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A Plan of the Attack by Lord Nelson of the Combined Fleet

A Plan of the Attack by Lord Nelson of the Combined Fleet, October 21st, 1805.

DODD, R[obert] Rare Broadsheet of the Battle of Trafalgar Coloured aquatint with letterpress text below, minor loss to lower right not affecting text. This rare broadside was published the month following Nelson's most famous victory. The great deciding naval battle of the Napoleonic Wars took place on 21st October 1805, off Cape Trafalgar, between 27 British ships under the command of Admiral Lord Nelson and 33 French and Spanish vessels under Admiral Villeneuve. The broadside clearly illustrates Nelson's radical battle formation of two straight lines. Although the formation would open up his vessels to enemy broadsides, it would spilt the enemies formidable line, reduce the odds, and then allow their superior gunnery and sailing skills to destroy the enemy at close range. The plan worked brilliantly, and with the French vanguard cut out of the battle by the British slicing through the fleet, Nelson's men proceeded to take the enemy fleet apart. In fact the British did not lose a ship, while 18 enemy vessels were destroyed and some 14,000 French and Spanish sailors killed or captured. Below the acquatint Dodd gives a defence of his rather schematic depiction of the French and Spanish line: 'In order that the enemy's line should be clearly distinguished, by shewing the colours of each nation distinctly, the artist has judged it best (to avoid confusion that the smallness of scale would occasion), to dispense with exhibiting their sails and rigging, which if introduced, would in this view, have prevented their different flags from being seen; but at the same time begs leave to inform, that they lay too with their maintopsails to the mast, waiting the approach of the British columns, which are bearing down to them under a press of sail, and broke through their line with royals and studding sails set; and, to use the Admiral's words, "like true British seamen engaged them at the muzzles of their guns", whose admirable letter will be read by every lover of his country with heartfelt satisfaction, and is subjoined, as the best description of this little sketch'. Below the note are printed Collingwood's letters to the Admiralty describing the battle, his general orders congratulating those who took part in it and a list of ships in each fleet. Robert Dodd (1748-1815) British Marine painter and graphic artist who lived and worked in Wapping, London. Nothing is known about his training but he was a prolific aquatint engraver who published much of his own work. He exhibited at the Society of Artists in London in 1780 and the Royal Academy between 1782 and 1809. He produced fine and detailed portrayals of famous ships such as "Nelson's 'Victory' Sailing from Spithead" and also painted naval actions of both the American Revolutionary War and the French Wars of 1793-1815. He conveyed well the drama of a battle and storm though spectacular light effects, such as the sun's rays piercing dark clouds, and by contrasting fire and black smoke against a serene blue sky. He also painted and engraved a series of views of the Royal Dockyards and of Greenwich Hospital. The print from his painting 'The Mutiny of the 'Bounty', showing the mutineers casting Captain Bligh adrift is the best known contemporary image of the event. He also illustrated an edition of William Falconer's poem 'The Shipwreck' (W. Baynes, London, 1811) with 18 aquatint ships in various weather conditions. In 1795 he painted a huge canvas of the end of Lord Howe's victory at the Battle of the Glorious First of June 1794, for the dining room of his local inn n Commerical Road, in London: this too is now in Greenwich. His works have been confused with those of his lesser known marine-painter brother, Ralf. NMM PAF4741. (image) 265 by 365mm (10.5 by 14.25 inches); (sheet) 660 by 440mm (
Lancastriae Comitatus palatin vera et absoluta descriptio Anno Dni 1577

Lancastriae Comitatus palatin vera et absoluta descriptio Anno Dni 1577

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Lancashire Double-page engraved map, fine original colour in outline, some offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. This map of Lancashire is the first county map ever to be produced of the region, created by Christopher Saxton as one in a series of 35 maps found in his seminal 'Atlas of England and Wales'. With funding from Thomas Seckford and the authority of the Queen's Privy Council, the cartographer undertook to survey and chart every county within the two countries. While the central, land-locked counties are often grouped together, those on the coast are documented individually in greater detail. This was because the looming threat of a Spanish naval attack during Elizabeth's reign meant it was essential to have accurate information about the geography and settlements of coastal areas. Ships, fish and questionable sea monsters feature on the left side of the map, indicating the ornamental, as well as the practical, purpose of the piece. Further inland, rivers, hills, towns and villages are represented by illustrations, differentiated in size and labelled in English. A boldly coloured cartouche dominates the neighbouring county of York, ornamented with winged cupids and containing the Latin name of the featured county. On the opposite side the royal coat-of-arms is found above the Seckford family crest, accompanied by its later Latin motto. The lower left corner features the map's scale, below which the names of the cartographer and engraver are written. The creation of the copper plate used to make this map is attributed to Remigius Hogenberg, who was responsible for a number of maps found in the Atlas of England and Wales. Additionally, like all the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this map bears his watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. 'Lancastriae Comitatus sheet 28' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009); Gresswell, 'The geomorphology of the south-west Lancashire coast-line' (The Geographical Journal, 1937); Kenyon, 'The origins of Lancashire' (Manchester University Press, 1991).
Oxonii buckinghamiae et berceriae Comitatum una cum suis undiq confinibus

Oxonii buckinghamiae et berceriae Comitatum una cum suis undiq confinibus, oppidis, pagis, villis, et fluminibus in eisdem vera descriptio. An Dm 1574

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire and Berkshire Double-page engraved map, fine original full-wash colour, some minor offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire and Berkshire, each boldly distinguished in its own colour, are presented here on the first ever map to show these respective counties. Commissioned by the Queen's Privy Council in 1575, Christopher Saxton surveyed the landscape, settlements and estates of England and Wales. The results were represented on 35 maps compiled into the first national atlas, his 'Atlas of England and Wales'. The densely packed features of this map are all labelled with their English names in sixteenth century form, while the surrounding counties are recorded in Latin. Major cities, such as Oxford, Uxbridge and Dunstable, are denoted by more elaborate illustrations than the single buildings used to signify minor towns, while at Windsor a small but detailed image of the royal castle can be seen. This map not only offers the typical markers of locations, bridges, hills and rivers, but also records of the number of parishes and merchant towns contained within each county, written in an elaborate cartouche in the upper right corner. Directly opposite another detailed cartouche contains the royal coat-of-arms, as it appears on all of Saxton's maps, along with the Seckford crest in the lower left corner, here featured with its early Latin motto "pestis patriae pigricies". The scale in the lower right corner attests to the expansive area covered by this map, and contains a banner identifying Saxton as the cartographer, although it fails to record the engraver. There is no evidence that Saxton engraved any of the copper plates used to print his maps, but employed a team of seven English and Flemish craftsmen to carry out the task. Additionally, like all the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this map bears his watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. Bragg, 'The Development of Printed Maps of Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire' (Archaeology in Marlow, 2008); 'Oxonii buckinghamiae et berceriae Comitatum' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009).
NORTHUMBRIAE COMITATUS (Scotiae continguae) Nova Veraq. descriptio

NORTHUMBRIAE COMITATUS (Scotiae continguae) Nova Veraq. descriptio

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Northumberland Double-page engraved map, fine original colour in outline, some minor offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. In 1575, Christopher Saxton was authorised by the Queen's Privy Council to survey and map the counties of England and Wales, a task which he had completed by 1579, when the resulting maps were compiled and published in his seminal 'Atlas of England and Wales'. It included this map of Northumberland, the first map of the county ever to be printed. It depicts the landscape and settlements of the region in great detail, notably including Hadrian's Wall, listed as 'the wall of the Picts', as a bold red line running from Newcastle across the county, into Cumberland and past Carlyle, although it is surprisingly absent from the separate map of Cumberland itself. It is the only such feature of its kind to appear on Saxton's maps, which are generally limited to the illustration of hills, rivers and settlements. The high degree of attention with which Saxton documents the castles, estates and towns of Northumberland can be attributed to the county's vulnerable position on the border with Scotland and the coast. During the reign of Elizabeth I, England was at constant risk of attacks by both sea and land. For this reason, numerous Scottish settlements are also highlighted, including the prominent Hume Castle, at which Mary, Queen of Scots, stayed in 1566. One key purpose of Saxton's commission was to produce a tool with which the Secretary of State, Lord Burghley, could strategise in the case of conflict. The annotations on his own personal proof copy of this map list the 'names of ye principall lorsh[ips] in ye Middle march', written densely by hand around the Anglo-Scottish border. Alnwick in particular, as the seat of Earl Henry Percy, a Catholic sympathiser, is expressed on the map with particular prominence, attesting to its political purpose. Most of the common emblems found on Saxton's maps are featured on the right side of the map, with the royal coat-of-arms in the upper corner, directly above an elaborate cartouche enclosing the county name in Latin. Below this the Seckford family crest appears with its later Latin motto, and in the lower corner the scale is accompanied by a banner identifying Saxton as the cartographer. Omitted, however, are the name of the engraver and the date of the map. This is the only one of the 35 county maps not to include a date. whereas the copper plates of some other counties continued in existence for centuries, the original plate used to make this map had been lost by 1689, along with that of Devon. Additionally, like all the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this map bears his watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. Batten, Bennett, 'The printed maps of Devon: county maps, 1575-1837' (Devon Books, 1996); 'Northumbria Comitatus' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009); Brotton, 'Great Maps: The World's Masterpieces Explored and Explained' (Penguin, 2014).
Northampton Bedfordiae Cantabrigiae Huntingdoniae et Rutlandiae Comitatuum Vicinarumq. Regionum partium adiacent nova veraq. Descriptio. A. D. 1576

Northampton Bedfordiae Cantabrigiae Huntingdoniae et Rutlandiae Comitatuum Vicinarumq. Regionum partium adiacent nova veraq. Descriptio. A. D. 1576

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire and Rutland Double-page engraved map, fine original colour in outline, some minor offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. On this map are combined Saxton's surveys of Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Rutland, and then-county Huntingdonshire, marking the first time each county had been cartographically documented. It comes seventh in the series of 35 maps produced under the commission of Thomas Seckford and Lord Burghley, courtiers of Queen Elizabeth I, both of whom were interested in attaining precise representations of the English and Welsh counties. The rivers, forests, hills, settlements and estates of the counties are expressed here, as on all of Saxton's maps, by illustrations and names, written in English. While larger cities, such as Northampton and Buckingham, are illustrated with denser collections of buildings than the smaller towns, Cambridge stands out on this map as its most significant location. It is represented as a group of turreted buildings with a bridge leading to what must be the University Library on the opposite side of the River Cam. Due to the prestige of the university, where the cartographer himself may have studied, town plans of Cambridge had previously been produced, but there had never before been a survey of the entire county. Soon after its publication, Saxton's Atlas of England and Wales was known to be held at Peterhouse College, along with his great general map of England and Wales as the most valuable piece in its inventory. To the North of Cambridge in Huntingdon, there features a small hill labelled 'Begersbusshe', which is said to have been a particularly infamous meeting point from which the phrase 'go by beggar's bush' originated. The names of the counties, in Latin, are recorded in an elaborate cartouche in the upper left corner of the map, surmounted by the royal coat-of-arms, although with the standard lion and dragon here replaced by winged cupids. Below, encircled by an olive wreath, is the Seckford crest accompanied by both its mottoes. Opposite this is found the map's scale, along with the banner identifying Saxton as the cartographer, but the name of the engraver is omitted. A much larger scale is used on this map than on most of the others in the atlas, due to the broad area covered across the five counties. Initially produced for defensive purposes, Saxton's work represents the vulnerable coastal areas in far more detailed, while the landlocked counties often grouped together. Additionally, like all the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this map bears his watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. Brewer, 'A Dictionary of Phrase and Fable' (Cassell Ltd, 1868); 'Map of Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Huntigdonshire and Rutland' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009); Delano Smith, 'Map Ownership in Sixteenth-Century Cambridge: The Evidence of Probate Inventories' (Imago Mundi, 1995); Evans, Lawrence, 'Christopher Saxton Elizabethan Map-Maker' (Wakefield Historical Publications & The Holland Press, 1979); 'Christopher Saxton's Five Counties Map 1576' (Beggars Bush: A Perambulation through the Disciplines of History, Geography, Archaeology, Literature, Philology, Natural History, Botany, Biography & Beggary, 2011).
Dunelmensis Episcopatus Qui comitatus est palatinus vera et accurata descriptio. An. Dnu. 1576

Dunelmensis Episcopatus Qui comitatus est palatinus vera et accurata descriptio. An. Dnu. 1576

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of County Durham Double-page engraved map, fine original colour in outline, some offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. This is the first printed map of County Durham, on which the region is labelled with the Latin name "Dunelmiensis Episcopatus", or the Bishopric of Durham. It is one of the early maps created by Christopher Saxton under commissioned by the Privy Council in in late 1570s. With royal patronage, the cartographer surveyed the counties of England and Wales, the results of which were compiled in the first national atlas, his 'Atlas of England and Wales'. The maps contained within the atlas were used both as tools for strategic defensive planning, which explains the attention devoted to coastal areas, and later as a decorative piece, as hinted at by the galleons, sea-monsters and elaborate embelms that adorn this map around the surveyed region. Saxton gives particular prominence to the hills which dominate the Western half of the county, and many enclosed parklands also feature, identifying the land owned by the local gentry. The two major settlements of Durham and Darlington are shown as dense collections of buildings, while smaller towns are represented by single Churches or houses. They are all labelled with their English name, whereas the surrounding counties are denoted by their Latin titles. The Latin county name is boldly presented in an intricate cartouche in the upper left corner, while on the opposite side, the royal coat-of-arms is flanked by the English lion and Welsh dragon. Directly below this the Seckford family crest is accompanied by both its earlier and later Latin mottoes, in tribute to Saxton's patron, the courtier Thomas Seckford. In the lower right corner, the map's scale is found, along with two banners identifying Saxton as the cartographer and Augustine Ryther as the engraver. Ryther was a well-known craftsman, originally from Leeds, who was responsible for several other maps in Saxton's atlas, such as Gloucestershire and Yorkshire, and who was also known for producing mathematical instruments. Additionally, like all the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this map bears his watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. 'Dunelmiensis Episcopatus Sheet 29' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009)
Wigorniensis Comitatus Sabrinae Fluminis Amoenitate ni Signis descriptio An Dm 1577

Wigorniensis Comitatus Sabrinae Fluminis Amoenitate ni Signis descriptio An Dm 1577

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Worcestershire Double-page engraved map, fine original hand-colour in outline, some offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. In 1576, the Privy Council of Queen Elizabeth I gave Christopher Saxton royal authority to survey the counties of England and Wales, in order to produce a series of maps later to be collected into the first national atlas ever produced. This map of Worcestershire, or 'Wigornia', is the fourth of the 34 county maps included in the work, and the first comprehensive representation of the county. The rivers, towns and cities illustrated on the map are labelled with their sixteenth century English names, while the surrounding counties are noted in Latin. Of particular importance for Lord Burghley, who commissioned the maps along with courtier Thomas Seckford, were the estates of the gentry. As Secretary of State, this information was essential for administrative and defensive matters, and on his personal proof copy, Burghley's handwritten annotations list the influential residents of Worcestershire, along with their lands and properties. Similarly, the border areas between counties receive particular attention on Saxton's maps, as evidenced here by the areas surrounding Malvern, the Forest of Wire, and the Vale of Euesholiue (modern Evesham), which include details of towns and cities outside the county boundary. Characteristically, the map features the county name, written in Latin, within an elaborate red and blue cartouche in the top right corner. The royal coat-of-arms appears on the opposite side, and beneath it, the Seckford heraldic crest with its later Latin motto. After the Atlas of England and Wales was completed, Queen Elizabeth I granted Saxton his own coat-of-arms, but it is Seckford's that features on all 35 maps, as the patron of the work. A scale is also included in the bottom left corner of the map, although unlike other examples, it lists only Saxton's name as cartographer, and fails to include that of the engraver. Additionally, like all the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this map bears his watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. 'Map of Worcestershire' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009).
Mone Insulae modo Anglesey

Mone Insulae modo Anglesey, et Caernaruan duorumborialis cambriae comitatuu olim venedocia. L. Gwynedhia B. Northwales. A. descriptio An Dni: 1578

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Anglesey and Caernarfon Double-page engraved map, fine original hand-colour in outline, some offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink. In 1575, Christopher Saxton was authorised by the Queen's Privy Council to survey and map the counties of England and Wales, a task which he had completed by 1579, when the resulting maps were compiled and published in his seminal 'Atlas of England and Wales'. This map of Anglesey and Caernarfon represents the first time that either county had been comprehensively surveyed and mapped. The Tudor line traced its origins back to Owen Tudor, a nobleman from the town of Penmynydd in Anglesey, and it is perhaps for this reason that Saxton devotes such attention to the island as part of his Atlas of England and Wales, a project which he undertook with a royal warrant from Queen Elizabeth I. Anglesey's rivers, hills, towns and villages are depicted pictorially, with the important settlements of Beaumaris, with its famous castle, and the county town of Newborough, given particular prominence. Saxton has also included the tiny island of Priestholm (now known as Puffin Island) to the East of Angeley, along with a small depiction of its monastery. On the mainland, Saxton expresses the details of Caenarfon's terrain, dominated by hills and mountains, notably Snowdon in the centre of the map. Although the ascension of the Tudor line did bring some benefits to Wales, such as less strict restrictions on access to towns such as Caenarfon, in which Welsh natives were only permitted to live in 1507, the official unificiation of the two countries in 1536 meant that many administrative centres in the principality became redundant. One example is Caernarfon castle, represented by a tiny drawing on the North West coast, which became neglected during the sixteenth century. The coastal regions of the mainland receive particular attention because of the map's purpose as a tool for defensive and administrative planning, in case of attacks by sea. It is for this reason that Saxton takes care to record the small islands and inlets that feature around the coast. This map is also ornamented with several decorative features. Along with the Elizabethan galleons and sea-creatures illustrated in the surrounding ocean, the engraver has included a striking image of the god Neptune embracing a woman upon the waves. Below this in the lower corner, a banner woven around the map's scale identifies Saxton as the cartographer. Although the name of the engraver is omitted, the copper plate is likely to have been created by one of the craftsmen named on Saxton's other maps, such as Remigius Hogenbern or Augustine Ryther. At the centre of the lower border, the Seckford family crest, accompanied by its later Latin motto, pays tribute to Saxton's patron, Thomas Seckford, who played a key role in arranging his commission. In the lower right corner, an elaborate cartouche contains the Latin names of the two regions, while above this the royal coat-of-arms is flamed by the English lion and Welsh dragon. Additionally, like all the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this map bears his watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. Lowe, 'The Heart of Northern Wales' (Llanfairfechan, 1912); Taylor, 'Caernarfon Castle and Town Walls' (Cadw., 1997).
Glamorga Comitatus australis Cambriae pars descriptio An Dni 1578

Glamorga Comitatus australis Cambriae pars descriptio An Dni 1578

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Glamorgan Double-page engraved map, fine original hand-colour in outline, some offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. In 1575 Queen Elizabeth's Privy Council authorised Christopher Saxton to survey and map the entirety of England and Wales for the first national atlas. The cartographer subsequently produced a series of 34 county maps, including this, the first map of Glamorgan ever to be produced. The crown also issued him with a warrant to present to Welsh officials, decreeing that they were to provide him with Welsh-speaking guides. Without these aids, it may have been difficult for the Yorkshire-born cartographer to record locations such as Llanyltidiiandra and Eglyssylian. Although many of Glamorgan's towns and villages are presented on this map, the settlements are depicted far more densely around the coastal areas, due to both the ease of surveying them and their importance in defensive strategy. With the population of Swansea growing as a result of its increasing coal exports, and the port of Cardiff recently expanded to accommodate the new quantities of goods being imported, it is no surprise that these regions receive more detailed attention on this map. Further inland, Saxton seems to have exaggerated the relief of the landscape; while the Southern Brecon Beacons do descend into the county, the hills illustrated here suggest a rather more mountainous terrain than exists in reality. The scarcity of settlements represented amid these hills also indicates that Saxton may not have been as diligent in his survey of Glamorgan as he was with the majority of the English counties, but nonetheless, more significant towns like Caerphilly and Aberdare are included. The upper left corner of the map, the county name is written in Latin within an ornamental cartouche surmounted by the royal coat-of-arms, flanked by the English lion and Welsh dragon, and accompanied by the Queen's initials. In the corner below the Seckford family crest is found with its later Latin motto, in honour of Saxton's patron, Thomas Seckford. Beside this on the right, the map's scale is raised on an elaborate plinth that also contains a banner identifying Saxton as the cartographer. Unlike on many of the maps in his 'Atlas of England and Wales', it is not made clear who engraved the copper plate of Glamorgan, although it is likely to have been one of the craftsmen identified on one of the other maps. Additionally, like all the maps in his atlas, this map bears Saxton's watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. 'Glamorga Comitatu' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009); Redknap, Besly, 'Wreck de mer and dispersed wreck sites: the case of the Ann Francis (1583)' (Oxbow Monograph, 1997).
Essexiae comitat nova vera ac absoluta descriptio An. Dnu. 1576

Essexiae comitat nova vera ac absoluta descriptio An. Dnu. 1576

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Essex Double-page engraved map, fine original full-wash colour, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. In 1575, Christopher Saxton was authorised by the Queen's Privy Council to survey and map the counties of England and Wales, a task which he had completed by 1579, when the resulting maps were compiled and published in his seminal Atlas of England and Wales. This map of Essex is one of the 35 maps included in the atlas, and the first county map of Essex ever to be produced. It records the county's landscape and settlements, represented by small illustrations of Churches, enclosed parklands, rivers, bridges, and the occasional hill. Details of the surrounding counties, labelled with their Latin names, are also included, most prominently London, represented by a mass of buildings, intricately illustrated. Saxton has also expressed certain features of Essex which would be of interest to the crown, such as the Blockhouse Fort on Mersea Island, an unlabelled beacon South West of Colcester, and New Hall in the crown estate of Boreham, previously home to Queen Mary. Alongside its administrative function, Saxton's county maps were commissioned as a tool for defensive planning, and for this reason coastal areas receive particular attention. Lord Burghley, then Secretary of State, annotated his personal proof copy of the Essex map with details about coastal settlements and local gentry, noting 'Heyghfeld fayre and fatt, Barndon park better than that, Coppledon beares a Crown, Copthall best of all'. Illustrations of Elizabethan ships and one suspect sea-creature in the ocean attest to the decorative purpose of this map, as well as its functionality. An elaborate cartouche dominates the lower right corner of the map, with the Latin county name flanked by caryatids and surmounted by the royal coat-of-arms and motto. Directly below this is the heraldic crest and early Latin motto of the Seckford family, in honour of Saxton's patron, Thomas Seckford. Found underneath the crest is the map's scale. A small banner along the lower border identifies Saxton as the cartographer, but the name of the engraver is omitted from this map. There is no evidence that Saxton himself took any part in the engraving of the copper plates used to make his maps, instead employing a small team of Fleming and English craftsmen. Additionally, like all the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this map bears his watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. Batho, 'Two Newly Discovered Manuscript Maps by Christopher Saxton' (The Geographical Journal, 1959; 'Essexiae Comitat f.36' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009); Kain, 'Maps and Rural Land Management in Early Modern Europe' (University of Chicago, 2007).
Norfolciae comitatus continens in sc. oppida mercatoria 26

Norfolciae comitatus continens in sc. oppida mercatoria 26, Pagos et Villas 625, una cum singulis Hundredis, & fluminibus ein eodem, Vera descriptio

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Norfolk Double-page engraved map, fine original colour in outline, some minor offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. In 1575, Christopher Saxton was authorised by the Queen's Privy Council to survey and map the counties of England and Wales, a task which he had completed by 1579, when the resulting maps were compiled and published in his seminal 'Atlas of England and Wales'. According to Barber, the earliest of Saxton's county maps, and certainly the earliest map of Norfolk, the landscape and settlements of the county are recorded here in great detail, including small villages alongside larger towns and cities, most prominently Norwich, complete with a small but intricate illustration of its cathedral. Unlike Saxton's later maps, the estates and grounds of local gentry are not represented here, and the county's woodland areas are far more sparse. Nevertheless, the cartographer still depicts the major and minor rivers with their bridges, along with the hills that run down the West of the county and the 'Mershe Lande' towards the border with Cambridgeshire. Uniquely, he also includes a key in the upper right corner with corresponding to the administrative units into which the county was divided. It is one of only four maps to show their counties divided into 'hundreds' in this way. Alongside its function as an administrative tool, this map was designed to be used by the Secretary of State, Lord Burghley, for his defensive strategies in case of a naval invasion. For this reason, the coastal areas receive particular attention and the ocean itself is ornamented with grand Elizabethan galleons (as well as one questionable sea creature). Although intended for such purposes, there is evidence that Saxton's map of Norfolk was also used by the Queen's officials in planning the royal party's route into the county. As with all of Saxton's maps, the royal coat-of-arms features prominently, presented here at the head of the map. To its left, an elaborate cartouche with bold blue colouring contains the Latin county name, a record of the number of merchant towns, estates and rivers found throughout Norfolk, and the name of the engraver, Cornelis de Hooghe. While other engravers are responsible for a number of the county maps collected in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this is the only one for which de Hooghe is credited. In the lower left corner is found the Seckford family crest with its early Latin motto, in honour of Saxton's patron, Thomas Seckford, and on the opposite side, the map's scale is accompanied by a banner identifying the cartographer. Additionally, like all the maps in the atlas, this map bears Saxton's watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. Barber, 'Was Elizabeth I interested in maps–and did it matter?' (Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 2004); 'Dunelmiensis Episcopatus Sheet 29' (The British Library, 2009).
Hartfordiae Comitatus nova

Hartfordiae Comitatus nova, vera ac particularis descriptio. Anno Dni. 1577

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Hertfordshire Double-page engraved map, fine original hand-colour in outline, some minor offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. In 1575, Christopher Saxton was authorised by the Queen's Privy Council to survey and map the counties of England and Wales, a task which he had completed by 1579, when the resulting maps were compiled and published in his seminal 'Atlas of England and Wales'. As part of this task, he created this map of Hertfordshire, the first map of the county ever produced. Astonishingly, he was able to complete the entire atlas within four years, using a small team and a variety of methods, such as perambulation, triangulation and observation, namely of the distances between Church towers and hilltop beacons. Although not always accurate in scale, the settlements and estates featured on the map are differentiated in size, with larger cities such as St Albans shown as a dense collection of buildings, while minor villages are denoted by a single building. The 26 deer parks illustrated on the map represent the estates of the gentry, important information for the Secretary of State, Lord Burghley, described as 'the most cartographically minded statesman of his time'. So keen was his interest in the development of these maps, that he wrote additions onto his personal proof copies by hand, specifically the names of certain influential inhabitants of Hertfordshire, for example, 'Mr Capell' at Hadham Parva and 'Lytton' at Knebworth. On the left side of the map, an intricate cartouche in bold blue colouring contains the county name in Latin, and is surmounted by the royal coat-of-arms, as found on all of Saxton's maps. Similarly, the heraldic crest of the Seckford family is found in the lower right corner, along with its later Latin motto, as a tribute to courtier Thomas Seckford, who is thought to have financed the production of the atlas. The opposite lower corner contains the map's scale, around which is woven a banner identifying Saxton as the cartographer, and Nicholaus Reynold as the engraver. Such banners, found on many of his maps, attest to the craftsmanship of a team of English and Flemish engravers, who produced the copper plates with which the maps were printed. Additionally, like all the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this map bears his watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. 'Hartfordiae Comitatus f.34' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009); Harley, 'The map collection of William Cecil, first Baron Burghley 1520-98' (The Map Collector, 1978); Macnair, Rowe, and Williamson, 'Dury and Andrews Map of Hertfordshire: Society and landscape in the eighteenth century' (Windgather Press, 2015); Prince, 'Parks in Hertfordshire since 1500' (University of Hertfordshire Press, 2008).
Somersetensem Comitat (agri fertilitate Celebrem) hec ob oculos ponit Tabula

Somersetensem Comitat (agri fertilitate Celebrem) hec ob oculos ponit Tabula

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Somerset Double-page engraved map, fine original hand-colour in outline, some light offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. In 1575, Christopher Saxton was authorised by the Queen's Privy Council to survey and map the counties of England and Wales, a task which he had completed by 1579, when the resulting maps were compiled and published in his seminal 'Atlas of England and Wales'. Included in it was this, the first map of Somerset ever produced, presenting the landscape and settlements of the county in full. The various features of the land, its rivers, hills and woodlands, are represented pictorially and labelled with their English names, sometimes with added details, such as the series of three windmills found atop the hills in the centre of the map, and information, the note that "this spring driveth 12 mils within one quarter of a myle of his head", for example. Out at sea, Flat Holm and Steep Holm islands are marked, albeit inaccurately in location and shape, while inland, the city of Bristol dominates North Somerset. Across Saxton's atlas, the dense collection of buildings which represent Bristol are paralleled only by London, attesting to the importance of the city, which was visited by Queen Elizabeth the previous year, where a mock battle staged between the allegorical figures of War and Peace. Across the border in Wiltshire, Longleat Estate is represented by a small enclosure, due to the fact that its renovation and expansion was a work in progress during the late 1570s. Within the county, other notable estates such as Castle Cary and Evercreech Lodge, are similarly represented and labelled. Alongside the galleons, boats and huge fish that adorn the sea to the North West of Somerset, Saxton has included an elaborate cartouche, flanked by putti and majestically illustrated in bold red, blue and green. This contains the Latin county name, with the royal coat-of-arms presented above it, surmounted by a crowned lion. The map also features another coat-of-arms, that of Saxton's patron, Thomas Seckford, in the lower right corner, complete with his family's earlier Latin motto. On the opposite side, the map's scale is presented, accompanied by two banners identifying Saxton as the cartographer and Leonard Terwoort as the engraver. Tertwoort was a Flemish craftsman who worked alongside other engravers to produce the 35 copper plates from which the 'Atlas of England and Wales' was printed. Additionally, like all the maps in the atlas, this map bears Saxton's watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. 'Somersetensem Comitat.' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009); Wardell, 'Queen Elizabeth I's Progress to Bristol in 1574: An Examination of Expenses' (Early Theatre, 2011).
Dorcestriae Comitatus Vicinarumque Regionum nova veraq. Descriptio Ann Dni 1575

Dorcestriae Comitatus Vicinarumque Regionum nova veraq. Descriptio Ann Dni 1575

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Dorset Double-page engraved map, fine original full-wash colour, some minor offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. Sides trimmed to neatline. This map was created by Christopher Saxton in 1575, soon after he received the royal commission from the Queen's Privy Council to survey and map the counties of England and Wales. His findings were eventually to be compiled into the first national atlas, his seminal 'Atlas of England and Wales'. This map is the first county map of Dorset ever to be produced, expressing its landscape and settlements as illustrations representing the hills, woodlands, rivers, towns and cities found across the county. Estates and land owned by the crown stand out more prominently, such as Sherborne Castle, which Queen Elizabeth I was later to grant to Sir Walter Raleigh. The key purpose of Saxton's maps was to supply information about the counties for administrative and military planning, and so coastal regions generally receive more attention, being vulnerable to naval attacks. For this reason, the Dorset coast is expressed with a particular focus on its fortifications, for example, Portland Castle, an important fortress. The personal proof copy used by the Secretary of State, Lord Burghley, was annotated with defensive notes, such as, "dangerous places for landing of men in the county". The grand galleons and intricate design of the map, however, also attests to its decorative purpose. An elaborate, bold red cartouche dominates the upper left corner of the map, containing the Latin county name and surmounted by the royal coat-of-arms, flanked by the English lion and Welsh dragon. Below this on the lower border the scale of the map is accompanied by a banner identifying Saxton as the cartographer. To the right of the scale, the Seckford family crest is featured along with its early Latin motto. The crest is found on all 35 of the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', in honour of Thomas Seckford, an official at Elizabeth I's court who chose the cartographer to carry out the national survey. Additionally, like all the maps in the atlas, this map bears Saxton's watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. 'Dorcestriae Comitatus' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009); Harvey, 'An Elizabethan Map of Manors in North Dorset' (The British Museum Quarterly, 1965); Waymark, 'Sherborne, Dorset' (Garden History, 2001).
Staffordiae Comitatu pfecte et absolute elaboratu haec tibi tabula exhibet Anno Dni 1577

Staffordiae Comitatu pfecte et absolute elaboratu haec tibi tabula exhibet Anno Dni 1577

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Staffordshire Double-page engraved map, fine original hand-colour in outline, some slight offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. In 1575, Christopher Saxton was authorised by the Queen's Privy Council to survey and map the counties of England and Wales, a task which he had completed by 1579, when the resulting maps were compiled and published in his seminal 'Atlas of England and Wales'. This map of Staffordshire is the third map in the atlas, and provides information about the current estates, towns and landscape of the county. This information was of particular use to the Queen's councillors, such as Thomas Seckford and Lord Burghley, the Secretary of State, for administrative and defensive planning. The River Trent features centrally in this map, along with its many distributaries and bridges, interspersed with the Staffordshire forests and hills. It is thought that Saxton expressed with particular prominence those hills that served as boundary markers between counties, such as Mow Cop Hill, featured to the North of Newcastle. Other major towns are identified in larger script and a small illustration of several buildings, while minor towns are signified by a single building and their name, written in English. Certain areas on the periphery of Staffordshire are also included in the same way, while the surrounding counties are labelled in Latin. The four corners of the map feature the county name, contained within an elaborate and boldly coloured cartouche in the top left, the royal coat-of-arms to the right, the heraldic crest of the Seckford family in the lower right corner, and the scale to its left. All four elements are typical features of Saxton's county maps, with the banners on the scale denoting the cartographer, Saxton himself, and the engraver, in this came Franciscus Scatterus, a Flemish craftsman employed as one of the seven engravers who produced the copper plates for the atlas. Additionally, like all the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this map bears his watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. 'Staffordiae Comitatus' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009); Manley, 'Saxton's Survey of Northern England' (The Geographical Journal, 1934).
Penbrok comitat qui inter meridionales cambriae ptes hodie censetur olim demetia L Dyfet B hoc est occidentalis wallia descriptio An Dni 1578

Penbrok comitat qui inter meridionales cambriae ptes hodie censetur olim demetia L Dyfet B hoc est occidentalis wallia descriptio An Dni 1578

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Pembrokeshire Double-page engraved map, fine original hand-colour in outline, some offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. In 1575, Christopher Saxton was authorised by the Queen's Privy Council to survey and map the counties of England and Wales, a task which he had completed by 1579, when the resulting maps were compiled and published in his seminal 'Atlas of England and Wales'. Included in the Welsh section of the atlas is this map of Pembrokeshire, the first map of the county ever to be produced. After the 1536 Act of Union, Wales was officially incorporated into the Kingdom of Henry III, and for the rest of the Tudor period, the country largely benefitted from the increased trading opportunities that emerged. What had been smaller settlements grew into major towns, such as Tenby, Haverfordwest, Pembroke, Newport and St Davids, all of which are represented here as a collection of buildings. Saxton also records many of the smaller villages that populated the county, as well as expressing the landscape with illustrations of its rivers, hills and woodlands, albeit in less detail that the majority of the English county maps. For defensive reasons, the coastal areas receive greater attention, including the small islands a little way off the Welsh shore. It has been suggested that Pembroke was of particular significance as the closest part of the Kingdom to Ireland, for which reason it has been designated its own map while certain other counties are combined together. Indeed, the personal copy of this map owned by the Secretary of State, Lord Burghley, contains hand-written annotations around the coastal regions, indicating that these areas were of greater concern. The upper left corner is dominated by a bold cartouche, surmounted by the royal coat-of-arms flanked by English lion and Welsh dragon, and containing the Latin county name. Below this in the lower corner, the Seckford family crest with its later Latin motto pays tribute to Saxton's patron, Thomas Seckford. On the opposite side, the map's scale is entwined with a banner identifying Saxton as the cartographer. Unusually, the engraver is not named, but it is likely to have been one of the craftsmen listed on another of Saxton's maps, since there is no evidence that the cartographer himself was responsible for the production of the copper plates. Additionally, like all the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this map bears his watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. Boling, 'Anglo-Welsh Relations in Cymbeline' (Shakespeare Quarterly, 2000); 'Penbrok Comitat' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009); Klein, 'Maps and the Writing of Space in Early Modern England and Ireland' (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2001).
Westmorlandiae et Cumberlandiae Comit nova vera et Elaborata descriptio. An. Dni. 1576

Westmorlandiae et Cumberlandiae Comit nova vera et Elaborata descriptio. An. Dni. 1576

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Westmorland and Cumberland Double-page engraved map, fine original colour in outline, some offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. In the sixteenth century Westmorland and Cumberland, now part of the larger Cumbria, were independent counties, surveyed together here on the first map to show either county. It forms part of the series of maps which Christopher Saxton was commissioned to produce by the Queen's Privy Council in 1755. Four years later the results were collected into the first nation atlas, his 'Altas of England and Wales'. The two regions are distinguished in colour, but many of the illustrations representing their geographical features straddle the counties' border, such as hills, rivers, and even one bridge. The hills shown here are larger in general than those found on Saxton's other county maps, and while they are not drawn to scale, their larger size attests to the significance of the Pennines, which run mainly along Westmorland's Western border. A far smaller hill towards Cumberland's coastline features a rare beacon, although the cartographer failed to note its name. The area in the South East of the county is characterised by the dense collection of lakes and rivers, including Lake Windermere and the small island in the centre of the River Derwent. On the sea itself, there are depictions of Elizabethan galleons, fish and sea-monsters, as typically found in all of Saxton's maps of coastal regions. The ever-present threat of naval attack during the period meant that these maps are expressed in far greater detail than those of the inland counties. The four corners of the map contain the features common to all 34 of Saxton's county maps. In the upper left corner, an elaborate cartouche contains the Latin county names. The royal coat-of-arms is featured in the upper right, with the Seckford family crest directly below it, accompanied by its later Latin motto. In the lower left corner, the map's scale is found, along with two banners identifying Saxton as the cartographer and Augustine Ryther, an English engraver as the craftsman behind the copper plate, with which the map was produced. The maps of Durham, Gloucestershire and Yorkshire are also attributed to him, all created in 1577. Additionally, like all the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this map bears his watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. 'Westmorlandiae et Cumberlandiae Comit' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009); Curwen, 'The Chorography, Or, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Printed Maps of Cumberland and Westmorland' (1917); Manley, 'Saxton's Survey of Northern England' (The Geographical Journal, 1934); Scanlan, 'Through Mountains to the Sea' (Places Journal, 2019).
Radnor Breknok Cardigan et Caermarden quatuor australis Cambriae comitatuum (B. Dehenbart. A. Southwales) descriptio. An. Dni. 1578

Radnor Breknok Cardigan et Caermarden quatuor australis Cambriae comitatuum (B. Dehenbart. A. Southwales) descriptio. An. Dni. 1578

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Radnor, Breconshire, Cardiganshire and Carmarthenshire Double-page engraved map, fine original hand-colour, some offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. In 1575, Christopher Saxton was authorised by the Queen's Privy Council to survey and map the counties of England and Wales, a task which he had completed by 1579, when the resulting maps were compiled and published in his seminal 'Atlas of England and Wales'. On this map, the Welsh counties of Radnor, Breconshire, Cardiganshire and Carmarthenshire are presented together, but distinguished in colour. It is the first map to show cartographic representations of any of the four counties. With Wales having been officially incorporated into the Tudor kingdom by the 1536 Act of Union, it was essential for the Queen and her government to have accurate information about its settlements and landscapes. These are represented pictorially on this map, with hills, rivers, woodlands, towns and villages illustrated and labelled. The region of Radnor that borders Hereford receives particular attention, as do coastal areas, as places that might be of administrative or defensive importance. On undertaking his journey into Wales, Saxton was issued with a warrant instructing all Welsh magistrates to supply him with Welsh-speaking guides; these aids surely proved necessary in helping the cartographer to record locations such as Llanyhanglemantbrane, Blaynllynuye and Llestinan Kethitalgarth. In the upper left corner, a bold blue cartouche containing the names of the counties in Latin, is surmounted by the royal coat-of-arms, flanked by the English lion and Welsh dragon. In the lower corner, the Seckford family crest is accompanied by its later Latin motto, in honour of Saxton's patron, Thomas Seckford. On the opposite side, a banner identifying Saxton as cartographer is wrapped around the map's scale, which corresponds to the broad area surveyed in this map. Strangely, the name of the engraver is omitted, but it is likely to have been one of the small team of craftsmen identified on the other maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales'. The decorative nature of these features, along with the map's ornate outer-frame, bold colouring, and its illustrations of Elizabethan galleons at sea, all point towards its aesthetic value alongside its functional utility. Additionally, like all the maps in the atlas, this map bears Saxton's watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original.
Monumethensis Comitatus Regis Henrici quinti natalitiis celeberrimus An Dn 1577

Monumethensis Comitatus Regis Henrici quinti natalitiis celeberrimus An Dn 1577

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Monmouthshire Double-page engraved map, fine original hand-colour in outline, some offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. In 1575, Christopher Saxton was authorised by the Queen's Privy Council to survey and map the counties of England and Wales, a task which he had completed by 1579, when the resulting maps were compiled and published in his seminal Atlas of England and Wales. The first map in the Welsh section of the atlas is of Monmouth, the first map of the county ever to be produced. On receiving his commission, the cartographer was issued a warrant, instructing "all Justices of the Peace, Mayors or others in Wales to see [him] conducted to any towre, castle, high place or hill, to view that county". There was no similar edict made out to officials in the English counties, perhaps suggesting that Saxton may have anticipated some hostility from the Welshmen whose lands he was to examine. The cartographer was nonetheless able to record the settlements and landscape of Monmouthshire, depicted pictorially with illustrations of the county's hills, rivers, woodlands, villages and towns. Abergavenny, Uske, Monmouth and Chepstow are the most prominent towns, while larger hills dominate the West side of the county. Small enclosures are used to depict the estates of the local gentry, a system that also explains the small enclaves of 'Welshe Bycknor' and 'The Fothol' separated from the main region to the North. The 1536 Act of Union allocated land based on its aristocratic ownership, and these two areas, later annexed to Herefordshire, were at this time in possession of Welsh nobles. In the upper left corner a bold blue cartouche contains the Latin county name, surmounted by the royal coat-of-arms flanked by English lion and Welsh dragon. Beneath this the Seckford family crest is adorned with a banner enclosing the family's later Latin motto. On the lower border of the map, the scale is accompanied by another banner identifying Saxton as the cartographer. The omission of the engraver's name has led to some reports that Saxton himself was responsible for the creation of the copper plate, but there is no evidence to suggest that he took part in the engraving process himself. It is instead thought that credit for this should go to Augustine Ryther, part of the team of craftsmen who produced the copper plates of Saxton's surveys. Alongside these elaborate features, the majestic Elizabethan galleons and ornate outer-frame attest to the ornamental value of this map. Additionally, like all the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this map bears his watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. 'Monumenthensis Comitatus' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009); Nichols, 'Another look at Saxton's map and tidying up the Monmouthshire of 1535 AD' (Gwent Local History, 1984).
Lincolniae Notinhamiaeq. Comitatuu nova vera et accurata descriptio. Anno Domini 1576

Lincolniae Notinhamiaeq. Comitatuu nova vera et accurata descriptio. Anno Domini 1576

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire Double-page engraved map, fine original colour in outline, some offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. Bottom edge trimmed to neatline. In 1575, Christopher Saxton was commissioned by the Queen's Privy Council to survey the counties of England and Wales, and eventually to compile the first national atlas, his 'Atlas of England and Wales'. This map formed part of that task, and was in fact the first printed map ever made of either Lincolnshire or Nottinghamshire. The elaborate design of these maps makes it clear that they had an ornamental purpose, but their primary use was as tools with which the Secretary of State, Lord Burghley, could make strategic defensive and administrative decisions. In fact, his own personal proof copies are covered in hand-written annotations, such as a sketch of a battlefield at the mouth of the Humber in Northern Lincolnshire. To fulfil this requirement, Saxton's maps have a particular focus on vulnerable borders and coastal regions. The numerous inlets from 'The Washe' estuary receive attention as potential points of attack, attesting to the map's functionality, while the grand Elizabethan galleon illustrated on the sea simultaneously points towards its decorative purpose. Combined on this one map, Nottinghamshire is differentiated from its larger neighbour in a light yellow colour. Although less important from a military perspective, Saxton nevertheless presents the county in great detail, particularly its settlements and woodland areas, including the famous Sherwood Forest. Certain significant buildings are also labelled, such as 'the Lodge' in the crown estate of Bestwood Park above Nottingham, and 'the manor' at Worksop to the North, where Mary Queen of Scots had previously been held prisoner. The four common features of Saxton's county maps are found along the left side, with the royal coat-of-arms in the upper corner, complete with a large banner containing the monarch's motto. Below this, the names of the counties, written in Latin, are held by an elaborate cartouche in bold blue colouring. The Seckford family crest sits below this, accompanied by its later Latin motto, in tribute to Saxton's patron, Thomas Seckford. In the lower corner the map's scale is found, alongside which banners identify Saxton as the cartographer and Remigius Hogenberg as engraver. Hogenberg was a prominent Flemish craftsman, who worked alongside Saxton's team of engravers to produce the copper plates from which the maps were made. Additionally, like all the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this map bears his watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. 'Lincolniae Notinghamiaque Comitatum' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009).
Southamtoniae comintatus (preter Insulas Victis Jersey et Garnsey quae sunt partes eiusdem comitatus) cum suis uniq. Confinibus

Southamtoniae comintatus (preter Insulas Victis Jersey et Garnsey quae sunt partes eiusdem comitatus) cum suis uniq. Confinibus, Oppidis, pagis, Vills et fluminibus, Vera descriptio

SAXTON, Christopher The first printed map of Hampshire Double-page engraved map, fine original hand-colour, some minor offsetting, contemporary annotation on verso in brown ink, some light marginal soiling. In 1575, Christopher Saxton was authorised by the Queen's Privy Council to survey and map the counties of England and Wales, a task which he had completed by 1579, when the resulting maps were compiled and published in his seminal Atlas of England and Wales. This map of Hampshire, or 'Southamtonia', presents the findings of Saxton's survey, and is the first printed map of the county ever to have been created. The characteristic features of the county are depicted pictorially, with the mass of trees in the South West representing the New Forest, and the South Downs shown as a collection of hills in the centre. The city of Winchester is prominently expressed, with a small but intricate illustration of its cathedral, along with several bridges crossing the River Itchen. Saxton's maps were designed both for ornamental purposes, as evidenced by the grand ships and questionable sea-creatures illustrated in the ocean, and to aid in administrative and defensive planning. For this reason, Hampshire's many coastal inlets and rivers receive particular attention because of their importance in the case of a naval attack. Indeed, when the Spanish Armada approached in 1588, the beacons shown on the top of the coastal hills proved to be essential to the military in conveying information. While Saxton included certain significant features of the surrounding counties, the Isle of Wight, along the lower border is devoid of details beyond its Latin name. Such an omission is somewhat surprising given that John Rudd, to whom Saxton was apprenticed, had previously presented the Secretary of State, Lord Burghley, with a map of the island. The map is ornamented with three elaborate cartouches, the most prominent containing the county name in Latin, surmounted by the royal coat-of-arms and motto, flanked by the English lion and Welsh dragon. Directly below this, the map's scale is adorned with bold blue herons, and accompanied by a banner identifying Lanaert Terwoot as the engraver. On the right border of the map, a smaller cartouche contains information on the number of merchant towns and estates within Hampshire. In the lower right corner, the Seckford family crest is depicted with its early Latin motto, in tribute to Saxton's patron, Thomas Seckford. To the right of this a small banner contains the name of the cartographer himself. Additionally, like all the maps in Saxton's 'Atlas of England and Wales', this map bears his watermark, a bunch of grapes, to identify the work as original. 'Southamptoniae Comitatus', 'Isle of Wight' (The British Library Online Gallery, 2009); White, 'The Beacon System in Hampshire' (Hampshire Field Club, 1930).
A book auction].

A book auction].

DUNTHORNE, James junior] A book auction by the 'Colchester Hogarth' Pencil, pen and black ink and watercolour. A charming scene of a book auction, possibly held at Sotheby's, or Leigh & Sotheby at the time. The room is dominated by a great bookcase which is being hand-picked by a young porter up a ladder. The crowd is fashionably dressed and caught in a variety of poses, such as greeting each other and conversing, eying the bidder in the back of the room, checking the catalogue, and perusing one of the recent purchases, as the seated lady in the middle is doing. The smiling auctioneer is about to knock down his gavel, and the scribe below intent in recording the sale. The drawing was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1787 and was marked as 'for sale'. It is the work of James Dunthorne junior (c1758-1794), an artist from Colchester, his father also a painter mostly of portraiture and miniature works, who worked as a mapmaker and surveyor on the side. Dunthorne junior ran a print shop on Colchester High Street, and exhibited 14 works at the Royal Academy between 1783 and 1792, with the exception of four years (1785, 1786, 1788, 1789). His favoured themes were mostly genre and domestic subjects, and a number of his drawings were engraved by the artist and caricaturist Thomas Rowlandson, thus showing that Dunthorne junior had some reputation as an artist (Benham). Some of his works include 'Private Card Party', showing a fashionable party of Colchester elite, 'Morning Concert', 'Skating', 'A bath shop', and 'The Pieman'. The lack of works recorded after 1792 and the darker nature of part of his oeuvre, such as 'Ague & Fever' and 'The Hypochondriac', suggest that Dunthorne junior's health was poor in the early 1790s. A benefit concert was held in his honour on 30 July 1793 and his drawings, prints, music etc. were sold on 16 August 1794. He eventually passed away 'after a long affliction' on 12 October of the same year. Dubbed the 'Colchester Hogarth', his legacy has allowed historians to catch a glimpse of society in a secondary Georgian town. A number of engravings based on drawings by James Dunthorne junior are held in institutions world-wide. We are unaware of any other of his drawings offered for sale. Exhibited London, Royal Academy, 1787, no. 532. W. G. Benham, 'The Dunthornes of Colchester', Essex Review, 10, 1901, pp. 27-35; Shani D'Cruze, 'A Pleasing Prospect: Society and Culture in Eighteenth-century Colchester', 2008.