MEDA RIQUIER RARE BOOKS LTD

  • Showing all 25 results

Opera (ed. Benedictus Brognolus).

Opera (ed. Benedictus Brognolus).

Priscianus Folio (312 x 214 mm). Types 11:110R (text), 12:79R (commentary), 80 Greek. 43 lines (60 lines commentary). Initial spaces with printed guide letters. Collation: a?c8; d? u8 x6 y z and © ® aa?ee8 6; A?K8; L8 M6: 346 leaves, the first blank. Unrubricated. Contemporary Italian (Padua) blind-stamped sheep over beech boards, brass corner- and centerpieces, remains of 4 pairs of clasps with catches on lower cover, title label on upper cover, no pastedowns, spine lining of a vellum manuscript with musical notation, edges plain; binding rubbed (light skilful repairs at bottom of covers, spine worn). Red cloth slipcase with chemise, a hole for the hasp of the chain is below the bottom catcher of the lower cover. A very fresh, clean copy in the original binding. Provenance: this volume was purchased by Johannes Protzer in 1490 (and possibly bound in Padua for him too), shortly after it had been published. An inscription by his own hand in the inner side of upper cover reads "Johannes Protzer I(uris) V(triusque) lic(entiatus) M cccc Xc Comparauit In Italia 1 g(u)ld(en) reinisch, 1 lib." First edition with the commentary or gloss to the Institutiones grammaticae, dating to the late 11th century. The colophon attributes the gloss to "Johannes de Aingre", whose name does not appear in any of the manuscripts of the text. Margaret Gibson suggests that this could be a corruption of "Dei Gratia", and hence a reference to Johannes Gratiadei, who flourished around 1080. Goff P-968, Hain 13661; BMC V 383 (IB.22509); BSB-Ink P-765; Bod-inc. P-457. See Margaret Gibson, " The Collected Works of Prisician," Studi medievali 3rd. ser. 18 (1977) at pp. 252-3.
Le terze rime.

Le terze rime.

ALIGHIERI, Dante. Octavo (159 x 90 mm.), 244 unnumbered leaves with the blank leaf at the end of the Inferno, Aldus device on verso of last leaf. Title page reinforced in the gutter and with a stamp of a private collection, edges of the first quire lightly frayed, a few spots and contemporary marginal annotations; a good copy in early XIX century stiff vellum calf, spine in compartments with double lettering pieces.A good copy of the celebrated first Aldine edition of Dante by Pietro Bembo. This is the first and only time that Dante's Commedia was given the title Le terze rime, a decision of the editor.Pietro Bembo (1470-1547) was a young Venetian patrician and humanist who, thanks to his classical education and his scholarly interests, was closely involved as from the late 15th century with the Aldine Press. In July 1501 and August 1502, he edited for Aldus the first Petrarch and the first Dante to appear in the 16th century; these two pivotal editions appeared in the famous pocket-format series of Latin and vernacular texts Aldus launched in April 1501, after some years spent in printing Greek and Latin works. "The series set out to be radically and provocatively innovative. It used a completely new typeface, the first ever Italic. The format was octavo, unheard of for printed texts of this kind. It accorded to Petrarch and Dante the same status as Latin classics such as Virgil and Horace, and it presented the work of all of these authors uncluttered by commentaries and other extraneous matter for the first time in some twenty to twenty-five years. This must have restricted the readership of these editions, but it allowed those who did not need help with the interpretation of the texts to approach them with a fresh mind. [?] These two editions marked a radical overhaul and purification of the text of the Tuscan poets. They were to prove of central importance for the development of Italian vernacular literature in the sixteenth century, in which Pietro Bembo took a leading part" (Davies, 46-48).This edition of Dante's masterpiece was based on the text provided by a mid-14th manuscript with a distinguished story: the book was sent by Boccaccio to Petrarch in 1351-1353 and later was bought by Bembo's father, Bernardo, whose important library included some of the texts previously owned by Petrarch himself. Both the Petrarchan code and the copy Pietro Bembo derived from it by his own hand still survive nowadays in the Vatican Library in Rome (they are, respectively, Codex Vaticanus Latinus 3199 and 3197). In supplying the printers not with a corrected earlier edition of the text but with a manuscript he had copied out himself, Bembo completely broke with the editorial conventions of his time. Bembo also possessed a personal copy of the Florentine editio princeps by Cristoforo Landino (a gift by Landino himself to Bernardo Bembo, dating from 1483), which he mainly followed when detaching from the Petrarchan text.This Aldine edition was hegemonic throughout the Renaissance: none of the 16th century Dante editions, not even the Crusca Academy edition (Florence 1595), ever altered the basic setting of the text established by Bembo.References: Renouard 34-35; B. Richardson, Print Culture in Renaissance Italy, Cambridge 1994; M. Davies, Aldus Manutius. Printer and Publisher of Renaissance Venice, 1999; A.E. Mecca, La tradizione a stampa della Commedia: dall'Aldina del Bembo (1502) all'edizione della Crusca (1595), Nuova Rivista di Cultura Italiana 16 (2013), 9-59.
Duello. Duello

Duello. Duello, libro de re imperatorI. Vallo?,

ALCIATI, Andrea. DAL POZZO, Paride. DELLA VALLE, Battista Octavo (150 x 100 mm.), three works bound in one volume; I-97, [7] leaves; II title-page within an allegorical woodcut border, 167 leaves; III title-page within an allegorical woodcut border, [8], 71 with several woodcut illustarions most full page. Contemporary limp vellum with manuscript title on spine. Worming in the upper white margin of the first three leaves, a very good copy.A fascinating sammelband of major Renaissance works relating to the art of war and duelling. Most renowned for his ground-breaking ?Emblemata', Andrea Alciati (1492-1550) was a jurist and humanist with a profound interest in antiquity, which he studied to illuminate the foundations of Roman civil law. ?Duello' was first published in Latin in 1541 and in Italian in 1544; this second Italian edition appeared in the same year as that by Vincenzo Valgrisi, but no priority has been established. ?Duello' followed Alciati's antiquarian method to explore the origins of duelling as a legal and cultural institute from ancient Greece to Alciati's times?why and when it was forbidden, the legal and social status of provokers (with examples of relevant offences and accusations which might start a fight), causes of duels and procedures. By invalidating the principle of ?justice by divine judgement' on which the rationale of duelling was traditionally based, Alciati undermined its validity as a judicial instrument within the 16th-century civil law system. Paride dal Pozzo (fl. first part of the 15th century) was a jurist and member of the Aragonese court in Naples. First published in 1521, ?Duello' provides important insight into the culture of duelling in the late medieval period, and was reprinted frequently in the 16th century, this being the eighth and last early edition (USTC). It celebrates how in battles carried out single-handedly or in small groups ?victory is awarded to those who deserve divine justice'. In addition to customary regulations on the procedures and methods of battles and duels, with substantial sections on jousting, it discusses astrological forecasts to determine the outcome of a fight. Battista della Valle (died. ca.1550), of whom little is known, was a captain in the army of Francesco Maria della Rovere, Duke of Urbino. First published in Naples in 1521 and much reprinted and translated in the following decades, his ?Vallo' is considered a key Renaissance treatise in the art of war. The four parts discuss the figure of the ideal captain (his clothing and knowledge of munitions, fortifications and gunpowder), methods of conquering a territory (how to destroy walls or build bridges for the army), strategies and the positioning of the troops on the battlefield (e.g., in the shape of a triangle, crescent or scorpion) and specific disputes (e.g., how to determine which of two insults is worse and what the appropriate response should be, what happens in a fight between a soldier on foot and one on horseback). Devised for a learned readership of aristocratic soldiers, the work is illustrated with handsome full-page woodcuts of war machinery and diagrams describing the construction of ditches and the disposition of troops on the battlefield.I: EDIT16 CNCE 841; USTC 808440; Adams A600.II: EDIT16 CNCE 15886; USTC 825310.III: EDIT16 CNCE 16586; USTC 826397 Monorchio, Lo specchio del cavaliere: Il duello nella trattatistica e nell'epica rinascimentale ([Ottawa]: Canadian Society for Italian Studies, 1998).    
Florilegium diversorum epigrammatum in septem libros.

Florilegium diversorum epigrammatum in septem libros.

ANTHOLOGIA PLANUDEA Octavo (156 x 92 mm.), 290 unnumbered leaves. First two pages a little dust soiled, title page with an old restoration and with a collector's signature, head of spine restored, overall a fine copy in XVIII century mottled calf, spine in comparments richly gilt with red lettering piece.First of three Aldine editions of the Planudean Anthology, the only by Aldus the Elder (the others being that of 1521 and 1551), defined by Renouard "the most beautiful for the paper and the impression, and also the rarest one".Aldus realized it ten years after the Florentine editio princeps, given by the famous Byzantine humanist Janus Lascaris in 1494 under the title of Anthologia Graeca. Renouard held in his hands the copy of the Lascaris' edition annotated in Greek and Latin by Aldus himself, which served as the typographic basis for the 1503 edition, and, later on, for the 1521 one. Having decided to follow Lascaris' text, Aldus assembled in the last pages of the seventh book the textual variants recovered by other manuscripts, as well as 19 new epigrams and some other verses; moreover, he joined to the seventh book a short supplement, consisting of 2 other anonymous epigrams, a poem by the 6th century Greek poet Paul the Silentiary, and other minor works.The Planudean Anthology is a 13th century collection of Greek epigrams compiled by the Byzantine polymath Maximus Planudes, consisting of ca. 2,400 texts. It was based on the lost anthology realized in the 10th century by another Byzantine scholar, Constantine Cephalas, which also lay at the basis of a second collection, much more accurate and complete than the Planudean one (3,700 texts instead of 2,400), called the ?Palatine Anthology'. While composing his collection, Cephalas drew chiefly from three older anthologies of widely different date: the Stephanus, or Wreath, of Meleager, collected in the beginning of the first century B.C. and consisting of works of at least forty-seven poets of the seventh to third and second centuries B.C.; the Stephanus of Philip of Thessalonika, dating from the first half of the first century A.D., designed as a supplement to Meleager's anthology and covering the intervening period; the Cycle of Agathias, made in the age of Justinian and comprising strictly contemporary works. Cephalas ordered his collection by distributing the poems of Meleager's, Philip's and Agathias' anthologies under headings by subject, all the erotic poems, all the dedicatory poems, etc., grouped together in separate books.Despite its minor quality, due to a high number of omissions and alterations of Cephalas' text, in many respects the collection of Planudes proved to be a fundamental testimony of classical tradition: first of all, it was the only known anthology of Greek epigrams and poems until 1606, when a richer manuscript was rediscovered in the Count's Palatine library in Heidelberg (hence, the name of ?Palatine Anthology'); moreover, to it alone we owe the preservation of ca. 390 epigrams, which nowadays are included under the title of ?Appendix Planudea' in the corpus of texts known as the Greek Anthology.References: Renouard, 42-43; W.E. Paton (ed.), The Greek Anthology, 1920; P. Jay (ed.), The Greek Anthology, 1973.  
Itinerarium Antonini Aug. Vibius Sequester. P. Victor de regionibus urbis Romae. Dionysius Afer de Situ orbis Prisciano interprete

Itinerarium Antonini Aug. Vibius Sequester. P. Victor de regionibus urbis Romae. Dionysius Afer de Situ orbis Prisciano interprete

POMPONIUS MELA, IULIUS SOLINUS. Octavo (162 x 98 mm.), 233, [4] leaves, woodcut printer's device on title-page and on last leaf. A very fine and genuine copy in contemporay limp vellum with manuscript title on spine.  First Aldine edition of this erudite collection of geographical works of the Classical world. The anthology is opened by Pomponius Mela's De situ orbis and Iulius Solinus' Polyhistor, but comprises also minor works such as the Itinerarium Antoninum, the description of Rome by Publius Victor, and the Latin in verse translation of Dionysius of Alexandria's Periegesis.This book reflects the humanistic interest in ancient geography and toponymy, which had been growing since Petrarch's rediscovery of Mela's and Pliny's descriptions of the world and the Latin translation of Claudius Ptolemy's Geographia, realized in Florence by Manuel Chrysoloras in the very last years of the 14th century.Pomponius Mela was a Spanish-born Roman geographer contemporary with the emperor Claudius. His Chorographia, written in ca. 40 D.E., is the earliest extant Roman geography. It consists of a summary of scientific geography, with a brief account of the earth and its three continents (Europe, Asia, and Africa), followed by detailed descriptions of the Mediterranean countries, Gaul, Germany, the Northern islands, India and the Persian Gulf, alternating purely geographical information with curious narratives on peoples, customs, legends and natural phenomena. Adhering to the Greek tradition of descriptive geography, Mela presented the geography of the world as a linear periplus along the inside and the outside coastlines (intra extraque), and thus had to divide the description of areas which have coastlines on the seas both "inside" and "outside" (Spain, Gaul) into two separate passages.We only know of the author Iulius Solinus through his work itself. Depending on whether one assumes him to be a linguistically innovative author or an unoriginal compilator, one dates the first version of his work to the late 3rd century or the 4th century A.D. Despite being a compiler and giving mostly second hand information, Solinus was to become a very popular geographer in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Solinus relied principally on Pliny's geographical books, condensing their material; in so doing, he created a work which copyists, and readers, could handle more easily than the unwieldy mass of Pliny's work. His compendium achieved almost unrivalled popularity in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, also thanks to the fact that, unlike Mela and Pliny, Solinus enabled his readers to envisage a map, with cardinal points and relative positions of areas to each other. Solinus' description "was used by St. Augustine and by Marcianus Capella in the 5th century, by Priscianus to embellish his translation of Dionysius' Periegesis, and by St. Isidore for his encyclopaedic Etymologiae. In the 6th and 7th centuries, St. Aldhelmus and the Venerable Bede are amongst the users of Solinus' work. More than 250 codices transmit Solinus' work and are an impressive testimony to the relevance attributed to it for more than a millennium" (Brodersen, 304). "While we can only guess what kind of map Solinus or his readers may have envisaged, we have solid evidence that Solinus inspired later readers to introduce not only illustrations into the work, but also maps. It is surely no coincidence that in the 13th century Christian Mappamundi from Hereford more of the map's textual content can demonstrably be attributed to Solinus, who was almost certainly not a Christian, than to any other source (Isidore of Seville his only rival), particularly in Asia, Africa, and the Mediterranean Sea" (Brodersen, 309-310).References: Renouard, 83; S. Gentile, Umanesimo e scienza antica: la riscoperta di Tolomeo geografo, in Il contributo italiano alla storia del pensiero, 2013; K. Brodersen, The Geographies of Pliny and his ?Ape' Solinus, in Brill's Companion to Classical Geography, 2015, 298-310.  
Statuta Papiae et comitatus. Statuta de regimine potestatis ciuilia and criminalia ciuitatis and comitatus Papiae cum quibusdam decretis.

Statuta Papiae et comitatus. Statuta de regimine potestatis ciuilia and criminalia ciuitatis and comitatus Papiae cum quibusdam decretis.

PAVIA STATUTI Folio (318 x 226 mm.), 102 unnumbered leaves, istoriated initials, woodcut printer's device and city of Pavia arms in a wreath at the end of the first part and on last leaf. Title set in the lower part of a full-page woodcut representing a triumphal arch with the standing figures of S. Siro and S. Augustine and, in the middle, the equestrian statue of the Regisole, a classical which came to be pictured on the city seal. Title flanked by two shields with the Visconti family and the city of Pavia arms. Vellum modern binding reusing old materials. A very good copy with extensive contemporary annotations.Scarce second edition of the ?Statuta Papiae'?the legislative corpus of the city of Pavia. First published in print in very few copies by Antonio Carasco ca.1480, it reproduces medieval civic laws following the structure of their first coherent collection commissioned (with revisions) by Gian Galeazzo Visconti in 1393, when Pavia was part of the Duchy of Milan. This second edition, corrected by Lorenzo Roverini, also includes ducal decrees and rubrics at the end. It bears a famous woodcut titlepage portraying, within a decorated arch, the patron saints of Pavia?Siro and Agostino?accompanied by the arms of the city and the Duke of Milan, and the Regisole on a column (Kristeller, ?Die Lombardische Grafik', 276). This was a classical bronze equestrian statue originally exhibited in Ravenna, later moved to Pavia and eventually destroyed in 1796; it probably represented Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths, or the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus. The titlepage is considered ?a masterpiece of the art of medieval Pavia', inspired by the ?preference for uncrowded scenes, in the Lombard tradition' but with ?milder lines and fluent movement' (Samek Ludovici, Illustrazione del libro, p. 17). As typical of all medieval and Renaissance civic statutes in Italy, it incorporates civil, criminal, commercial, tax and estate law. The first section is concerned with ?Statuta de regimen potestatis' on judicial and administrative matters such as magistrates' wages and appointments, procedures to be followed at official meetings, the definition of civic community and the maintenance of roads. The second is devoted to civil statutes and private law, from trial procedures (e.g., the correct formulation of official documents) to inheritance, marriage and animal illnesses. The third section, on criminal law, illuminates on incarceration, judicial procedures and punishment for criminals such as murderers, sodomites, ?dishonest' women who live with clerics, innkeepers who serve guests after the toll of the evening bell, and those who have sexual relationships with nuns in monastic premises. The penultimate section, concerning the University of Pavia founded in 1361, regulaties the use of corpses belonging to executed criminals for purposes of anatomical research. A remarkably important document for the judicial and political history of late medieval and early modern Italy.Cat. Senato V, 257; Fontana II, 351; Sander 5495-96; Adams II, P526; Mortimer 366.
Gli Asolani.

Gli Asolani.

BEMBO, Pietro Quarto (196 x 118 mm.), 96 unnumbered leaves, 1 leaf with the errata, lacking the last blank leaf; Aldus device on leaf m8 verso. Our copy has the dedication to Lucrezia Borgia dated 1st August 1504 and the errata leaf at the end missing in most of the copies. XIX century red morocco, spine in compartments richly gilt with black morocco lettering piece, gilt edges. One restored tear in the lower white margin of title, overall a very fine copy.First edition of the first vernacular work by Pietro Bembo, introduced by a dedication letter to the famous Lucrezia Borgia, daughter of Pope Alexander VI and Duchess of Ferrara, which for unknown reasons turns out to have been suppressed in many copies of this edition.Pietro Bembo (1470-1547), one of the major Italian Renaissance humanists and the main theorist of the usage of vernacular in Italian literature (the so called ?vernacular classicism'), belonged to a most prominent Venetian aristocratic family. After receiving a classical education, he soon turned his attention to scholarly pursuits and, starting from the late 15th century, was closely involved with the Aldine Press, for whom he realized in 1501-1502 two fundamental editions of Petrarch's Canzoniere and Dante's Commedia. Meanwhile, Bembo pursued a career in public life as he continued to venture his own literary productions, such as this book.The Gli Asolani is to be considered the major literary expression of this first phase of Bembo's production. The work consists of a dialogue in three books, interspersed with poems, which takes place in Asolo, at the court of Caterina Cornaro, former Queen of Cyprus and Bembo's cousin. The six protagonists dialogue of the intimate nature of love, expressing varied points of view; in the third book, Bembo looks for a philosophical and religious solution to the problem of love, deeply influenced by Neoplatonism and specifically by Marsilio Ficino's theories.The argument fits perfectly within the context of courtesan literature, which during the 15th and 16th centuries privileged love as primary theme; at the same time, Bembo shows a marked originality with respect to previous and contemporary authors, because he not only chooses to speak of love in  prose instead of poetry (taking Boccaccio's Decameron as his model), but also characterizes his poems with a rigorous Petrarchism that anticipates what was to become the literary style of Italian Renaissance poetry.References: Renouard 48; Adams, B-578; Brunet, I 766; Scott, 141-43; Sowell, 15; UCLA, 72; C. Dionisotti, in DBI 8 (1966); AA.VV., In Aedibus Aldi. The Legacy of Aldus Manutius and his Press, 1995, 75-76.    
Poemata

Poemata

AUGURELLUS, Jo. Aurelius. Octavo (161 x 97 mm.), 128 unnumbered leaves with two blanks at the beginning and at the end, Aldus's device on the last leaf. Contemporary limp vellum, gauffred gilt edges.A very fine compy with contemporary manuscript note on the first blank leaf.First Aldine edition of Augurellus' Latin poems, "beautiful and rare" (Renouard). It is the only edition of Neo-Latin lyric poems figuring within the famous Aldine Classics series in octavo format, which proves the good reputation enjoyed by the author and specially by his Latin production among the contemporaries.Giovanni Aurelio Augurelli, also called Augurello (1456-1524), was an Italian humanist and a poet, who devoted his life to Classical studies, teaching and literature. Recognized during his lifetime as one of the most learned humanists of his generation, he was an intimate friend of Bernardo and Pietro Bembo, knew Marsilio Ficino and Politian and frequented the main humanistic circles in Florence, Padua, and Venice. While in Padua, he studied Petrarch under Gian Giorgio Trissino; on that occasion, he developed an original Petrarchism, which later found expression in his vernacular poems. Persuaded of the need to strengthen the studies on literary vernacular language, he was among those who supported and encouraged Pietro Bembo to write a pivotal work of Renaissance literature such as the Prose della volgar lingua.Articulating his collection of Latin poems in metrical genres, Augurellus intended it as an homage to Horace, the leading lyric poet of Roman Classical literature and the undisputed model of Latin lyric poetry during Humanism. Indeed, Horace's poems are recalled in the titles given to the three sections of the work, that is, respectively, the iambi (in three books), the sermones (in two books), the carmina (in two books). The collection includes verses composed for a variety of occasions and addressed to patrons, friends, and social contacts, so that they represent an important biographical source for the author himself. "It is an elegant poetry, demonstrating a mastery of the language and an ease of versification" (Weiss); in fact, a modern reader could retain the impression that sentiments are quite superficial and that the virtue of the collection lies precisely in its rhetorical dimension. Of special significance is the poem in hexameters Chrysopoeia (?the art of producing gold'), later developed and published as a single work in 1515; its importance lies in the fact that not only it is the first alchemical poem in Latin, but also, when considered in relation to the previous tradition, stands out as a very turning point in the production of alchemical works.References: Renouard, 49; Adams A-2152; Ahmanson-Murphy 73; Kallendorf-Wells 81; IA 110036.; R. Weiss, in DBI 4 (1962); M. Ciardi, Letteratura, arte e alchimia. La Chrysopoeia di Giovanni Aurelio Augurelli, in Atti del XVI convegno nazionale di storia e fondamenti della chimica, 2016, 11-23.  
Psalterium Hebreum

Psalterium Hebreum, Graecum, Arabicum and Caldeum cum tribus Latinis interpretationibus et glossis

PSALTERIUM Folio (333 x 228 mm.), 200 unnumbered leaves, text printed in columns across double pages in Hebrew (literary), Latin translation from the Hebrew, Latin Vulgate, Greek Septuagint, Arabic, Chaldee or Aramaic Targum, literal Latin translation from the Chaldee, title printed in red and black within an elaborate woodcut Islamic-style border, thirteen woodcut initials, first opening of text with headings printed in red, woodcut printer's device at end. Bound in XVIII century stiff vellum, gold lettering piece on spine. Usual light browning on same pages, overall a very good copy frome the library of the great Italian collector Giacomo Manzoni (ex libris).First rare edition of this famous polyglot psalter by bishop Agostino Giustiniani, also known as the Octaplum Psalterium, "the second book printed in Arabic, and the first polyglot printing of any section of the Bible, preceding by four years the publication of the Complutensian Polyglot" (Schäfer Collection, 149).This is the first work published in Genoa in the 16th century, and, after its publication, another seventeen years had to pass before another work was printed in the city. This important editorial undertaking is also remembered for the unusual scholium on Psalm 19:4 (Their music goes out through all the earth, their words reach to the end of the world), containing a description of Christopher Columbus' voyages to the New World and a praise for his deeds, which is to be considered the first biography ever published of the Genoese explorer. "In this interesting sketch of the life and voyages of his fellow-townsman, Bishop Giustiniani gives an interesting account of the discovery of the new world, and states some facts not mentioned elsewhere" (Sabin). "Giustiniani's sources are unknown and the reasons for mentioning Columbus unclear. He was obviously proud of the accomplishments of a fellow Genoese. And he may have seen Columbus as God's instrument, who revealed more of God's creation and found new peoples to be brought to Christ" (Grendler, 237).Member of a prominent family who had formerly undertaken important diplomatic charges for the Republic of Genoa, Agostino Giustiniani (1470-1536) was a renowned Hebrew biblical scholar with a pronounced humanistic education. He studied for a doctorate in theology in the Dominican studium generale in Bologna, but also studied Greek, Hebrew and other languages. Short after being appointed bishop of Nebbio, in northern Corsica (1514), he decided to publish at his own expense a polyglot version of the Psalms as a first step of a more complex project which he had been preparing for many years: a polyglot Bible in Hebrew, Latin, Greek, Aramaic, and Arabic. Giustiniani dedicated the psalter to pope Leo X, probably in order to win the papal support for the publication of the entire polyglot Bible; unfortunately, his hopes would have finally proved to be vain."Giustiniani could not find a printer with the necessary expertise and fonts in Genoa, a very minor publishing center, so he brought in a Milanese printer, Pietro Paolo Porro, and they probably labored over the book for much of a year". "Eight parallel columns of text are spread across every two pages, verso and recto. The Hebrew text appears in column one, Giustiniani's Latin translation in column two, Jerome's Vulgate translation in column three, the Greek text from the Septuagint in column four, Giustiniani's Arabic translation in column five, the Aramaic Targum paraphrase in column six, Giustiniani's Latin translation of the Targum in column seven, and his Latin scholia and commentary in column eight. In addition, Giustiniani's commentary sometimes runs across the bottom of the two pages and continues at the top of the next two pages before the presentation of a new verse in eight columns. The complex volume must have tested Porro's skills and had to have been expensive. Nevertheless, Giustiniani printed 2,000 copies, double the size of the normal press run at that time, in paper and fifty in vellum. But he sold only a quarter of them" (Grendler, 234-235).References: Adams B-1370; Bibl. Am. Vet. 88; Brunet IV, 919; European Americana 516/4; Leclerc 1212; Sabin 66468; Sander 5957; P.F. Grendler, Italian Biblical Humanism and the Papacy, 1515-1535, in E. Rummel (ed.), Biblical Humanism and Scholasticism in the Age of Erasmus, 2008, 227-276.
Artis gymnasticae apud antiquos celeberrimae

Artis gymnasticae apud antiquos celeberrimae, nostris temporibus ignoratae, libri sex.

MERCURIALE, Girolamo. Quarto (218 x 156 mm.), [20], 120 leaves, one folding plate with the Gymnasium, woodcut printer's device on title and lsat page. A very good copy in contemporary limp vellum with ties.Very rare first edition of this famous treatise in six books on gymnastics in the ancient Classical world, "the first complete treatise on medical gymnastics" (Ongaro), which would later have met several reprintings added with many excellent wood-block illustrations of sports, mainly drawn by Pirro Ligorio. Girolamo Mercuriale (1530-1606) was a famous professor of Medicine, at Padua, Bologna and Pisa, and also a humanist and a philologist: thanks to his knowledge of Greek and Latin, he published acritical exegesis of many controversial passages of Greek and Latin medical literature (1571), realized the fifth Giunta edition of Galen's works (1576), made studies on the authenticity of the Hippocratic corpus (1583), and published the Greek text with Latin translation of many Hippocraticworks (1587). He was also author of several works of practical medicine but is nowadays mostly famous for this original treatise on ancient gymnastics, first printed in 1569 without illustrations.The De arte gymnastica (so the definitive title of the work, adopted starting from the second edition of 1573) is the result of almost seven years of studies and researches Mercuriale conducted in the museums and libraries of Rome, during his stay in the city under the patronage of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (to whom the work in dedicated). "It was the first complete text on gymnastics and stresses the importance that all forms of exercise have in maintaining good health. Relying heavily on ancient practices, this work is an excellent compendium of the physical therapy of earlier times. Mercuriale describes ancient gymnasia and baths and discusses mild exercises, such as dancing, as well as more strenuous pursuits such as wrestling and boxing. He also gives full consideration to the health benefits of proper exercise and concludes the book with a section of therapeutic exercises" (Heirs of Hippocrates, 354). In this work, "gymnastics is examined from a point of view which is, together, historical, truly medical, and, more generally, hygienical" (Ongaro). Mercuriale links ancient gymnastics to modern, so he could be considered forerunner of modern gymnastics; indeed, defending the importance of gymnastics as a therapy. it would not be wrong to say that Mercuriale marks the beginning of modern sports medicine.References: 100 Books Famous in Medicine, 1495; Brunet III, 1646; Durling 3087; Heirs of Hippocrates 354; Morton 1986.1; Osler 3387; Wellcome 4223; G. Ongaro, DBI 73 (2009).