Autograph Document Signed, December 12, 1794. 1 p., 7 1/8 x 3 3/4 in. Financier of the Revolution forced into bankruptcy court: "Sixty days after date, I promise to pay unto Mr. Mathias Kurlin Junr or Order Thirteen Hundred & forty six Dolls & Sixty Seven Cents for value recd." On the document's verso is a note reading "Exhibited to us under the commission against Robert Morris, Philadelphia, 15th October 1801."Signed by John Hollowell and Thomas Cumpston, commissioners appointed to oversee the bankruptcy proceedings after Morris had languished in debtor's prison for three years.Historical BackgroundRobert Morris (1734-1806), signer of the Declaration of Independence, merchant and land speculator, is best known for his role as financier for the Continental Congress. With the national government virtually bankrupt, Morris risked his own personal fortune by purchasing supplies for the army, pressuring the states for cash contributions and securing a major French loan to finance the Bank of North America. He spent his remaining years in various public positions, including senator of Pennsylvania. Morris speculated extensively in Western land after the war, forming the North American Land Co. with James Greenleaf and Jonathan Nicholson. Soon after, however, the land market collapsed and Morris was ruined. The final blow came in 1798, when a minor creditor's claim sent him to the Philadelphia debtor's prison. It has often been said that while George Washington was president, he felt he could not pardon his long-time friend, but visited Morris in debtor's prison as a show of support. That story is only half true. Morris didn't enter debtor's prison until 1798, two years after Washington's presidency, so Washington couldn't have pardoned him, but he did visit Morris in prison, where the latter remained for three years until his wife was able to bail him out.*This item is also being offered in part II of The Alexander Hamilton Collection
AMELIA EARHART; RICHARD BYRD
Signed Photograph of Clarence Chamberlain, Richard E. Byrd, Amelia Earhart, and Bernt Balchen, signed by latter three, July 7, 1930, New York, New York. 1 p., 8 x 10 in. This original black-and-white photograph pictures four aviation pioneers shortly before Byrd presented an Explorer's Club flag that he carried to the South Pole to George P. Putnam (1887-1950), the Vice President of the Explorers' Club and Amelia Earhart's future husband. The Club was a men's-only organization, which prompted Earhart to join the Society of Women Geographers.From 1928 to 1930, Richard E. Byrd led his first expedition to the Antarctic, involving two ships and three airplanes. The participants constructed a base camp called "Little America" on the Ross Ice Shelf and began scientific expeditions. Among the participants was a 19-year-old Boy Scout, Paul A. Siple, who had been chosen to accompany the expedition. Among the achievements of the two-year expedition was the first flight to the South Pole in November 1929, piloted by Bernt Balchen. As a result, Congress promoted Byrd to the rank of rear admiral, making him the youngest admiral in the history of the U.S. Navy at age 41. Byrd would go on to lead four more Antarctic expeditions between 1934 and 1956.In July 1930, publisher George P. Putnam gave a luncheon for Byrd at the Barbizon-Plaza hotel in New York City. Putnam used it as the occasion to announce several forthcoming books by members of the expedition, including Byrd's book Little America, Paul Siple's volume A Boy Scout with Byrd, New York Times reporter Russell Owen's book entitled South of the Sun, and a four-volume set describing the scientific findings of the expedition. At the luncheon, Byrd presented Putnam with a flag of the Explorers' Club, which he had carried to the Antarctic. Putnam stated that the flag would have a place in the clubhouse with trophies of Peary, Amundsen, and other explorers. In addition to the aviation pioneers Amelia Earhart and Clarence D. Chamberlin, other guests included Kermit Roosevelt (1889-1943), the son of President Theodore Roosevelt; New York Herald Tribune publisher Ogden Mills Reid (1882-1947); Cosmopolitan magazine editor Ray Long (1878-1935); and aviation pioneer Ruth Rowland Nichols (1901-1960). Amelia Earhart (1897-1937) was born in Kansas and developed a passion for adventure at a young age. She gained flying experience in the 1920s and in 1928 became the first female passenger to cross the Atlantic Ocean by airplane. Four years later, she became the first female pilot to make a nonstop solo transatlantic flight, for which she received the United States Distinguished Flying Cross. In 1931, she married publisher George P. Putnam after he had proposed to her several times. In 1935, Earhart became a visiting faculty member at Purdue University. She was a member of the National Woman's Party and an early supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment. During an attempt to fly around the world in 1937, Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan disappeared over the central Pacific Ocean near Howland Island.Richard E. Byrd Jr. (1888-1957) was born in Virginia into one of the First Families of Virginia. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1912 and was commissioned an ensign. He was retired in 1916 because of a foot injury but became a commander in the Rhode Island naval militia. During World War I, he qualified as a naval aviator and trained aviators in Florida. In 1925, he commanded the aviation unit in an arctic expedition to North Greenland. In May 1926, he and Navy Chief Aviation Pilot Floyd Bennett flew a Fokker Tri-motor monoplane to the North Pole and returned to their airfield in northern Norway, but their accomplishment was later disputed and remains a subject of controversy. For this flight, Byrd became a national hero, and both he and Bennett received the Medal of Honor. In 1927, Byrd and three others flew non-stop across the Atlantic just over a month afte. (See website for full description)
DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER
Broadside Signed in dark blue ink. Statement to the soldiers, sailors and airmen of the Allied Expeditionary Force on June 6, 1944. Document is approx. 5 3/4 x 9 1/2 in. From a limited edition of Eisenhower's Crusade in Europe, (New York: Doubleday & Co., 1948), limited to 1,426 copies. The war had ended only three years earlier, and Eisenhower must have been looking towards politics - he was elected to the Presidency in 1952.We can have this archivally framed for an additional fee. TranscriptSUPREME HEADQUARTERSALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCESoldiers, Sailors and Airmen of the Allied Expeditionary Force!You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march with you. In company with our brave Allies and brothers-in-arms on other Fronts, you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over the oppressed peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world.Your task will not be an easy one. Your enemy is well trained, well equipped and battle-hardened. He will fight savagely.But this is the year 1944! Much has happened since the Nazi triumphs of 1940-41. The United Nations have inflicted upon the Germans great defeats, in open battle, man-to-man. Our air offensive has seriously reduced their strength in the air and their capacity to wage war on the ground. Our Home Fronts have given us an overwhelming superiority in weapons and munitions of war, and placed at our disposal great reserves of trained fighting men. The tide has turned! The free men of the world are marching together to Victory!I have full confidence in your courage, devotion to duty and skill in battle. We will accept nothing less than full Victory!Good Luck! And let us all beseech the blessing of Almighty God upon this great and noble undertaking.Dwight D Eisenhower" Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969). 34th president of the United States (1953-1961). Eisenhower led the Allied troops in the North African theater against Erwin Rommel, "the Desert Fox," and later served as the commander of Operation OVERLORD-the D-Day invasion, June 4, 1944. On May 7, 1945, the Germans surrendered unconditionally to Eisenhower as Supreme Allied Commander, at his headquarters in Reims, France.Eisenhower ran for president in 1952, and won a sweeping victory. As president he ended the Korean War in 1953, built up America's nuclear arsenal, and kept peace while pursuing a policy of containing Communism. On a number of occasions, he turned down recommendations by members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff that he launch a first-strike nuclear attack on the Soviets while the U.S. still had more atomic bombs. His defense policy, "the New Look," relied on nuclear deterrence.Eisenhower was the first president to involve the United States in Middle Eastern politics. To explain why he supported the Egyptian government against France, Britain, and Israel in the Suez Canal affair, he proclaimed: "We cannot subscribe to one law for the weak, another law for the strong; one law for those opposing us, another for those allied with us. There can be only one law-or there shall be no peace."As president, Eisenhower balanced three out of his eight budgets, while expanding Social Security and launching the Interstate Highway System. During his second term, in response to Arkansas' refusal to honor the Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision, he ordered the Arkansas National Guard into federal service, which put it under his orders rather than those of the governor, and sent the 101st Airborne Division into Little Rock to enforce integration.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
Typed Letter Signed, to Amelia Earhart, January 18, 1935, Washington, DC. On White House letterhead with matching envelope. 1 p., 7 x 9 in. "From the days of these pioneers to the present era, women have marched step in step with men. And now, when air trails between our shores and those of our neighbors are being chartered, you, as a woman, have preserved and carried forward this precious tradition."This fascinating letter captures the nation's enthusiasm for Amelia Earhart's achievements in aviation. In this congratulatory message, President Franklin D. Roosevelt places her in a tradition of pioneering women who ignored gender expectations and accomplished great achievements in many fields including aviation.Earhart's flight from Honolulu to Oakland was the first of three solo long-distance records she set in 1935. In April, again flying the Lockheed Vega 5C, she flew solo from Los Angeles to Mexico City. In May, she flew from Mexico City to New York, where large crowds greeted her in Newark, New Jersey. Later that year, she participated in the Bendix Trophy race from Burbank, California, to Cleveland, Ohio. She was the first woman to enter the Bendix and took fifth place, blazing a trail for other female aviators, who won the Bendix in 1936 and 1938. Complete TranscriptThe White HouseWashington January 18, 1935My dear Miss Earhart:I am pleased to send you this message of congratulations. You have scored again.By successfully spanning the ocean stretches between Hawaii and California, following your triumphant trans-Atlantic flight of 1928, you have shown even the "doubting Thomases" that aviation is a science which cannot be limited to men only.Because of swift advances in this science of flight, made possible by Government and private enterprise, scheduled ocean transportation by air is a distinct and definite future prospect.The trail-blazers who opened to civilization the vast stretches of this Continent of ours, who moved our boundary from the Atlantic to the Pacific, were inspired and helped by women of courage and skill. From the days of these pioneers to the present era, women have marched step in step with men. And now, when air trails between our shores and those of our neighbors are being chartered, you, as a woman, have preserved and carried forward this precious tradition.Very sincerely yours,Franklin D. RooseveltMiss Amelia Earhart,Oakland, California.Historical BackgroundOn January 11, 1935, Amelia Earhart became the first aviator to fly solo from Honolulu, Hawaii, to the continental United States, landing in Oakland, California. Flying a Lockheed Vega 5C she called "old Bessie, the fire horse," she flew for 18 hours and 17 minutes with no complications. In the final hours, she even relaxed and listened to a broadcast of the Metropolitan Opera from New York. A crowd of five thousand people greeted her at the airport when she arrived in Oakland.An Army Air Corps aircraft had completed the first flight between California and Hawaii in June 1927, but it was not a solo flight. In August 1927, James D. Dole, the Hawaii pineapple baron, offered a prize of $25,000 for the first aircraft that could fly from Oakland to Honolulu, a distance of 2,405 miles. The Dole Air Race or Dole Derby had eighteen official and unofficial entrants. Of the fifteen who drew for starting positions, two were disqualified, two withdrew, and three aircraft crashed before the race, which resulted in three deaths. Of the eight aircraft that started the race, only two arrived in Hawaii after 26- and 28-hour flights, respectively. Two more crashed on takeoff, two had to return for repairs, and two went missing during the race. One of the repaired aircraft went to search for the missing aircraft several days later and itself went missing. In all, ten people died and six aircraft were lost or irreparably damaged before, during, and after the Dole Air Race.Amelia Earhart (1897-1937) was born in Kansas and deve. (See website for full description)
Signed Photograph of Amelia Earhart and George P. Putnam, signed by both, June 24, 1932, French steamship Ile de France, Atlantic Ocean. 1 p., 9 x 6.75 in. This original black-and-white photograph pictures aviation pioneer Amelia Earhart and her husband, publisher George P. Putnam, on the deck of a transatlantic steamship. On May 20, 1932, Earhart, who four years earlier had been the first female passenger to cross the Atlantic Ocean by airplane, set an aviation record by becoming the first female pilot to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. She flew 2,026 miles from Newfoundland to northern Ireland, where she was greeted by a farm laborer. When asked by a British reporter what her husband thought of her flying solo across the Atlantic, she replied, "I had to sell my husband the idea because he was not over-keen, but he did not put any obstacles in my way.Joined by her husband, she departed on a triumphant tour of Europe. She was received by the Pope, entertained by royalty, and visited governments throughout Europe. After her tour, she and her husband boarded the Ile de France on June 14, 1932, and began their journey back to the United States. This photograph was taken on the deck of that ship and is inscribed "To M. William" by Earhart and also signed by her husband. They arrived to a ticker-tape parade in New York City on June 20. She then flew to Washington, D.C., where President Herbert Hoover presented her with a special gold medal from the National Geographic Society, and Congress awarded her the Distinguished Flying Cross. Amelia Earhart (1897-1937) was born in Kansas and developed a passion for adventure at a young age. She gained flying experience in the 1920s and in 1928 became the first female passenger to cross the Atlantic Ocean by airplane. Four years later, she became the first female pilot to make a nonstop solo transatlantic flight, for which she received the United States Distinguished Flying Cross. In 1931, she married publisher George P. Putnam after he had proposed to her several times. In 1935, Earhart became a visiting faculty member at Purdue University. She was a member of the National Woman's Party and an early supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment. During an attempt to fly around the world in 1937, Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan disappeared over the central Pacific Ocean near Howland Island.George Palmer Putnam (1887-1950) was born in New York into the family of his namesake grandfather who founded the prominent publishing firm that became G. P. Putnam's Sons. He studied at Harvard University and the University of California, Berkeley. In 1911, he married Dorothy Binney (1888-1982), and they had two sons. He was the publisher and editor of a newspaper in Bend, Oregon, and served as mayor of Bend from 1912-1913. He later moved to New York City and joined the family publishing business. During World War I, he served with the Army field artillery. In 1926, he led an expedition to the Arctic up the western coast of Greenland, and in 1927 led another to Baffin Island. In 1927, he published Charles Lindbergh's autobiography We, which became one of the most successful non-fiction books of all time. That same year, his wife traveled to South America and began a much-publicized affair with a much younger man. In 1929, he divorced her. In 1928, philanthropist, suffragist, and aviation enthusiast Amy Phipps Guest commissioned Putnam with finding a female aviator whom she could sponsor to make the first flight by a woman across the Atlantic Ocean. He identified Amelia Earhart, and after her flight across the Atlantic, he offered to help her write a book about the accomplishment, which was published as 20 Hrs., 40 Min. (1928). Shortly after his divorce, Putnam and Earhart made their relationship official but did not marry until 1931, after he had asked her several times. He also organized public engagements and speaking tours for Earhart. He also published two other bo. (See website for full description)
Manuscript Document Signed, Deed to African Free School Trustees Matthew Clarkson, William Dunlap, Elihu Smith, and William Johnson, July 22, 1794. Endorsed by Master in Chancery John Ray and witnessed by John Keese and John Tyson. 1 p. on vellum, 27 x 24 1/4 in. "Whereas many respectable and benevolent Persons in the City of New York have associated under the denomination of 'the Society for promoting the Manumission of Slaves and protecting such of them as have been or may be Liberated,' and have Instituted a School in said City, called the African free School for the humane and charitable purpose of Educating negro Children to the end that they may become good and useful Citizens of the State."The New-York Manumission Society was founded in January 1785. The 19 initial founders included Future federal judge Robert Troup, prominent Anti-Federalist Melancton Smith, and John Jay, who was elected as the Society's first president. Alexander Hamilton joined at the second meeting ten days later.On November 2, 1787, the Society voted to establish the African Free School. In 1794, by this deed, Frederick Jay - John Jay's brother - donated lower Manhattan lot 635 on Hester Street to support the school, one of the first nondenominational charity schools in the United States. Historical BackgroundNew York's Assembly voted for some form of gradual emancipation in 1785 but could not agree on civil rights for former slaves. The Society's lobbying was instrumental in passing a law that prohibited the importation of slaves into the state and made it easier to manumit slaves.The Society organized boycotts against merchants and newspapers involved in the slave trade. In 1799, Governor John Jay signed an Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery, which would free all children born to slaves after July 4, 1799, after a period of apprenticeship. The last slaves in New York were freed in 1827.The Society also provided financial and legal assistance to both free and enslaved members of the community. During the on May 19, 1794, Frederick Jay, brother of Supreme Court Chief Justice John Jay, offered "a lott of Ground on Great George Street 25 feet by 100 for the purpose of a School." The Society agreed, with thanks. Two months later, Frederick Jay conveyed through this deed a different lot, on Hester Streety. The deed allowed the Society to sell the lot to support the school, which is apparently what happened.In February 1796, the Society purchased a building on Cliff Street to use as a schoolhouse. 19 members, including Alexander Hamilton, Matthew Clarkson, and lexicographer Noah Webster formed a committee to raise money to complete the payments .Excerpt"Whereas many respectable and benevolent Persons in the City of New York have associated under the denomination of 'the Society for promoting the Manumission of Slaves and protecting such of them as have been or may be Liberated,' and have Instituted a School in said City, called the African free School for the humane and charitable purpose of Educating negro Children to the end that they may become good and useful Citizens of the State. And Whereas the said Frederick Jay one of the Members of the said Society formed for the purpose aforesaid, being desirous of aiding and promoting the said Charitable Institution by granting a Lot of Land in the said City for the use and benefit of said Institution to Trustees appointed for that purpose. Now this Indenture Witnesseth That the said Frederick Jay for and in Consideration of the Sum of ten Shillings lawful Money of New York to him in hand paid by the said Matthew Clarkson, William Dunlap, Elihu Smith, and William Johnson at or before the Sealing and delivery of these presents the receipt whereof he doth hereby acknowledge and himself therewith fully satisfied and paid, Hath granted, bargained, sold, aliened, released and confirmed, and by these presents Doth grant, bargain, sell, alien, release and. (See website for full description)
Partially Printed Document Signed, Registration of Schooner Robert, April 10, 1790, Baltimore, Maryland. Form printed by Francis Childs and John Swaine in New York. 1 p., 8 3/4 x 13 1/4 in. Under a law passed in September 1789, Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton signed blank certificates in New York and sent them to the collectors of the various ports of the new nation, where the local collector of the port filled them out and signed them. This registration system was part of a Congressional effort to limit the merchant marine to American-built ships owned and crewed by Americans. If a ship met the necessary requirements, it would "be deemed and taken to be, and denominated, a ship or vessel of the United States," with all the benefits of any U.S. laws. Baltimore collector O. H. Williams filled out and signed this form for the Schooner Robert, owned by Baltimore merchant William Patterson. Complete TranscriptNo. 21In pursuance of an act of the Congress of the United States of America, entitled, "An act for registering and clearing vessels, regulating the coasting trade, and for other purposes," William Patterson of Baltimore Town Merchant having taken and subscribed the oath required by the said act, and having sworn that he is sole owner of the ship or vessel, called the Robert of Baltimore, whereof John Higgins is at present master, and is a citizen of the United States, and that the said ship or vessel was built in the State of Virginia, in the year, one thousand seven hundred and eight six.And Robert Ballard Surveyor of this district having certified to us that the said ship or vessel has one deck and Two masts that her length is Fifty one feet her breadth sixteen feet six Inches her depth Five feet nine Inches and that she measures Forty one tons; that she is sharp built, square sterned has no gallery and no head:And the said subscribing owner having consented and agreed to the above description and measurement, and having caused sufficient security to be given as is required by the said act, the said Schooner Robert has been duly registered at the port of Baltimore in the State of Maryland.Given under our Hands and Seals of Office, at the Port of Baltimore this tenth day of April in the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety.[Signed with seals down the left margin by:] Alex Hamilton / Secy of the TreasuryO. H. Williams / CollectorR Purviance / Nl OfficerHistorical BackgroundOn September 1, 1789, Congress passed "An Act for Registering and Clearing Vessels, Regulating the Coasting Trade, and for other purposes." Designed to protect American shipyards, domestic shipping, and American merchant sailors, the act limited American domestic maritime trade to American-owned ships sailed by an American master. The act also specified the language of this certificate and the oath that the owner(s) had to make, declaring that he or they were American citizens, and that "no foreigner, directly or indirectly, hath any part or interest in the said ship or vessel."If the ship were lost at sea, captured by an enemy, or sold to a foreigner, the owner had to return the certificate to the collector of the port, who would send it to the Secretary of Treasury to be canceled. The same procedure applied when sold to an American citizen, who could then apply for a new certificate from the relevant home port. If a registered ship had a change of master or was altered in form or capacity, the owner had to inform the collector to note the change or issue a new certificate.According to the act, the collector who first registered a ship and issued this certificate was entitled to $2 for the service and $1.50 for each subsequent registration of the same vessel, to be divided equally with the naval officer and surveyor. The act also required the naval officer, if there was one at the port, to sign the certificate. The penalty for using a fraudulent certificate of registry was forfeiture of the ship and its eq. (See website for full description)
Broadsheet, Supplement to the Connecticut Courant, Aug. 23, 1790. Hartford: Barzillai Hudson and George Goodwin. 2 pp., 10 x 14 3/8 in. "A message was received from the President of the United States, with the ratification of the Constitution of the United States by the State of Rhode Island." (p1/c1)This very rare broadside Supplement to the Connecticut Courant details congressional proceedings from June 16-25, 1790, including the announcement of the ratification of the Constitution by Rhode Island, debates surrounding the assumption of state war debts by the federal government, a bill regulating trade with Native American tribes, a committee report on books "necessary for the use of Congress," a committee report on providing "the means of intercourse between the United States and foreign nations," and other matters. Excerpts"Mr. Sedgwick [of Massachusetts].moved that the two first clauses should be struck out-and offered a clause as a substitute which was to authorize the Post-Master-General, with the approbation of the President of the United States, to establish the Post Roads from Wiscassett in Massachusetts, to Savanna in Georgia."(p1/c1)"This motion was objected to. It was further said that it cannot be supposed that the Post-Master-General knows what routs are most eligible better than many of the members-the constitutionality of the motion was doubted." (p1/c1)"If the House mean to avoid a great deal of unnecessary business, which will probably come before them in petitions to abolish old roads, and establish new ones, the proposition appears necessary." (p1/c1)"The motion was negatived by a great majority." (p1/c1)"The bill to authorize the purchasing of West-Point was read the second and third time-and passed." (p1/c1)"The bill for repealing after the last day of -- the duties heretofore laid on spirits, &c. was taken into consideration. The question was, whether the bill should be engrossed."Mr. Stone [of Maryland] observed, that no man could be more in favor of making provision for the debt of the United States, than himself-but the present bill pointed out a mode which he conceived to be the worst that could be devised-the most exceptionable, and would turn out the most unproductive. He should therefore vote against the bill on a full conviction that other funds, entirely unexceptionable, might be found." (p1/c2)"Mr. Carroll [of Maryland] observed, that as so much time had been taken up maturing the bill, he hoped it would pass to be engrossed-the business is of very great importance, and ought now to be finished." (p1/c2)"The amendatory bill providing for the settlement of accounts between the United States and individual States, have been engrossed-the house filled up the blanks, and passed the bill." (p1/c3)"That, as far as the nature of the case will admit, they have in the schedule annexed, complied with the order of the house, having due regard for the state of the treasury. That the committee have confined themselves, in a great measure, to books necessary for the use of the legislative and executive departments, and not often to be found in private or in circulating libraries. without farther provision of books on laws and government, to which reference is often necessary, members of the legislature and other officers of government may be either deprived of the use of such books when necessary, or be obliged at every session, to transport to the seat of government a considerable part of their libraries." (p2/c1)"A message was received from the President of the United States, informing that he had approved of, and signed 'an act for extending to Rhode-Island the judiciary system of the United States.'" (p2/c1)"In support of the motion [of increasing expenditures for ministers to foreign nations from $30,000 to $40,000] it was urged that the President of the United States is by the Constitution vested with the power of appointing such foreign officers as h. (See website for full description)
BENJAMIN F. BUTLER
Typed Letter Signed, Boston, May 25, 1886, to Gen. J.B. Kinsman in Alexandria, Egypt. 2pp, 7.75 x 9.875 in. Stationery from the Law Offices of Butler, Washburn, and Webster. The former Union major general discusses the Washington Monument in relation to the Egyptian pyramids and shares other news and happenings back home. Reading in part: "The Washington Monument had got a crack of a thunderbolt which knocked the top of it somewhat, and as the pyramids are the next highest things, and had stood so many years, I wondered whether there were any thunder claps there, and whether the lightening [sic] had ever troubled them --whether there was any such thing in Egypt, and I did not know where to turn to the authorities. Because if the pyramids have been open to thunder claps during the ages they have stood there must have been a good deal of demolishment, apparently, as in the year the Washington Monument was finished the top of that got badly knocked, although great pains had been taken to draw off the lightening [sic] by conductors, and I did not suppose they had lightening [sic] rods on the pyramids.If you see something quite rare and not too expensive that would adorn the mantlepiece in my new office, which is a very fine room, and will send it to me, I should be very glad of it for I know you have taste in bric-a-brac. You are now Judge in Egypt. I think the administration is inclined to let you alone. Batchelder has tried to make mischief but I don't think he has succeeded." Construction on the Washington Monument began in 1848, pausing from 1854-1877 due to lack of funding and the Civil War. The stone structure was completed in 1884, but the internal ironwork and other stone installations were not finished until 1888. Between 1885 and 1934, monument's aluminum apex lost 1 cm of height due to lightning strikes.Benjamin Franklin Butler (1818-1893) represented Massachusetts in the House of Representatives and the Senate, and later served as its governor. During the Civil War, his jurisdiction over the occupied city of New Orleans was extremely controversial. He refused to return fugitive slaves to the Confederacy, calling them "contraband of war," an interpretation later upheld by the government. His order relating to the city's women made him widely reviled by Southerners as "Beast Butler." Returning to politics, in 1884, he lost the presidential nomination to Grover Cleveland. Butler used his offices to line his own pocket, but also promoted women's suffrage, took a strong stand against the Ku Klux Klan, and tried to assist the poor through various legislation.Josiah B. Kinsman (1824-1912) had worked at Butler's law office. During the war, he served as an aide-de-camp and was later appointed by Butler as chief of a Department of Negro Affairs. Kinsman stressed the importance of vocational and literacy training; by 1864, North Carolina had more than 60 educators and 3000 students enrolled in Kinsman's program. After the war, Kinsman moved abroad to Egypt and became a judge.Light edge toning, and spots of staining and soiling throughout. Boldly signed.
Printed Document. N.p., ca. 1860. 1 p., 8 1/4 x 10 1/2 in. This anti-Lincoln cartoon features two Lincolns sitting back-to-back on a stump. The Lincoln on the left, captioned "Honest old Abe on the Stump. Springfield 1858," says, "Nobody ever expected me to be President. In my poor, lean, lank face, nobody has ever seen that any Cabbages were sprouting out." The Lincoln on the right, captioned "Honest old Abe on the Stump at the ratification Meeting of Presidential Nominations. Springfield 1860," says "I come to see, and be seen." The implication is that he is a two-faced politician. This unattributed cartoon contrasts Lincoln's modest posture at the Illinois Republican state convention in 1858, held in Springfield, with his confidence at the 1860 Illinois Republican ratifying convention, also held in Springfield.In his speech in Springfield on July 17, 1858, Lincoln compared himself to Douglas: "Senator Douglas is of world-wide renown. All of the anxious politicians of his party, or who have been of his party for years past, have been looking upon him as certainly, at no distant day, to be the President of the United States. They have seen, in his jolly, fruitful face, post offices, land offices, marshalships and cabinet appointments, chargeships and foreign missions, bursting and sprouting forth in wonderful exuberance, ready to be laid hold of by their greedy hands. On the contrary, nobody has ever expected me to be President. In my poor, lean, lank face, nobody has ever seen that any cabbages were sprouting out."In a brief speech on August 8, 1860, at a Republican rally in Springfield, Lincoln said, "It has been my purpose, since I have been placed in my present position, to make no speeches. This assemblage having been drawn together at the place of my residence, it appeared to be the wish of those constituting this vast assembly to see me; and it is certainly my wish to see all of you. I appear upon the ground here at this time only for the purpose of affording myself the best opportunity of seeing you, and enabling you to see me."Although drawn by a skilled artist, this image cannot definitively be attributed to any of the major cartoonists of the time.Condition: Professionally conservation treated.From the J. Doyle Dewitt Collection.Abraham Lincoln, Speech at Springfield, Illinois, July 17, 1858, Roy P. Basler et al., eds., The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, 8 vols. (1953), 2:504-521.Abraham Lincoln, Remarks at a Republican Rally, Springfield, Illinois, August 8, 1860, Basler, Collected Works, 4:91.
"Reported Death of Abm. Lincoln," Broadside Extra, April 15, 1865, Jamestown, New York. The Chautauqua Democrat, 1 p., 8 1/2 x 16 in. "At 2:50 A.M. the President was still alive, but insensible and completely helpless.President died at 7:22 this Saturday morning."This vivid early account of the assassination of President Lincoln notes that Secretary of State William H. Seward and his son Frederick (misidentified as Frank) had also been attacked. The newspaper obtained its information from a telegraph operator at the local railroad depot. Historical BackgroundNews of the assassination spread by telegraph throughout the nation on Saturday, April 15, often with inaccurate details. Coming only days after the news of Confederate General Robert E. Lee's surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, the first assassination of an American president struck the people of the nation with particular force.Newspapers reassured the public that the nation was safe, that Johnson had been inaugurated as president, and that all resources were devoted to finding the assassin, John Wilkes Booth. This broadside brings the immediacy of these transformational events to life.The village of Jamestown, New York, with a population of 3,155 in 1860, growing to 5,336 by 1870. In November 1860, Lincoln won Chautauqua County with 69.8 percent of the popular vote against a fusion ticket of Stephen Douglas, John Bell, and John Breckinridge. Four years later, Lincoln won Chautauqua County with 68.5 percent of the vote to McClellan's 31.5 percent.On April 19, 1865, the weekly issue of The Chautauqua Democrat reported: "On Saturday morning a telegram was received announcing the assassination of President Lincoln. Extras were at once issued from the Democrat office, followed by extras from the [Jamestown] Journal office, and three subsequent editions were issued by each office. On Monday telegrams were received announcing cabinet meeting, Proclamation of Gov. Fenton, Health of Gov. Seward, and Funeral ceremonies at Jamestown, &c. all of which news was furnished our citizens in an Extra from this office. No extra was issued by the Journal."On April 21, the weekly issue of The Jamestown Journal reported: "The Terrible news was announced by telegraph to us on Saturday last. It first appeared in a Democrat Extra early in the morning, as rumored. Two editions of the Journal soon appeared announcing by telegraph confused and contradictory reports. The public were thrown into the extremity of horror, anguish and indignation, at the bare rumor; but hope whispered her illusive thoughts and suggested to horrified souls hundreds of plausible doubts. All this was dispelled, however, by the appearance of our Third Edition, about noon, containing a special dispatch from Capt. T. Cluney, who witnessed the assassination. This scattered the last ray of hope that we had been the victims of a cruel hoax and shut the community in a cloud of thick, impenetrable gloom from which it has not yet emerged, and through which few rays of light yet break."Complete TranscriptChautauqua Democrat Extra - - 2d EditionReported Death of / ABM. LINCOLNAttack on / Secretary SEWARD. Dispatch recieved at Jamestown, Saturday, April 15, 1865.Sec. Seward was attacked at the time of Lincoln's assassination and severely wounded.Particulars of the President's assassination, as received at 9 10 this morning:While the President was sitting in his Private Box at the Theatre, the Assassin entered his box and suddenly fired a pistol at him, the ball entered the back part of his head and penetrated nearly through the skull. At 2:50 A.M. the President was still alive, but insensible and completely helpless.President died at 7:22 this Saturday morning.Frank [sic: Frederick W.]Seward, Assistant Secretary of State, was also attacked and severely wounded.We are indebted to ARTHUR, A & G.W.R. for the above particulars.The Chautauqua Democrat (NY) (1853-1891) was a weekly newspaper in. (See website for full description)
Manuscript Letter Signed, to Nathaniel Appleton, February 8, 1794, [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]. Includes unsigned free frank by Hamilton: "Free Secy of Treasy." 1 p., with integral address leaf, 8 x 9.75 in. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton informs Commissioner of Loans for Massachusetts that he has directed Treasurer Samuel Meredith to send him the funds to pay the 1790 pensions. This applied to Revolutionary War veterans whose wounds rendered them unable to procure a subsistence by manual labor. Those who could perform some labor received partial pensions based on the extent of their disability. Complete TranscriptTreasury DepartmentFebruary 8th 1794Sir I have directed the Treasurer of the United States to furnish you with a draught on the Office of Discount and Deposit at Boston for six hundred and sixty eight dollars and thirty three cents to enable you to discharge the pensions due to sundry Invalids of the United States in the Year 1790 and which were not paid by Benjamin Lincoln the late Agent I am with consideration Sir / your Obedt Servant.Alexandr HamiltonNathaniel Appleton EsquireCommissioner of Loans / for MassachusettsHistorical BackgroundIn June 1788, the Confederation Congress appointed three commissioners, including Alexander Hamilton, to consider the support of wounded and disabled veterans. Their report condemned the disorganized condition of the program. Although the payment of all such pensions were authorized if the states transmitted their rolls to the secretary of war, only six states had submitted their pension lists, and only two had included the necessary financial details.On September 29, 1789, the first Federal Congress passed "An Act Providing for the Payments of the Invalid Pensioners of the United States," which took over from the states the payment of military pensions. Congress turned to Secretary of War Henry Knox to standardize the management of pensions. In 1791, Knox's report recommended that decisions on eligibility should be made locally by physicians, who would report to district judges, who would then inform the secretary of war. However, the Senate in 1792 removed references to physicians, leaving the determination of the extent of disability to the courts. The following year, Congress replaced the prior Act with one that adopted all of Knox's suggestions.Collector Benjamin Lincoln apparently had not paid all of the pensioners in Massachusetts for 1790. In February 1791, Hamilton informed Nathaniel Appleton that President George Washington had selected him, as Commissioner of Loans, to pay "Pensions to Invalids for the space of one year."On January 15, 1794, Hamilton again wrote to Appleton regarding the payments "under such regulations as shall have been prescribed by the Secretary of War." The present letter notified Appleton that the funds had been transferred for him to pay the "sundry invalids" in Massachusetts who had been overlooked in 1790.The "Great Fire" in Boston in late July 1794 destroyed Nathaniel Appleton's dwelling house and attached office, but "by his attention all the public papers were preserved."Nathaniel Appleton (1731-1798) was born in Boston and graduated from Harvard College in 1749. He reportedly paid £50 to avoid military service in the Continental Army, he was active in Revolutionary politics in Massachusetts, serving as a member of the committee of correspondence for Boston in 1772, the Massachusetts provincial congress in 1774, and the Massachusetts General Court in 1783. From 1775 to 1789, he served as commissioner of loans for the Massachusetts state government, and in August 1790, President George Washington appointed him as commissioner of loans under the federal government, a position he held until his death.Condition: Faint scattered soiling; expected folds. Guardian of Freedom (Boston, MA), August 7, 1794, 2:1.
Thomas's Massachusetts Spy or Worcester Gazette. Newspaper, September 28, 1796. Worcester, MA: Isaiah Thomas. 4 pp., 11.75 x 18.75 in. Washington's September 17th Farewell Address is printed in full on pages two to three, signed in type. "Though, in reviewing the incidents of my administration, I am unconscious of intentional error, I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many errors. Whatever they may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to avert or mitigate the evils to which they may tend. I shall also carry with me the hope that my country will never cease to view them with indulgence; and that, after forty five years of my life dedicated to its service with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to oblivion."At the end of his second term, Washington sent an open letter emphasizing the importance of unity and warning Americans against entanglements with foreign powers. Though he had initially solicited James Madison's assistance in crafting his remarks, Alexander Hamilton's second draft is the basis of the final address. Delivered to Congress in writing, Washington's Farewell Address warns against the dangers of sectionalism, and criticizes "the insidious wiles of foreign influence," referring to the pro-French sentiments of Jefferson and the Republicans. Washington's policy during the wars between Great Britain and France in the early 1790s had been one of strict neutrality, and in the closing paragraphs of his Address he argues for continued American isolationism. America heeded his advice against joining a permanent alliance for more than a century and a half. Excerpts"The period for a new election of a Citizen, to administer the Executive Government of the United States being not far distant.it appears to me proper. that I shall now apprise you of the resolution I have formed, to decline being considered. I have the consolation to believe that, while choice and prudence invite me to quit the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it. Profoundly penetrated with this idea, I shall carry it with me to my grave, as a strong incitement to unceasing vows that heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens of its beneficence; that your union and brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free Constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its administration in every department may be stamped with wisdom and virtue; that, in fine, the happiness of the people of these States, under the auspices of liberty, may be made complete by so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of this blessing as will acquire to them the glory of recommending it to the applause, the affection, and adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it."Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. But solicitude for your welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of danger, natural to that solicitude, urge me on an occasion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments: which are the result of much reflection.""The unity of government which constitutes you one people is also now dear to you. It is justly so, for it is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence, the support of your tranquility at home, your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to foresee that, from different causes and from different quarters, much pains will be taken, many artifices employed to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth; as this is the point in your political fortress against which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national unio. (See website for full description)
Autograph Letter Signed, to Governor Isaac Tichenor, February 12, 1799, "New Ark," N.J. 1 p., 8 x 12 3/4 in. With integral address leaf (half missing). "I am sorry that your state have so disgraced themselves by sending again as their Representative the in-famous Lyon - but, we are in an age of excentricity! May we weather the storm!"To the chagrin of President John Adams and the Federalists like New Jersey Supreme Court Judge Elisha Boudinot, voters re-elected Congressman Matthew Lyon while he was in jail for violating the Sedition Act of 1798. The Act outlawed the publishing of "any false, scandalous, and malicious writing or writings against the government of the United States, or the President of the United States, with intent to defame.or to bring them into contempt or disrepute." Most historians view the Alien and Sedition Acts as an overreaching criminalization of dissent during a war scare (the Quasi War with France). Complete Transcript New Ark 12th feb 1799Dear Sir Mr Chipman sent me the one hundred dollars you forwarded by him. As I propose to begin raising a house this spring, if it is in my power to raise the means, I shall esteem it as a particular favor if you will remit me the ballance, either by the post or some private opportunity, as whether I get a house or not will in some measure depend on it, and I have been so driven about from place to place that I long for a resting spot I am sorry that your state have so disgraced themselves by sending again as their representative the in-famous Lyon - but, we are in an age of excentricity! May we weather the storm! Will you please to make my best respects acceptable to Mrs Tichenor. I am Dr Sir Your most obd sert Elisha BoudinotGovr Tichenor[address leaf:] [Ti]chenor Esqr / Bennington [Vermont][docket:] Letter 12 Feby 1799 / Mr Boudinots Ret / for $1200 by Jno Chipm[an]Historical BackgroundMatthew Lyon, U.S. Congressman from Vermont, was the first person to be convicted under the Sedition Act. An Irish immigrant, Lyon supported the French Revolution and advocated the creation of radical Democratic Societies that had drawn the ire of President Washington in 1793. In Congress in 1797, during a nasty debate with Connecticut Federalist Roger Griswold, Lyon spat in Griswold's face. Griswold later beat Lyon with a hickory cane.In October 1798, Lyon was tried for publishing and criticizing a letter from Joel Barlow that analyzed the deteriorating relationship between the U.S. and France, and counseled mobilization for war. Lyon was fined $1,000 and imprisoned for four months. To the dismay of Federalists, this made Lyon a hero who voters reelected by a wider margin. Lyon used a new publication, The Scourge of Aristocracy, to resume his attacks on John Adams and the Federalists. Their fear and scorn of democracy caused the Federalists to become increasingly unpopular; the party never recovered after Jefferson's victory in 1800.Elisha Boudinot (1749-1819) was born in Philadelphia. His merchant and silversmith father was a neighbor and friend of Benjamin Franklin. Elisha studied law under his brother Elias Boudinot IV (1740-1821). Elisha established a practice in Newark, New Jersey. He served as Secretary of the New Jersey Council of Safety in 1778. That December, he became the state's Commissary of Prisoners. After the war, he was a land speculator and promoter of manufacturing. From 1798 to 1804, he served as an associate judge of the New Jersey Supreme Court.Isaac Tichenor (1754-1838) was a lawyer and Federalist politician from Bennington, Vermont. He served as his state's agent lobbying the Continental Congress for statehood, which was achieved in 1791. He served as assemblyman, chief justice and governor (1797-1807, 1808-1809), and was elected to the U.S. Senate twice, serving from 1796-1797, and from 1815-1821.Matthew Lyon (1749-1822) began to learn the printing and bookbinding trades in Dublin. In 1764, he emigrated to Connecticu. (See website for full description)
Archive of Woman's Right Oil & Gas Co., 1917, Okmulgee, Oklahoma. 6 pp. "There is no valid reason why a woman familiar with oil business, cannot carry on the work as well as a man. WE CAN DO SO AND WILL."This collection of three items from March to June 1917 documents the efforts of Oklahoma businesswomen to secure funds to begin a company in the rich oil fields during World War I. Ohio native Vida Luella Dandoy was the president, while Prudence A. Brown was vice president, and Brown's youngest daughter Minnie Lee Kessler served as secretary-treasurer. The trio failed to obtain sufficient capital to finance the drilling of wells, and the venture seems to have failed by July 1917. Highlights and ExcerptsPrinted Document, Prospectus of the Womans Right Oil and Gas Co., ca. May 1917, Okmulgee, Oklahoma. 4 pp., 11 x 8.5 in. (unfolded to 2 pp.), on yellow paper. Some toning; staining on final page."In the development of natural resources the shrewd American investor finds larger and surer returns than in any industrial or commercial investment. All he asks is a square deal and an honest expenditure of his money. This is exactly what we propose to give when we offer you stock in the Womans Right Oil & Gas Co., with its holdings in one of the richest oil sections in Oklahoma, and known as the Okmulgee field. the officers and directors of the Womans Right Oil & Gas Co. stand high in business ability, integrity and sound judgment, and can be relied upon to administer the affairs of the company to the best interests of the stockholders. None of the officers or directors draw a salary. Every dollar derived from the sale of stock of the corporation, less the bare, legitimate expenses necessary to do business, will be honestly and faithfully expended in drilling wells." (p1)"Three essentials are necessary to produce the opportunity: The Time, the Place, the Thought or Idea." (p2)"There has never been a better opportunity, in our judgment, in the history of the oil business, than there is right now to make quick and big money." (p2)"On account of the World wide war, into which our own country has been forced, the demand for oil and gasoline is on the increase, and in our judgment, an increase in value can be looked for, instead of a decline." (p2-3)"The Womans Right Oil and Gas Company is incorporated under the laws of Oklahoma with a capital of one hundred thousand dollars, the par value of the stock being one dollar per share. As indicated by its title, this is a womans company; the officers and management are composed of women. There is no valid reason why a woman familiar with oil business, cannot carry on the work as well as a man. WE CAN DO SO AND WILL." (p3)Mrs. M. L. Kessler, Printed Document Signed, Letter from the Woman's Right Oil & Gas Co., [blank addressee], 1917, Okmulgee, Oklahoma. 1 p., 8.5 x 13.5 in. Expected folds, very good."The Woman's Right Oil & Gas Co., incorporated under the laws of Oklahoma, capitalized for $100,000, par value being one dollar per share; 60,000 shares of this stock now on the market and offered for fifty cents per share. The directors of this company are familiar with the oil and gas business, having been engaged in the oil business for the past twelve years.""A few dollars invested in this company now may make you a fortune or provide a comfortable income for years to come. We believe that stock bought now at fifty cents per share will in less than a year be at part and perhaps many times over.""There is no reason why a woman where she is familiar with the oil business, cannot carry on the work and make a success as well as a man.WE CAN DO SO AND WILL. We propose to operate in Oklahoma proven oil fields, and our object is to raise enough capital to drill several wells before starting work.""We expect to conduct the business of this company along purely business lines and make the Woman's Right Oil & Gas Co. a big and successful corporation in the oil and . (See website for full description)
Joseph Kent, Autograph Letter Signed, to Joseph Gales Jr. and William W. Seaton, October 6, 1827, Rose Mount, Maryland. 7 pp., 8 x 9 7/8 in. Published in the Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, DC), October 8, 1827, 3:1. ". until that moment I did not suppose he could have been forced to Vote for Genl Jackson. I might ask the Gentleman from North Carolina (Mr Saunders) if he does not know some, who made earnest and solem appeals to members who were uncommitted, saying, save the Nation, save the Nation, by the election of Mr Adams, and who are now to be found arrayed among the foremost of the opposition"In this letter to the editors of the Daily National Intelligencer, Maryland governor Joseph Kent attacks a "false & scurrilous" publication by R[omulus] M[itchell] Saunders regarding the 1824 election, asking them to publish a "correction." An excerpt from a letter Kent had written in May 1827 characterized Congressman Saunders, a supporter of William Crawford, as anxious that the election be settled on the first ballot so that North Carolina would not "be forced to vote for" Andrew Jackson. In 1827, Saunders vehemently denied Kent's recollection and denounced the governor and the newspapers that had published his charge. Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, DC), July 21, 1827, 2:3. Previously published in Phenix Gazette (Alexandria, VA), July 20, 1827, 3:1, which copied it from The Commentator (Frankfort, KY), July 7, 1827, 3:1-2. Complete TranscriptMessrs Gales & SeatonI have just seen the false & scurrilous publication of R. M. Saunders, and until I read it I did not suppose there lived an individual so devoid of truth & decency as he has proved himself to be. Deference for public Opinion induces me to ask the favour of you to publish the following reply In the month of May &c &cIn the 3 page make the following correctionOur acquaintance was as limited as he states, but not more so than I desired, having never made the slightest advance toward an intimacy with him, because I considered him a vain, silly, unhappy tempered man, always the tool of some aspirant, expecting no doubt, in the event of their success, the full benefit of his intemperate zeal.Insert the piece on Monday / Date it Rose Mount / 6th Octr 1827 My Dear Sir I regretted that you were out when I called at the office yesterday noon. In making the alteration at the commencement of my letter to you, I have worded it awkwardly. Substitute what you find on the other side & make the correction as desired on the 3d page. My situation makes it painful to have a newspaper controversy with any one & my funds insist on my refusing at this time to make it a personal affair. / Yours very truly Jos: Kent 6th OctJos. Gales Jr Esqr Messrs G & S I have seen the false and scurrilous publication of R. M. Saunders, and deference for public opinion induces me to request you to publish the following reply. Until I read Mr S. publication I had not supposed that an individual lived so devoid of truth and decency as he has proved himself to be. In the month of May last I wrote a letter to a private Gentleman, an old Congressional friend in Frankfort in reply to one received from him, not designed for publication as every candid man would at once perceive as well from its stile, as its subject, and he has since apologized for a portion of it finding its way into the public journals. In this letter in consequence of Genl Saunders's own zealous part in the H of Representatives the preceding winter (the lot of all new converts) I adverted to a conversation he held with me the morning of the Presidential election, every word of which I aver to be the fact and I throw back upon Genl Saunders the vulgar epithet he has had the audacity to apply to me. But a few minutes before the election, Genl Saunders approached the fire place at the south end of the room, taped me on the arm, drew me aside & used the strong language I have ascribed. (See website for full description)
Autograph Letter Signed, to Philip L. Wilson, March 19, 1863. 2 p., 8 x 10 in. Complete TranscriptHead-Quarters Top'l Engineers, Army of the Potomac March 19 1863To / Lieut Philip L. WilsonDear friend Your letter of the 14th Inst was received this morning. I have been on duty at Head Quarters since the 1st of February and did not learn of your application for a leave of absence till you informed me. Upon inquiry I find that your leave of absence has been forwarded to Washington where all leaves of absence for a period longer than 20 days have to be acted upon. I would advise you to address a letter to the Secretary of War to be placed with your application giving a copy of your letter of resignation and the endorsements thereon if you have them and also the substance of your letter to me giving your present condition. I am exceedingly sorry to hear of the prolongation of your suffering and hope yet you will be rewarded by a perfect recovery. Be assured if I can do anything to aid your wishes, that in doing so I shall be but fulfilling a duty that I consider most sacred and pleasing to myself. yours truly G K Warren Brig Genl VolsHistorical BackgroundThe 5th New York Volunteer Infantry under Colonel Abram Duryée mustered into federal service in April 1861. The regiment, known as Duryée's Zouaves, wore colorful uniforms modeled on those of the French Zouaves. The majority of the soldiers were well educated.Shortly after the regiment arrived in Virginia, the 5th New York participated in the Battle of Big Bethel on June 10, 1861, near Fort Monroe. In this poorly planned and poorly executed attack on the Confederates, Union forces suffered 76 casualties to the Confederates' eight. After the battle, Captain John E. White was taking dead soldiers out of carts to replace them with wounded men, when Lieutenant Colonel Gouverneur K. Warren and Corporal Philip L. Wilson arrived to help him get the wounded men back to the Union lines.When Duryée was promoted to brigadier general, Warren took command of the 5th New York. By the time he wrote this letter eighteen months later, Warren was a brigadier general, but he still assisted members of his old regiment when possible.Wilson received a discharge from the service in April 1863.Gouverneur K. Warren (1830-1882) was born in New York and graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1850, as second in his class. Commissioned in the corps of topographical engineers, he worked on the Mississippi River, transcontinental railroad surveys, and mapped the trans-Mississippi West. He served as a mathematics instructor at the Military Academy, and when the war began, he became lieutenant colonel of the 5th New York Infantry. Promoted to colonel in September 1861, he commanded his regiment in the siege of Yorktown in 1862 and assisted the chief topographical engineer of the Army of the Potomac in the Peninsula Campaign. Warren received promotion to brigadier general in September 1862. In February 1863, he became chief topographical engineer for the Army of the Potomac. On July 2, 1863, Warren initiated the defense of Little Round Top, understanding the strategic significance of the undefended hill on the far left of the Union line, earning him the nickname "Hero of Little Round Top." Again promoted to major general, he commanded a corps from August 1863 through the end of the war.Philip L. Wilson (1840-1905) was born in New York and enlisted in the 5th New York Infantry as a private in May 1861. He received a promotion to corporal one month later and to sergeant in October. He became a second lieutenant in August 1862 and was wounded severely in the leg at the Second Battle of Bull Run. Warren was discharged in April 1863. He later became an attorney in a New York law firm. In 1866, he married Rachel Wightman, and they had five children. By 1900, they had moved to Bergen, New Jersey.
Typed Letter Signed, to John Godfrey Saxe, June 22, 1925. On "New York State Women's Democratic News, Inc." stationery. 1 p., 7 7/8 x 10 7/8 in. Complete Transcript June 22, 1925.Mr. John Godfrey Saxe,30 Broad Street,New York, N.Y.Dear Mr. Saxe: Your article is exactly what we want. Do you want me to show the proff [proof] to Judge Olvaney, or do you want me to send you the proof to go over it with him yourself. I will get it put up in type as soon as possible, and send you the printed proof for correction. I think the best time to run it will be in the September Number, as I do not want to run it until the campaign has aroused preliminary enthusiasm. With it I want to make a special appeal for volunteers to do the work you so clearly point out as necessary. Very sincerely yours, Eleanor Roosevelt (Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt) Judge George Washington Olvany (1876-1952) was a New York General Sessions Court judge, deputy New York City Fire Commissioner, and leader of Tammany Hall from 1924 to 1929. Historical BackgroundAs a member of the Women's Division of the New York State Democratic Committee from 1922 to 1935, Eleanor Roosevelt served as editor and columnist for the Women's Democratic News newsletter. She eventually wrote a monthly column entitled "Passing Thoughts of Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt."On April 30, 1925, Roosevelt wrote to attorney and former state senator John Godfrey Saxe II, asking if he would write an article of approximately 1,500 words on the inspection and watching of polling places on both primary and general election days, or two or three shorter articles. She wanted him to explain what a woman who suspected fraud at the polling place should do about it. Her goal was "to educate the women workers in the party upstate who are as yet extremely timid and have very little knowledge of what kind of work they can do and what rights they have." Because the Women's Democratic News was not issued in July and August, she could place Saxe's article(s) in the June, September, or October issues.Saxe also served with Roosevelt on The Citizens' Committee on Constitutional Amendments, which urged voters to approve all four state constitutional amendments on the ballot on November 3, 1925. The first two permitted the government to issue bonds for the construction of public buildings and the elimination of railroad grade crossings, respectively. The third reorganized several state departments and reduced the number of elective offices, and the fourth involved a reorganization of the state court system. All four amendments passed, with majorities ranging from 50.6 percent to 60.5 percent.In elections in the state, Democratic candidate Jimmy Walker overwhelmingly defeated his Republican rival for mayor of New York City with 65.8 percent of the vote. Walker served as mayor for nearly seven years before being forced to resign in a corruption scandal.Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962) was born in New York City into the prominent Roosevelt family. She was tutored privately and attended an English finishing school from 1899 to 1902. In 1905, she married her distant cousin Franklin D. Roosevelt, and they had six children, one of whom died as an infant. She actively supported her husband's political ambitions, campaigning for him, and representing him when he was Governor of New York (1929-1932) and President of the United States (1933-1945). She redefined the position of First Lady into a much more activist one with a heavy traveling, speaking, and writing schedule. Her syndicated newspaper column, "My Day," reached millions with her views on many issues, and she continued it for more than a decade after leaving the White House. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's death, his successor Harry S. Truman appointed Eleanor Roosevelt as the first U.S. Representative to the United Nations, where she served from 1947 to 1953. She also served as the first chair of the United Nations Commission on Human Righ. (See website for full description)
Signed Book. Edward A. D'Alton, History of Ireland, from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, Half-Volume I to the Year 1210, 3rd ed. London: Gresham Publishing Co., 1912. One of six half-volumes. xxi, 3, 284 pp., 6 x 8.74 in. With a color frontispiece, eight plates, black and white illustrations, and one fold-out map of Ireland. Signed on the front free end page, "John F. Kennedy" in black ink. "Brian Boru was of the family of Cormac Cas. His father was Kennedy, son of Lorcan. He was slain in battle with the Danes (951). At his death Brian was but a lad of ten years."What must John F. Kennedy have thought, when he read his surname in this history of the royalty of Ireland from a millennium ago? Brian Boru went on to become the high king of Ireland from 1002 to 1014. He was less pleased to learn that the name Kennedy (Cennétig) meant "ugly head."President John F. Kennedy was America's first Irish-Catholic president, and his family's Irish roots stretched back for generations. The Fitzgerald and the Kennedy families both migrated to America in the mid-nineteenth century, escaping the devastating potato famine to find work and a better life. JFK visited Ireland during his presidency, in June 1963. This volume includes his ownership signature and details the history of Ireland to the year 1210.The author, Rev. Edward Alfred D'Alton, was ordained as a Catholic priest in 1887. He become dean and vicar-general of the Archdiocese of Tuam in 1930. Historical BackgroundThe Fitzgerald family was from County Limerick in western Ireland. President John F. Kennedy's maternal great-grandparents migrated from Ireland in the 1840s and 1850s. Around the same time, cooper Patrick Kennedy migrated from County Wexford in southeastern Ireland to the United States, where he married Bridget Murphy, also from County Wexford, in 1849. They were President Kennedy's paternal great-grandparents. All four of President Kennedy's grandparents were the children of Irish immigrants to the United States.Both the Fitzgerald and the Kennedy families lived and worked in Boston and faced the prevalent discrimination against Irish-Catholic immigrants. By the end of the nineteenth century, both of President Kennedy's grandfathers had become successful Boston politicians, one serving twice as mayor of Boston and as a member of Congress.At his 1961 inauguration as the 35th President of the United States, Kennedy took his oath of office on a large family Bible brought from Ireland by his ancestors. Within its pages is a handwritten chronicle of the Fitzgerald family since 1857, and it includes a record of the birth of John Fitzgerald Kennedy on May 29, 1917.In June 1963, President Kennedy made a trip to Ireland, where he visited the Kennedy family's homestead in County Wexford. At New Ross, Ireland, Kennedy told the audience, "When my great grandfather left here to become a cooper in East Boston, he carried nothing with him except two things: a strong religious faith and a strong desire for liberty. I am glad to say that all of his great-grandchildren have valued that inheritance."Condition: Green cloth-covered boards with gilt titling and decoration on spine and front cover; light wear to the covers; bumped spine edges and corners; cracked spine; light toning and foxing throughout internal pages.
Declaration of Independence
"In Congress, July 4, 1776. A Declaration by the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled," pp. 41-46. Printed immediately after The Genuine Principles of the Ancient Saxon, or English Constitution. Carefully collected from the best Authorities; with some Observations, on their Peculiar Fitness, for the United Colonies in General, and Pennsylvania in Particular. By Demophilus. Philadelphia: Printed, and Sold, by Robert Bell, [July 8,] 1776, as dated by the terminal advertisement leaf. Very rare. According to Sotheby's, "while there are copies . . . in a number of major libraries and historical societies, only three other copies have appeared at auction since the Streeter sale" of 1967. The Declaration was first printed by John Dunlap, the official printer to the Continental Congress, as a broadside on the evening of July 4 into the morning of July 5, 1776. The text next appeared in the July 6 issue of The Pennsylvania Evening Post. The book, Genuine Principles., must have already been on the press when the broadside appeared, allowing Bell quickly to add a new gathering with the full text of the Declaration preceded by a stirring introduction: "The events which have given birth to this mighty revolution; and will vindicate the provisions that shall be wisely made against our ever again relapsing into a state of bondage and misery, cannot be better set forth than in the following Declaration of American Independence."The final leaf, dated July 8, advertises Bell's next publication, "in a few days," of John Cartwright's anonymous American Independence the Interest and Glory of Great Britain. On July 8, Dunlap's own newspaper, The Pennsylvania Packet, or General Advertiser, also printed the Declaration. Advertisements in the July 9 issue of the Pennsylvania Evening Post and the July 10 issue of the Pennsylvania Gazette confirm that Genuine Principles was "just printed, published and now selling by Robert Bell."In January 1776, Bell had been the first printer of Common Sense. Bell's "Additions" to Paine's works a couple of months later included a Demophilus essay, "The Propriety of Independancy." Demophilus, author of theGenuine Principles. was either George Bryan or Samuel Bryant. In any case, it was intended to influence the delegates to Pennsylvania's constitutional convention, which began on July 15 with Benjamin Franklin at its head.In a way, this Declaration imprint is even more "original" than the signed Declaration manuscript. This is the July 4 Declaration, not yet Unanimous. The engrossed manuscript was prepared only after New York's legislature heard the news and then voted to join the other twelve colonies. The "National Treasure" document was prepared, and most of the signers added their "John Hancocks" on August 4th.Condition:Title-page loss at upper fore-edge corner cost four letters and a period, by has been professionally restored. First half-sheet (A1-4) creased not affecting legibility, A2 with marginal tear to fore-edge, B2 with repaired tear into last two lines of text. Modern half honey-brown morocco.CensusInstitutions - 16 known copiesBoston Athenaeum; The British Library; Brown University, John Carter Brown Library; University of Chicago, John Crerar Library; Harvard University; Historic Society of Pennsylvania; Huntington Library; Indiana University- Lilly Library; Library Company of Philadelphia; Library of Congress; Massachusetts Historical Society; University of Michigan, William L. Clements Library; Missouri Historical Society; NY Public Library; NY State Library; Yale University.Private Collections - Possibly 10-15 copies, based on a century of sales recordsWe find ten to fifteen copies that have sold since 1908, although some of these could be (and probably are) already represented in the institutional list.References:Evans 14734; Matyas, Checklist of Books, Pamphlets, and Periodicals, Printing the U.S. Declaration of Ind. (See website for full description)
Autograph Note Signed, to Edwin M. Stanton, May 20, 1864, Washington, D.C. 1 p., 3 1/4 x 2 in. Lincoln directs Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton to have Assistant Secretary of War Charles A. Dana, who was in Washington just for the day before returning to Grant's Headquarters, to "call and see me." Dana had been managing editor of the New-York Tribune until conflict with Horace Greeley forced his resignation in 1862. Stanton immediately made Dana a special investigating agent. Regularly reporting from the front, occasionally shuttling back and forth, Dana became a trusted friend of Ulysses S. Grant. On January 28, 1864, Lincoln appointed Dana as Second Assistant Secretary of War. Dana shuttled between Washington D.C. and the army during the Vicksburg campaign, the Battle of Chickamauga, and most recently to this note, the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, which started on May 8th, with the last major Union movement occurring on May 19th. Complete TranscriptSec. of War please ask Mr Dana to call and see me before he starts to the front A. LincolnMay 20, 1864Historical BackgroundOn May 19, Dana telegraphed to Stanton from Belle Plain, Virginia, reporting on the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House. The Union suffered 1,000 killed and wounded, but they "severely punished" the Confederates and took about 700 prisoners. Dana noted, "I am taking advantage of this lull in offensive operations to come to Washington for a day to get a few necessary things. When I left I brought with me only a toothbrush, which proves inadequate to the exigencies of prolonged campaign." A steamer would bring him up the Potomac River to the capital.The reason for Lincoln's request to meet with Dana is unknown; perhaps the president wanted Dana to deliver a message to General Grant in person. About what?On May 17, Lincoln had drafted an order to Stanton to "notify the insurgents" that the U.S. had evidence that the Fort Pillow Massacre was indeed a massacre. If captured black troops were not exchanged, the president threatened to assume that they had been murdered or enslaved, which would lead to significant (but unspecified) consequences. It isn't clear if Stanton received or acted on the order yet.Also, on May 18, Lincoln had telegraphed Grant, "An elderly gentleman-Dr. Winston-is here, saying he is well acquainted with the ground you are on, and trying to get on, and having letters from Gov. Morton, Senator Lane, and one from your Father, and asking to be allowed to go to you. Shall we allow him to go to you?" On the 19th, Grant replied, "Dr Winston may be of great service to us, please send him along." On May 20, the day of our note, Lincoln added an endorsement on Grant's telegram, sending it to Stanton, "Please provide for Dr. Winston going forward according to the within." "Dr. Winston" was likely the Indiana Quaker farmer and physician Pleasant Winston (1792-1876), who was born in Henrico County, Virginia, just north of Richmond. He married in Virginia in 1820 and thereby became the owner of slaves, which he could not liberate under Virginia law, though keeping them was against his belief as a member of the Society of Friends. Therefore, he sent them to Liberia, where they would be free. In 1830, not wanting his children to grow up with slavery, he moved his family to Indiana. Perhaps Lincoln wanted Dana to accompany Winston to Grant's headquarters.Dana may not have received the message in time to meet with Lincoln. Dana was back in Belle Plaine by 8 p.m. on May 20. He telegraphed Stanton additional details of the Battle, as told to him by "a newspaper correspondent of my acquaintance," who had left the front on May 19 at 4 p.m. By 5:30 on May 21, Dana was again at the front, at Guiney's Station, Virginia. He informed Stanton that, "so far the new movement of the army has been accomplished without interruption." In a pattern Grant would repeat several times, starting on the night of May 20-21, he move. (See website for full description)
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
Copperplate engraving printed on thin wove paper. Imprint at bottom left, "W. J. STONE SC WASHn" [William J. Stone, Washington, D.C. ca. 1833]. Printed for Peter Force's American Archives, Series V, Vol I. Approx. 25 x 30 in. The Stone/Force printings are the best representation of the Declaration as it was when members of the Continental Congress put their lives on the line to sign it in August of 1776. America emerged from the War of 1812 truly independent. The country had survived its second conflict with Great Britain, and the Louisiana Purchase had doubled the nation's size. Tested in war and peace, the U.S. was on the verge of enormous physical, political, and economic expansion. This optimistic time was widely known as the "Era of Good Feelings." As the 50th anniversary of independence approached, a new generation sought connections to our nation's founding. the Declaration of Independence, with its not-yet-famous signatures, became iconic.By 1820 the original Declaration of Independence (now at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.) already showed signs of wear from handling. John Quincy Adams, then Secretary of State, received the approval of Congress to commission William J. Stone to engrave a facsimile-an "exact" copy-on a copper plate. Stone finished his copperplate in 1823, and awaited instructions.In 1824, Congress ordered 200 official copies printed on vellum, which were distributed by John Quincy Adams to our presidents and vice presidents, governors, educational institutions, the Marquis de Lafayette, and the three surviving signers (John Adams, Charles Carrol, and Thomas Jefferson), among others. Just over a quarter of Stone's vellum first editions are known to survive; most are in or destined for museums and libraries.In the 20th century, Stone was posthumously accused of having used a "wet" or chemical process to lift and transfer ink from the original parchment to guide the engraving. On the contrary, we believe there is sufficient evidence that he did not. Stone held the original document for more than two years, and expertly engraved it by hand. The Peter Force/ William Stone Second EditionSeveral years later, archivist Peter Force was planning The Documentary History of the American Revolution and wanted to include a Declaration facsimile. The State Department agreed to purchase 1,500 sets, and Congress authorized the project on March 2, 1833. Rather than waiting, Force immediately went to Stone to have the Declarations printed. The second edition was printed on thin wove paper, and the legend was shortened and moved from the top to the bottom left. The new imprint read, "W. J. STONE SC WASHN," with "SC" standing for "sculpsit," meaning "engraver." Peter Force expanded the scope of his documentary collection and renamed it American Archives: A Documentary History of the United States, encompassing six series from colonial settlement to the organization of the federal government in 1789. Series V, Volume I, which included the Declaration, was finally published in 1848. Thus, Stone's second facsimile was originally catalogued as having been printed in 1848. However, in the State Department archives, our researcher discovered an invoice from Stone, dated July 21, 1833, for 4,000 Declaration copies, revealing that Force, likely anticipating delays with the whole project, ordered the facsimiles from Stone immediately upon getting the 1833 Congressional authorization.Some believe Stone's original plate was used. Differences include vertical size of the print block, though that could be explained by differences in the vellum (which is very reactive to changes in temperature and humidity) and paper over time. There are also minute engraving differences, which perhaps can be explained by touch-ups to the plate, but this is one of the remaining research questions that hasn't been tackled yet.In 1843, after mounting expenses and increasing delays, Force had to apply for Co. (See website for full description)
Loyalist Account of the Battle of Bunker Hill Broadside. June 26, 1775, Boston. Boston: John Howe, 1775. 1 p., 8 3/4 x 14 in. "This Action has shown the Bravery of the King's Troops, who under every Disadvantage, gained a compleat Victory. But they fought for their King, their Laws and Constitution."Nine days after the British drove the Americans from the heights above Boston, Loyalist printer John Howe issued this broadside/handbill. Although the account of the battle is quite accurate, it inflates the number of Patriot troops and distorts the number of casualties. Although it claims the British troops were outnumbered three to one, other estimates suggest that approximately 2,400 Patriots faced 3,000 British troops. The Americans suffered approximately 450 casualties, including 140 dead, while the British lost 1,054 killed and wounded, a casualty rate of about 45 percent. The casualty rate among British officers was particularly high. This broadside's emphasis on the courage of the British forces makes it an unusual account of the battle and an interesting piece of British propaganda. Complete Transcript BOSTON, 26th of June, 1775.THIS Town was alarmed on the 17th Instant at break of Day, by a Firing from the Lively Ship of War; and a Report was immediately spread that the Rebels had broke Ground, and were raising a Battery on the Heights of the Peninsula of Charlestown, against the Town of Boston. They were plainly seen, and in a few Hours a Battery of Six Guns, played upon their Works. Preparations were instantly made for the landing a Body of Men; and some Companies of Grenadiers and Light Infantry, with some Battalions and Field Artillery; amounting in the whole to about 2000 Men, under the Command of Major General HOWE, and Brigadier General PIGOT, were embarked with great Expedition, and landed on the Peninsula without Opposition; under Cover of some Ships of War, and armed Vessels. The Troops formed as soon as landed: The Rebels upon the Heights, were perceived to be in great Force, and strongly posted. A Redoubt thrown up on the 16th at Night, with other works full of Men, defended with Cannon, and a large Body posted in the Houses of Charlestown, covered their Right; and their Left was covered by a Breastwork, Part of it Cannon Proof, which reached from the Left of the Redoubt to the Mystick River. Besides the Appearance of the Rebels Strength, large Columns were seen pouring in to their Assistance; but the King's Troops advanced; the Attack began by Cannonade, and notwithstanding various Impediments of Fences, Walls, &c. and the heavy Fire they were exposed to, from the vast Numbers of Rebels, and their Left galled from the Houses of Charlestown, the Troops made their Way to the Redoubt, mounted the Works, and carried it. The Rebels were forced from other strong Holds, and pursued 'till they were drove clear of the Peninsula, leaving Five Pieces of Cannon behind them. Charlestown was set on Fire during the Engagement, and most Part of it consumed. The Loss they sustained, must have been considerable, from the vast Numbers they were seen to carry off during the Action, exclusive of what they suffered from the shipping. About a Hundred were buried the Day after, and Thirty found wounded on the Field, some of which are since Dead. About 170 of the King's Troops were killed, and since dead of their Wounds; and a great many were wounded. This Action has shown the Bravery of the King's Troops, who under every Disadvantage, gained a compleat Victory over Three Times their Number, strongly posted, and covered by Breastworks. But they fought for their King, their Laws and Constitution.Historical BackgroundOn June 13, 1775, the leaders of the Patriot forces besieging Boston learned that the British planned to occupy the hills around the city, giving them control of Boston Harbor. During the night of June 16, Colonel William Prescott and 1,200 American troops occupied Bunker Hill and B. (See website for full description)
Autograph Letter Signed, to John Adlum, August 24, 1799, New York. 1 p., 7.75 x 13 in. During the Quasi-War with France, Congress established in May 1798 a three-year "Provisional Army" of 10,000 men, consisting of twelve regiments of infantry and one regiment of cavalry to exist simultaneously with the United States Army. Although the commanding officer of the Provisional Army was George Washington, he accepted the appointment on the condition that he remain in retirement at Mount Vernon until he was actually needed. In March 1799, Congress created an "Eventual Army" of 30,000 men, which was to include the Provisional Army and three regiments of cavalry, but neither army was fully recruited or mobilized. Congress dissolved the Provisional Army in June 1800.This letter to Major John Adlum of Pennsylvania was part of Major General Alexander Hamilton's efforts as the ranking general below Washington to prepare forces for the brewing hostilities with France. Complete Transcript New York August 24, 1799Sir, I enclose to you a letter which you will please deliver to Lieutenant Boote. Should Mr Boote be willing to repair to this place you will give him permission to do so. In that case you will annex his party of infantry to the other company of infantry which forms part of your detachment. With great consideration / I am, Sir Yr obt servt A HamiltonMajor Adlum[Frank:] On public service / A Hamiln[Address:] Major John Adlum / Reading / Pennsylvaa[Docketing:] From Genl Hamilton / Augst 24thJohn Adlum (1759-1836) was born in York, Pennsylvania. As a teenager, he volunteered for duty in the Continental Army in July 1776 and was assigned to the Flying Camp. Captured in November at the Battle of Fort Washington, he was imprisoned in New York City and released on parole in February 1777, leaving him unable to participate in the war any further. He settled in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, and studied surveying. He began a surveying practice in 1784 and made a small fortune as a surveyor in Pennsylvania. He began experimenting with growing grapes as a surveyor, and in 1809 succeeded in making an excellent wine from the Alexander grape. On January 8, 1799, the federal government commissioned him a Major in the 11th Regiment of Infantry of the Provisional Army. Adlum was honorably discharged when the Provisional Army disbanded in 1800. He later enlisted in the new United States Army in 1807, received a promotion to Captain in 1808, and fought in the War of 1812. After moving to the District of Columbia in 1814, Adlum began cultivating grapes in 1819. Over the next decade, he experimented with a variety of domestic grapes, earning him the name of "father of American viticulture." In 1823, he published the first book on American viticulture. Although cuttings from his vineyard established largescale successful vineyards in Ohio and New York, Adlum was not as successful in his own winemaking efforts, and his family subsisted close to poverty in his later years.William Rowland Boote (1774-aft. 1815) was born in London and emigrated to the United States. He joined the U.S. Army in 1797 and was a second lieutenant in the 3rd Regiment of Infantry in 1799. He rose in the ranks to Captain in 1800, Major in 1806, Lieutenant Colonel in 1813, and later Colonel. Boote served at forts in Alabama and Mississippi and signed treaties with the Chickasaw in 1801 and the Creeks in 1802. In 1807, Boote was responsible for taking custody of Aaron Burr and transporting him to his trial for treason in Richmond, Virginia. The contents of Meriwether Lewis's trunks were also inventoried in Boote's presence in November 1809 after Lewis's death. Boote was honorably discharged from the Army in June 1815.
WILLIAM K. VANDERBILT
Partially Printed Document Signed. $50,000 World War Bonus Bond, issued to William K. Vanderbilt, Harold S. Vanderbilt, and Frederick W. Vanderbilt as trustees for Anna H. Vanderbilt, signed by first two. Certificate #64, with engraved vignette of the state seal. October 16, 1944. These state bonds financed "the payment of bonuses to honorably discharged Soldiers, Sailors and Marines of the World War, who were actual residents of the State at the time of their enlistment." The bonuses had been used as inducements to encourage enlistments upon America's entry into the First World War.Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt had built a vast fortune in railroads, which his numerous heirs, to varying degrees, managed to squander on extravagant pursuits. Great-grandsons William Kissam Vanderbilt, Jr. (1878-1944) and Harold S. Vanderbilt (1884-1970) did manage to distinguish themselves as sportsmen. William built the first motor parkway on Long Island for use as a race course and toll road; it lost money and eventually was subsumed into the Long Island Expressway. Harold won yachting's America's Cup three times, in 1930, 1934, and 1938. He is also credited with inventing and perfecting the game of Contract Bridge.