Daniel Crouch Rare Books LLP

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Carte figurative et approximative des quantités de coton en laine importées en Europe en 1858 et en 1861.

Carte figurative et approximative des quantités de coton en laine importées en Europe en 1858 et en 1861.

MINARD, Charles Joseph 'Cotton Diplomacy' starts to fail Lithographed map, signed "Ch. J. Minard" in ink at lower right, mounted on linen. The map shows two flow-maps of the Atlantic trade in wool and cotton, three years apart. The time period covers the beginning of the American Civil War, which was sparked by the slavery policies of the Lincoln presidency. By January 1861, seven of the southern states had seceded to form the Confederacy. The war between the Confederacy and the states who remained in the Union lasted until 1865, and had a devastating effect on American exports. The seven separatist states are marked on both maps. The Confederacy attempted to use 'Cotton Diplomacy', cutting off the cotton supply to force European powers to intervene to save their domestic industries. In early 1861, the Union had not yet implemented its wartime blockade of the South, and cotton and wool could still be exported, but Britain and other major customers were worried about the stability of the American supply, investing heavily in production in South Asia. A line graph in the upper right corner shows the yearly export amounts of wool and cotton for America (blue). There is a sharp drop in exports from 1860, when the issues provoking the Civil War came to prominence. Comparing the two maps gives an even clearer picture of the change; by 1861 the amount of cotton and wool imported into Britain from India (yellow) had almost tripled, whereas the amount imported from America (blue) had only risen by a paltry 16,000 tons. Britain was then re-exporting to other European countries (pink), at a rate three times higher than before the start of the Civil War. Copies are held at ENPC: Fol 10975. Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870) was "a true pioneer in thematic cartography and in statistical graphics" (Friendly). After completing his studies at the École des Ponts et Chaussées, (the School of Bridges and Roads) he began work as a civil engineer. The beginning of his career coincided with the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars, and he headed a project to repair the wet dock at Flessingue after it was destroyed by the British. He was then posted to Antwerp to oversee a project there and was caught in the siege of Antwerp in 1814, an experience that affected him greatly. He was named Superintendent of his alma mater in 1830. Six years later, he became Inspector of the Corps of Bridges. In 1851, he took mandatory retirement, although still working for the school in an advisory capacity, and undertook private research. This is when his cartographical career began in earnest. Minard's genius lay in his realisation that maps could provide visually clear renditions of complicated statistics. He wrote that the aim of his work was not to convey statistical results, but to show the relations between them, which would otherwise have to be worked out by the reader. He would often alter geographical reality on a map in order to make a diagram clearer, and so added the term 'approximative' to the title of his works to explain his decision. He was possibly the first to use the flow-map technique (his writing indicates that he believed he had invented it) and he was certainly the first to use pie charts on a map. His work was "a combination of cartographic ingenuity and concern with the graphic portrayal of statistical data that was almost unique during the central portion of the century" (Robinson). The importance of Minard's work was quickly recognised by the French government. He was awarded the Legion d'Honneur, and throughout the 1850s all Ministers of Public Works in France had their portrait painted with a Minard chart in the background. In 1861, his work was presented to Napoleon III. Minard's maps were not widely known in his lifetime outside of the intelligentsia and upper levels of government, suggesting that he published them privately (Robinson). Minard continued to write and create maps in retirement, until the onset of the Franco-Prussian War. In 1870 Minard heard that the Prussians were marching on Paris. Determined to avoid a siege like the one he had suffered under in Antwerp 56 years before, he left for Bordeaux. The journey was too much for him, and he died six weeks later. Friendly 35.
Map of the County of Warwick

Map of the County of Warwick, from an actual Survey made in the Years 1820 & 1821, By C. & J. Greenwood Dedictaed to the Nobility, Clergy & Gentry of the County.

GREENWOOD, Christopher Greenwood's large-scale map of Warwick Large engraved map on four sheets, dissected and mounted on linen, fine original full wash colour, edged in green silk, housed in original tree calf pull-off slipcase, red morocco label to spine, rubbed. The maps by Christopher and John Greenwood set new standards for large-scale surveys. Although they were unsuccessful in their stated aim to map all the counties of England and Wales it is probably no coincidence that of the ones they missed, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Norfolk and Oxfordshire, all except Cambridgeshire were mapped by Andrew Bryant in a similar style and at the same period. From a technical point of view the Greenwoods' productions exceeded the high standards set in the previous century though without the decoration and charming title-pieces that typified large scale maps of that period. The Greenwoods started in 1817 with Lancashire and Yorkshire and by 1831 they had covered 34 counties. Their maps were masterpieces of surveying and engraving techniques, and in view of the speed at which they were completed, their accuracy is remarkable. They mark the boundaries of the counties, hundreds and parishes, churches and chapels, castles and quarries, farmhaouses and gentlemen's seats, heaths and common land, woods, parliamentary representatives and distances between towns. The price of 3 guineas each compares with the the first edition Ordnance Survey sheets of 7s 6d, though the latter did not relate to complete counties.
Map of the County of Essex

Map of the County of Essex, from an actual Survey made in the Year 1824, By C. & I. Greenwood, most respectfully Dedicated to the Nobility, Clergy and Gentry of the County by the Proprietors Greenwood, Pringle & Co.

GREENWOOD, Christopher Greenwood's large-scale map of Essex Large engraved map on four sheets, dissected and mounted on linen, in two sections, original full wash hand colour, edged in green silk, housed in original tree calf pull-off slipcase, red morocco label to spine, lettered in gilt, rubbed. The maps by Christopher and John Greenwood set new standards for large-scale surveys. Although they were unsuccessful in their stated aim to map all the counties of England and Wales it is probably no coincidence that of the ones they missed, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Norfolk and Oxfordshire, all except Cambridgeshire were mapped by Andrew Bryant in a similar style and at the same period. From a technical point of view the Greenwoods' productions exceeded the high standards set in the previous century though without the decoration and charming title-pieces that typified large scale maps of that period. The Greenwoods started in 1817 with Lancashire and Yorkshire and by 1831 they had covered 34 counties. Their maps were masterpieces of surveying and engraving techniques, and in view of the speed at which they were completed, their accuracy is remarkable. They mark the boundaries of the counties, hundreds and parishes, churches and chapels, castles and quarries, farmhaouses and gentlemen's seats, heaths and common land, woods, parliamentary representatives and distances between towns. The price of 3 guineas each compares with the the first edition Ordnance Survey sheets of 7s 6d, though the latter did not relate to complete counties.
Nottingham] Nottinghamshire Survey'd in 1774 by John Chapman.

Nottingham] Nottinghamshire Survey’d in 1774 by John Chapman.

CHAPMAN, John The first accurate large-scale survey of Nottinghamshire Engraved map on four sheets joined, dissected and mounted on linen, fine original hand-colour, some minor off-setting, folding into original red marbled paper slipcase, with publisher's label, rubbed. The county was first surveyed by Thomas Jefferys in 1767 but considered too inaccurate to publish and it was left to John Chapman to produce an acceptable survey which was completed in 1774, three years before his celebrated 25-sheet map of Essex with Peter André. He also engraved William Yates' 1 inch survey of Warwickshire. The Nottinghamshire map is less detailed than the Essex survey even allowing for its smaller scale, but it is a competent piece of work, beautifully engraved, with two attractive title cartouches, nicely balanced in two diaginally opposite corners. The detail includes market towns and parishes, castles, churches and chapels, hills and woods, parks and commons, rivers, canals and water-mills, coal-pits, the boundaries of the county, and of the hundreds, and turnpikes, open, enclosed and bridle roads, the former with milestones and distances both locally and from London. The dedication to the "Rector of Kirkby, John Kaye, Chaplain of the King and a Fellow of the royal and Antiquarian Society", a neat move that would help lend credibility to the publication. The first edition was published in 1776, the second and the two subsequent editions being published by Faden, who had purchased the plates at auction for 45 guineas in 1784, but the dark impression and strong plate line of the present second edition is a clear indicator of the very small number published. Roger 350.
Tectonic System Map of China Legend for the Tectonic System Map of the People's Republic of China.

Tectonic System Map of China Legend for the Tectonic System Map of the People’s Republic of China.

CHINESE ACADEMY OF GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES Plate Tectonics in China Chromolithograph map, together with a booklet in English and Chinese. A map illustrating plate tectonics, stratigraphy, and magmatic rocks, published in 1975. This monumental map of China provides a wealth of geological information, including the relatively new scientific discipline of plate tectonics: the theory that Earth's outer shell is divided into several plates that glide over the mantle, the rocky inner layer above the core. The plates act like a hard and rigid shell compared to Earth's mantle. There is an accompanying legend of the map including three parts: "I. Tectonic Systems"; "II. Stratigraphy"; and "III. Magmatic Rocks". The first part specifies ten different tectonic systems, including: Gigantic Latitudinal; Meridional; Neocathaysian; Cathaysian; Cathaysoid; -type; -type; Vortical; Hosi; and Structural zones of uncertain tectonic system. The second part lists four main layerings of rocks, each of which is specified into more divisions, and the four layerings are: Cenozoic; Mesozoic; Palaeozoic; Pre-Palaeozoic. The third part lists eleven types of magmatic rocks, which are formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. The national boundary on this map is drawn according to the "Map of the People's Republic of China" published in 1971 by the Cartographic Publishing House. Localities indicated on the map by numerals are: "1. Tiaoyütao", and "2. Chiweiyü". The current example is edited chiefly by the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences and published by the Cartographic Publishing House. Scale: 1:4000000
The History of the Revolution of South Carolina

The History of the Revolution of South Carolina, from a British Province to an Independent State.

RAMSAY, David First edition of an important history of the American Revolution and the first book to receive copyright in the United States 2 volumes, 8vo (200 by 130mm). iii-xx, 453, [1]; v-xx, 574pp. 5 engraved folding maps, contemporary tree calf, expertly rebacked to style, at spine gilt divided into six compartments, red morocco lettering pieces. Although Ramsay applied for copyright to this work in 1785 (and his History of the American Revolution in 1789), it was not granted until 1790. Nevertheless, the two hold the joint distinction of being the first books to receive copyright in America. Ramsay, born in Pennsylvania and educated at Princeton, settled as a physician in Charleston. He served in the Continental Congress and as a military surgeon during the war, and was later President of the South Carolina Senate. His history is an accurate portrayal of the events in the southern theatre. Responding to a portion of the printing sheets of this work sent to him by Ramsay, Thomas Jefferson wrote to the author on 31 August 1785: "I am much pleased to see that a commencement of those special histories of the late revolution which must be written first before a good general one can be expected. I shall be more pleased to see the remaining parts as well executed as this which sets the example" (Jefferson to Ramsay, 31 August 1785). The maps, among the earliest American cartographic depictions, include: A Sketch of Charleston Harbour; Plan of the Siege of Charleston; A Sketch of the Situations & Stations of the British Vessels, under the command of Sir Peter Parker on the attack upon Fort Moultrie; Plan of the Siege of Savannah; Plan of the Investment of York[town] & Gloucester. Beyond its value as a cartographically-illustrated work of history, it has been argued by Lester Cohen and others that the few 18th-century American histories of the Revolution, most notably those authored by Ramsay, were part of a larger nation-building movement. Thus, this history of the revolution in the southern theatre is distinctly American: in its writing, illustrations, printing, binding and socio-political impact upon the young Republic's cultural identity. Evans 19211; Felcone 223; Howes R36; Sabin 67690; Streeter 2:1135
Map of the Countries round the North Pole.

Map of the Countries round the North Pole.

ARROWSMITH, John] STANFORD, Edward Stanford's map of the Arctic Lithograph and coloured, dissected and mounted on linen, folding into original blue cloth slipcase, publisher's label pasted on, yellow advertisement for "Standford's Series of New Library Maps" at endpaper of cover and map when folded. The present map of the Arctic regions was first issued in 1818 by Aaron Arrowsmith, most likely in response to William Parry's discoveries in the region. Aaron Arrowsmith's son John would continue to update and reissue the map up until 1859 - no later editions are recorded, most probably due to the fact that in 1861 Arrowsmith went into semi-retirement. Following Arrowsmith's death, in 1874, Edward Stanford acquired the plate and continued to issue the map until the 1930s. The present example dates from 1875, and represents the earliest issue of the map under Stanford's name. The map depicts all the voyages of discovery in the Arctic, from John Cabot's (1497), and Hudson (1607), to the Austro-Hungarian voyage of Weyprecht and Payer (1872-1874). All the voyages are marked with a name and date in red, although the only track highlighted is that of John Franklin. Other additions made by Stanford include the marking of the full extent of the polar ice sheet, and pack ice, together with a dotted line denoting the "Southern limit of Drift Ice or Icebergs". Edward Stanford (1827-1904) was a well known British mapmaker, publisher and Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. As a result of his involvement in the Society as well as the India Office he gained a reputation as a publisher of explorers. After starting his own business Stanford became known for his "library maps", particularly those of Africa and Asia. Aside of launching his own maps, he enlargened his stock by buying plates of other publishers. In 1874 he did, for example, acquire the plates and stock of John Arrowsmith, heir of the Arrowsmith family firm. After his death in 1904 the business was continued by his son Edward Jr. Verner & Stubbs, The Northpart of America, p.162.
Shropshire] Map of the County of Salop

Shropshire] Map of the County of Salop, From an Actual Survey Made in the Years 1826 & 1827, By C. & J. Greenwood, Most Respectfully Dedicated to the Nobility, Clergy & Gentry of Shropshire.

GREENWOOD, Christopher Shropshire - Greenwood's large-scale map of Salop Large engraved map, dissected and mounted on linen, fine original full wash colour, edged in green silk, housed within calf pull-off slipcase, red morocco label to spine. The maps by Christopher and John Greenwood set new standards for large-scale surveys. Although they were unsuccessful in their stated aim to map all the counties of England and Wales it is probably no coincidence that of the ones they missed, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Norfolk and Oxfordshire, all except Cambridgeshire were mapped by Andrew Bryant in a similar style and at the same period. From a technical point of view the Greenwoods' productions exceeded the high standards set in the previous century though without the decoration and charming title-pieces that typified large scale maps of that period. The Greenwoods started in 1817 with Lancashire and Yorkshire and by 1831 they had covered 34 counties. Their maps were masterpieces of surveying and engraving techniques, and in view of the speed at which they were completed, their accuracy is remarkable. They mark the boundaries of the counties, hundreds and parishes, churches and chapels, castles and quarries, farmhouses and gentlemen's seats, heaths and common land, woods, parliamentary representatives and distances between towns. The price of 3 guineas each compares with the first edition Ordnance Survey sheets of 7s 6d, though the latter did not relate to complete counties.
A General Chart of the Hoogly River and the Approaches to it from False Point to Calcutta Compiles from the Surveys of Captn. Lloyd and his Assistants. By John Walker

A General Chart of the Hoogly River and the Approaches to it from False Point to Calcutta Compiles from the Surveys of Captn. Lloyd and his Assistants. By John Walker, Geographer to the Honble. E. I. Company.

LLOYD, Captain Kolkata and the Hoogly River Engraved chart on two map sheets with one inset view, part of the right margin restored in facsimile, some discolouration to the margins and a few minor tears. This rare map of the Hooghly River shows the river weaving through West Bengal from Kolkata, shown as an inset map, down to False Point harbour in the Bay of Bengal. The large delta is displayed prominently, complete with soundings, sailing instructions and notes on the quality of the river-bed beneath. As a navigable distributary of the Ganges, the Hooghly was of great importance in trade and communications, and after the Seven Years' War (1756-63), the English East India Company emerged as the dominant power on the river. The British soon established themselves at Calcutta, furnishing the settlement with distinctive European features, such as the fort shown on the inset map and labelled "Fort William". Local towns situated on the river were "looked upon as healthy suburban retreats by the Europeans in Calcutta" (Klein), explaining the great level of detail in which these settlements along the Hooghly are shown on this chart. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, however, these "healthy suburban retreats" were struck by malaria epidemic which may have reduced their populations by as much as half. Upon investigating this phenomenon, a British civil surgeon concluded that the East India Company's efforts at agrarian improvement may have prompted the influx of mosquitoes. While farming around the river had previously been small-scale but reliable, the British had attempted to make changes that would avoid the inevitable damage suffered during the monsoon floods. Further changes were also made to local industry around this time, with the East India Railway line along the Hooghly opened in 1854. This map was made by John Walker from the surveys completed by Captain Lloyd. Walker was a London-based mapseller, engraver, lithographer, hydrographer, geographer, draughtsman and publisher, who worked with both nautical charts and geographical maps. He followed in his father's footsteps as an official hydrographer of the British East India Company, and was consequently tasked with the production of a wide range of navigation materials, including Belcher's important map of Hong Kong and Carless' exploratory map of Karachi. Acharya, 'Indian railways: where the commuter is king', ( Japan Railways and Transport Review, 2000) ; Ivermee, 'The Hooghly River', ( Education About ASIA , 2017); Klein, 'Malaria and Mortality in Bengal, 1840-1921', (The Indian Economic & Social History Review, 1972); Kosambi, Brush, 'Three Colonial Port Cities in India', ( Geographical Review , 1988).
Plan de la Ville et du Port Mahon et du Fort St. Philippe Tel qu'il étoit fortifié en 1706 par les Espagnols.

Plan de la Ville et du Port Mahon et du Fort St. Philippe Tel qu’il étoit fortifié en 1706 par les Espagnols.

BEAURAIN, [Jean de] Map of Mahon and Fort St Philip Engraved map, dissected and laid on linen. This map showing a plan of the city of Mahón on Menorca, near the Catalonian coast, records the area at a key point in its history. The island officially became a British possession in 1713, during the War of Spanish Succession, and subsequently the capital was transferred to Mahón, where the British Governor resided. Around the time this map was produced, the city became involved in the Seven Years' War, with the Siege of Fort St Philip taking place in 1756. Two insets in the lower right corner show this fort, labelled with its French and Spanish names and viewed from above and in profile. The Italian architect Gianbattista Calvi had constructed the fortress under the orders of King Felipe II in 1554, and it had been fortified by the Spanish in 1706. 50 years later, it was captured by the French army, but only remained under French control until the end of the year, when it was transferred back to the British. In 1782, the Spanish retook the fort and the island, and the former was demolished. Port Mahón played an important role throughout these various conflicts, and as one of the world's finest natural harbours, it was carefully guarded as a strategic stronghold. The map encompasses the surrounding rural regions to the North, and the detailed coastline around the port. The plans of the fortress and city suggest that this map would have been put to use as a military tool; made by the royal geographer of France, it is possible that the Louis XV commission the map in the immediate aftermath of his victory. In the upper left corner, a key identifies the various buildings, roads and islands featured on the image. The key is written in both French and Spanish, yet further evidence of how the island was constantly changing hands throughout the eighteenth century. Black, 'Minorca', (The Encyclopædia Britannica Volume 15. 8th edition., 1858); Coad, 'Support for the Fleet: architecture and engineering of the Royal Navy's bases, 1700-1914', (Swindon: English Heritage, 2013).
Chart of the East Coast of Madagascar including the Mauritius

Chart of the East Coast of Madagascar including the Mauritius, Seychelle Islands &c. Between the Latitudes of 2°30 & 26°30’S. And the Longitudes of 47° & 67°E. From the operations of H.M.Ships Leven and Barracouta, By order of the Right Honble. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty; under the directions of Captn. W.F.W. Owen. From 1822 to 1826. Assisted by Captnb. A.T.E. Vidal, Lieuts. Wm. Mudge, T. Boteler, R. Owen, E. Owen Johnes, Messrs, Rogier, Arlett, Durnford, Badgley, Robinson,. Duncan, Bowen and Mercer. Midshipmen.

OWEN, William Fitzwilliam "such parts of the coast of Madagascar as you may conceive not to have been accurately ascertained" Engraved chart on two sheets joined. This first edition of Captain Owen's chart of the east coast of Madagascar presents the results of his five-year expedition to Africa. In 1821, William Fitzwilliam Owen was commissioned to undertake this voyage as captain of the Royal Navy ships Leven and Barracouta, and to survey the east coast from the Cape of Good Hope to Cape Guardafui. Included in this was the task of "examining and observing the true position of the numerous islands and shoals between Madagascar and the main and north and north-eastward of Madagascar, and also such parts of the coast of Madagascar as you may conceive not to have been accurately ascertained". Over the following five years, Owen and his crews mapped 30,000 miles of coastline, covering vast stretches of the African mainland as well as the surrounding islands. During the expedition, the captain kept a diary, which he later published as a two-volume account of his journeys in 1833. This work records the day-to-day activities aboard a hydrographic surveying vessel and contains anecdotes about his experiences with the Madagascan natives. One involves several of his men deserting the Leven after being led astray by an indigenous tribesman. Owen is resolved, however, to the fact that "it is always better to part with those who are discontented, when it can be done safely". Two of his midshipmen were later to be murdered by another native, and Owen also notes the devastating effect of dysentery on both his ships. Some of the more cheerful chapters recall a Christmas spent at the French settlement of St. Mary's, shown here in the middle of the East Coast, and records that three children were born on the Leven. Owen even took custody over one of these infants after both its father and mother died, perhaps because he himself had been orphaned at a young age. After the 1807 Abolition of the Slave Trade Act, Britain had dedicated itself to enforcing the elimination of slavery across its empire. During the early 1820s, officers from the Royal Navy were charged with making treaties to ensure this happened, and Owen was engaged in negotiations with King Radama of Madagascar for this purpose. In 1825, the Leven arrested and seized the French slave ship Soleil at St. Augustin's Bay, and found 152 slaves on board, six of whom had died. Although a surviving certificate sent from the Collector of Customs at the Mauritius Vice Admiralty to Captain Owen confirms that he would be entitled to ten pounds per slave, there is no evidence that Owen ever claimed this bounty. Upon publication, Owen's action-packed narrative proved popular among Britons eager to hear about his adventures, and it subsequently ran to several editions. Likewise, his charts were also a success, and continued to be used by both the British navy and by private purchasers for the following century, with later versions updated with more detailed inset maps. We are unaware of any examples of the first edition appearing on the market in the last 50 years. O'Connor, 'Slaving Vessel Soleil (Tigre): 1825 Voyage from Port of Mahe, Seychelles Islands to St. Augustin's Bay, Madagascar', (The Forum: Journal of History, 2019); Owen, 'Tables of latitudes and longitudes by chronometer of places in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans: principally on the west and east coast of Africa, the coasts of Arabia, Madagascar etc. resulting from the observations of HMS Leven and Barraconta in the years 1820 to 1826', (Duckworth, 1827); Owen, 'Narrative of voyages to explore the shores of Africa, Arabia, and Madagascar', (R. Bentley, 1833); Ritchie, 'The Admiralty Chart. British Naval Hydrography in the Nineteenth Century', (The Pentland Press, 1995)
Carte figurative et approximative des quantités de coton en laine importées en Europe en 1858 et de leur circulation depuis leur origine jusqu'à leur arrivée.

Carte figurative et approximative des quantités de coton en laine importées en Europe en 1858 et de leur circulation depuis leur origine jusqu’à leur arrivée.

MINARD, Charles Joseph European cotton and wool imports before the beginning of the American Civil War Lithographed map, signed "Ch. J. Minard" in ink to title and inscribed in pencil to "Mr. Dufresne a la part d.m. Minard ", mounted on linen. The map was produced in April 1861, after the war had begun and the Union had imposed a blockade on Confederate ports, Minard clearly chose to look back on this date as representative of European cotton and wool imports before the beginning of the American Civil War. The vast majority of cotton comes from America, with much smaller amounts coming from India (although Indian exports only go into Britain), the Middle East and Brazil. Only one recorded example - that held at ENPC: Fol 10975. The map is inscribed to Minard's colleague Jules Auguste Dufresne (1809-1885), engineer, inspector general of the bridges and roads and senator of "La Manche" from 1879 to 1885. Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870) was "a true pioneer in thematic cartography and in statistical graphics" (Friendly). After completing his studies at the École des Ponts et Chaussées, (the School of Bridges and Roads) he began work as a civil engineer. The beginning of his career coincided with the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars, and he headed a project to repair the wet dock at Flessingue after it was destroyed by the British. He was then posted to Antwerp to oversee a project there and was caught in the siege of Antwerp in 1814, an experience that affected him greatly. He was named Superintendent of his alma mater in 1830. Six years later, he became Inspector of the Corps of Bridges. In 1851, he took mandatory retirement, although still working for the school in an advisory capacity, and undertook private research. This is when his cartographical career began in earnest. Minard's genius lay in his realisation that maps could provide visually clear renditions of complicated statistics. He wrote that the aim of his work was not to convey statistical results, but to show the relations between them, which would otherwise have to be worked out by the reader. He would often alter geographical reality on a map in order to make a diagram clearer, and so added the term 'approximative' to the title of his works to explain his decision. He was possibly the first to use the flow-map technique (his writing indicates that he believed he had invented it) and he was certainly the first to use pie charts on a map. His work was "a combination of cartographic ingenuity and concern with the graphic portrayal of statistical data that was almost unique during the central portion of the century" (Robinson). The importance of Minard's work was quickly recognised by the French government. He was awarded the Legion d'Honneur, and throughout the 1850s all Ministers of Public Works in France had their portrait painted with a Minard chart in the background. In 1861, his work was presented to Napoleon III. Minard's maps were not widely known in his lifetime outside of the intelligentsia and upper levels of government, suggesting that he published them privately (Robinson). Minard continued to write and create maps in retirement, until the onset of the Franco-Prussian War. In 1870 Minard heard that the Prussians were marching on Paris. Determined to avoid a siege like the one he had suffered under in Antwerp 56 years before, he left for Bordeaux. The journey was too much for him, and he died six weeks later. Friendly 31.
Carte de France dite Carte de Cassini.

Carte de France dite Carte de Cassini.

CASSINI de THURY, Cesar François "You have cost me more territory than all my enemies!" 8vo (195 by 112mm). 184 mapsheets (each approximately 565 by 885mm), dissected and mounted on linen, 50mm tear to 3 maps, small (10 by 5mm) hole in sheet 99, 14 maps with some glue residue, 7 with very slight discolouration, one of the two key maps torn at folds, edged in blue silk, housed within 183 contemporary mottled sheepskin cases, gilt. Collation: 182 mapsheets which, if joined, would comprise an approximately 11 metre square map of France together with two key maps; 'Carte générale de la France par Départemens Servant à l'Assemblage des 182 feuilles.' and 'la Nouvelle carte qui comprend les principaux Triangles qui servent de Fondement à la Description géométrique de La France' (1744). 3 of the smaller maps have been trimmed and mounted to the neighbouring sheets. Namely: sheet 125 (Cherbourg) is attached to sheet 93 (La Houghue), sheet 160 (Noirmoutiers) is attached to sheet 131 (Nantes), and sheet 182 (Camarat) is on sheet 155 (Toulon). A complete set of Cassini's landmark map of France. The first scientific survey of France, the first road "atlas" of France, and the map that, in 1682, some 133 years before its completion, caused Louis XIV to lament that it "cost me more territory than all my enemies!". The great project began in the early 1660s, and would consume four generations of the Cassini family - Jean-Dominique Cassini, or Cassini I (1625-1712); Jacques Cassini, or Cassini II (1677-1756); César-François Cassini, or Cassini III (1714-1784); and Jean- Dominique Cassini or Cassini IV (1748-1845) - for the next 150 years. The map was the brainchild of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who was minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 in Louis XIV's reign. He envisaged a detailed map of the whole of the royal estate to improve its management and potential revenue. He turned to the newly formed Académie de Sciences for help, and principally to the services of Jean-Dominique Cassini and the surveyor and astronomer Abbé Jean Picard. The survey was carried out using astronomical observations (courtesy of Cassini) to ascertain the precise longitude and hence the accurate measurement of a baseline. Once an accurate baseline had been measured, the surveyors began the trigonometrical survey. These intricate interlocking triangles would become the survey's skeleton, which in turn would be fleshed out by the use of more traditional techniques. Picard outlined his method in his work 'Mesure de la terre' of 1671. The project was "the first general map of an entire nation based on geodetic and topographical measurements . [and] transformed the practice of mapmaking over the next 150 years into a verifiable science" (Brotton). The first map in the survey, the 'Carte particulière des environs de Paris', was completed by Picard in the late 1660s, and published in 1678 on a scale of 1:86,400 (the standard scale for the whole survey). Picard then turned his attention to surveying the French coast. One of the most startling results of the coastal survey, published in 1684, was that it reduced the overall size of France from 150,000 square kilometres to 120,000 square kilometres. It was this dramatic change that caused the outburst from Louis XIV quoted at the head of this description. Following the publication of the coastal survey, everything was in place for the mapping of the nation to begin. However, Louis' numerous military campaigns had begun to starve the project of funds and, with the death of Cassini in 1712, the project lost its figurehead. Louis himself died three years later. The new king, his great-grandson Louis XV, was only five when he took the throne and the project was put on hold. It would not be until 1733 that Philibert Orrey, Louis XV's controller general, would order Jacques Cassini (Cassini II), to resume the triangulation of the entire nation. Jacques was joined in his endeavour by his son Cassini de Thury (Cassini III), and, by 1744, the triangulation of the country was complete. With the framework complete, in 1746 Louis charged Cassini III with fleshing out the survey's bare bones. Cassini calculated that the survey would take 18 years to complete, and consist of 180 maps at a cost of 4,000 livres each. Unfortunately, his estimates were woefully optimistic. By 1754, only two maps had been published, and Cassini received the news that Louis was to end the financing of the survey. This forced him to turn to the private sector, and with Louis' backing he set up the Société de la Carte de France, which consisted of 50 shareholders, each of whom was asked to contribute 1,600 livres annually. This, combined with a public subscription in 1758, and a royal proclamation of 1764, demanding that unsurveyed regions contribute to the survey's costs, kept the project on a secure financial footing. Although Cassini III had secured the map's future, he would not see its completion. In 1784, at the age of 70, he died of smallpox. The completion of the great project was left to his son Jean-Dominique (Cassini IV). By 1790 all of France had been surveyed, and only 15 maps were left to be published. However, the shareholders would not see any profit from the enterprise. The National Convention nationalized the survey in September 1793, with the regional maps taken out of circulation and the plates confiscated by the Dépôt de la Guerre. This left the project in limbo, and it was not until the intervention of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1804, that the project would finally be resumed. In 1815, the final sheets of Brittany were completed, thus bringing an end to one of the greatest surveys in history. The map would not be superseded until the publication of the military staff map of 1866. Jerry Brotton, A History of the World in Twelve Maps (London: Penguin, 2012), pp. 294-336; Christine Marie Petto, When France was King of Cartography (Plymouth, 2007); Mary Sponberg Pedley, The Commerce of Cartography: Making and Marketing Maps in Eighteenth Century Fran
Map of Surrey. To the Kings most excellent Majesty

Map of Surrey. To the Kings most excellent Majesty, This Map of the County of Surrey, From a Survey made in the years 1789 and 1790 – Is with his Majesty’s gracious permission – Most humbly Dedicated By his dutiful Subjects and Servants – Joseph Lindley and William Crosley.

LINDLEY, Joseph and CROSLEY, William Lindley's Map of Surrey Engraved map, contemporary hand colour, dissected and mounted on linen, housed within marbled paper slipcase, manuscript label pasted on top. A large and detailed map of Surrey, extending north of the river Thames to show London's streets, the outlines of Hampton Court Palace and Bushy Park (also Windsor Great Park in Berkshire). This first-edition map is titled within a highly decorative cartouche of architectural ruin and rural wildlife. This, the sixth survey of Surrey, is notable for being the first to apply data derived from measurements taken in what can be considered the 'First Ordnance Survey' in 1789-90 (under the supervision of Major-General William Roy). Both Lindley and Crosley documented their experience of the creation of the survey in a work 'Memoir of a Map of the County of Surrey' (available still in print) which gives a detailed insight into their process. Lindley and Crosley's map of Surrey is exemplary of the transitional period of English cartography which saw a 'new era' in county map making. The trigonometrical framework was founded on official data however much of the topographical content was compiled in traditional methods. Upon Lindley's return from his work on the triangulation between London and Paris, he began work on this survey of Surrey with the use of Roy's then unpublished data. This allows the map a highly accurate scale of distance.
Geological Map of Nottinghamshire

Geological Map of Nottinghamshire, by W. Smith, Mineral Surveyor.

SMITH, William Smith's geological map of Nottinghamshire Engraved map, fine original hand-colour, dissected and mounted on linen, folding into original blue cloth covers with publisher's label. This geological map of Nottinghamshire was made by William Smith as part of his series of county maps, each separately issued, which were the first detailed geological maps of specific areas. These individual maps are extremely rare on the market. In 1815, Smith had produced the first geological map of England and Wales, which contained "an amazing amount of correct detail" (DSB) and was the basis for all the geological maps that followed. In 1819 he began the publication of a geological atlas of England and Wales. Published in parts over five years, it remained unfinished, and contains 21 maps of various English counties. The map of Nottinghamshire appeared in the fifth part (1822), and was also issued separately, as here. His county maps are based on those of John Cary, with geological data added from Smith's own surveys. They are headed 'By W. Smith, Mineral Surveyor.' and the title above appears in the upper margin; another title is given in a circular tablet in the lower left corner: "A New Map of Nottinghamshire, divided into hundreds, exhibiting Its Roads, Rivers, Parks &c. By John Cary, Engraver.". Smith's survey of Nottingham reveals the county's vast stores of clay, along with coal and limestone towards the West. He adds that some of these minerals "produce bad water in the Wells" and identifies where the infrastructure to process the natural resources are based. Along the lower border of the map, a note explains that the numbers used to describe each Stratum "refer to the Geological Table of British Organised Fossils, which may be had of the Publisher Price 1 s[hilling]". Coincidentally, this work was also one of Smith's. The compass is found in the upper left corner and the scale in the lower, while the decorative border also contains the lines of longitude and latitude. Although originally published by Cary, this map was issued by George Cruchley, who purchased the plates from Cary's sons after his death in 1836. Cruchley promoted his maps as a cheaper alternative to an expensive Ordnance or Cary map, his slogan being "Half the Scale, Half the Price". The inside label on the covering of this map suggests that it would make "a handsome present for the younger branches of families at any season". Map publishers and sellers such as Cruchley were central to the shift in cartography that occurred during the nineteenth century, by which maps were no longer the exclusive preserve of the wealthy and education, but became more widely available to the public. There are no records of another example of this map being sold on the market. A.G. Davies, 'William Smith's Geological Atlas and the Later History of the Plates', Journal for the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 2 (1952), pp.388-95; Joan M. Eyles, "William Smith", Dictionary of Scientific Biography (vol.12), ed. Charles Coulston Gillispie (New York: Scribner, 1970-80), pp.486-492; Eyles, 'William Smith (1769–1839): a Bibliography" in Journal for the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 5 (1969) pp.87–109, no. 33; T. Sheppard, 'William Smith: His Maps and his Memoirs', Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 19 (1920), pp. 75-253, p.155; A.W. Skempton et al., eds., A Biographical Dictionary of Civil Engineers (vol.1), (London: Thomas Telford for the Institution of Civil Engineers, 2002), p.639.
Geological Map of Essex

Geological Map of Essex, by W. Smith, Mineral Surveyor.

SMITH, William The first geological map of Essex Engraved map, fine original hand-colour, dissected and mounted on linen, Cary's imprint pasted over with Cruchley's, folding into original blue cloth covers with publisher's label. This geological map of Essex was made by William Smith as part of his series of county maps, each separately issued, which were the first detailed geological maps of specific areas. These individual maps are extremely rare on the market. In 1815, Smith had produced the first geological map of England and Wales, which contained "an amazing amount of correct detail" (DSB) and was the basis for all the geological maps that followed. In 1819 he began the publication of a geological atlas of England and Wales. Published in parts over five years, it remained unfinished, and contains 21 maps of various English counties. The map of Essex appeared in the third part (1820), and was also issued separately, as here. His county maps are based on those of John Cary, with geological data added from Smith's own surveys. They are headed 'By W. Smith, Mineral Surveyor.' and the title above appears in the upper margin; another title is given in a circular tablet in the lower left corner: "A New Map of Essex, divided into hundreds, exhibiting Its Roads, Rivers, Parks &c. By John Cary, Engraver." Smith's survey of Essex reveals the county's vast stores of clay, interspersed with chalk deposits. Some additional details are noted beside individual keys, for example, he describes the sedimentary layers along the border with Suffolk, identifies the Southern region as "the highest stratum in the County" and explains that the chalk in Thurrock had been "worked to a great extent". Along the lower border of the map, a note explains that the numbers used to describe each Stratum "refer to the Geological Table of British Organised Fossils, which may be had of the Publisher Price 1 s[hilling]". Coincidentally, this work was also one of Smith's. His self-promotion continues with another note on the opposite side, advertising "Geological Sections of the Strata through Essex on the Road from London to Cambridge, by W. Smith". The compass is found in the upper right corner and the scale in the lower, while the decorative border also contains the lines of longitude and latitude. Although originally published by Cary, this map was issued by George Cruchley, who purchased the plates from Cary's sons after his death in 1836. Cruchley promoted his maps as a cheaper alternative to an expensive Ordnance or Cary map, his slogan being "Half the Scale, Half the Price". The inside label on the covering of this map suggests that it would make "a handsome present for the younger branches of families at any season". Map publishers and sellers such as Cruchley were central to the shift in cartography that occurred during the nineteenth century, by which maps were no longer the exclusive preserve of the wealthy and education, but became more widely available to the public. There are no records of another example of this map being sold on the market. A.G. Davies, 'William Smith's Geological Atlas and the Later History of the Plates', Journal for the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 2 (1952), pp.388-95; Joan M. Eyles, "William Smith", Dictionary of Scientific Biography (vol.12), ed. Charles Coulston Gillispie (New York: Scribner, 1970-80), pp.486-492; Eyles, 'William Smith (1769–1839): a Bibliography" in Journal for the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 5 (1969) pp.87–109, no. 33; T. Sheppard, 'William Smith: His Maps and his Memoirs', Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 19 (1920), pp. 75-253, p.155; A.W. Skempton et al., eds., A Biographical Dictionary of Civil Engineers (vol.1), (London: Thomas Telford for the Institution of Civil Engineers, 2002), p.639.
A newe map of England. To the most exellent Majesties of William & Mary of England

A newe map of England. To the most exellent Majesties of William & Mary of England, Scotland, France & Ireland King & Queen, this mapp is most humbly dedicated by your most humble servant, C: Browne

BROWNE, C[hristopher] An early economic map of England Engraved map on two mapsheets, fine original hand colour in outline, right and left borders with tables of text, a few small ink stains, some minor nicks to upper margin. This rare map of England is densely packed with details concerning the distance between trading centres. Produced by Christopher Browne in 1693, it is a copy of the first economic map of England made thirteen years earlier, as recorded by a manuscript note to the verso identifying it as 'a reduced version of John Adams' Map of England, 1680'. It seems to have been designed to appear alongside 69 other maps in Browne's 'New Geographical Atlas', but was also sold separately. It retains all the key features of Adams' map. An elaborate cartouche on the lower right margin contains a note explaining that all the cities and market towns of England and Wales are shown here, connected to their neighbours by parallel lines representing the roads and accompanied by circled numbers showing the distance in miles. This creates a network that spans across all the counties, distinguished by colour outline, and can be used to calculate how long journeys between significant locations would take. This was indeed the intention with which Adams created the original map. Having visited a friend in Wales who owned a fishery on the coast, Adams "endeavored to compute what sale he might probably make in the neighbouring markets, by Projecting a Specimen, wherein.I set down all the Markets within an hundred miles and entered the distance between them in figures". Browne re-engraved copper-plates with Adams' design, rather than printing from the original, using Adams' 1890 edition as the basis for his map. This is shown by the fact that the image displays certain geographical features, mainly rivers, which did not appear on the first edition. Browne also appropriates Adams' index of all the cities and market towns, recorded in tables along both the right and left borders. These were taken from 'A book of the Names of all the Parishes, Market-Towns, Villages, Hamelets, Smallest Places, in England and Wales. Alphabetically set down, as they be in every Shire", a volume published by Thomas Jenner in 1657. These correspond to the locations shown on the map by number, making this a practical aid to navigating the country, for merchants and all other travellers. Shirley records three states, of which this is the first. Browne's map is actually more rare than Adams', with only two institutional examples, held at the University Library in Cambridge and the National Library of Scotland. Furthermore, we have been able to trace only one other example appearing on the market in the past 50 years. Heawood, 'John Adams and His Map of England', ( The Geographical Journal , 1932); Shirley, 'Printed Maps of the British Isles', (Map Collector Publications, 1988); Worms, Baynton-Williams, 'British Map Engravers', (London Rare Book Society, 2011).
Map of the County of Northumberland From Actual Survey Made in the Years 1828 & 1828. By C. & J. Greenwood. Most respectfully dedicated to the Nobility

Map of the County of Northumberland From Actual Survey Made in the Years 1828 & 1828. By C. & J. Greenwood. Most respectfully dedicated to the Nobility, Clergy, and Gentry of the County.

GREENWOOD, Christopher Northumberland - Greenwood's large-scale map of Northumberland Large engraved map, fine original full-wash hand-colour, dissected and mounted on linen, in three sections, edged in green silk, view of Alnwick Castle lower right, housed within, tree calf pull-off slipcase, red morocco label to spine, lettered in gilt, rubbed and scuffed. The maps by Christopher and John Greenwood set new standards for large-scale surveys. Although they were unsuccessful in their stated aim to map all the counties of England and Wales it is probably no coincidence that of the ones they missed, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Norfolk and Oxfordshire, all except Cambridgeshire were mapped by Andrew Bryant in a similar style and at the same period. From a technical point of view the Greenwoods' productions exceeded the high standards set in the previous century though without the decoration and charming title-pieces that typified large scale maps of that period. The Greenwoods started in 1817 with Lancashire and Yorkshire and by 1831 they had covered 34 counties. Their maps were masterpieces of surveying and engraving techniques, and in view of the speed at which they were completed, their accuracy is remarkable. They mark the boundaries of the counties, hundreds and parishes, churches and chapels, castles and quarries, farmhaouses and gentlemen's seats, heaths and common land, woods, parliamentary representatives and distances between towns. The price of 3 guineas each compares with the the first edition Ordnance Survey sheets of 7s 6d, though the latter did not relate to complete counties.
The Red Sea surveyed by Captn. T. Elwon

The Red Sea surveyed by Captn. T. Elwon, Comr. R. Moresby and Lieuts. H.N. Pinching and T.G. Carless, Indian Navy. Additional Soundings By Captain W.J.S. Pullen. H.M.S. Cyclops 1858.

MORESBY, Commander R[obert]; and CARLESS, Lieutenant T. G. ELWON, T. Captain; and PINCHING, Lieutenant H. N. "The beautiful maps of the Red Sea . will ever remain permanent monuments of Indian Naval Science" Engraved chart, inset view of Port Suakin, lighthouses marked in yellow, few nicks and tears to margin, skilfully repaired, not affecting image. This rare chart of the Red Sea is the result of the perilous surveying voyages undertaken by the sailors of the Indian Navy. In order to chart the dangerous waters of the Red Sea, a two-ship hydrographic expedition was launched under Captain Thomas Elwon and Commander Robert Moresby in 1829. Over the course of the following three years, the teams aboard the Palinurus and Benares surveyed the coastline and waters to ensure that the route from Europe to the East Indies was viable for new steam vessels. The diaries kept by crew members offer direct insight into their experiences in the Red Sea. As well as geographical and navigatory details, such as anchorages, fuel supplies and obstacles, these journals tell of the diseases that plagued both ships. One of the principal assistants in the task, Lieutenant Pinching, actually died in the sweltering African climate and was buried on the land off of the Gulf of Aden, shown in the lower right corner of the chart. More happily, Moresby's own diary celebrates the abundance of the mainland, where "provisions were plentiful and good—oranges, pears, apples, plums in season. And there were plenty of fine cabbages!". Also recorded are the techniques used in the surveying itself, which included using local boats and pilots to chart dangerous coastal areas, and on one occasion, Moresby is said to have sprung up the rigging to confirm that a distant mass was actually a reef. The charts produced from this surveying expedition proved of great importance throughout the rest of the nineteenth century, to such an extent that in his work, 'First Footsteps in East Africa', the explorer Richard Burton, states that they "will ever remain permanent monuments of Indian Naval Science, and the daring of its officers and men". The present chart shows depth with isolines and soundings, relief with hachures and spot heights, and identifies key features such as lighthouses and harbours. Port Suakin is shown in particular detail on an inset map because of its importance as a British colonial base; it is from Suakin that Kitchener led a contingent of the Egyptian Army in the 1880s. Although the chart is, in general, highly accurate, the reef of El Akhawin in the Northern part of the Sea is surprisingly misplaced, and its position was not correctly established for several decades. The imprint in the lower right corner identifies the engraving of this chart as the work of John and Charles Walker. Walker Cartographers had been responsible for naval charts since the British Hydrographic Office was established in the late eighteenth century, and subsequently produced numerous charts of the colonies. Rare Burton, 'First footsteps in East Africa or an exploration of Harar;', (1894); Moresby, 'A Record of Life and Service in the British Navy for a Hundred Years', (Murray, London 1909); Searight, 'The Charting of the Red Sea', (History Today, 2003); Wellsted, 'Travels in Arabia', (Murray, London 1838).
The Sea of Marmara from surveys by Captn Manganari Russian Navy 1845

The Sea of Marmara from surveys by Captn Manganari Russian Navy 1845, 48 and Captain Spratt and other Officers of the R.N.

MANGANARI, Captain and SPRATT, Captain Thomas Abel Brimage The Sea of Marmara with Istanbul and the Bosphorus Engraved chart, 14 inset views, a few tears to lower margin and image skilfully repaired, some loss to imprint, reapired, old gule marks to verso. This rare chart of the Sea of Marmara was made at a critical time in the region's history. The Sea of Marmara, the Black Sea, and the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits are of central importance for the governance of Istanbul, and so the conflicts of the Ottoman Empire often rested on a detailed understanding of the waters. In the 1840s, joint Ottoman and Russian forces launched an expedition under Captain Manganari to complete the first systematical survey of the Black Sea using triangulation, which "deserves to be counted among the greatest contributions to the cartography of the sea" (King); the results of their work were published as an atlas, which "deserves to be counted among the greatest contributions to the cartography of the sea" (King), ands remained highly influential for over 30 years. During the Crimean War, however, the British navy became involved in the area, and Captain Thomas Spratt was deployed on the Spitfire to create an accurate chart, noting the positions of the allied fleet for the attack on Sevastopol. Spratt was later appointed to the Order of Bath, and subsequently to the Royal Society for his other geographical work. His chart of the Sea of Marmara shows depth in soundings and isolines, relief in hachures, and identifies important towns, cities and ports. Notes about lighthouses and beacons provide additional information that would prove useful for both sailors and the military. Similarly, the 14 inset views on the upper and lower border allow for a more detailed examination of certain significant coastal areas. The imprint in the lower right corner identifies the engraving of this chart as the work of John and Charles Walker. Walker Cartographers had been responsible for naval charts since the British Hydrographic Office was established in the late eighteenth century, and subsequently produced numerous charts of the colonies. While this map is typical of the nineteenth century naval charts produced by the British Admiralty, it is equally rare, with only two institutional examples - The National Maritime Museum, and the Connecticut State Library. NMM G236:2/9