocco pastedown with gilt decorations, purple silk flyleaves. Provenance: Laurent Meeûs (ex libris). A very good copy. First edition of the most magnificently illustrated book of the Italian Renaissance. The text is ?an enigmatic tale of love lost and regained, presented in two versions and written in"an extraordinary exotic Latinate vernacular, a language never spoken and never again attempted in Latin literature" (Martin Davies, Aldus Manutius, 1995, p.37). The Polifilo has inspired a body of commentary and conjecture disproportionate to its literary merit. From the title, a coniage meaning ?a struggle of love in a dream by the lover of Poliato the oneiric illustrations and text dense with classical allusions, the work has evoked almost as many interpretations as interpreters. "A linguistic and literary debauch, choked with recondite imagery, erudite periphrases, and exotic verbiage" (Lowry, p.120), the text has been confidently glossed as an allegorical guide to neo-classical aesthetics and to Leon Battista Alberti's architectural theories; a fable relating to the struggle of medieval Christian mind towards humanistic enlightenment; a coded alchemical treatise; a Jungian allegory of the individuation of the psyche and its striving for self-knowledge; or a sort of humanistic encyclopaedia. This last, most straightforward interpretation is the result of a close study of the annotations by a 16th-century north Italian humanist reader in a copy still privately owned in Italy (Dorothea Stichel, Reading the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili in the Cinquecento, marginal notes in a copy at Modena in Aldus Manutius and the Renaissance Culture, Essays in Memory of Franklin D. Murphy, Florence, 1998). Numerous allusions misinterpreted or unnoticed by later commentators were easily recognized by that near-contemporary reader, and his copious notes elucidate the rich classical sources underlying the work, whose author relied largely on Pliny, Ovid, and Boccaccio Genealogia deorum. Stchel concludes (as did Lowry) that the Polifilo was conceived first and foremost as a treasury of erudition, fundamentally defined by the classical heritage, and suggest that this may have been Aldus's motivation for agreeing to the request of the well-connected Veronese nobleman Leonardo Crasso that he publish it. On whose behalf Crasso was acting has still not been satisfactorily resolved. The commonly accepted attribution to the dissolute Dominican frair Francesco Colonna is supported by internal evidencethe acrostic formed by the chapter initials and a dedicatory poem, cancelled in all but one copy (Berlin Staatsbibliothek), addressed to Francisco alta columna. Also of possible relevance is an act of the Dominican order dated 5 June 1501, instructing Colonna to repay the Provincial of the Order for the expenses incurred on account of the printed book. (M.T. Casella and G. Piozzi, Francesco Colonna, biografia e opere. Padua, 1959). The identity of the'Polifilo Master? Who designed the woodcuts ? two of which (a6v and c1r) are signed ".b." or "b"(possibly simply the mark of a workshop) ? has also long been disputed. The Paduan miniaturist Benedetto Bordon or Bordone (ca. 1450760-ca. 1530), who spent most of his caree
Symbolicarum quaestionum

Symbolicarum quaestionum, de universo genere quas serio ludebat, libri quinque

BOCCHI, Achille Quarto (205 x 142 mm.), [24] leaves, CCCLVIII pages, xylographic printer's device on title-page, with an allegorical personification of the city of Bologna and 151 engraved emblems by Giulio Bonasone, after drawings by Prospero Fontana and Parmigianino, retouched for this second edition by Agostino Carracci. A few spots, marginal foxing, upper portion of title page cut away (1 cm.), overall a fine copy in contemporary limp vellum. Second edition of Achille Bocchi's famous Symbolicarum quaestionum (first published in 1555), one of the most fascinating and renowned emblem books of the Italian Renaissance. Achille Bocchi (1488-1562) was a Bolognese humanist, active as a lecturer, professor and historian at the Bologna university, and a high standing personality in the cultural milieu of this city. He also founded an eponymous Academy, the Accademia Bocchiana, which included among its members professors of the Studium, philosophers and humanists, and animated the city's culture for nearly a decade, between 1546 and 1556. The Academy had its own print and Bocchi's emblem book was probably the first work published within it; also the second posthumous edition holds its own typographic record, as it stands as the first publication of the Bolognese Typographic Society, founded in 1572. The Symbolicarum quaestionum libri are composed by 151 symbols, each of whom consists of a title, a dedication, a Latin or Greek epigram, and an allegorical illustration on copperplate. In this way, with regard to its general conception and structure, the work owes a great debt to Andrea Alciato's celebrated Emblemata. Prospero Fontana, to whom the great majority of the illustrations is to be ascribed, was a Bolognese mannerist painter, and was considered one of the best portrait interpreters of his time. He was active in Genoa, Rome, and Bologna, where he opened the important painting school that the Carracci cousins attended in their youth. A great amount of the iconographic motifs represented in the book bear the mark of the Oriental symbolism, which was mostly mediated by Filippo Fasanini's translation of Horapollo's Hieroglyphica and by Pierio Valeriano's Hieroglyphica. Moreover, one can count many mystical and biblical motifs, as well as motifs derived from Petrarch or Alexandrine erotic poetry. Bocchi's work exerted a strong influence on later emblem writers, literary works, and artists. Many of Bocchi's symbols were especially reproduced and imitated in emblem books of the 17th century, like those by Otto van Veen and John Marston. Adams B-2194; Brunet I, 1021; Heckscher - Sherman, Emblem Books, 107; Landwehr, Romanic, 162; Mortimer, Italian, 76; Praz, 276. A. Rotondò, in DBI 11 (1969).
Manuale tipografico del Cavaliere Giambattista Bodoni

Manuale tipografico del Cavaliere Giambattista Bodoni

BODONI] Folio (320 x 219 mm.), two volumes. Engraved frontispiece portrait by Francesco Rosaspina after Andrea Appiani, text and specimens enclosed within double rule border, specimens printed on rectos only, three folding plates of musical notation and over 250 Roman, Greek and exotic types, borders, mathematical, astronomical, and other signs. Volume I: 325 leaves; Volume II: 279 leaves. Portrait lightly foxed, binding rubbed, overall a very fine copy, entirely untrimmed bound in the original orange boards with printed spine labels. Second edition of Bodoni's Manuale Tipografico, a masterpiece in the art of typography. ?The second and final edition of Bodoni's Manuale Tipografico - in two quarto volumes with a Discorso by his widow and Prefazione by Bodoni - appeared in 1818, five years after his death. It was completed under the care of his widow and Luigi Orsi, who was for twenty years foreman to Bodoni. Signora Bodoni, writing to M. Durand l'aîné of Metz, from Parma (14 November 1817), says: "The Manuale Tipografico in two volumes on papier-vèlin - the only kind of paper used for it - is not yet completed, but it will be, without fail, at the beginning of the coming year. I dare to believe that book-lovers will thank me for having published a volume which is so very important to Typography. The reception which it will have will make up for the trouble it has cost me (although, Bodoni has left the blocks or models for it) and the considerable expense which I shall have had to incur before it is finished. Also, in view of the fact that but 290 copies are struck off, I cannot dispose of them at less than 120 francs, without any reduction, M. Rosaspina has engraved au burin the portrait after one which the celebrated Appiani ? painted in oils, which is a striking likeness." The first volume contains, under the title of Serie di Caratteri Latini, Tondi e Corsivi, a series of roman and italic types, which cover 144 pages. These run from parmigianina to papale. Sometimes there are as many as fourteen varieties of the same body in different designs and weights of line. It is almost impossible to conceive why it was necessary to have so many kinds, which, even to a trained eye, appear much alike: though it is perhaps justifiable in the larger sizes - as in the three weights of ducale ? where differences can be clearly detected. The number of sizes of type, so nicely graduated that one almost merges in another, is more explicable. This great series enabled Bodoni to place on his pages, not approximately but exactly, the size of type he wished to employ. The following pages (145-169) show Serie di Caratteri Cancelliereschi, etc., in smaller sizes, ugly, gray forms of script. Here and there an interesting one appears - like number 13, or the large sizes 16 and 17. The English scripts are imitations of the "fine Italian hand" then fashionable in England and have little to recommend them. Volume I closes with an enormous array of capital letters, both roman and italic, followed by a few pages of hideous script capitals unworthy of the collection. The second volume contains an assemblage of roman and "italic" Greek capitals, covering sixty-two pages; and exotic types, beginning with Hebrew, run on to the ninety-seventh page. These are followed by German and Russian types many of great splendor. The book closes with series of borders, mathematical, astronomical, and other signs, musical notation, etc. Few ornaments (fregi) are attractive, but most of them, while very perfect, are chilly, sterile, and uninteresting. The borders (contorni) confined in rules ? a form of decoration which Bodoni affected for his broadsides ? are, however, quite charming. The Arabic figures displayed are distinguished, and deserve mention. The music type is uninteresting, the plainsong notation in particular being too modern in effect. The work is probably the most elaborate specimen that the world has ever seen ? an imposing tour de force ? and the acme of Bodoni's l
Imprese nobili

Imprese nobili, et ingeniose di diversi prencipi, et d’altri personaggi illustri nell’arme e nelle lettere. Le quali, col disegno loro estrinseco, dimostrano l’animo, et la buona, o mala fortuna de gli autori loro. Con le dichiarationi in versi di m. Lodovico Dolce et d’altri.

PITTONI, Battista. DOLCE, Lodovico Quarto (273 x 200 mm.), engraved allegorical title within architectural frame by Giacomo Franco, 72 engraved etchings by Battista Pittoni (most of them signed with the monogram B.P.V., Battista Pittoni Vicentino) and Girolamo Porro including the dedicatory emblem to Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Savoy. Contemporary limp vellum with manuscript title on spine. A very fine copy from the library of Renato Heardo (inscription to title date 1628). Fifth volume of Battista Pittoni and Ludovico Dolce's celebrated Imprese, a milestone in the history of the impresa books, that is, books showing symbolical representations "of a purpose, a wish, a line of conduct [?] by means of a motto and a picture which reciprocally interpret each other" (Praz 1933). Battista Pittoni (ca. 1520-ca. 1583) was a Vicentine painter, miniaturist, engraver and etcher; his books of Imprese were the first contributions to emblematics by a painter and were splendidly produced ("the most splendidly illustrated volumes of imprese" in John Landwehr's words [1976: 156]). Ludovico Dolce (1505- 1568) was a Venetian polygraph, a writer, and a poet, who primarily worked as an editor for the Venetian printer Giolito de' Ferrari. Pittoni and Dolce must be considered co-authors of the work: although neither of the two was responsible for the inventions of the imprese (which, instead, are to be ascribed to their bearers), the iconographic elements and the decorative frame occupying the upper half of each sheet are Pittoni's work; on the other hand, Dolce is the author of the verse commentaries in ottava rima on the imprese, which most probably are his interpretations of the images and mottos each time presented. The 1583 edition can be compared to the previous one, that of 1578, due to their substantial homogeneity in terms of subject matter and typographical format. They were both printed about two decades after the first volume appeared (Venice, 1562), when Dolce had already died and Pittoni was in the last few years of his life. Many (45) of the illustrious personalities represented in the first three editions are here excluded, while some new impresa bearers are added; in this way, the arrangement of the volume, which eventually encompasses 67 or 71 portraits (depending on the copy), changes drastically. The 1583 edition, issued by Francesco Ziletti, lacked the dedicatory letter and the mention of Girolamo Porro, despite the fact that Porro was the author of a small group of new engravings and that he had readjusted part of Pittoni's etchings. Quite different is the case of the plate dedicated to Francesco Turchi, where the engraving adopts an innovative format with respect to those chosen by Pittoni and Porro: the way in which the frame is conceived and the presence of the family emblem under the impresa are comparable to the illustrations of the first edition of Girolamo Ruscelli's imprese. Such a formal assonance between illustrations included in different works ? and in works in competition with each other ? underscores the pervasive osmosis between contemporary engraving laboratories and typographies (Parlato 2016: 516). The significance of Pittoni's small imprese books should not be enclosed within the narrow boundaries of emblematics and iconography. Far from that, they are a work of art and a document of social history, as they "reflect the social, cultural, and political history of the sixteenth century, especially as seen from an Italian perspective, but with openings to Europe beyond the Alps. The imprese themselves may be seen as self-images of their bearers which through the medium of the impresa book are broadcast to a contemporary public, or publics, in a form of self-representation [?]. As a form of public representation, imprese often communicate, if as ?through a glass darkly', personal information about the bearers, affording views of the bearers that go beyond the conventional parameters of their public identities" (Davies 2009: 11). Cicognara, 1938; M
Lo Inganno de gl'occhi

Lo Inganno de gl’occhi, prospettiva pratica

ACCOLTI, Pietro Folio (290 x 206 mm.), [6] leaves, 152 pages, [2] leaves, title page with the engraved arms of the dedicatee, cardinal Carlo de'Medici, numerous diagrams and figures in the text. A pale waterstain in the upper white margin, lightly browned, cover material with few defects, but a very genuine copy in contemporary limp vellum, manuscript title on spine. First and only edition, rare. Pietro Accolti (Pisa 1579-1642) was a painter, mathematician and architect member of a noble family from Arezzo.?The treatise is divided into three parts-plane figures, solids, and shading--which is distinguished for showing how perspective practice derives from principles of visual perception. In this erudite work, he critiqued classical and modern theories of vision (including those by Witelo, Euclid, Aguilonius, Guidobaldo del Monte), and criticized modern writers on perspective for underestimating the importance of light and shadow. He emphasized the need to distinguish parallel solar rays from diverging point sources of light such as candlelight. He presented some original ideas on arranging compositions with multiple vanishing points, and on foreshortening pictures within pictures. He reproduced a perfected version of Dürer's perspective window with a frame, hinged shutter and strings. Chapters on anamorphosis and quadratura ceiling painting are typical of 17th-century interests. Also noteworthy is his flexible attitude towards perspective rules, which he cited only to "open the eyes and minds" of students without intending to set restrictions. His ideas on unione and sfumamento (the transitions between light and shadow) have been compared to those of Pietro Testa, and interpreted as a product of the Carracci reform of color and chiaroscuro. Like Matteo Zaccolini's treatise, his writings testify to the 17th century revival of the Leonardesque ideal of scientific painting. Carlo Pedretti has shown that the appendix dedicated to young academicians is a paraphrase of Leonardo da Vinci's Treatise on Painting, now known as the "Libro di pittura". He followed in Leonardo's footsteps by combining art with science and engineering projects, such as a windmill built in Livorno which was capable of moving water' (Janis Bell, 1997). Cicognara 802; Riccardi I, 4.
Oratio Dominica in CLV linguas versa et exoticis characteribus plerumque expressa

Oratio Dominica in CLV linguas versa et exoticis characteribus plerumque expressa

BODONI] Folio (454 x 281 mm.), [3] leaves, XIX pages, [5] pages, XIX, [5] pages, 20, [2] pages, CCXLVIII, [2] pages; all pages framed within five black filets. A very fine copy, untrimmed, bound in contemporary half red morocco, spine richly gilt. ?The Oratio Dominica is another masterly showing of what Bodoni could do in foreign and ancient alphabets. This polyglot Oratio Dominica was printed at the suggestions of Pope Pius VII who, in May 1805, had passed through Parma on his way from the coronation of Napoleon I. (Updike) The Pope ?made a point of meeting Bodoni. He had a scheme in mind. He described to Bodoni his meeting with Jean-Joseph Marcel, the young director of the Imperial Press in Paris, who had presented him with his Oratio Dominica, a volume containing the Lord's Prayer printed in 150 languages. The Pope then challenged Bodoni to surpass the Frenchman in clarity and quantity. It was the perfect opportunity for Bodoni to show off his skills. It would also be extremely useful to him; he could tie in this effort with his Manuale Tipografico by using type he had already in hand, as well as creating new type for the new book, which he could in turn use in the Manuale .[?] By 1806, Bodoni had fulfilled the pope's challenge and published his own Oratio Dominica, with a dedication to Viceroy Eugène de Beauharnais and his wife, Amalia of Bavaria. It contained the Lord's Prayer in 155 languages. He had bested Marcel. He had created 97 different exotic alphabets, 13 of which did not appear in the Frenchman's book. The remaining pages were printed in Roman type of differing sizes, and 23 were italics. One of the most interesting pages is that containing the Lord's Prayer in Chinese. For this, Bodoni reverted to his earliest form of printing. He engraved the characters (based on Didot's) in wood. They are exceptionally clean and square, and clear. Not only was the Oratio Dominica a book of extraordinary beauty, it was in essence yet another specimen book, with every page containing the Lord's Prayer in a different language, each entry held within a simple rectangular frame. The viceroy was so pleased with it that he wrote to Napoleon on 12 July 1806: "Bodoni is in Milan right now; he came here to present me with the polyglot Oratio Dominica. This is a superb edition, and I must tell Your Majesty that it is much superior to the polyglot edition of the same work put out by Signor Marcel in Paris". (V. Lester, Giambattista Bodoni, his life and his world. Boston, 2015). Brooks 1003.
De maximis et minimus geometrica divinatio in quintum cononicorum Apollonii pergaei

De maximis et minimus geometrica divinatio in quintum cononicorum Apollonii pergaei

VIVIANI, Vincenzo Folio (333 x 230 mm.), [16], 154; [4], 154, [2, errata] pp. Half-title, titles in red and black with woodcut arms of Grand Duke Ferdinand II. Correction slips pasted down to line 18, p 32 and line 8 p 118. With 4 full page engraved plates (2 on one folding sheet), and numerous woodcut text diagrams. Light scattered foxing, overall a a very good copy in contemporary green vellum with double gilt fillet border, spine gilt in compartments from the library of Marchesi Corsi, Villa Corsi-Salviati, Sesto Fiorentino (engraved bookplate by Zocchi). First edition of the first published work by Viviani, ?the most able restitution of the lost Fifth Book of the Conic Sections of Apollonius Pergaeus, made previously to the discovery of Borelli of its existence in an Arabic Version'. (Libri Cat., Auction 1861, nr.3138) Vincenzo Viviani (Florence 1622 ? 1702) was a disciple of Galileo and lived with him in Arcetri for three years. ?Throughout his life, one of Viviani's main interests was in ancient Greek mathematics. As early as 1646, while collaborating with Torricelli, he was also working on a project to restore the work of Aristaeus the Elder. Pappus gave Aristaeus great credit for a work entitled Five Books concerning Solid Loci which had been lost. (Solid Loci is the Greek term for conic sections.) Pappus, however, indicated propositions from the work and Viviani reconstructed the original from these references by Pappus. It was a project that Viviani worked on for most of his life. In 1673 he published a first edition of his restoration but he continued to work on it and his final effort De locis solidis secunda divinatio geometrica in quinque libros iniuria temporum amissos tristaei senioris geometrae was published in 1701 only, two years before his death. Another restoration of a Greek text by Viviani is interesting for a number of reasons. This was his restoration of the fifth book of Apollonius's Conics. At the time he began the restoration only the first four books of this eightbook work had been found and Viviani set about reconstructing the fifth. By 1656 Viviani's work was quite close to completion when Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (a fellow Tuscan Court mathematician) discovered an Arabic version of the first seven books of Apollonius's Conics in the Laurentian Library in Florence. Borelli took the manuscript to Rome where it was translated into Latin by Abrahamus Ecchellensis. In 1659 both the translation from the Arabic and Viviani's restoration were published. Viviani's work was entitled De maximis et minimis geometrica Divinatio and was certainly written by him without any knowledge of the translation of Apollonius's work. It is interesting, of course, to see how faithfully Viviani was able to reconstruct Apollonius's book since now both the reconstruction and the original had become available. Viviani had done an excellent job, his biggest ?error' being that he had been able to penetrate deeper than Apollonius himself. The realisation that Viviani was, in some sense, a better geometer than the revered Apollonius, gave him instant fame throughout the centres of learning in Europe. His reputation as a mathematician was high throughout Europe. Louis XIV of France offered him a position at the Académie Royale in 1666, and John II Casimir of Poland offered Viviani a post as his astronomer, also in 1666. The Grand Duke, not wishing to lose Viviani, appointed him as his mathematician. Viviani accepted this post and turned down the offers from Louis XIV and John II Casimir'. (www-history. mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Viviani.html) Carli and Favaro 400; Cinti 135; Honeyman VII 3061; Riccardi II 625.
Fregi e Majuscole incise e fuse da Giambattista Bodoni direttore della Stamperia Reale

Fregi e Majuscole incise e fuse da Giambattista Bodoni direttore della Stamperia Reale

BODONI] Octavo (197 x 120 mm.), [2] leaves, XII pages, 48 pages, [1] leaf, pages 49-56. On title-page a contemporary manuscript note: St. Pauli, ex dono clarissimi auctoris. A very fine copy bound in modern Burgundy morocco. The first type specimen printed by Giambattista Bodoni, rare. ?In Fregi e Majuscole we are able to see what types and ornaments Bodoni used in the earlier part of his career. They are (as he says in his very "worth-while" preface) a derivation from Fournier, but lack that precision which Bodoni embodied so characteristically in his 19th century types. They exhibit, however, his admiration for Fournier, whom he copied in a flattering but barefaced manner. Granted that the most agreeable features of the book are copied, this "specimen" of 1771 is one of the most tasteful and charming volumes of its kind in existence. Each page is surrounded with borders, of which scarcely one is bad, and scarcely two alike. The types are old style, but their delicacy shows current tendencies; and this is specially true of the italic. The Greek character is condensed and very ugly, and but one font is shown as against the twenty-eight varieties exhibited in Bodoni's Greek specimen of 1788. Bodoni's ornamented letters are modelled on those of Fournier. The 377 vignettes or ornaments (exactly the number shown in the Manuel) are mostly recut after Fournier's designs, but Bodoni's versions have less color and warmth and a certain Italian twist to them -of those shown, all but two (305 and 325) are copies or adaptations. Their arrangements as borders for initials and as head-pieces, etc, is ingenious. Bodoni's title-page, halftitle to the specimen of types, and some minor decorations -for instance, the type "bees" surrounding type 2 flowers", to which he has added the familiar motto from Virgil - are neatly "lifted" from Fournier's Manuel. All the same, the book is enormously instructive to compare with Bodoni's great, chilly masterpieces, the Oratio Dominica and the Manuale Tipografico of 1818. (Updike). Brooks 16.