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Star Chart Used During Historic Apollo 11 Flight

Star Chart Used During Historic Apollo 11 Flight, Inscribed and Signed by Buzz Aldrin

NASA Printed Document Signed and Inscribed by Buzz Aldrin. "Carried to the moon on Apollo XI. Buzz Aldrin." Flown sheet from the Apollo 11 Flight Plan, Part No. SKB32100080-201, S/N 1001, figure 9.2-5, printed on recto only. NASA/Manned Spacecraft Center, July 1, 1969. With Buzz Aldrin Typed Letter Signed on his personal stationery. 1 p., 8 x 10 1/2 in. One of the few celestial navigation aids carried on Apollo 11, this star chart played a key role in ensuring the safety of the Apollo 11 crew, as it allowed them to verify their lunar trajectory and update their guidance computer after the first actual Midcourse Correction engine burns, putting them on course for the moon!Aldrin's doctoral thesis was Line-of-Sight Guidance Techniques for Manned Orbital Rendezvous, earning him the nickname "Dr. Rendezvous" from fellow astronauts.If it wasn't possible to use the guidance platform, the astronauts would use the GDC [gyro display coupler] to align with stars 36, Vega (the brightest star in the northern constellation of Lyra) and 43, Deneb (a first-magnitude star in the constellation of Cygnus, the swan.) Together with Altair, Deneb and Vega form the Summer Triangle.Bruce McCandless II, who served as one of the mission control capsule communicators (CAPCOM), and Aldrin set the parameters for Midcourse Correction number 2 (MCC-2). It was actually the first, as Mission Control had already cancelled MCC-1 as unnecessary. The maneuver worked perfectly.From NASA transcripts:025:48:44 McCandless: And I have your Midcourse Correction number 2 PAD here when you're ready to copy.025:48:50 Aldrin: Stand by. [Long pause.]025:49:15 Aldrin: [Faint.] Roger, Houston. Apollo 11, ready to copy MCC-2.025:49:20 McCandless: Apollo 11, this is Houston. Midcourse Correction number 2. SPS/G&N; 63059; plus 0.97, minus 0.20; GET ignition 026:44:57.92; plus 0011.8, minus 0000.3, plus 0017.7; roll, 277, 355, 015; Noun 44, Block is N/A; Delta-VT 0021.3, 00:3, 0016.8; sextant star 30, 208.2, 37.0. The rest of the PAD is N/A. GDC align, Vega and Deneb; roll align 007, 144, 068. No ullage. LM weight: 33302. For your information, your heads will be pointed roughly towards the Earth on this burn. Read back. Over.025:51:12 Aldrin: Roger. Midcourse Correction number 2. SPS/G&N: 63059; plus 0.97, minus 0.20; 026:44:57.92; plus 0011.8, minus 0000.3, plus 0017.7; 277 - Are you still copying, Houston? Over.025:51:50 McCandless: Roger. Still copying. Go ahead. [Long pause.] Apollo 11, this is - Apollo 11, this is Houston. I copied your transmission about roll, 277. And go ahead from roll, 277. Over.025:52:19 Aldrin: Roger. 355, 015; N/A; 0021.3, 00:3, 0016.8; 30, 208.2, 37.0. Vega and Deneb; 007, 144, 068.[1] No ullage. LM weight, 33302. Heads towards the Earth. Over. .026:39:30 McCandless: Read you loud and clear on the High Gain down here, and everything's looking good from our standpoint for your burn. Over.026:39:36 Collins: Okay, Bruce.[Long comm break.]Public Affairs Officer: This is Apollo Control at 26 hours, 40 minutes. We're just under 4 minutes to the midcourse correction maneuver. Apollo 11's distance from the Earth is 109,245 nautical miles [202,322 km]. Its velocity is 5,033 feet per second [1,534 m/s]. Spacecraft weight; 96,361 pounds [43,709 kg].Public Affairs Officer: One minute to the burn.Public Affairs Officer: The duration will be 3 seconds.Public Affairs Officer: Burning. Shutdown.026:45:38 Armstrong: Houston, burn completed. You copying our residuals?026:45:40 McCandless: That's affirmative.Public Affairs Officer: This is Apollo Control. That was a good burn. The residuals are on the order of a half a foot a second or less, and will not be trimmed.Additional Historic BackgroundMidcourse corrections 3 and 4 were also cancelled. We include information on the next similar burn, on the return flight to Earth, Apollo 11 conducted Midcourse Correction number 5 to show how the astronauts were thinking.079:49:21 Collins: We. (See website for full description)
Period Oil Portrait of William H. Seward Wonderfully Executed

Period Oil Portrait of William H. Seward Wonderfully Executed

WILLIAM H. SEWARD Oil Bust Portrait of Secretary of State William H. Seward, ca. 1864. Oil on board, 11 x 14 in. oval; framed to 17 x 20 in. This striking portrait of the Civil War Secretary of State for the United States is unsigned, but a later pencil notation on the verso of the painting reads "C. P. Healey." This note suggests that it is the work of the renowned portrait painter George Peter Alexander Healy. Healy is known to have painted a portrait of Seward,[1] and no other extant Healy portrait of Seward is known.The profile pose is very similar to the 1860s photograph of Seward by Mathew Brady in Washington, D.C.George Peter Alexander Healy (1813-1894) was born in Boston and began drawing at age sixteen and painting portraits at age eighteen. He studied in Europe from 1834 to 1850, with occasional trips to the United States. He returned to the United States and settled in Chicago until 1869, when he again went to Europe for twenty-one years. In 1892, he returned to Chicago, where he died two years later. Among his portraits were those of Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Pope Pius IX, William T. Sherman, and all presidents from John Quincy Adams to Ulysses S. Grant. In a period of twenty years, he executed nearly six hundred portraits. In one large 1851 historical work, Webster's Reply to Hayne, Healy included 130 portraits. He was one of the most prolific and popular painters of the mid-nineteenth century.William H. Seward (1801-1872) was born in New York and educated as a lawyer. He opened a practice in Auburn, New York, and was elected to the New York Senate in 1830 as an Anti-Mason. In 1834, he was an unsuccessful Whig Party candidate for governor, but he won in 1838 and was re-elected in 1840. Elected to the U.S. Senate as a Whig in 1849 by the legislature, Seward won re-election in 1855 and soon joined the Republican Party. By 1860, he was considered the leading presidential candidate for the Republican Party, but opposition from other parts of the Republican coalition gave the nomination to Abraham Lincoln of Illinois. After Lincoln won the 1860 election, he asked Seward to serve as his Secretary of State. Although he tried to preserve peace and prevent the southern states from seceding, Seward devoted himself to the Union cause and helped keep the United Kingdom and France from intervening in the Civil War or recognizing the Confederacy. In April 1865, a co-conspirator to John Wilkes Booth's assassination of Lincoln nearly killed Seward in his bed, recovering from a carriage accident. After recovering, Seward resumed his post as Secretary of State to President Andrew Johnson. He negotiated the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867 and supported Johnson during his impeachment trial. He left office at the end of Johnson's term in March 1869.ConditionA few paint splatters and later notations on verso. In its original gold gesso frame. Restored in 2010 by Eli Wilner.ProvenancePurchased at a Tepper Galleries auction in the 1970s. Harold Holzer Collection.[1] America's Greatest Men and Women. Photographs and Biographies of the Most Famous Living People on the Continent (St. Louis: C. O. Tice & Co., 1894), 160.
Masonic Constitution Dedicated to George Washington

Masonic Constitution Dedicated to George Washington, with frontispiece Masonic Coats of Arms by Future Chief Engraver of the US Mint

GEORGE WASHINGTON. LAURENCE DERMOTT Book. Ahiman Rezon [Help to a Brother] abridged and digested: as a Help to all that are, or would be Free and Accepted Masons. To which is added, A Sermon, Preached in Christ-Church, Philadelphia, At A General Communication, Celebrated, agreeable to the Constitutions, on Monday, December 28, 1778, as the Anniversary of St. John the Evangelist. Published by order of The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, by William Smith, D.D. Philadelphia: Hall and Sellers, 1783. 4 3/4 x 7 5/8 in.; engraved frontispiece, xvi, 166 pp. First edition. "In Testimony, as well as of his exalted Services to his Country as of that noblePhilanthropy which distinguishes Him among Masons"This is the scarce first American edition of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania's Masonic Constitution, dedicated to Washington as "General and Commander in Chief of the Armies of the United States of America."The 1778 sermon included in this volume carries a similar dedication, as well as a detailed description of the procession in which "our illustrious Brother George Washington" marched as guest of honor. The sermon itself contains a remarkably prescient characterization of Washington as an American Cincinnatus. The volume's fine frontispiece engraving of two Masonic coats-of-arms is by Robert Scot (Scott), future chief engraver of the United States Mint. Front pastedown inscribed, "George F. Albrecht, Newton Upper Falls, Mass, April 25, 1908."Inscribed on title page, "Thos ____ His Book, Philadelphia, January 21, 1798." Effaced inscription on rear of frontispiece.Historical BackgroundGeorge Washington was undoubtedly the most celebrated member of the Freemasons. He joined the Masonic lodge in Fredericksburg, Virginia in 1752, at the age of 20, and was raised to master Mason the ensuing year. Washington enjoyed the organization's confraternity throughout his Revolutionary War service and presidency, serving as charter master of the Alexandria, Virginia lodge, accepting honorary memberships, and participating in a variety of ceremonies and celebrations. He is said to have visited the Yorktown, Virginia lodge with Lafayette following the surrender of Cornwallis in October of 1781. At his inauguration on April 30, 1789, Washington was sworn in as the nation's first President using a Bible from St. John's Lodge No. 1 in New York. On his death, he was buried with full Masonic rites.Washington was the guest of honor when William Smith delivered the December 28, 1778 sermon included in this volume. Smith had personally requested the presence of "Brother Washington" at the celebration of the anniversary of St. John the Evangelist and the Commander-in-Chief agreed to take time out from his military duties to attend. That morning, he joined a procession of 300 fellow Masons to attend service at Philadelphia's Christ Church. There, Washington heard Smith extol him from the pulpit as an American Cincinnatus.Such.was the Character of a Cincinnatus in ancient Times; rising "awful from the Plough" to save his Country; and, his Country saved, returning to the Plough again, with increased Dignity and Lustre. Such too, if we divine aright, will future Ages pronounce to have been the Character of a **********; but you all anticipate me in a Name, which Delicacy forbids me, on this Occasion, to mention. Honoured with his presence as a Brother, you will seek to derive Virtue from his Example.That title has come to characterize Washington as an exemplar of Democracy and integrity. It also provided the name for the Society of the Cincinnati, the organization of Revolutionary War officers founded at the close of the conflict.Smith's sermon was printed shortly after its delivery (the version included here is Hall and Sellers' reprinting), the proceeds to go to the benefit of the poor. It is dedicated to Washington as the "Friend of His Country and Mankind, ambitious of no higher title, if higher was possible."William Smith (1727-1803), a Scottish-born educator a. (See website for full description)
Brooklyn Ferry in 1666 - British Royal Governor Confirms Dutch Owners Land Grant for the Brooklyn End of the Ferry

Brooklyn Ferry in 1666 – British Royal Governor Confirms Dutch Owners Land Grant for the Brooklyn End of the Ferry

RICHARD NICOLLS Manuscript Document Signed, March 12, 1666, to Egbert van Borsum. 2 pp. with attached wax seal, 12 3/4 x 16 1/4 in. "Whereas there is a certaine Plott of Ground, with a House or Tenement there upon, Scituate and being at the Ferry, within the Bounds of the Towne of Brucklyn, in the west Riding of Yorkeshire upon Long Island." After the Dutch surrendered New Amsterdam in September 1664, Richard Nicolls became the first royal governor of New York. He guaranteed the formerly Dutch colonists the possession of their property rights, laws of inheritance, and religious freedom. Here, as British Governor, Nicolls re-grants land at Brooklyn Ferry to Dutch settler Egbert van Borsum, who had operated the ferry since 1654, so that he could continue it under British rule. Based on the history of the ferry, we believe this property is part of today's Fulton Ferry Landing, just south of the Brooklyn Bridge. Businesses in the area now include the River Café and Bargemusic.Historical BackgroundIn July 1654, Egbert van Borsum obtained a patent for two lots at the ferry in Brooklyn and leased from the city exclusive rights to the Brooklyn ferry, which he operated between New Amsterdam (New York) and Brooklyn, from June 1654 to his death in 1676. Government regulations required the ferryman to provide a lodge on both sides of the river, so van Borsum also bought land on the Brooklyn side and erected a tavern. Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant granted the Brooklyn property to him in August 1654. This land grant from British Governor Richard Nicolls confirms the title of that land on the Brooklyn end of the ferry to van Borsum, so that he could continue to operate the Brooklyn Ferry under British rule. After van Borsum's death, his widow and son continued their tavern and ferry business for several years.Richard Nicolls (1624-1672) was the first English colonial governor of New York from 1664 to 1668. He commanded a royalist troop of horse during the English Civil War, and when the king was defeated, Nicolls went into exile. After the restoration, he became Groom of the Chamber for the Duke of York, and in 1664, Nicolls was part of an expedition to take New Netherlands from the Dutch. New Amsterdam surrendered to Nicolls on September 8, 1664. Under the authority of a commission from the Duke of York, later King James II, Nicolls assumed the position of deputy-governor of New Netherlands. With the help of his secretary, Nicolls drafted a code of laws, known as the "Duke's Laws," which he proclaimed in March 1665; they continued in force until 1683. He returned to England in 1668 and was killed in a naval battleEgbert van Borsum (1605-1676) was born in Holland and emigrated to New Amsterdam in 1639. He was a sailor and the captain of the Prince William in 1644, which traded between New Haven and New Amsterdam. In 1642, he bought a house and lot called the Ferry by Wolphert's Valley. He began operating the Brooklyn Ferry in June 1654 and continued to operate it until his death. He also owned a tavern. By 1670, he lived in Flatbush.Matthias Nicolls (1630-1687) was the son of a minister and practiced law in Islip, Northamptonshire, England. In 1664, he came to New Netherlands with Richard Nicolls, who may have been his uncle and for whom he served as secretary. He was a member of the convention that established laws for the new colony and served in various judicial roles. In 1672 and 1673, he served as the sixth mayor of New York City, and in 1684, he was speaker of the General Assembly of New York that guaranteed religious freedom to Christians in the colony.ConditionLightly toned, repairs along folds, some blank paper restored (not affecting document's text). Overall good, very legible. Page one retains original seal. The silk string remains, but has been clipped to allow page two to be displayed separately.Complete TranscriptRichard Nicolls Esquire Governor Generall, under his Royall Highnesse, James Duke of York. (See website for full description)
Attending the Philadelphia Sanitary Fair in the Summer of 1864

Attending the Philadelphia Sanitary Fair in the Summer of 1864

CIVIL WAR Great Central Fair Tickets, June 1864. Pair of passes for the Great Central Fair, held in Philadelphia, June 7-28, 1864. One ticket is for one day's admission for a public school student. The other is a season ticket. 1 p. each, 3 1/2 x 2 1/4 and 3 1/2 x 2 in. Two tickets to the Great Central Fair in Philadelphia. One admitted a pupil of the public schools of Philadelphia and was used on Saturday, June 11, according to the stamp on the verso. The other is an apparently unused "Season Ticket" that admitted the bearer "To All Parts of the Fair," except the Children's Exhibitions but was "Forfeited if Transferred and Not Good unless Endorsed." The verso includes the oath, "I hereby promise that this Ticket shall be used to obtain admission to the Fair by myself only" and a blank line for a signature. Historical BackgroundDuring the Civil War, several northern cities hosted sanitary fairs between 1863 and 1865 to raise money for the care of wounded soldiers. The Great Central Fair, held at Logan Square in Philadelphia in June 1864, was a fundraiser for the United States Sanitary Commission and was one of the largest fairs. The main exhibit building, constructed in forty working days by local volunteer skilled labor, enclosed 200,000 square feet. It featured nearly one hundred departments offering a broad range of displays from Arms and Trophies to Fine Arts to Umbrellas and Canes. Curiosities included a $1,000 doll house, a recreated parlor of William Penn with Penn artifacts, the boat used by Arctic explorer Elisha Kent Kane, and George Washington's carriage.Over three weeks, the fair welcomed more than 400,000 visitors. The season ticket offered here cost $5, a week's pay for a day laborer or a domestic, and several days' wages for skilled workers. The fair served more than 9,000 meals per day in its restaurant and had a daily newspaper with descriptions of the various departments. During its existence, the fair raised approximately $1 million for the Sanitary Commission, second only to New York City in money raised.President Abraham Lincoln attended the fair with his family on June 16. He also donated forty-eight signed copies of the Emancipation Proclamation (printed under the auspices of George Boker of the Union League), which were sold for $10 each.ConditionBoth have glue discolored on the reverse sides. The smaller card has a 1" edge tear on the right side, neatly repaired with archival tape.
Franklin Roosevelt Thanks Alabama Friend for Compliments on "Forgotten Man" Speech

Franklin Roosevelt Thanks Alabama Friend for Compliments on “Forgotten Man” Speech

FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT Typed Letter Signed, as Governor, to Samuel H. Tatum, April 14, 1932, Albany, New York. 1 p., 8 x 10 1/2 in. Complete TranscriptSTATE OF NEW YORKEXECUTIVE CHAMBERALBANYFRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELTGOVERNOR April 14, 1932.Mr. S. H. Tatum,Roanoke, / Alabama.Dear Mr. Tatum: Thank you for your nice note of April 11th. I am delighted to know that you so thoroughly enjoyed my radio talk. I am leaving here the 23rd of April for Warm Springs but will stop off on my way down at Richmond, Virginia, to attend the Governors' Conference. However, I expect to be in Warm Springs the first part of May and I shall hope to see you all again. Very sincerely yours, Franklin D. RooseveltHistorical BackgroundOn April 7, 1932, Roosevelt delivered his "Forgotten Man" speech at Albany, which was broadcast via radio to the people of New York State. "These unhappy times call for the building of plans that rest upon the forgotten," Roosevelt said, "the unorganized but the indispensable units of economic power for plans like those of 1917 that build from the bottom up and not from the top down, that put their faith once more in the forgotten man at the bottom of the economic pyramid." Roosevelt appealed to the "little fellow" among his hearers and readers, "Here should be an objective of Government itself, to provide at least as much assistance to the little fellow as it is now giving to the large banks and corporations." Roosevelt concluded, "It is high time to get back to fundamentals. It is high time to admit with courage that we are in the midst of an emergency at least equal to that of war. Let us mobilize to meet it."The "forgotten man" image captured the public imagination and became a hallmark of Roosevelt's successful 1932 campaign for the Democratic nomination over Alfred E. Smith and for the Presidency over incumbent Herbert Hoover. In 1930, Tatum did not own a radio, so it is likely that he read Roosevelt's speech in a newspaper, many of which summarized or printed the speech.[1] Roosevelt went on to receive the Democratic nomination in July and win the general election in November with an overwhelming 57 percent of the popular vote and a 472-59 win in the electoral college.On his way to Georgia, Roosevelt attended the annual Governors' Conference, held in Richmond, Virginia, from April 25 to 27. Hosted by Governor John G. Pollard of Virginia, the conference welcomed twenty-seven governors and included visits to Charlottesville, Williamsburg, Fredericksburg, and Alexandria. During the sessions, Governor Louis L. Emmerson of Illinois delivered an address on the "Duty of the State in Relieving Unemployment," a subject of interest to all governors in the midst of the Great Depression. The conference also included a dinner at the White House on April 27, hosted by President Herbert Hoover. Hoover kept the governors waiting for half an hour after they arrived, much to the annoyance and discomfort of Roosevelt, who was wearing metal leg braces. Roosevelt nursed the grievance for years.Roosevelt had written to Tatum from Warm Springs, Georgia, in December 1931 thanking him for an editorial and asking that he come over again the following April, when Roosevelt returned. Roanoke, Alabama is approximately fifty miles west of Warm Springs.Samuel H. Tatum (1879-1966) was born in Alabama and was a farm laborer in 1900. He married Parrie Zachry in 1907, and was a merchant in Roanoke, Alabama, from the 1910s to the 1930s. He served as postmaster of Roanoke, Alabama from June 1934 to October 1935, when he was removed from office. In the late 1930s, he moved to Auburn, Alabama, where he was a salesman in an automobile company in 1940.[1] See, for example, Morning News (Florence, SC), April 8, 1932, 8:4, reprinting AP story, and The Anniston Star (AL), April 8, 1932, 1:6-7, reprinting UP story.
Stephen Douglas Recommends Illinois Ally for Indian Agency in Minnesota

Stephen Douglas Recommends Illinois Ally for Indian Agency in Minnesota

STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS Autograph Letter Signed, to Robert McClelland, ca. March-May 1853, [Washington, D.C.] 2 pp., 4 x 6 3/4 in. Complete TranscriptMy Dr Sir, You will recollect that I mentioned to you the other day that I felt a special interest in the appointment of Richard G. Murphy to the Sious Agency in Minnesota Terry; and you requested me to write you a note to call your attention specially to the case. Col Murphy has had much experience with Indians, is an honest man to my certain knowledge. he wont steal nor cheat either the Indians or the government, & in short he is the best man you can send there. Your friend S. A. DouglasHon Mr. McClellandSecy of InteriorHistorical BackgroundWith the inauguration of Franklin Pierce in March 1853, Democrats took control of the patronage power of the Executive branch. By 1852, Senator Stephen A. Douglas had established himself as one of the leaders of the Democrats in Congress, and he easily won reelection in 1853. When his ally from Illinois, Richard G. Murphy wanted to resume the role of agent for the Sioux in Minnesota he held under James K. Polk, Douglas obliged with this letter of recommendation. Pierce duly appointed Murphy to the post.Stephen A. Douglas (1813-1861) was born in Vermont, and his father died when he was a few months old. After attending Canandaigua Academy in western New York, he began to teach school and study law. In 1833, Douglas migrated to Illinois and settled in Jacksonville, where he was admitted to the bar. As a Democrat, Douglas served in the Illinois House of Representatives, then as Illinois Secretary of State, and in 1841, an associate justice of the Illinois Supreme Court. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, he served from 1843 to 1847, when he became one of Illinois' U.S. Senators, a position he held until his death. He became a leader in the U.S. Senate, and his sponsorship of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 and popular sovereignty in the U.S. territories drew the opposition of fellow Illinoisan Abraham Lincoln. Their series of debates in 1858, when Lincoln tried to unseat Senator Douglas, drew national attention to both men. In 1860, southern opposition to Douglas as the Democratic nominee for president divided the Democrats, allowing Abraham Lincoln to win a plurality of the votes and a majority in the electoral college. Douglas strongly supported the Union and urged compromise to avert secession before dying of typhoid fever in June 1861.Robert McClelland (1807-1880) was born in Pennsylvania and graduated at the top of his class from Dickinson College in 1829. He practiced law in Pittsburgh before moving in 1833 to the Michigan Territory, where he established a law practice in Monroe. He served as a Democrat in the Michigan House of Representatives in the 1830s and 1840s before being elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1842 and serving from 1843 to 1849. McClelland served as Governor of Michigan from 1852 to 1853. He resigned as governor in March 1853 to serve as Secretary of the Interior under President Franklin Pierce from 1853 to 1857. McClelland retired from public office and returned to a law practice in Detroit.Richard G. Murphy (1801-1875) was born in Tennessee, and moved with his family to Illinois in 1818. He served as a Democrat in the Illinois House of Representatives from 1833 to 1842. In 1847, President James K. Polk appointed Murphy as agent for the Sioux in Minnesota, but Murphy returned to Illinois in 1850 and was once again elected to the Illinois House of Representatives, where he helped reelect Stephen A. Douglas to the U.S. Senate. President Franklin Pierce again appointed Murphy agent for the Sioux of Minnesota, and he served from May 3, 1853, to October 16, 1856. He later served in the Minnesota Senate from 1857 to 1859, and was its president pro tempore until June 3, 1858. He retired from public service and became a farmer and stock raiser in Scott County, Minnesota.ConditionWeake. (See website for full description)
A Georgia Man Writes from Frederic City

A Georgia Man Writes from Frederic City, Maryland, Hoping to Liberate Some ‘greenies’ from the “Hamites or the ‘freedmen’” Celebrating Passage of the “dirty 15th Amendment”

THOMAS FAYETTE Autograph Letter Signed, to "Dearest cousin Mattie & Co.," Frederic County, Maryland, June 3, 1870, 4 pp. 7 3/4 x 9 3/4 in. The Fifteenth Amendment provides that voting rights could not be based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude (slavery). It was ratified by enough states to become part of the Constitution on February 3, 1870. Maryland rejected it on February 26, 1870 - but finally did ratify it on May 7,1973. With:THOMAS FAYETTE. Autograph Letter Signed ("Fayette"), to "Dear coz Mattie," Salem, VA, December 4, 1866. 4 pp. 4½ x 7¾ in. With stamped envelopeWith:FANNIE WALLACE. Autograph Letter Signed, to "My dear sister & brother," Sweet water, August 12, 1873. "In the midst of all I gave James a teaspoonful of Hartshorn in mistake for 'Soothing Syrup' - came near killing him and me too. Dr happened to be siting by my bedside." 2 pp. 7½ x 9¾ in."Where, think ye that I am? And why here? Ans: I'm in the woods, all alone, two miles from Frederic City, with the rain battering on my English duck (cloth) roof, waiting for the 'great day' (not of de Land) to come when all of 'Manhood' & 'Progress' and the 'Spirit of the Age' (!!) shall gather themselves together in a representative capacity & duly celebrate the privileges & equal rights, they are made to enjoy & also to grow grandiloquently 'majestic' over the dirty 15th Amendment to the Constitution of the U.S.! 'Then why am I here?' Just to 'take in', 'gobble up', 'secure' & 'get' a few dollars in greenbacks out of the motley throng of 'trooly loil' that is here to congregate on Whit-Monday. I will have three days holidays here in this sylvan retreat & with the waters of the peace & war famed Monocacy Creek sounding in my ears & the lovely valley of the same beautiful stream spread out for miles before my vision.I came here, ten miles, & 'stationed' myself in the 'way' to 'catch the Hamites or the 'freedmen' & some of their 'greenies'. I may go from Frederic City to Harper's Ferry at one of these two places, & want to put my car or 'gallery' on the cars & take it westward of the great Appalachian or Alleghany range of mountains.I may 'close out' this summer, return south & die there when my time comes. I have just a little touch of the Texas fever.Georgia is the place where my thoughts do the most often go.South-western Texas, would, I think, be still better for me.this life is unsatisfying, that his world is not our home, not our continuing city, not our 'abiding place'."
Civil War Veteran in Maryland Predicts the War Will End Soon

Civil War Veteran in Maryland Predicts the War Will End Soon

DAVID F. MCGOWAN Autograph Letter Signed, to Ellen [P. Fowler?], March 15, 1865, Ellicott's Mills, Maryland. 3 pp., 5x 8 in. Also includes DAVID F. McGOWAN, Autograph Letter Signed, to Ellen [P. Fowler?], May 9, 1865, Ellicott's Mills, Maryland. 4 pp., 5 x 8 in. "Sherridan has been doing some good work. 1400 prisoners passed here a few days ago that he captured And Report says he has captured 1000 more. A couple of officers stopped here last night, that had just been exchanged. They were captured last August and gave me a good account of their trials & tribulations down in Dixie. One of them gave $100. for a common pair of shoes from all appearances the Confederacy will soon collapse. Sherman has been heard from, is at Fayetteville, N. C. think Richmond will fall, before fall."Civil War veteran David F. McGowan writes about prospects for Union victory and life in Maryland as the Civil War draws to a close. Complete Transcript Ellicotts Mills, Maryland March 15th 1865Dear Sister Ellen:[1] As you wanted a quick answer to your last, you shall have it. I was quite sorry to learn that you were having the chills again, hope you have them broken before this time. Your letter found me enjoying first rate health. All our folkes are about well. I am about as fleashy now as I was when I lived on the Prairie, and have a great deal of Color. I think Maryland agrees with me firstrate. We have been having some delightful weather lately, regular June weather. It is quite warm to day, but has been raining nearly all day. I have been quite busy. We had some new boarders come to day. They came from Washington. Mr. Mrs & Miss de Krafft. The young Lady has a Guitar, so I guess she is a musician. Maybe she sings. I will find out in a day or two. We have lots of musicians in our house at present, some of them first class I feel quite low spirited to day. My friend Miss Jennie has gone up to Pennsylvania, and isn't coming back for five months. too bad, isnt it? I don't see how I am going to stand it. Can't you come and fill the vacancy? I will try to make it very pleasant for you. Sherridan has been doing some good work. 1400 prisoners passed here a few days ago that he captured And Report says he has captured 1000 more.[2] A couple of officers stopped here last night, that had just been exchanged. They were captured last August and gave me a good account of their trials & tribulations down in Dixie. One of them gave $100. for a common pair of shoes from all appearances the Confederacy will soon collapse. Sherman has been heard from, is at Fayetteville, N. C. think Richmond will fall, before fall. I had a letter from Will[3] yesterday. He was with the Reg't, and that was at Mobile point. He was well, have not heard from Sarah for over a week. she was well as were the Children. I will stop for to night. Good night, sweet dreams. The weather is still warm with a little rain. I would like to see it clear off and keep clear a little while. I guess one will have the equinoxial storm[4] and then we may look for some warm weather. We had a very pleasant time in the Parlor last evening & night; some good music and interesting conversation And then Bertie[5] & myself had a few games of Chess. She came off one game the winner. I like the game very much. When you come to see us I will teach you the game. Well you must all take good care of yourselves. And keep me well posted. Give my kindest regards to all enquiring friends. I am too busy to write more at this time. My love and a kiss to each member of your family & Miss Mattie. I enclose a Photo, a little better than the one you have. write as soon as you can. Mother & Bert send much love. Excuse haste. Your friend & Bro DaveHistorical BackgroundThe 47th Illinois Infantry, in which David F. McGowan served, was organized at Peoria, Illinois, and mustered into federal service in August 1861. It transferred to St. Louis, Missouri, in September and remained there until December. The reg. (See website for full description)
Lew Wallace Settles Squabbles Among Officers While Serving on Lincoln Assassination Commission

Lew Wallace Settles Squabbles Among Officers While Serving on Lincoln Assassination Commission

LEW WALLACE Autograph Letter Signed, to William L. Marshall, Washington, D.C., May 18, 1865. 1 p., 7 3/4 x 9 5/8 in. While Lew Wallace was in Washington as second-in-command of the military commission that tried the conspirators involved in President Abraham Lincoln's assassination and the attempted assassination of Secretary of State William H. Seward, his junior officers squabbled in Baltimore. This brief letter attempts to establish the proper chain of command. Complete Transcript Washington City May 18, 1865.Maj. Marshall, The difficulty between yourself and Col. Lawrence has been reported to me. You will of course see the propriety and necessity of obeying the Colonel's orders. As Chief of Staff, he is responsible and in my absence, must govern in all the business of the Mid. Department. Resy / Yr. friend, Lew. Wallace, Maj. Gen ComgDuplicate for Col. Lawrence[Endorsement:] Colonel Saml Lawrence, U.S. army / chief of Staff Middle Dept 8th Army CorpsLew Wallace (1827-1905) was born in Indiana. His father was an attorney and served as Governor of Indiana from 1837 to 1840. The younger Wallace served in the Mexican War, and returned to Indiana to practice law. Elected to the Indiana Senate in 1856 as a Democrat, Wallace later became a Republican and organized the 11th Indiana Volunteers as its colonel. Promoted to brigadier general in September 1861, and to major general in March 1862, Wallace held a series of commands throughout the Civil War. In March 1864, Wallace became commander of both the 8th Corps and the Middle Department, which initially included New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, the Eastern Shore of Maryland and Virginia, and other portions of Maryland, including Baltimore. After the war, Wallace was a member of the military commission that tried the Lincoln assassination conspirators. Wallace later served as territorial governor of New Mexico (1878-1881), as U.S. Minister to the Ottoman Empire (1881-1885), and became most famous as the author of Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1880), the best-selling novel of the nineteenth century.William L. Marshall (1803-1879) was born in Kentucky and served as the U.S Attorney for the District of Maryland from 1845 to 1850 and as Judge of the Court of Common Pleas in Baltimore from 1852 to 1861. He was a delegate to the 1860 Republican Convention in Chicago. He was a nephew of Chief Justice John Marshall and a brother-in-law of Confederate General Robert E. Lee. Lincoln appointed Marshall as surveyor of the port of Baltimore, and Marshall later served as a judge advocate in Baltimore from March 1863.Samuel B. Lawrence (c. 1834-1908) was born in New York and served in the Army of the Cumberland. Promoted after the battle of Shiloh to captain, Lawrence later served as assistant adjutant-general with the rank of lieutenant-colonel under Major General Lew Wallace at Baltimore, and the two remained close friends. Lawrence lived in New York City after the war.
New York Soldier Does Not Want to Fight for "Negro" Freedom but Does Support the USCT

New York Soldier Does Not Want to Fight for “Negro” Freedom but Does Support the USCT

CIVIL WAR, UNION SOLDIER. ROBERT H. GREENFIELD Autograph Letter Signed, to his wife, Mary V. Greenfield, January 20, 1863, Camp Suffolk, Virginia. 3 pp., 4 3/4 x 7 3/4 in. "It is hard to Sacrifise our Lives and to Leave house and our homes and Loved ones behind to Come away down in this forsaken Country to fight for what we supposed the Union. But Mary if this is what they Call fighting for the Union for to free the nigers I dont want to fight any such way. But now they say that if the negroes wants their freedom they must fight for it as our fore fathers did. They are arming and raising negro Regiments now in the South for to fight for their own freedom. That is Just what they Should of done six months ago." Complete TranscriptCamp Suffolk Va Jan. 20, 1863Dear WifeI now take my pen in hand to inform you that I am well and hope these few Lines will find you the same I am very sorry to hear that you had to cry for that makes me feel Bad But Mary I Can not Cry But I feel Just as Bad as one that does Cry But Every one must have their troubles it seems Mary if there was any such thing as Coming home on A furlow I would Come wilingly for to pleas you if nothing more But Mary when the time would come for me to Come Back you would feel Just as Bad as Ever don't you thinks so Mary do you think you would of felt as Bad if we would of waited and not married until I got Back do you think that would of made any difference it would of made no difference with me for you are the only person that I Ever did Love and the only one that I Ever Can Love But it is hard to Sacrifise our Lives and to Leave house and our homes and Loved ones behind to Come away down in this forsaken Country to fight for what we supposed the Union But Mary if this is what they Call fighting for the Union for to free the nigers I dont want to fight any such way But now they say that if the negroes wants their freedom they must fight for it as our fore fathers did they are arming and raising negro Regiments now in the South for to fight for their own freedom that is Just what they Should of done six months ago Well I guesse I will Change the Subject it is Raining here now very hard indeed it is very mudy here we followed one more of our Company to his grave to day his name was Ziba E. Barney[1] he died with the measles he is the third one that has Died out of our Company it is very sickley here now But Mary I trust in god that I may Be spared and Return home once more for Mary I Can not Bear the thought of never seeing you again and I hope and pray that we may See one anoter and enjoy our selves as we did once and then we will make up for all the Lost time Mary keep up good Courage and do the Best you Can that I find is the Best way and I will try and write oftener here after well it is most Bed time I am very sorry to hear of Death of Con Kiley or any other person so take good Care of your self and I will try and do the same so give my Respects to your folks and my Love to Mary V Greenfield from her Ever true and Effectionate Husband Robert H. Greenfieldthe world over[Address:] Mrs Mary V Greenfield, / Oakland Livingston Co. / NY.Historical IntroductionMany advisors to President Abraham Lincoln worried that white Union soldiers would not fight for the liberation of African Americans if he made emancipation an aim of the Union war effort. In this letter, written just three weeks after Lincoln signed his Emancipation Proclamation. Private Robert H. Greenfield complains of "fighting.for to free the nigers." While officers could resign their commissions, and a few did, enlisted men like Greenfield had only two options: desertion and the risk of death if caught, or continuing in the army and adjusting to the new realities.Greenfield chose the latter option and served with his regiment until discharged in June 1865. A later part of this letter suggests the beginning of a change that occurred in many Union soldiers. Greenfield writes, "now they say that if the negroes wan. (See website for full description)
Civil War Veteran and Photographer Writes His Wife about the Devastating Chicago Fire

Civil War Veteran and Photographer Writes His Wife about the Devastating Chicago Fire

GREAT CHICAGO FIRE. THOMAS BLAIR WILSON Autograph Letter Signed, to his wife Mary R. Wilson, October 20, 1871, Washington, Illinois. 4 pp., 5 x 8 in. "I suppose you have ere long this heard of the destruction of the city of Chicago. 20,000 houses burned and 200 to 300,000,000 dollars loss It was the biggest fire on record Gid Hornish lost about 75 dollars by Insurance Companies breaking up since the great Chicago fire. The Company I am insured in, has gone up the spout." Complete Transcript Washington Ill. Friday Oct. 20 1871Mary My dear little wife Your letter bearing the sad intelligence of your Fathers decease was recd. to-day it came through in two days. It is very much to be regretted that you had not started down to Mo. in Sept. instead of Oct. If you had went when you wanted to viz. the beginning of Sept. all would have been well at least you would have had the intense satisfaction of seeing your father alive & well. It appears so strange to me you did not start down sooner when you was aware of your fathers being ill but I presume of course you was almost tired to death yourself when you arrived at Warrensburg.[1] It is certainly very sad that you failed to get there in time to see him after going so far. It will completely mar the pleasure of your visit. I feel so sorry that poor little darling [bright?] did not get to see her Grand Pa after talking so much about it and going so far. It makes me very sorrowful when I think of the tragical beginning of your long looked for visit. Poor man if he could only have lived to have seen you all before being taken away it would have been a great satisfaction but I hope he has gone to join his loved ones in heaven where there is no sickness nor sorrow. Poor [bright?] I would like awful well to see her little sweet darling child. She had set her heart on seeing her Grandpa and it would be a terrible shock & disappointment to her. Mary I wrote you a letter one week ago last night & mailed it last Friday. it must be in Warrensburg I also have sent you three or four papers. Mary if you can get things as cheap down there as you can at home get what things you want and make them up. Myrtle will need a new cloak also Furs shoes &c. and yourself a new dress & Cloak I will send you the money by B. C. order when you want it. I will try to send 20 to $30 more whenever you need it. You spent almost the half of what I gave you in Fl. so you would only have about $20 left. Business has been awful dull since you went away. One week ago to-day I made about 15 dollars and last week I made $25. Last Monday I made $7.50 and it has been awful dull ever since but I hope it will get better soon. How do you like Mo. Would you like to live there do you think? Write soon Yours &c. BlairI have a nasty headache to-day & night.[In upper margin:] Isreal Zinser[2] has sold out his interest in the Drug Store and is going to move up to Plainfield where his father-in-law resides. [Robt?] Heiple bought him out. I am attending Sunday School since you went away. I have been there two Sundays and they wanted me to take charge of a Bible class already. I thought I would rather be excused Mr. Kent is an Instructor I like him well There is from 15 to 20 persons in class. I suppose you have ere long this heard of the destruction of the city of Chicago. 20,000 houses burned and 200 to 300,000,000 dollars loss It was the biggest fire on record Gid Hornish[3] lost about 75 dollars by Insurance Companies breaking up since the great Chicago fire.The Company I am insured in, has gone up the spout.Historical BackgroundThe Great Chicago Fire began about 9:00 p.m. on Sunday, October 8, and burned until early Tuesday, October 10. It killed as many as 300 people and destroyed more than three square miles of Chicago. The destruction left more than 100,000 people homeless.The fire destroyed 17,500 buildings and $222 million in property, about one-third of the city's value. Although about half of the destroyed property was. (See website for full description)
Early Chicago Resident Predicts that New Western States Will Become "granaries for those on the Sea board

Early Chicago Resident Predicts that New Western States Will Become “granaries for those on the Sea board,” Mentions Theodore Parker, and Geneva Illinois

JOHN C. DODGE Autograph Letter Signed, to Samuel Johnson, July 16, 1845, Chicago, Illinois. 2 pp., 7 3/4 x 9 3/4 in. "I was reading some of Mr [Theodore] Parker's writings by the bye the other day, and was very much struck with their earnestness. I was surprised too to find how much of the pure ore is contained in them."A few years, and these new States will be granaries for those on the Sea board. I had occasion a short time since to go to Geneva [Ill.]. and the whole country was like a garden. with your love for natural beauty, you would enjoy such a sight right well."John Dodge writes to his first cousin Samuel Johnson, attending Harvard Divinity School, about family genealogy and goes on to discuss the remarkable growth of Chicago. Dodge served as the first secretary of the Chicago board of trade from 1849 to 1853, and in the 1850s directed the land department of the Illinois Central Railroad. Johnson, the recipient, eventually wrote three books on comparative religion that treated Eastern religions as equal with Christianity. His lecture on Theodore Parker was published posthumously as a book in 1890. Complete Transcript Chicago 16th July 1845.My Dear Cousin, I send according to promise all the information I could collect concerning the family. There are some dates which want filling up, and some names to be added-the descendants of your Aunt Eunice, and your own Brothers and Sisters, for instance-but this can be easily done, and with a little trouble a complete genealogical tree may be made out, and carried back still further than 1726. Aunt Cabot, Cousins Lucy or Susan, and, I should think, Mrs Judge Jackson, can tell who was the father of old George,[1] and when you see either of them I wish you would get this information, as well any other that relates to our early progenitors. I should like to know very well when they came to this country, and who they were, not that it is of any great consequence, but it is well that some one should know all these details, and as a matter of curiosity merely they are sometimes interesting-and then they may give habits of research and investigation. Aunt Cabot I fancy knows more about the family than any one who is now living, and her memory on some points is remarkably accurate-it may be on this.[2] Suppose some day you go to Newton and see her. I should be very glad to hear from you at any time, and know of your prospects, and how you succeed in the "search after Truth." I was reading some of Mr [Theodore] Parker's writings by the bye the other day, and was very much struck with their earnestness.[3] I was surprised too to find how much of the pure ore is contained in them. Do you think you shall ever visit this Western region? You would find it a great-a growing country-no one who has not seen it, can comprehend what it is. A few years, and these new States will be granaries for those on the Sea board. When I first came to this place some eight years ago, it contained two or three thousand people. Now there are more than eleven thousand, and from this you may judge of the general increase. I had occasion a short time since to go to Geneva, a place about thirty five miles from here, and the whole country was like a garden. I thought at the time that with your love for natural beauty, you would enjoy such a sight right well. I know I did, and I have seen so many of the most beautiful portions of the world, that little remains now than a desire to see that in which so many of my friends and kindred are dwelling. Give my love to your Father and Aunt Anne, and to all others of your family-to Eunice and Elizabeth[4] -and for yourself accept the best wishes for your well being and happiness from Your Aff Cousin, John C. DodgeMr. Samuel Johnson. / Salem.[Address:] Mr Samuel Johnson. / Care of Doctr Saml Johnson. / Salem / Massachusetts.[Docketing:] John C. Dodge / Chicago to Salem / July 23d 1845Historical BackgroundIn 1825, Chicago was a hamlet of fewer t. (See website for full description)
Union League of Philadelphia Supports Lincoln on Emancipation

Union League of Philadelphia Supports Lincoln on Emancipation, African-American Troops in 1864

ABRAHAM LINCOLN. HENRY CHARLES LEA Printed Pamphlet. No. 18: The Will of the People, [January - April 1864]. 8 pp., 5 1/2 x 8 1/2 in. "The will of the people is supreme.""The vital principle of [Lincoln's] whole administration has been his recognition of the fact, that our Government is simply a machine for carrying into effect THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE." Excerpts:"It has been generally assumed that the acts of the President have been the exponents of his own individual convictions. Democrats have censured him for converting the 'war against disunion' into a 'war against slavery.' Radical Republicans have been equally prone to condemn him as a half-hearted Abolitionist, who required perpetual stimulation to perform his duty, and who is not to be trusted because he did not, immediately on his inauguration, carry out the views which he had previously expressed of opposition to slavery."Both parties seem to have forgotten that our form of government is as purely democratic as can be reduced to a practical system. Our whole political machinery is devised for the purpose of allowing the people to regulate the national policy. The will of the people is supreme." (p3)"For twenty years prior to his election he had, on all fitting occasions, expressed his disapprobation of slavery, and his desire that it could be constitutionally done away with. Yet in the popular vote which made him President he saw the expression simply of a determination to resist the aggressions of slavery, and not the condemnation of the system itself." (p4)"As the nation changed its views, so he was ready to change his policy. When, therefore, the Emancipation Proclamation made its appearance, the people was prepared to welcome that which, a year earlier, would have aroused a tempest of disapprobation." (p5)"The next step was the arming of negro troops. In July, 1862, Congress authorized the employment of 'persons of African descent' in our armies. The public mind was not yet prepared to accept the assistance of the despised race. The administration accordingly did not press the matter." (p5-6)"Those who have witnessed the marvellous revolution in public opinion on this subject cannot but admire the manner in which Mr. Lincoln's honest deference to public opinion has produced results which the tact of the cunning statesman might have failed to secure. Taking each step as the voice of the people demanded it, he has never been forced to retrace his position. Supported by and supporting the popular feeling, he has moved onward in unison with it, and each new development has afforded sure foothold for further progress." (p6)"His Proclamation of Amnesty puts into practical shape the wishes which have long been silently forming themselves in every loyal heart. Again has he divined the will of the people, and at the fitting time his acts have responded, making, as far as his competence extends, that will the law of the land. To this intuitive perception of public opinion, and this skill in translating it into action, Mr. Lincoln owes much of the success of his administration. He is at once the leader and the led." (p7)"The transitory passions of the multitude are very different from the slowly formed convictions of the people. The President has known to distinguish between them, and he has at times shown as lofty a firmness to resist the former as he has ever manifested alacrity to respect the latter. The vital principle of his whole administration has been his recognition of the fact, that our Government is simply a machine for carrying into effect THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE." (p8)Excerpts from Resolutions Passed January 11, 1864:"And Whereas, The Union League of Philadelphia, composed, as it is, of those who, having formerly belonged to various parties, in this juncture recognize no party but their country; and representing, as it does, all the industrial, mechanical, manufacturing, commercial, financial and professional interests of the city, is especially quali. (See website for full description)
Chicagoans Confront World War II Racism and the American Red Cross

Chicagoans Confront World War II Racism and the American Red Cross

COMMITTEE OF RACIAL EQUALITY Typed Document, The American Red Cross and Negro Blood, Background for Action Pamphlet No. 1, ca. 1943, Chicago. 12 p., 5 5/8 x 8 1/2 in. Includes inserted printed flyer, "The Red Cross and Its Jim Crow Policy," distributed by CORE in Chicago in 1943. "the blood will be processed separately so that those receiving transfusions may be given plasma from the blood of their own race."The Chicago-based biracial Committee of Racial Equality (CORE) combated segregation in all forms, including the racial segregation of donated blood during World War II. After initially refusing to accept blood donations from African Americans, the American Red Cross reversed its position but bowed to racial prejudices by keeping donated blood segregated by race. This pamphlet by CORE includes a chronology of the controversy over blood donations, documents from the Red Cross, scientific organizations, and the press, a summary of CORE's actions in Chicago, and suggestions for group and individual action. Excerpts:"CORE has one purpose-to eliminate racial discrimination. This pamphlet is the documented story of the research and actions the Schools and Hospitals Unit of CORE has undertaken toward eliminating racial discrimination in the blood donor service of the American Red Cross." (p1)American Red Cross Policy Statement, January 1942"In deference to the wishes of those for whom the plasma is being provided, the blood will be processed separately so that those receiving transfusions may be given plasma from the blood of their own race." (p3)Journal of American Medical Association, May 1942"There is therefore, no factual basis for the discrimination against the use of Negro blood or plasma for injection into white people. Since syphilitic blood is eliminated from use for this purpose by thorough serologic testing, the rate of syphilis in Negroes is of no concern in this connection. The transfusion of Negro blood into white persons and that of white persons into Negroes has been repeatedly performed in civil practice without any evidence of harm or aversion on the part of recipients." (p4)Science Editor of the New York Times, June 1943"We ask ourselves in vain why there should be this prejudice against Negro blood and why no one shudders at the origin of many a substance that is now injected to save human life. Who objects to the injection of serums obtained from the blood of horses, rabbits, and other animals in cases of diphtheria, pneumonia, and other diseases? Sometimes we wonder whether this is really an age of science." (p6)"Negro Blood" in PM (New York newspaper), January 29, 1942"The Red Cross has retreated, under strong pressure, from its first 'winter line' of complete refusal to accept blood from Negro volunteer donors. It has established, and will no doubt try its best to hold, a new fortified position-fortified by all the race prejudice of the country. no matter who formulated or approved it, the new policy outrages science, fosters superstition, and bows to the race mythology we so fervently condemn across the seas. It is a kick in the face for the Negro people, and made-to-order propaganda for the enemy agents who are trying to persuade Negro Americans they have no stake in this war." (p7)"Blood's Blood" in PM, May 20, 1942"The Red Cross is a great agency for good. It should be big enough to admit its blunders when they occur, and to correct them. It should be big enough to admit that its present policy of segregating the blood of Negro donors in its plasma banks is a bad mistake. That policy should be repudiated in the interests of science, humanity, and national morale." (p7a)John E. Rankin, Speech in U.S. House of Representatives, May 28, 1942"one of the most vicious movements that has yet been instituted by the crackpots, the Communists, and parlor pinks of this country is that of trying to browbeat the American Red Cross into taking the labels off the blood bank they are building up for our w. (See website for full description)
Young Man Tells Parents He Will Trap Furs in the Rockies

Young Man Tells Parents He Will Trap Furs in the Rockies, with Early Mention of Chicago

JOHN BROWN Autograph Letter Signed, to John Brown, July 7, 1835, Peoria, Illinois. 3 pp., 8 x 9 1/4 in. In a letter home to his parents in northern New Jersey, John Brown describes his plans to join a group of men trapping furs in the Rocky Mountains. If that plan does not work, he and others will trap in the Winnebago Swamps of northern Illinois and southern Michigan Territory (Wisconsin). At the time he wrote this letter, Brown was helping to build the two-story Peoria County Courthouse in Peoria, Illinois. Complete Transcript Peoria Ills July 7th 1835Dear Parents I received your letter July the third and since I received it my calculations are widely different from what they was when I sent you word that I was going to the Pickatolica[1] to look for a farm. I had no doubt in my mind but you would come out here for A farm to me would be of no use as I have no idea of getting married till I received your last letter my expectations was the same as when I started from home that is that I should yet see the time when I should live with you again but for me to live amongst the Jersey stone heaps is out of the question and for Culver to leave the carriage shop and come it to the back woods is out of the question also and my expectations though strong before has left me and John now feels that he has become a citizen of the world at large there has a lot of young men concluded to go to the Rocky Mountains A fir hunting in case we could raise twenty men and we want as many more as we can get the articles will be drawn to night and I expect before my letter starts the number required will have signed it. in case we cannot raise that number we will go to the winnebago swamps[2] and trap there this winter there is twelve of us all ready the calculation is to go to the Columbia River[3] we will trap in the mountains this fall and next spring and next summer to go to the mouth of the Columbia it is the calculation if we like the country to come back and get our tools and whatever else we want and go back again I want you to see Wm Laurence[4] and tell him if he can raise spunc enough to go along to come as I should be glad to have him go with us I would like you would see him and let me know in your letter whether he is coming or not if he does come tell him to start as soon as he can the time we have pitched upon to start is the first of September and it is likely we will not start for four or five days after if William does come tell him to bring a good supply of shoes and stout clothes for he cannot get them here tell him to bring a couple A pair of pistols brass barrals and rifled if he can get them they ought to be as large as horse pistols his rifle he will get in Cleaveland as cheap as any where tell him to try it before he buys it it ought to carry about 32 balls to the pount[5] and if he can get A good spyeglass cheap to get it I expect by this time you think I had better stay where I am, but I dont the people are coming in to this Country so fast that they are like to eat us all out flour is seven dollars a barrel here and twenty at Chicago, and every thing in proportion you can tell the people there for I dont [think they] have any idea of it that a steam boat starts every 2 weeks from [St Louis] twelve hundred miles up the Missoura and last wensday week one to go 2000 miles up there is 100 families next may going from Mo to the west Calafornia that is south of the Columbia River tell Mother that the people in the old settlements make their own cloth but round here they do not wool is fifty cents per pound and not very fine at that flax I have seen none cows from 15 to 25 dollars generaly 18 and 20 dollars the winters is not as long as there but pretty cold, for the wind blows over these prairies at A curious rate the summers is about as warm as there but would be warmer if it was not for the wind as it is A rare thing to see A day without a fine breese the nights are cooler than they are wit yo. (See website for full description)
A Stone/Force Printing of the Declaration of Independence

A Stone/Force Printing of the Declaration of Independence

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE Copperplate engraving printed on thin wove paper. Imprint at bottom left, "W. J. STONE SC WASHN" [William J. Stone for Peter Force, Washington, D.C. ca. 1833]. Printed for Peter Force's American Archives, Series 5, Vol I. Approx 26 x 29 in. "IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776. The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America." The United States emerged from the War of 1812 truly independent. The country had survived its second conflict with Great Britain, and the Louisiana Purchase had doubled the size of the nation. Tested in war and peace, America was on the verge of enormous physical, political, and economic expansion. It was a time of optimism, widely known as the "Era of Good Feelings." As the 50th anniversary of independence approached, a new generation sought out icons of the nation's founding. The Declaration of Independence, with its not-yet-famous signatures, became the subject of several engravings of varying quality.By 1820 the original Declaration of Independence, now housed at the National Archives in Washington, D.C., already showed signs of age and wear from handling. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, noticing the original engrossed document's deterioration, suggested creating exact copies for posterity. With Congressional approval, he commissioned engraver William J. Stone to create a facsimile. There is still debate about whether Stone used a "wet" or chemical process to trace the original manuscript, helping to make the exact copy; we have found differences that lead us to believe that he did not. Stone finished his copperplate engraving in 1823, and printed 201 copies on vellum for distribution to the three surviving signers (John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Charles Carroll), current President James Monroe, Vice President Daniel D. Tompkins, former President James Madison, governors, educational institutions, and the Marquis de Lafayette, among others. Just over a quarter of the vellum first editions are known to survive.Despite the creation of the replicas, the federal government did not safely store away the engrossed Declaration manuscript. It was displayed in direct sunlight for more than thirty years and suffered disastrously faulty conservation work and other insults that have rendered it mostly illegible today. Therefore, the Stone/Force printings are the best representation of the Declaration as it was when members of the Continental Congress put their lives on the line to sign the manuscript in August of 1776.Several years later, noted archivist Peter Force planned to include facsimiles in his planned documentary history. Congress authorized the project as The Documentary History of the American Revolution on March 2, 1833, and the State Department agreed to purchase 1,500 sets. Force immediately went to Stone to have copies of the Declaration printed, with only two differences: the second editions were on thin wove paper, and the imprint line was shortened and moved to the bottom left. The new imprint read, "W. J. STONE SC WASHN," with "SC" standing for "sculpsit," meaning "engraver." On July 21, 1833, Stone invoiced Force for 4,000 Declaration copies. (Force likely hoped to sell as many as 2,500 additional copies of his series.)Force also expanded the scope of his documentary collection, renamed American Archives: A Documentary History of the United States,to encompass six series from colonial settlement to the organization of the federal government in 1789. The fourth series was to cover the period from March 7, 1774 to the Declaration of Independence in 1776. The fifth series focused on the Declaration of Independence to the Treaty of Paris in 1783. After mounting expenses and increasing production delays, Force received Congressional re-authorization for Series IV in 1843, but he scaled back his subscription plan to 500 copies. However, Stone had already printed the Declaration facsimiles. Stone published six volumes in the fourth series, and thr. (See website for full description)
Financing the New Nation at the End of the American Revolution

Financing the New Nation at the End of the American Revolution

ROBERT MORRIS Manuscript Letter Signed, to William Moore, President of Pennsylvania, January 3, 1782, Philadelphia. 1 p., 7 3/8 x 7 3/8 in. On October 19, 1781, the date of the British surrender at Yorktown, Robert Morris, as Superintendent of Finance of the United States, sent a circular to the governors of each of the states. In it, he asserted that "It is high time to relieve ourselves from the ignominy we have already sustained, and to rescue and restore the national credit. This can only be done by solid revenue."On January 3, 1782, Morris sent this letter to William Moore, the President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania. He also sent copies to President of New Hampshire John Langdon, Governor of Connecticut Jonathan Trumbull, and Governor of Virginia Benjamin Harrison V. Complete Transcript Office of Finance / 3rd January 1782.Sir I enclose the Copy of a Letter written this day to the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Maryland. It is unnecessary to say any thing on the Subject to your Excellency as you will see and feel with me the urgency of the occasion. It gives me great pain to make such a Representation and especially as those States deserve applause for their former Exertions. I have the Honor to be / with very great Respect Sir / Your Excellency's / most Obedient / & / Humble servant Robt MorrisThe circular that Morris enclosed (see below) explained that although it had been eleven months since Congress recommended a 5 percent tariff, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Maryland had not complied. He urged them "that this great object be seriously considered."On January 7, 1782, Morris wrote to Benjamin Franklin in France, including copies of his letters to the states and commenting, "as you will perceive has not been agreed to by Massachusetts Rhode Island and Maryland. The States of South Carolina and Georgia were not called upon but I have transmitted the requisition to them now that they are in a Situation to pass Laws by the meeting of their Legislatures which has by this Time taken Place."[1]At Morris's urging, Congress enacted ordinances in February 1782 for the settlement of the accounts of the Revolution, but it remained to be seen whether the states would raise the necessary money.On May 2, Morris offered Alexander Hamilton the position of receiver of continental taxes for the state of New York, but Hamilton initially declined, replying that the income would be poor and that he planned to concentrate on a law practice. However, Hamilton served in the position from June to November 1782, when he began representing New York in the Congress of the Confederation. Hamilton passed the bar exam in July and was licensed to practice in New York in October 1782.In July 1782, Morris issued his "Report on Public Credit," which called on the new country to pay its war debt through new revenue measures, including a federal tariff of five percent on all imported goods. However, the plan would require an amendment to the recently approved Articles of Confederation. While the Articles gave Congress the power to conduct foreign policy, states retained all power over funding and were reluctant to give it up. By late 1782, all of the states but Rhode Island had agreed to an amendment allowing the tariff, but that state's opposition was enough to block the amendment.As members of the Confederation Congress, Hamilton and Morris attempted to use the Newburgh Conspiracy by disaffected Continental Army officers to secure support from the states and Congress for funding the federal government. Unsuccessful, they had to await the formation of a new federal government under the Constitution for the federal government to have effective authority to raise revenue through taxes.Robert Morris (1734-1806) was born in Liverpool and immigrated to Maryland at the age of 13. His father later sent him to Philadelphia to study, and in 1757, he became a partner in a banking and shipping firm, which la. (See website for full description)
Accounting for "Contraband" Sailors in the Civil War Navy Bureaucracy

Accounting for “Contraband” Sailors in the Civil War Navy Bureaucracy

SAMUEL P. LEE Letter Signed, to Samuel B. Gregory, June 4, 1863. 1 p. When enslaved African Americans fled to the ships of the Union blockading fleet, officers often sent them to "contraband" camps such as those at Port Royal, South Carolina, or Fortress Monroe, Virginia, or shipped them north. However, the Union Navy, short on manpower, also encouraged able-bodied male contrabands to enlist. In September 1861, Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles authorized the enlistment of contrabands "under the same forms and regulations as apply to other enlistments." As crew members of navy ships and gunboats, these black sailors served on blockade duty and even on expeditions up southern rivers and creeks.On January 5, 1863, Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles ordered commanders of squadrons to forward monthly returns of "contrabands" employed on board the respective vessels under their command. The USS Western World had been part of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron in 1861 and 1862. After extensive overhaul, the Western World was reassigned in March 1863 to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron for service in the Chesapeake Bay.In this letter, Acting Rear Admiral Samuel P. Lee chastises the Western World's commander for the lack of details in his May 1863 "Contraband" report. Complete Transcript U.S. Flag Ship Minnesota, Off Newport's News, Va., June 4th, 1863.Sir: I have received your No 10 of May 31st regarding the "Contrabands" received during the month of May on board U.S.S. "Western World." "Monthly Returns of all persons known as "Contrabands," on board each vessel, including names in full, dates of shipment, rates, expiration of terms of service, trades and such other remarks as may be essential." (Extract from printed statement, dated Jan 12, of periodical returns required from each Commanding Officer of this Squadron). Your letter is returned to be sent back accompanied by a report made out according to the above requirements, for reference to the Navy Department. In your "Contraband" returns hereafter, you will be governed by my circular of June 1st a copy of which is enclosed. Respectfully Yours, S. P. Lee A. R. Adml. Comd'g N. A. B. Squadn.Act'g Master S. B. Gregory, U.S.N.Comd'g U.S.S. Western World,Off Newport News, Va.Samuel P. Lee (1812-1897) was born in Virginia, the grandson of Declaration-signer Richard Henry Lee and third cousin of Robert E. Lee. Appointed a midshipman in the U.S. Navy in 1825, his extensive service included combat in the Mexican War. In 1843, he married a daughter of Francis Preston Blair, who in 1859 built a house for the couple next to his own house within a block of the Executive Mansion. Lee was at sea off the Cape of Good Hope when he learned of the beginning of the Civil War. He returned and was assigned to blockade duty off Charleston, South Carolina. He and his crew earned more than $100,000 in prize money. In 1862, Lee commanded one of three gunboats that successfully ran past the forts protecting New Orleans, and he also participated in the naval bombardment of Vicksburg. In September 1862, he was promoted to acting Rear Admiral and given command of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. In 1864, he was transferred him to command the Mississippi Squadron, on the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers.Samuel B. Gregory (1813-1884), a shoemaker, came from a family of sea captains. He and his brother enlisted in the navy in 1861, and were assigned to the USS E. B. Hale in New York harbor, but were dismissed based on rumors of disloyalty. Returning home, the brothers obtained a petition signed by nearly every voter in Marblehead, Massachusetts, testifying to their loyalty. Commissioned on October 3, 1861, Samuel was assigned to be the Acting Master Commanding of the USS Western World, mostly patrolling the Savannah River and its tributaries. Although successful in capturing blockade runners, Gregory had to put down a mutiny late in October 1862. His executive officer, . (See website for full description)
New Hampshire Acts Organizing the Election of 1792 -Washington’s re-Election

New Hampshire Acts Organizing the Election of 1792 -Washington’s re-Election

NEW HAMPSHIRE Broadside, "An ACT directing the mode of ballotting for, and appointing the Electors of this state for the election of a President and Vice-President of the United States. ALSO- An ACT directing the mode of choosing Representatives to the Congress of the United States." Organizing elections in the state, signed in print by Governor Josiah Bartlett, June 1792. 1 p., 15 1/2 x 19 1/2 in. Excerpts:"Be it enacted.That the inhabitants . qualified to vote in the choice of Senators for the State Legislature, shall assemble in their respective towns, parishes, plantations and places on the last Monday of August next, to vote for six suitable persons, inhabitants of this State, who shall not be Senators or Representatives in Congress, or persons holding offices of profit or trust under the United States, to be Electors of a President and Vice-President of the United States. And in case it shall happen by reason of an equality of votes . the names of the candidates not elected, who shall have an equal, and the highest number of votes, shall be put into a box, and the Secretary, not being one of the said candidates, shall in the presence of the Supreme Executive Magistrate, draw out the number wanted, and the person or persons whose name or names shall be so drawn out, shall be appointed, and declared an Elector or Electors . And be it further enacted that the several Clerks aforesaid shall respectively transmit certificates of all votes taken, sealed up and directed as aforesaid, to the Sheriffs of the respective counties to which they belong, within five days after said meetings.and the several Sheriffs, shall, within ten days after said meetings transmit to the Secretary's Office, all votes that shall be in manner aforesaid transmitted or delivered to them.""Be it enacted.That the inhabitants of the several towns, parishes, Plantations, and Places in this State qualified to vote in the choice of Senators for the State Legislature, shall assemble in their respective towns, parishes, plantations or places on the last Monday of August next.to elect by ballot, such number of persons duly qualified, as this state may be entitled to, for the Representatives in the Congress of the United States."Historical BackgroundThough George Washington wanted to retire after his first presidential term, it was widely feared that without him at the helm, the newly forged union could break apart in partisan and sectional bitterness. Though they agreed on little else, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, and John Adams all considered Washington's reelection necessary. Both parties nominated Washington for President. For the Vice Presidency, The Federalists nominated incumbent John Adams, while the Democratic-Republicans nominated New York Governor George Clinton.The United States Constitution left to each state the method of organizing state and federal elections. Of the fifteen states, New Hampshire was one of six that chose presidential electors by popular vote. In the election arranged by the Acts printed here, Josiah Bartlett, John Pickering, Benjamin Bellows, Ebenezer Thompson, Jonathan Freeman, and John T. Gilman were selected.After the 1790 Census, New Hampshire's delegation to the House of Representatives grew from three to four. Jeremiah Smith and Nicholas Gilman were reelected. Pro-administration Congressman Samuel Livermore was selected as a U.S. Senator, and anti-administration John Samuel Sherburne was elected to replace him in Congress. The new Congressional seat went to former U.S. Senator Paine Wingate.After Governor Bartlett certified the results, the electors met at Exeter on December 5, 1792, and cast six votes for George Washington and six votes for John Adams.On February 13, 1793, Congress officially tabulated the votes of the 1792 election. To the surprise of no one, Washington had been unanimously re-elected. Upon taking his second oath of office, this time in the Senate Chamb. (See website for full description)
Declaration Signers Benjamin Harrison & George Wythe Appointing Surveyor Licensed by the College of William and Mary for Western Virginia

Declaration Signers Benjamin Harrison & George Wythe Appointing Surveyor Licensed by the College of William and Mary for Western Virginia

BENJAMIN HARRISON. GEORGE WYTHE Partially Printed Document signed by President of the College of William and Mary the Reverend James Madison, and professors George Wythe, Robert Andrews and Charles Belleni, April 8, 1783. Followed by: two Benjamin Harrison Partially Printed Documents Signed and a Manuscript Document Signed as Governor of Virginia, June 3, 1783. 2 pp., 8 1/4 x 13 in. "This commission is to be nul & void provided the present Surveyor, who is supposed to be killed by the Indians, shall be alive to return. The nullity to commence from the return of Mr Madison"The College of William and Mary's 1693 Royal Charter provided a revenue stream by appointing the College as the Surveyor-General of the Colony of Virginia, with the right to collect fees for each survey performed. (George Washington, in 1749, and Thomas Jefferson, in 1773, were both licensed by the College as surveyors.) Here, the President and Professors of the College nominate Samuel Hanway as Surveyor of Monongalia County in western Virginia, and Governor Benjamin Harrison appoints him two months later, provided that the old surveyor has actually been "killed by the Indians." In 1779, Jefferson appointed George Wythe as Chair of Law and Police at the College of William and Mary. As the first law professor in the United States, and even earlier with apprentices, Wythe trained a generation of lawyers, including Jefferson, James Monroe, Henry Clay, St. George Tucker, John Marshall, and Bushrod Washington. The printed text here lists Thomas Jefferson as governor of Virginia, but his name is struck and Harrison's penned in.TranscriptWE the President and Professors of William & Mary College do hereby certify. that we have examined Samuel Hanway Gentleman, and find him able to execute the Office and fulfil the Duties of a Surveyor; and we nominate him to be Surveyor for the County of Monongalia CoIn Witness whereof we have hereunto set our Hands and caused the Seal of the said College to be affixed this eighth Day of April in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and 83. J. Madison Pr / G. Wythe / Robert Andrews / Chs BelleniTHE within named Samuel Hanway is hereby required to give Bond before the Court of the said County, with two sufficient Sureties, in the Sum of One thousand Pounds, payable to the Governour and his Successours, for the faithful Execution of his Office. with Advice of Council. / Benj HarrisonTHE COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA . our Governour being duly certified of your Ability and good Character, hath constituted you the said Samuel Hanway Surveyor for the County of Monongalia . and to take for so doing the Fees allowed by Law: SAVING AND RESERVING to the President and Professors of the College of William & Mary one sixth part of the legal Fees which shall be received by you. WITNESS THOMAS JEFFERSON Benjamin Harrison, Esquire, our said Governour at Richmond the third Day of June in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and eighty three. Benj HarrisonN.B. This commission is to be nul & void provided the present Surveyor, who is supposed to be killed by the Indians, shall be alive to return. The nullity to commence from the return of Mr [John] Madison Benj HarrisonHistorical BackgroundThe first surveyor of Monongalia County was John Madison Jr., a cousin of future President James Madison and a brother of the college president and signer of this document. Reports differ, but he may have been ambushed and killed in 1783, or lived for perhaps six months after this commission. In any case, he was succeeded by Samuel Hanway.In 1787, the Virginia General Assembly divested the College of William and Mary of all its surveyor's fees in Kentucky and part of western Virginia, transferring them to the new Transylvania College. After the American Revolution, the College granted fewer licenses like this one and ceased the practice entirely around 1810.Benjamin Harrison V (1726-1791) was born in Virginia. In 1745, his father's de. (See website for full description)
Returning the Western World to Blockade Duty to Squeeze the Confederacy

Returning the Western World to Blockade Duty to Squeeze the Confederacy

GIDEON WELLES Manuscript Document Signed, to Samuel B. Gregory, February 16, 1863; Endorsement signed by Acting Rear Admiral SAMUEL P. LEE. 1 p. The USS Western World served in the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron from 1861-1862. In November 1862, it went to New York for an extensive overhaul.[1] Once complete, by this order Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles transferred the ship to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron for service in the Chesapeake Bay. The ship was successful in intercepting blockade-runners, and Confederate President Jefferson Davis offered a reward for Gregory's capture.Complete Transcript Navy Department, / February 16, 1863.Sir: / As soon as the U.S. steamer Western World is ready for sea, proceed with her to Hampton Roads Va and report to Acting Rear Admiral Lee for duty. I am respecty / Yr. obt. servant, Gideon Welles / Sec'y of the Navy.Acting Master / Saml B. Gregory, U.S.N.comd'g U.S. steamer Western World, / Boston.[Endorsement:] Forwarded by Your Obdt Svt / JB Montgomery Commandant[Endorsement:] Reported Mar 11, 1863 / S. P. Lee A.R. Adml, comdg N.A.B.Sq.Gideon Welles (1802-1878) was a Connecticut native, journalist, Democratic state legislator, Hartford Postmaster, and Chief of the Bureau of Provisions and Clothing for the Navy early in his career. In the 1848 presidential election, Welles left the Democratic Party over the issue of the expansion of slavery. Welles founded an influential Republican organ, the Hartford Evening Press, in 1856. Abraham Lincoln appointed Welles as Secretary of the Navy, and Welles was highly effective in mobilizing the resources of the country for an extensive blockade and offensive operations against the Confederacy. Abraham Lincoln nicknamed Welles his "Neptune," and Welles served as Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869.Samuel B. Gregory (1813-1884), a shoemaker, came from a family of sea captains. He and his brother enlisted in the navy in 1861, and were assigned to the USS E. B. Hale in New York harbor, but were dismissed based on rumors of disloyalty. Returning home, the brothers obtained a petition signed by nearly every voter in Marblehead, Massachusetts, testifying to their loyalty. Commissioned on October 3, 1861, Samuel was assigned to be the Acting Master Commanding of the USS Western World, aiding successful Union patrolling of the Savannah River to prevent and capture blockade runners. (Gregory also put down a potential mutiny late in October 1862. His executive officer, Acting Master Byron G. Pettengill (1823-1869), was court-martialed and sentenced to six months' imprisonment at hard labor [2].) In March 1863, Secretary Welles ordered Gregory and the Western World to the Chesapeake Bay, where they intercepted blockade runners. Gregory took command of the brig USS Perry in the autumn of 1863, and commanded several other ships during the remainder of the war.[3]Samuel P. Lee (1812-1897) was born in Virginia, the grandson of Declaration-signer Richard Henry Lee and third cousin of Robert E. Lee. Appointed a midshipman in the U.S. Navy in 1825, his extensive service included combat in the Mexican War. In 1843, he married a daughter of Francis Preston Blair, who in 1859 built a house for the couple next to his own house within a block of the Executive Mansion. Lee was at sea off the Cape of Good Hope when he learned of the beginning of the Civil War. He returned and was assigned to blockade duty off Charleston, South Carolina. He and his crew earned more than $100,000 in prize money. In 1862, Lee commanded one of three gunboats that successfully ran past the forts protecting New Orleans, and he also participated in the naval bombardment of Vicksburg. In September 1862, he was promoted to acting Rear Admiral and given command of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. In 1864, he was transferred him to command the Mississippi Squadron, on the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers.John B. Montgomery (1794-1872) was born in New Jersey . (See website for full description)
Democratic Campaign Document Compares Lincoln’s Treatment of Grant and McClellan

Democratic Campaign Document Compares Lincoln’s Treatment of Grant and McClellan, Blaming Lincoln for McClellan’s Failures

ABRAHAM LINCOLN Printed Document. Democrat Campaign "Document No. 12" with headings "Lincoln's Treatment of Gen. Grant," "Mr. Lincoln's Treatment of Gen. McClellan," and "The Taint of Disunion." [New York, 1864.] 8 pp., 5 3/4 x 8 5/8 in. "with the same determination to divide the country unless they can secure universal abolition, we are exposed to the same dangers every day, and God only knows in what unlucky hour our ruin may be consummated. Compare his policy with McClellan's expression of readiness to receive any State when its people offer to submit to the Union."This Democratic Party campaign pamphlet quotes an April 1864 letter to argue that Lincoln gave Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant free rein to conduct the war, after having interfered with and micromanaged McClellan's Peninsula Campaign in 1862. The publication also declared that Republicans were stained with "The Taint of Disunion" and quoted from Republican speeches and editorials to insist that the Democrats were the party of "UNION AND PEACE." Excerpts:Lincoln to Grant, April 30, 1864"I wish to express in this way, my entire satisfaction with what you have done up to this time, so far as I understand it. The particulars of your plans I neither know, nor seek to know. You are vigilant and self-reliant; and pleased with this, I wish not to obtrude any restrains or constraints upon you, while I am very anxious that any real disaster or capture of our men in great numbers be avoided." (p1/c1)"Such, in brief, are some of the most notable instances in which Mr. Lincoln interfered with General McClellan when he occupied a position similar to that held by General Grant. They reflect so severely upon the President that no attempt to gloss them over by his apparent subsequent repentance can disabuse the patriotic portion of the nation of the matured conviction that he is to be held responsible for the lack of decisive victories in Eastern Virginia. The blame must and will rest upon him, to whom it belongs." (p5/c2)"Having shown by copious extracts from the speeches of Abraham Lincoln, W. H. Seward, Wendell Phillips, Wm. Lloyd Garrison, and from the editorial writings of the Chicago Tribune and the N. Y. Tribune. that they were all original secessionists and disunion men, we propose now to give the evidence that Mr. Lincoln himself has, within the last three months, been concerned in a movement to make peace with Jeff. Davis, on terms involving the direct proposal to divide the Union and let the South go." (p7/c2-p8/c1)"with the same determination to divide the country unless they can secure universal abolition, we are exposed to the same dangers every day, and God only knows in what unlucky hour our ruin may be consummated. Mark how Mr. Lincoln constantly keeps up the idea of negotiating only with Jefferson Davis. Why does he never address himself to the people or the States of the South? Compare his policy with McClellan's expression of readiness to receive any State when its people offer to submit to the Union." (p8/c2)Historical BackgroundThe 1864 presidential election pitted President Lincoln against his Democratic challenger, General George B. McClellan. Although McClellan had been the commander of the Army of the Potomac and general-in-chief of the Union Army, the Peace platform adopted by the Democratic National Convention in Chicago declared the war a failure. The party was bitterly divided between War Democrats, who favored continuing the war to restore the Union while leaving slavery alone; moderate Peace Democrats, who favored an armistice and a negotiated peace that would likely protect slavery in a reconstructed union, and radical Peace Democrats, who favored an immediate end to the war without securing Union victory. McClellan was a War Democrat, but the platform was written by radical Peace Democrat Clement Vallandigham, and Peace Democrat George H. Pendleton was nominated for vice president.In 1864, Republicans created the . (See website for full description)
The Israeli Official Gazette

The Israeli Official Gazette, with the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel

ISRAEL Newspaper. Iton Rishmi [Official Gazette], May 14, 1948. Bulletin. Tel Aviv, Israel: Provisional Government of Israel. In Hebrew. 3 pp., 8 x 13 in. The first issue of the Official Gazette of the Israeli provisional government, contains the first printing of "The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel," the new nation's Declaration of Independence. The names of the 37 members of the Provisional Government who signed the document, headed by David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973), are listed on the second page. Excerpt:"WE EXTEND our hand to all neighbouring states and their peoples in an offer of peace and good neighbourliness, and appeal to them to establish bonds of cooperation and mutual help with the sovereign Jewish people settled in its own land. The State of Israel is prepared to do its share in a common effort for the advancement of the entire Middle East."WE APPEAL to the Jewish people throughout the Diaspora to rally round the Jews of Eretz-Israel in the tasks of immigration and upbuilding and to stand by them in the great struggle for the realization of the age-old dream - the redemption of Israel."PLACING OUR TRUST IN THE "ROCK OF ISRAEL," WE AFFIX OUR SIGNATURES TO THIS PROCLAMATION AT THIS SESSION OF THE PROVISIONAL COUNCIL OF STATE, ON THE SOIL OF THE HOMELAND, IN THE CITY OF TEL-AVIV, ON THIS SABBATH EVE, THE 5TH DAY OF IYAR, 5708 (14TH MAY, 1948)."Historical BackgroundAfter World War I, Britain controlled Palestine by League of Nations mandate. By 1946, Britain was under pressure to withdraw from Palestine because of attacks by Arab militias and armed Zionist groups. A special United Nations committee recommended the immediate partitioning of Palestine into two states, one for Arabs and the other for Jews, with Jerusalem maintained by the U.N. as an international city. The General Assembly approved the proposal, and the British announced they would leave Palestine on May 15, 1948.Members of the provisional government drafted the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, and the provisional government voted in favor of it on May 12. They settled on final wording and held a Declaration ceremony in the Tel Aviv Museum on May 14. Twenty-five members of the Provisional State Council signed it that day, and twelve more added their names later. One was out of the country, and the other eleven were trapped in besieged Jerusalem.The two rabbis in the provisional government argued for a including the draft phrase "and placing our trust in the Almighty," but a member of the secularist Mapam party strongly opposed it. Rather than including a direct reference to God, the Declaration uses the phrase "Rock of Israel" in the final section, which could refer either to God or to the land of Israel.Other prominent signers include future Prime Minister Moshe Shertok [Sharett] (1894-1965), future Prime Minister Golda Myerson [Meir] (1898-1978), first Jewish mayor of Jerusalem Daniel Auster (1893-1963), future President Yitzhak Ben-Zvi (1884-1963), first Minister of the Interior Yitzhak Gruenbaum (1879-1970), first Minister of Finance Eliezer Kaplan (1891-1952), first Minister of Religions Rabbi Yehuda Leib Maimon (1875-1962), first Minister of Transportation David Remez (1886-1951), first Minister of Justice Pinchas Rosen (1887-1978), first Minister of Health and Minister of Immigration Haim-Moshe Shapira (1902-1970), first and longest-serving Minister of Police Bechor-Shalom Sheetrit (1895-1967), Communist Party of Israel leader Meir Vilner (1918-2003), and many other future members of the Knesset.At midnight on May 14/15, 1948 (6 p.m., May 14, in Washington), the British Mandate officially ended, and David Ben-Gurion declared the establishment of the State of Israel. Eleven minutes later, President Harry S. Truman recognized Israel on behalf of the United States. In the next few days, Iran, the Soviet Union, and several other nations recognized Israel. Over the next few d. (See website for full description)