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Donald A. Heald Rare Books

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The Queen

THORNTON, Robert John (circa 1768-1837). - Peter HENDERSON Hand-coloured and colour printed in stipple and line engraving by Cooper. Sight size: 15 1/4 x 19 3/4 inches. Gold-leaf frame, "Amiran" archival glass, with UV protection and an anti-reflective surface. Framed size: 27 3/4 x 22 3/4 inches. The most strikingly beautiful flower plates ever to be printed in England. "This striking and distinctive plant, called by Thornton the 'Queen' in this plate, and later the 'Queen Flower,' but more usually known as the 'Bird of Paradise Flower' from a fanciful resemblance to that bird, is a native of South Africa, and one the most colourful plants of the showy flora of that country. It was introduced by Sir Joseph Banks, friend of the King, and de facto Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, with some panache in the 1780s and named Strelitzia reginae in honour of Charlotte, George III's Queen, who was a Princess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. It was almost certainly sent to Banks by Francis Masson, the first official Kew plant collector, who spent thee years in South Africa in the mid-1770s.The Srelitzia attracted great attention in this country when it first appeared because of its colourful and bizarrely-shaped blooms, quite unlike anything else known at that time, and even today those who see it in flower for the first time are intrigued by it" (Ronald King, The Temple of Flora by Robert Thornton , 1981, p.68). Thornton's The Temple of Flora is the greatest English colour-plate flower book. "[Thornton] inherited a competent fortune and trained as a doctor. He appears to have had considerable success in practice and was appointed both physician to the Marylebone Dispensary and lecturer in medical botany at Guy's and St. Thomas's hospitals. But quite early in his career he embarked on his.great work. What Redouté produced under the patronage of L'Héritier, Marie Antoinette, the Empress Josephine, Charles X, and the Duchesse de Berry, Thornton set out to do alone.Numerous important artists were engaged.twenty-eight paintings of flowers [were] commissioned from Abraham Pether, known as 'Moonlight Pether,' Philip Reinagle,.Sydenham Edwards, and Peter Henderson.The result.involved Thornton in desperate financial straits.In an attempt to extricate himself he organized the Royal Botanic Lottery, under the patronage of the Prince Regent.It is easy to raise one's eyebrows at Thornton's unworldly and injudicious approach to publishing.But he produced.one of the loveliest books in the world" (Alan Thomas, Great Books and Book Collecting , pp.142-144). First and only state of this plate from The Temple of Flora (Handasyde Buchanan, Thornton's The Temple of Flora , 1951, p.16).
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Cistineae. The Natural Order of Cistus, or Rock-Rose, Illustrated by Coloured Figures & Descriptions of all the Distinct Species, and the most Prominent Varieties, that could be at Present Procured in the Gardens of Great Britain; with the Best Directions for their Cultivation and Propagation

SWEET, Robert (1783-1835) Title, advertisement and reference, 112 engraved plates with contemporary hand-colouring, mostly after J. Hart, R. Ridgeway, M. Hart and Mrs Brown. With a contemporary manuscript note inserted identifying the colourist as Mr. Hart. Contemporary full green morocco, spines gilt with raised bands in six compartments, red and brown morocco lettering piece, marbled endpapers, gilt edge Provenance: Frederick du Cane Godman (bookplates) First edition of Sweet's highly decorative practical guide to the cultivation of the Rock-rose or Cistus: one of the most beautiful family of flowering plants then available. Cistus species are upright evergreen shrubs, having mostly pink or purple flowers, which resemble roses. Originally published in 28 parts, at three shillings per part, between July 1825 and January 1830, each plate shows a single variety of Cistus or Rock-rose and is accompanied by text giving a taxonomic description and instructions for the plant's cultivation. Robert Sweet "was born in 1783 at Cockington, near Torquay, Devonshire. When sixteen years old he was placed under his half-brother, James Sweet, at that time gardener to Richard Bright of Ham Green, near Bristol, with whom he remained nine years. He subsequently had charge of the collection of plants at Woodlands, the residence of John Julius Angerstein . In 1810 Sweet entered as a partner in the Stockwell nursery, and when that was dissolved in 1815, became foreman to Messrs. Whitley, Brames, & Milne, nurserymen, of Fulham, till 1819, when he entered the service of Messrs. Colvill. While in their employ he was charged with having received a box of plants knowing them to have been stolen from the royal gardens, Kew, but was acquitted after trial at the Old Bailey on 24 Feb. 1824. In 1826 he left the Colvills, and till 1831 occupied himself almost wholly in the production of botanical works, while still cultivating a limited number of plants in his garden at [Pomona Place] Parson's Green, Fulham. In 1830 he moved to [Cook's Ground, King's Road] Chelsea, where he had a larger garden and cultivated for sale to his friends. He died on 20 Jan. 1835. He had been elected a fellow of the Linnean Society on 14 Feb. 1812. The botanical genus Sweetia was named in his honour by De Candolle in 1825" (DNB). The note at the front of the volume states: "One of the most interesting & hitherto scarcest of Mr. Sweet's beautiful publications. This copy was coloured in the finest manner by Mr. Hart, the artist who made the original drawings." Nissen BBI 1922; Great Flower Books (1990) p.141; Stafleu & Cowan 13.546; Pritzel 9078.
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Ramphastos citreopygus [Lemon-rumped Toucan]

GOULD, John (1804-1881) Hand-coloured lithograph by John and Elizabeth Gould, printed by C. Hullmandel. Wove paper. Very good condition apart from some minor foxing. Framed. A fine image from the first edition of John Gould's "A Monograph of the Ramphastidae, or Family of Toucans." The toucan family is limited to Mexico, Central and South America and some West Indian islands. The first time that any member of the family was described was by Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes in his de la natural hystoria de las Indias (Toledo, 1526, chapter 42). In 1555 Pierre Belon included an illustration of its beak in his L'Histoire de la nature des oyseaux (Paris, 1555, p.184). Andre Thevet first used the name "Toucan" with a long description, and a woodcut of a whole bird, in his Singularitez de la France (Paris, 1555, pp.88-90). The Latin name Burhynchus or Ramphestes (in reference to the size of the beak) was suggested by Conrad Gesner ( Icones Avium , 1560, p.130), and Linnaeus later adopted Aldrovandus's corrupted form of the latter ( Ramphastos ) which is how the family was still recognized at the time of the publication of the present image. The present image is from the first edition of Gould's work, published in 1833-1835, which represented the first concerted attempt to produce a monograph on the family. A second expanded edition was published between 1852 and 1854. Gould considered this to be completely separate work as the plates were all redrawn and the text rewritten. Cf. Anker 170; cf. Fine Bird Books (1990), p. 101; cf. Nissen IVB 378; cf. Sauer 3; cf. Wood p. 364; cf. Zimmer p. 252.
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Ramphastos osculans. Osculant Toucan [Ramphastos osculans]

GOULD, John (1804-1881) Hand-coloured lithograph by John and Elizabeth Gould, printed by C. Hullmandel. Wove paper. Very good condition apart from some minor foxing. Framed. A fine image from the first edition of John Gould's "A Monograph of the Ramphastidae, or Family of Toucans." The toucan family is limited to Mexico, Central and South America and some West Indian islands. The first time that any member of the family was described was by Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes in his de la natural hystoria de las Indias (Toledo, 1526, chapter 42). In 1555 Pierre Belon included an illustration of its beak in his L'Histoire de la nature des oyseaux (Paris, 1555, p.184). Andre Thevet first used the name "Toucan" with a long description, and a woodcut of a whole bird, in his Singularitez de la France (Paris, 1555, pp.88-90). The Latin name Burhynchus or Ramphestes (in reference to the size of the beak) was suggested by Conrad Gesner ( Icones Avium , 1560, p.130), and Linnaeus later adopted Aldrovandus's corrupted form of the latter ( Ramphastos ) which is how the family was still recognized at the time of the publication of the present image. The present image is from the first edition of Gould's work, published in 1833-1835, which represented the first concerted attempt to produce a monograph on the family. A second expanded edition was published between 1852 and 1854. Gould considered this to be completely separate work as the plates were all redrawn and the text rewritten. Cf. Anker 170; cf. Fine Bird Books (1990), p. 101; cf. Nissen IVB 378; cf. Sauer 3; cf. Wood p. 364; cf. Zimmer p. 252.
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The Florist’s Guide, and cultivator’s directory; containing coloured figures of the choicest flowers, cultivated by florists

SWEET, Robert (1783-1835) 2 titles, descriptive text, 200 hand-coloured engraved plates by J.Watts after E.D.Smith (199) and William Prest (1). Contemporary full green morocco, spines gilt with raised bands in six compartments, red and brown morocco lettering piece, marbled endpapers, gilt edge Provenance: Frederick du Cane Godman (bookplates) First edition of Sweet's highly decorative practical guide to the cultivation of many of the most beautiful flowering plants then available Each plate shows a single variety and is accompanied by text giving a taxonomic description and instructions for the plant's cultivation. The work displays a bias towards the Tulip family and includes 61 'biblomen' or multi-coloured varieties. Also included are Carnations (19), 'Picotees' or Dianthus (14), Pinks (18), Ranunculus (38), 'Georgianas` or Dahlias (6), Auriculas (27), Polyanthus (2), Hyacinths (7) and Roses (8). Not included, of course, are any Cistus (or Rock-roses) or Geraniums, both of which were dealt with by Sweet in two earlier monographs. Robert Sweet `was born in 1783 at Cockington, near Torquay, Devonshire. When sixteen years old he was placed under his half-brother, James Sweet, at that time gardener to Richard Bright of Ham Green, near Bristol, with whom he remained nine years. He subsequently had charge of the collection of plants at Woodlands, the residence of John Julius Angerstein. In 1810 Sweet entered as a partner in the Stockwell nursery, and when that was dissolved in 1815, became foreman to Messrs. Whitley, Brames, & Milne, nurserymen, of Fulham, till 1819, when he entered the service of Messrs. Colvill. While in their employ he was charged with having received a box of plants knowing them to have been stolen from the royal gardens, Kew, but was acquitted after trial at the Old Bailey on 24 Feb. 1824. In 1826 he left the Colvills, and till 1831 occupied himself almost wholly in the production of botanical works, while still cultivating a limited number of plants in his garden at [Pomona Place] Parson's Green, Fulham. In 1830 he moved to [Cook's Ground, King's Road] Chelsea, where he had a larger garden and cultivated for sale to his friends. He died on 20 Jan. 1835. He had been elected a fellow of the Linnean Society on 14 Feb. 1812. The botanical genus Sweetia was named in his honour by De Candolle in 1825.' (DNB). Cleveland 930; Nissen BBI 1925; Great Flower Books (1990) p.143; not in Stafleu & Cowan.
West Point from Phillipstown. To Colonel S. Thayer Superintendant of the U.S. Military Academy

West Point from Phillipstown. To Colonel S. Thayer Superintendant of the U.S. Military Academy, West Point

BENNETT, William James (c.1784-1844) Aquatint engraving, printed in two colours, blue and sepia, and finished by hand in watercolour. Impression limited to 50 copies, from the original copper plate. In perfect condition. Image size: 16 x 22 1/2 inches. William James Bennett (c. 1787-1844) was born in England and received his training at the Royal Academy. He emigrated to the United States in 1826, and is best known for his views of American cities, including the Hudson Valley Region, Niagara Falls, and numerous port cities such as New York, Charleston, and Buffalo. Views of West Point were extremely popular in the nineteenth century and this view, after one of Bennett's best-known paintings, was exhibited at the Annual Exhibition of the National Academy in 1832. With the arrival of William Bennett and several other émigré artists such as William Guy Wall, and John Hill, the quality of aquatint engraving in America was elevated to a level equaling, or perhaps even surpassing, that of European printmakers. This was the beginning of an important period of American topographical-view making. The aquatint of West Point from Phillipstown was originally published in 1831 by Parker and Clover, who produced four states of the original edition, changing slightly the publication line as the business or printer changed. These four states were all published in a short period of time. The Parker and Clover edition was printed in two colours of ink, blue for the sky and sepia for the foreground, the print was then finished by hand in watercolour. Currier and Ives later acquired the copper plate, and published an issue of this print (not a lithograph as has been noted). As was a common practice of the day, the original publication line was polished out of the copper plate and was re-engraved to read "Currier and Ives." The Currier and Ives aquatint was published in black and white, then coloured in the studio in the same manner as their very popular lithographs. The edition published by Parker and Clover and later by Currier and Ives from this copper plate must have been very limited as the printing caused very little wear to the plate. Whereas lithographs printed from limestone blocks will produce thousands of good quality prints, the copper plate of the aquatint is much more delicate and prints from copper plates do not print successfully in large numbers. The original copper plate engraved for this view remains in excellent condition, and, in this contemporary impression, was limited to 50 copies. Great care was taken to recreate the original 1831 publication techniques. Using an original first-issue print as a model, this aquatint was printed in two colours, blue and sepia, and then finished by hand with water-colour, in exactly the manner of the original edition. This is a time consuming and difficult process but the results are rewarding.
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A View of Quebec from the South East

DES BARRES, Joseph F. Wallet (1721-1824) Etching with aquatint printed in sepia. On laid paper with `J Bates' watermark and `JB' countermark. Expertly repaired 1/2 inch hole to image. A very fine view of Quebec. This image is one of the most important of all the views included in Des Barres masterpiece: 'The Atlantic Neptune'. 'The Atlantic Neptune' was the first great marine atlas, and one of the greatest achievements of eighteenth century cartography. Published in England in 1774, it contained over 250 charts and views of the North American and Canadian coasts. The charts were intensely detailed and contained both hydrographical and topographical details. The Neptune was compiled and published for the Royal Navy by Joseph F. W. Des Barres, a Swiss cartographer who joined the Royal American Regiment as a surveyor. Des Barres fought in the French and Indian wars and was enlisted to survey the Canadian coastline. While his fellow surveyor, Samuel Holland charted the New England coast, Des Barres mapped the shoreline of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and the St. Lawrence River regions. In 1774, Des Barres returned to England where he compiled and published his monumental atlas; his dedication to the project was so strong that he published an updated version of the work every year until 1784. Des Barres' work was so superior to any other contemporary atlas, that the maps were used as the standard charts of the East coast for over 50 years. The Neptune remains one of the most important atlases ever printed, its views and maps chart the history of Canada and the United states and allow us to glimpse a forgotten land long changed by the passage of time. Spendlove writes that the 'large prints from The Atlantic Neptune are among the finest and most beautiful pictures of Canada ever made. Des Barres was an artist of great ability. [and his] delineation of ships was particularly effective, and one could hardly find anything finer' ( The Face of Early Canada pp. 18-19). The present view is apparently taken from on board a ship on the St. Lawrence River, looking north west towards towards the citadel and burgeoning city of Quebec. In the foreground are two finely-observed merchantmen, their flags and pennants streaming out in the stiff breeze blowing up the river valley. This is an historically important image of Quebec as it looked twenty years after its capture by Wolfe, drawn by an artist of high merit who took part in the 1759 campaign. Second state of 2 National Maritime Museum (Greenwich), Henry Newton Stevens Collection , 125a; Cf. Spendlove, The Face of Early Canada, Chapter 4: "J.F.W. Des Barres and The Atlantic Neptune"; pp. 18-22; Debard, "The Family Origins of Joseph Fredericks Wallet DesBarres: A Riddle Finally Solved", Nova Scotia Historical Review, Vol 14, No. 2 (1994), p.15; Stevens 125B.
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Pigeon Hawk

CATESBY, Mark (1683-1749) Hand-coloured copper engraving, on fine laid paper. A fine image from Catesby's "The Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands," "the most famous colour-plate book of American plant and animal life.a fundamental and original work for the study of American species" (Hunt) A small, nimble falcon resembling the peregrine falcon in miniature, the pigeon-hawk is one of the rarest types of falcon. It primarily subsists on small birds and insects and today does not commonly frequent the regions in which Catesby traveled. In his accompanying text, Catesby describes this remarkable bird as "a very swift and bold hawk, preying on pigeons and wild turkeys while they are young." (Feduccia, Catesby's Birds of Colonial America (1985), p. 36) Trained as a botanist, Catesby travelled to Virginia in 1712 and remained there for seven years, sending back to England collections of plants and seeds. With the encouragement of Sir Hans Sloane and others, Catesby returned to America in 1722 to seek materials for his 'Natural History'; he travelled extensively in Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and the Bahamas, sending back further specimens. His preface provides a lengthy account of the development of this work, including his decision to study with Joseph Goupy in order to learn to etch his plates himself to ensure accuracy and economy. A lovely and important work, embodying the most impressive record made during the colonial period of the natural history of an American colony. The most significant work of American natural history before Audubon's Birds of America. Cf. Anker 95; cf. Clark I:55; cf. Dunthorne 72; cf. Fine Bird Books (1990), p. 86; cf. Great Flower Books (1990), p.85; cf. Meisel III:340; cf. Nissen BBI 336, IVB 177; cf. Sabin 11509; cf. Stafleu & Cowan TL2 1057; cf. Wood p. 282; cf. Amy Meyers and Margaret Pritchard, Empire's Nature, Mark Catesby's New World Vision , Williamsburg, 1998.
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New York From Weehawk

HILL, John (1770-1850) after William Guy WALL (1792-after 1864) Aquatint and engraving, with hand-colouring by John Hill. On paper watermarked J. Whatman 1828. The Wall view of Manhattan from Weehawken The steeple at the right end of Manhattan Island is Trinity Church; that at the extreme left of the view is St. John's Chapel. Connected to the tip of the island by a bridge is Castle Clinton (now Castle Garden). Governor's Island, with Castle Fort William, lies just off Manhattan. In the right middle distance, forming part of the Jersey shoreline, is Steven's Point. In the distance, the Narrows dividing Brooklyn and Staten Island. This view, together with the companion New York from the Heights near Brooklyn, forms "one of the most beautiful pairs of views of New York in the early nineteenth century" (Stokes, American Historical Prints, op.cit.). A contemporary newspaper article noted that the "views taken by Mr. Wall are the most accurate descriptions that we have seen. One of them is taken from Brooklyn Heights, near the Distillery of the Messrs. Pierponts, and the other from the Mountain at Weehawk. Mr. Wall at first made a drawing from the high land back of Hoboken; but the view from Weehawk is far preferable, as it not only affords a commanding prospect of the city but also of the whole of our beautiful harbor, with all the islands, &c." The original watercolor is preserved in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Stauffer 616; Stokes, American Historical Prints , c.1820-23-E-98; Stokes, The Iconography of Manhattan Island , vol. III, pp.557-579, illustrated plate 92; Koke, Checklist of John Hill , number 95; Déak, Picturing America , number 336, illustrated.
Yowiye Falls. Valley of the Yosemite

Yowiye Falls. Valley of the Yosemite

MUYBRIDGE, Eadweard James (1830-1904) Mammoth plate albumen photograph, mounted onto the photographer's lettered card mount. Image size: 17 x 21 1/2 inches. Sheet size: 24 3/8 x 29 1/2 inches. Minor repairs at edges of card mount. Rare mammoth-plate photograph of Yosemite by Muybridge. "Muybridge was justifiably celebrated as a landscape photographer for his series of mammoth-plate Yosemite views made [between June and December] in 1872 and offered for sale by Bradley and Rulofson in 1873. These fifty one ambitious photographs were made in direct competition with C.E. Watkins's equally acclaimed views of 1861-1866." Muybridge's 1872 Yosemite photographs were "his most significant and last extensive body of landscape photographs. Drama was the foremost quality in Muybridge's esthetic, and he continued to place heavy emphasis on unique points of view to achieve dramatic intensity" (Naef). As an artist, Muybridge is acclaimed not only for his compositions, but also his deliberate choice of points of view, which were often contrary with the realities of the difficult terrain. Comparisons between the Yosemite photographs of Muybridge and Watkins, both today and even at the time, are and were inevitable. They are perhaps summed up best by Naef, who describes the two photographers "as different as romanticism and classicism" and elsewhere as "painterly" (Muybridge) versus "sharp focus precision" (Watkins). In this image by Muybridge, as in many of his images depicting the various falls of Yosemite, the soft focus of the background enhances the raging power of water as a backdrop for the serenity of the rocks and stream in the foreground. Muybridge announced his intentions in a May 1872 prospectus which sought financial support for the Yosemite project prior to his expedition: "I am encouraged in this undertaking from the generally expressed opinion, especially of our best Art Critics, that although many carefully large-size photographs of our scenery have already been published, yet the wonderful improvement in the science of photographic manipulation, and a judicious selection of points of view, with an aim at the highest artistic treatment of the subject affords, will result in a more complete realization than has hitherto been accomplished of the vast grandeur and pictorial beauty for which our State and Coast have so world-wide a reputation" (quoted in Hood and Haas). The prospectus continues by advertising the sale of 40 mammoth prints (selected by the subscriber from the fifty-one) for $100; individual images sold to non-subscribers would be at a higher price. Although Muybridge produced over 500 negatives between June and November 1872 in various formats, only fifty-one views were produced in mammoth format (17 x 21 inches from his mammoth 20 x 24 inch negatives). These impressive large scale views immediately attracted national and international acclaim and Muybridge was awarded the Vienna Medal in 1874. Despite this attention it would appear that far fewer were sold, or have survived than those of his competitor Carleton Watkins. Writing of the 1872 mammoth-plate photographs, Hood and Haas conclude: "These magnificent landscape compositions stand alone, as the peak of Muybridge's Yosemite contribution." Naef, Era of Exploration , (Albright Knox Art Gallery/Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975) pp. 167-200; Hood and Haas, "Eadweard Muybridge's Yosemite Valley Photographs" in The California Historical Society Quarterly, March 1963, pp. 5-26.
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A New Map of North America, with the West India Islands. Divided according to the preliminary articles of peace, signed at Versailles, 20, Jan. 1783. wherein are particularly distinguished the United States, and the several provinces, governments &ca which compose the British Dominions; laid down according to the latest surveys, and corrected from the original materials, of Goverr. Pownall, Member of Parliamt

BOWEN, Emanuel (c.1720-67) and John GIBSON (fl. 1750-1792)] - Robert LAURIE (1755-1836) & James WHITTLE (d.1818), publishers Engraved map on four joined sheets, hand coloured in outline. Bowen and Gibson's large scale wall map of North America: a Laurie and Whittle issue published following the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolution. Bowen and Gibson's map was first issued in about 1755 under the title An Accurate Map of North America. It served as a generally accurate template for showing the enormous political changes that took place in the next forty years. Sometimes known as the Pownall Map of North America because of the significant contribution the former governor of Massachusetts, Thomas Pownall, made to the geographical knowledge of the northeast, this large wall map has great presence and teems with information, including numerous Native American placenames in the western areas,native tribal regions, notes and routes of early roads, and the forts along the Mississippi and to the west of the Appalachians. The two inset maps are of Baffin and Hudson's Bays, and the mouth of the Colorado River, the latter map based on the explorations of Eusebio Kino. The present map is the fourth version of the title, and is an issue which incorporates the changes brought about by the 1783 Treaty of Paris. A notation on the map reads: "The Divisions in this map are coloured according to the preliminaries signed at Versailles [sic.], January 20th. 1783. The Red indicates the British posessions; the Green those of the United States; the Blue what belongs to the French , and the Yellow what belongs to the Spaniards." Also included is Article III from the Treaty that guaranteed fishing rights to the United States in the Grand Banks and other places around New Brunswick and Newfoundland. Previous issues dating to the Revolution had included some of the articles of the 1763 Treaty, these have been entirely removed, and the cartouche has been reworked, among other changes. The present issue has no imprint in the bottom right corner, is printed on laid paper and includes the western coast of Newfoundland coloured in red. Degrees of Latitude 36; Stevens & Tree, "Comparative Cartography" 49k, in Tooley, The Mapping of America.
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Archery of the Mandans

CATLIN, George (1796-1872) Lithograph, hand-coloured, after Catlin. Wove paper, cut to the edge of the image and mounted on card, as issued, with ink-ruled frame, Image size: 12 1/4 x 17 3/8 inches. Card size: 17 3/8 x 23 1/4 inches. A fine image from the deluxe edition of Catlin's North American Indian Portfolio, one of the most important accounts of native-American life. "The meeting represented here is something like that of an Archery Club in the civilized world, but for a different mode of shooting. Having but little necessity for correct shooting at a long distance.their hunting and warring being chiefly done from the backs of their running horses, the great merit in archery with them consists in the rapidity and force with which they can discharge their arrows from their bows: and the strife in this game.was to decide who could discharge from his bow the greatest number of arrows before his first one should fall to the ground; each arrow to pass over a certain line sufficiently distant to characterize it as a clean and efficient shot.I never beheld a more classic and beautiful group, nor a more graceful and gentlemanly rivalry than in the instance when I made the subjoined sketch; and on this occasion the young man represented in the attitude of shooting, succeeded in getting eight of his arrows on the wing at once, which I distinctly counted." Catlin summarized the Native American as "an honest, hospitable, faithful, brave, warlike, cruel, revengeful, relentless, -- yet honourable, contemplative and religious being". In a famous passage from the preface of his North American Indian Portfolio , Catlin describes how the sight of several tribal chiefs in Philadelphia led to his resolution to record their way of life: "the history and customs of such a people, preserved by pictorial illustrations, are themes worthy of the lifetime of one man, and nothing short of the loss of my life shall prevent me from visiting their country and becoming their historian". He saw no future for either their way of life or their very existence, and with these thoughts always at the back of his mind he worked, against time, setting himself a truly punishing schedule, to record what he saw. From 1832 to 1837 he spent the summer months sketching the tribes and then finished his pictures in oils during the winter. The record he left is unique, both in its breadth and also in the sympathetic understanding that his images constantly demonstrate. A selection of the greatest of images from this record were published in the North American Indian Portfolio in an effort to reach as wide an audience as possible. The present image is one of the results of this publishing venture and is both a work of art of the highest quality and a fitting memorial to a vanished way of life. This print is from the desireable first edition, deluxe issue. Like other folio color plate books of the time, the first edition of the Portfolio was published in three formats: tinted on paper, hand-coloured on paper and a deluxe issue, hand-coloured and trimmed and mounted on card in the style of the original watercolours (as here). This issue, is the most desirable. Abbey Travel 653; Field Indian Bibliography 258; Howes C-243; McCracken 10; Sabin 11532; Wagner-Camp 105a; William S. Reese, The Production of Catlin's North American Indian Portfolio, 1844-1876.
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Largest White bill’d Woodpecker

CATESBY, Mark (1683-1749) Hand-coloured copper engraving, on fine laid paper. A fine image from Catesby's 'The Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands', "the most famous colour-plate book of American plant and animal life.a fundamental and original work for the study of American species" (Hunt). Trained as a botanist, Catesby travelled to Virginia in 1712 and remained there for seven years, sending back to England collections of plants and seeds. With the encouragement of Sir Hans Sloane and others, Catesby returned to America in 1722 to seek materials for his 'Natural History'; he travelled extensively in Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and the Bahamas, sending back further specimens. His preface provides a lengthy account of the development of this work, including his decision to study with Joseph Goupy in order to learn to etch his plates himself to ensure accuracy and economy. A lovely and important work, embodying the most impressive record made during the colonial period of the natural history of an American colony. The most significant work of American natural history before Audubon's Birds of America. Cf. Anker 95; cf. Clark I:55; cf. Dunthorne 72; cf. Fine Bird Books (1990), p. 86; cf. Great Flower Books (1990), p.85; cf. Meisel III:340; cf. Nissen BBI 336, IVB 177; cf. Sabin 11509; cf. Stafleu & Cowan TL2 1057; cf. Wood p. 282; cf. Amy Meyers and Margaret Pritchard, Empire's Nature, Mark Catesby's New World Vision, Williamsburg, 1998.
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Magnolia altissima, fore ingenti candido . The Laurel-Tree of Carolina . Laurier de Caroline]

CATESBY, Mark (1683-1749); after Georg Dionysius EHRET (1708-1770) Hand coloured engraving after Ehret, on a large sheet of laid paper (watermarked J. Whatman). Image size: 19 x 13 1/2 inches. Sheet size: 28 1/2 x 20 inches. The most famous image from Catesby's The Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands. Georg Ehret was the dominant influence in botanical art during the middle years of the 18th century, his greatest merit is that he succeeded as few other botanical artists have succeeded; in being at once both botanist and artist. (Great Flower Books, p. 331). Rightly his work is highly prized today both for its botanical accuracy and aesthetic appeal. His career as a botanical artist began while working as a gardener for the Margrave of Baden Durlach at Karlsruhe, Ehret assisted the botanical watercolourist August Wilhelm Sievert in preparing his paints. This inspired Ehret to execute his own plant portraits which he presented to his employer. Ehret decided to pursue his talent for botanical painting and in 1733 he arrived in Nuremberg where he met Dr. Christoph Jakob Trew (1695-1769), who was to become his life-long friend and most influential patron. In 1736 he settled in England remaining there for the rest of this life as a botanical artist and drawing master. His reputation was extended by the publication of various flower books based on his drawings. Dr. Trew's Plantae Selectae, and Hortus Nitidissimus are the two florilegia for which he is best remembered. However, Gerta Calmann maintains that his original drawings "were the true expression of his genius" (Calmann, Ehret Flower Painter Extraordinary, p. 99). Among his English patrons were John Fothergill, Dr. Richard Mead, Taylor White, Robert More, Ralph Willett, Lord Fairhaven, the Earl of Derby and Joseph Banks. "With his botanical training, intuitive sense of design, and virtuoso skills as a painter -- he had been trained in Paris to paint on vellum -- Ehret was to become the most outstanding botanical artist of the eighteenth century to work in England . Catesby, who probably met Ehret through Sloane, was clearly impressed by his work and began an association with him. During his period of working with Catesby, Ehret produced ten watercolors that were etched by Catesby for The Natural HIstory" (McBurney, p. 152). Most notable of these is the present image of the Magnolia. Trained as a botanist, Catesby travelled to Virginia in 1712 and remained there for seven years, sending back to England collections of plants and seeds. With the encouragement of Sir Hans Sloane and others, Catesby returned to America in 1722 to seek materials for his Natural History; he travelled extensively in Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and the Bahamas, sending back further specimens. His preface provides a lengthy account of the development of this work, including his decision to study with Joseph Goupy in order to learn to etch his plates himself to ensure accuracy and economy. The end result is encyclopaedic: Catesby provides information not only on the botany and ornithology of the area, but also on its history, climate, geology and anthropology. Catesby writes in the preface of his method of working: "As I was not bred a Painter, I hope some faults in Perspective, and other niceties, may be more readily excused: for I humbly conceive that Plants, and other Things done in a Flat, if an exact manner, may serve the Purpose of Natural History, better in some Measure, than in a mere bold and Painter-like Way. In designing the Plants, I always did them while fresh and just gathered: and the Animals, particularly the Birds, I painted while alive (except a very few) and gave them their Gestures peculiar to every kind of Birds, and where it could be admitted, I have adapted the Birds to those Plants on which they fed, or have any relation to. Fish, which do not retain their colours when out of their Element, I painted at different times, having a succession of them procured while the former lost their colours . Reptiles will live for many months . so that I had no difficulty in painting them while living" (Vol.I, p.vi). First issued in parts between 1730 and 1747, this engraving is from the 1771 third edition, which appeared in at least two issues. The first was produced in 1771, and was printed throughout on laid paper, watermarked J. Whatman. Gerta Calmann, Ehret: Flower Painter Extraordinary (Oxford:1977); E. Charles Nelson and David J. Elliott, The Curious Mister Catesby (University of Georgia Press, 2015).
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View of the City of Boston from Dorchester Heights

HAVELL, Robert (1793-1878) Aquatint by and after Havell, printed in blue and black by W. Neale, 'Coloured by Havell & Spearing.'. A "majestic view of Boston" (Deák) by Havell: landscape painter and engraver of Audubon's masterpiece. "Robert Havell gives us a majestic view of Boston composed of highly ordered elements: the open-spaced rusticity of the foreground, which serves as a staging area for viewing the city, is linked to the densely developed metropolis in the background by a curving watercourse . The city itself is presented most appealingly in the configuration of a terraced pyramid where solid buildings and graceful church spires make their way steadily to the top. Although an air of . tranquillity prevails, the sky-canopied view is crowded to the very edges with signs of industrial and trading activities. Bostonians familiar with the nineteenth-century topography of their city are likely to be able to identify a host of buildings and locations. The most conspicuous architectural landmark is . the State House, the large, domed building at the pinnacle of the view" (Deák). No doubt inspired by the example of John James Audubon, his long-time collaborator and friend, Robert Havell had emigrated to America in September 1839. He settled at Tarrytown, beside the Hudson River, and went on to establish himself as both an engraver and landscape painter of note. The painting on which the present print is based was first exhibited by Havell in 1841 at the National Academy of Design. Deák Picturing America 509.
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Untitled chart of Boston Bay]

DES BARRES, J. F. W. (publisher) [and] SAMUEL HOLLAND Engraved with color wash and outline color. Sheet: 31 x 42 1/4. Expert restoration, primarily at the upper margin. Two sheets joined, both watermarked "J.Bates" and countermarked "JB". Fourth state of five. Among the earliest charts published by Des Barres were those relevant to the crisis in New England, as the War of Independence broke out. This chart depicts the coast of Massachusetts from Salem to Scituate Harbor, and includes the complicated hydrography of Boston Harbor, and the confluent rivers. A considerable amount of coastal topography is included, obviously relevant to warships. Fundamentally, a chart for navigators, it includes soundings and shoals, with particularly strong detail along the Charles and Mystic Rivers as well as in Salem and Marblehead. Samuel Holland was the lead surveyor. In 1764, he was named Surveyor General of both the Province of Quebec and the Northern District of North America. He had a considerable staff and the British Navy assisted in providing soundings. From 1770 to 1774, his squad worked exclusively on northeastern colonies that soon became part of the United States. The surveys that derived from the industry of their work were the most accurate ever made to that time. They were sent to London where Des Barres supervised the engraving and publication. The charts were very soon put to use. Des Barres, of Swiss-Huguenot extraction, studied under the great mathematician Daniel Bernoulli at the University of Basel, before continuing on to the Royal Military College at Woolwich. Upon the outbreak of hostilities with France in 1756, he joined the British Royal American Regiment as a military engineer. He came to the attention of General James Wolfe, who appointed him to join his personal detail. During this period he also worked with the future legendary explorer James Cook on a monumental chart of the St. Lawrence River. From 1762, Des Barres was enlisted to survey the coastlines of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, while his colleague, Samuel Holland charted the New England coast. He also managed to gain access to some surveys of the American South, Cuba and Jamaica. In 1774, Des Barres returned to England where he began work on The Neptune. His dedication to the project was so strong, that often at his own expense, he continually updated and added new charts and views up until 1784. That year he returned to Canada, where he remained for a further forty years, becoming a senior political figure and a wealthy land owner, and living to the advanced age of 103. Stevens Collection, 94d ; cf. Hornsby, Surveyors of Empire: Samuel Holland, J.F.W. Des Barres and the Making of the Atlantic Neptune . 2011.
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The Indian Reed

THORNTON, Robert John (circa 1768-1837). - Peter HENDERSON Hand-coloured and colour-printed in aquatint and line by Caldwell. Sight size: 20 x 15 1/4 inches. Gold-leaf frame, "Amiran" archival glass, with UV protection and an anti-reflective surface. Framed size: 27 3/4 x 22 3/4 inches. The most strikingly beautiful flower plates ever to be printed in England. A very fine view of the exotic Indian Reed Canna indica L. Thornton, during "the colour-finishing by hand.got his colourists to add five petals, one in each flower, and a long pointed bud at the top of the spike. The final process of hand-colouring.added greatly to the effectiveness of a number of Thornton's plates.but this is the only one where he took such.action that it altered the character of the plate.[For the second state Henderson effectively replaced the hand-painted changes of the first state] and the augmented red flower spike stands out boldly against the sky. The large leaves at the bottom are beautifully lit. The plant itself, Canna indica , the well-known garden plant still much used for formal bedding, needs no description. The background river is presumably the Ganges, and the tall pagoda adds an eastern touch" (Ronald King, The Temple of Flora by Robert Thornton , 1981, p.106). Thornton's The Temple of Flora is the greatest English colour-plate flower book. ".[Thornton] inherited a competent fortune and trained as a doctor. He appears to have had considerable success in practice and was appointed both physician to the Marylebone Dispensary and lecturer in medical botany at Guy's and St. Thomas's hospitals. But quite early in his career he embarked on his.great work. What Redouté produced under the patronage of L'Héritier, Marie Antoinette, the Empress Josephine, Charles X, and the Duchesse de Berry, Thornton set out to do alone.Numerous important artists were engaged.twenty-eight paintings of flowers [were] commissioned from Abraham Pether, known as 'Moonlight Pether,' Philip Reinagle,.Sydenham Edwards, and Peter Henderson.The result.involved Thornton in desperate financial straits.In an attempt to extricate himself he organized the Royal Botanic Lottery, under the patronage of the Prince Regent.It is easy to raise one's eyebrows at Thornton's unworldly and injudicious approach to publishing.But he produced.one of the loveliest books in the world" (Alan Thomas, Great Books and Book Collecting , pp.142-144). Two states of this plate are descibed by Buchanan. However, the present image seems to be a third intermediate state with the hand-painted petals and buds of the first state but with the aquatint removed from the sky as in the second state. (Handasyde Buchanan, Thornton's The Temple of Flora , 1951, p.19).
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Lexicon Technicum: or, an Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences explaining not only the Terms of Art, but the Arts Themselves . [With:] A Supplement to Dr. Harris’s Dictionary of Arts and Sciences . By a Society of Gentlemen

HARRIS, John (1667-1719) [Lexicon:] Titles printed in red and black, text in two columns. Engraved portrait frontispiece, 14 engraved plates (8 folding) and numerous woodcut in-text illustrations. List of subscribers. [Supplement:] Titles printed in red and black, text in two columns. 6 engraved folding plates and numerous woodcut in-text illustrations. Early uniform speckled calf, expertly rebacked to style, spines with raised bands in six compartments, red and green morocco lettering pieces First edition of the first English encyclopedia, complete with the supplement: a landmark in the history of technology and including the first publication of Newton's only published work on chemistry. John Harris (1667?-1719), clergyman, mathematician, secretary of the Royal Society, produced the first English encyclopedia arranged in alphabetical order. Indeed, the work is considered the first technical encyclopedia in any language. Including over 8000 entries, for its content Harris drew on the works of Newton, Tournefort, John Ray, Halley, Robert Boyle, and others. Most notably, the second volume contains Newton's "De natura acidorum", his only published work on chemistry. Although originally written in 1692, the work appears here in print for the first time and Newton is listed as a subscriber. "John Harris, clergyman, mathematician, and (from 1709) secretary of the Royal Society, produced the first English encyclopaedia arranged in alphabetical order. He was the first lexicographer to distinguish between a word-book (dictionary, in modern parlance) and a subject-book (encyclopaedia proper). His Lexicon Technicum appears to be the first technical dictionary in any language. The most famous of his contributors was Isaac Newton" (PMM). "The first English dictionary of arts and sciences, and the earliest modern encyclopedia of science" (Norman). Rarely found complete with the separately-issued supplement. ESTC T142411 and T101515; Goldsmiths' 4039; Tomash & Williams H21; PMM 171a; Henderson p.65 no. 62.0; Babson (Supplement) p. 54; Grolier/Horblit 25a; Norman 992.
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The Persian Cyclamen

THORNTON, Robert John (circa 1768-1837). - Abraham PETHER (1731-1795) Hand-coloured and colour-printed aquatint, with stipple and line engraving by Elmes. Paper watermarked 1804. The most strikingly beautiful flower plates ever to be printed in England. "The Persian Cyclamen [ Cyclamen persicum Miller], parent of the florist's cyclamen . is a native of the countries and islands at the eastern end of the Mediterranean but not of Persia itself. It is the largest flowered of an attractive genus of small plants much grown in modern times by connoisseurs. The Persian Cyclamen was not the first of its kind to become known in western Europe. Cyclamen europeaum , the `Bleeding Nun', as it was called, was thought to be dangerous to pregnant women: any unfortunate lady in this condition who stepped over it might immediately miscarry. John Gerrard, the Elizabethan herbalist, believed this implicitly and describes how he fenced his plants around with sticks with others laid across them `lest any woman should, by lamentable experiment, find my words to be true, by stepping over the same.' When the baby was nearing full term, and delivery was to be encouraged, wearing of the disc-like tuber, `hanged about' the expectant mothers, had a salutary effect, and Gerrard told his wife to use it when attending confinements. Its use by midwifes dates back to the days of the Greeks." (Ronald King. The Temple of Flora by Robert Thornton . 1981, p. 52). Thornton's Temple of Flora is the greatest English colour-plate flower book. ".[Thornton] inherited a competent fortune and trained as a doctor. He appears to have had considerable success in practice and was appointed both physician to the Marylebone Dispensary and lecturer in medical botany at Guy's and St. Thomas's hospitals. But quite early in his career he embarked on his. great work. What Redouté produced under the patronage of L'Héritier, Marie Antoinette, the Empress Josephine, Charles X and the Duchesse de Berry, Thornton set out to do alone. Numerous important artists were engaged. twenty-eight paintings of flowers commissioned from Abraham Pether, known as `Moonlight Pether', Philip Reinagle, . Sydenham Edwards, and Peter Henderson. The result. involved Thornton in desperate financial straits. In an attempt to extricate himself he organized the Royal Botanic Lottery, under the patronage of the Prince Regent. it is easy to raise one's eyebrows at Thornton's unworldly and injudicious approach to publishing. But he produced. one of the loveliest books in the world" (Alan Thomas Great Books and Book Collecting , pp.142-144). Third state of three of this plate from the Temple of Flora . `In the first state the top the castle is indistinct and has no pinnacles on the towers, and this is the first feature to inspect. The hillside is pure aquatint; the shading behind the cyclamen flowers is lightly cross-hatched, while the tree trunk to the right has only a few lines on it. In the second state the castle is more prominent and five distinct sharp pinnacles have been added, while many extra etched lines are to be seen - notably behind the cyclamen flowers; on the tree trunk; and under the cyclamen leaves on the left, which themselves stand out more sharply. The principal change in the third state is the addition of the aquatint to the sky on the left, so that only a streak of light remains above the mountains, while in the earlier states the light reached the top corner. The leaves of the cyclamen [now have]. light and dark patches, the coarse-grained aquatint has been added to the middle distance. Much additional aquatinting has been applied to other parts of the plate. The most easily-noticed difference, however, are the changes in the castle between states one and two, and in the sky between states two three." (Handasyde Buchanan. Thornton's Temple of Flora , 1951, p.15). Third state of three of this plate from the Temple of Flora.
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The Oblique-Leaved Begonia

THORNTON, Robert John (circa 1768-1837). - Peter REINAGLE Hand-coloured and colour-printed aquatint, stipple and line engraving by Caldwell. Sheet size: 21 3/4 x 19 3/4 inches. Fine condition. The most strikingly beautiful flower plates ever to be printed in England. "Begonias as we see them in glasshouse and garden today are a modern development unknown in Thornton's time, when a few species had been introduced to Europe. The particular species he chose for this picture, Begonia nitidia [Dryander], had not long been brought in from Jamaica by Sir Joseph Banks. Regarded as a fine plant then, there was as yet no hint of the important part it was to play one hundred years later in the breeding of the modern small-flowered bedding begonias, Begonis semperflorens . Historically, this picture is of interest as showing a basic species almost at the time it was originally introduced. It is itself an attractive plant with a smooth shiny stem and large glossy green leaves. The way its parts shine, reflecting what light there is, is such an outstanding characteristic of the plant that it provided part of its botanical name: the epithet nitidia means `shining'. That characteristic was superbly captured by the painter Philip Reinagle. and skilfully reproduced by the engraver Caldwell. It is one of Thornton's most attractive and beautiful plates." (Ronald King. The Temple of Flora by Robert Thornton . 1981, p.76). Thornton's Temple of Flora is the greatest English colour-plate flower book. ".[Thornton] inherited a competent fortune and trained as a doctor. He appears to have had considerable success in practice and was appointed both physician to the Marylebone Dispensary and lecturer in medical botany at Guy's and St. Thomas's hospitals. But quite early in his career he embarked on his. great work. What Redouté produced under the patronage of L'Héritier, Marie Antoinette, the Empress Josephine, Charles X and the Duchesse de Berry, Thornton set out to do alone. Numerous important artists were engaged. twenty-eight paintings of flowers commissioned from Abraham Pether, known as `Moonlight Pether', Philip Reinagle, . Sydenham Edwards, and Peter Henderson. The result. involved Thornton in desperate financial straits. In an attempt to extricate himself he organized the Royal Botanic Lottery, under the patronage of the Prince Regent. it is easy to raise one's eyebrows at Thornton's unworldly and injudicious approach to publishing. But he produced. one of the loveliest books in the world" (Alan Thomas Great Books and Book Collecting , pp.142-144). Single state (with minor variations) of this plate from the Temple of Flora . "A very fine plate. with the begonias actually all printed in colour in the early impressions. Minor variations in state only. The mountains which start in pure aquatint are later strengthened with oblique lines, while the horizon is sharper. Later still, the large white cloud at the top right became reduced in size from 1-1 ½ inches to less than ½ inch. [however, the cloud resumed it former size in the latest impressions.] " (Handasyde Buchanan. Thornton's Temple of Flora , 1951, p.17).
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A Group of Carnations [First State]

THORNTON, Robert John (circa 1768-1837). - Peter HENDERSON Hand-coloured and colour-printed aquatint, stipple and line engraving by Caldwell. The most strikingly beautiful flower plates ever to be printed in England. "Carnations are cultivated forms of Dianthus caryophyllus , a flower grown in gardens since the time of the Emperor Augustus, during whose reign, according to Pliny, it was introduced to Rome from Spain. Found on castle ruins both in France and England, it has been suggested that it made its way to England from France in Norman times on stone imported for building castles. It was popular in medieval times both for its colour and its clove scent, and from the latter was known as the `clove-gillyflower'. Many varieties have been bred such as those shown in this picture, which was painted by Peter Henderson. These belong to what are called `florist's flowers', that is, varieties conforming to certain recognized standards. Those with broad stripes of one colour were classed as `Flakes': the Flakes in this group were named by Thornton `Palmers's Dutchess of Dorset' and `Palmer's Defiance'. Those with stripes of two or three colours were known as `Bizarres': Thornton called the Bizarres in this group `Caustin's British Monarch' and `Midwinter's Dutchess of Wurtemburg'. Those with toothed and coloured edges to the petals were `Piquettes', in this case `Davey's Defiance' and `Princess of Wales'." (Ronald King. The Temple of Flora by Robert Thornton . 1981, p.60). Thornton's Temple of Flora is the greatest English colour-plate flower book. ".Thornton] inherited a competent fortune and trained as a doctor. He appears to have had considerable success in practice and was appointed both physician to the Marylebone Dispensary and lecturer in medical botany at Guy's and St. Thomas's hospitals. But quite early in his career he embarked on his.great work. What Redouté produced under the patronage of L'Héritier, Marie Antoinette, the Empress Josephine, Charles X and the Duchesse de Berry, Thornton set out to do alone. Numerous important artists were engaged. twenty-eight paintings of flowers commissioned from Abraham Pether, known as `Moonlight Pether', Philip Reinagle, . Sydenham Edwards, and Peter Henderson. The result. involved Thornton in desperate financial straits. In an attempt to extricate himself he organized the Royal Botanic Lottery, under the patronage of the Prince Regent. it is easy to raise one's eyebrows at Thornton's unworldly and injudicious approach to publishing. But he produced. one of the loveliest books in the world" (Alan Thomas Great Books and Book Collecting , pp.142-144). First state of two of this plate from the Temple of Flora . `Minute alterations which in no way affected the appearance of the prints were made at an early stage of this plate, which. is one of the finest of Thornton's productions. In its final state. the background has been entirely removed and a bluish white wash substituted, while the temple on the right has been re-engraved. Impressions of the Carnations vary therefore more widely than any others.' (Handasyde Buchanan. Thornton's Temple of Flora , 1951, p.16).
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The American Museum or Repository of Ancient and Modern Fugutive Pieces, &c. . Vol. II

CAREY, Mathew (1760-1839) [2], 600, 22pp. With general title, individual issue titles, dedication to Lafayette, list of subscribers and Index. Contemporary marbled boards, rebacked and retipped. Provenance: Samuel A. Lewis (signature on front pastedown) America's first literary magazine, including early printings of the Federalist Papers and the Constitution. The American Museum , America's first literary magazine, was a pioneering effort on the part of its publisher, Mathew Carey, to bring news to a national audience, and to develop and promote an indigenous literary culture. Carey began The American Museum on the heels of a failed partnership with other printers called the Columbian Magazine . Carey's original goal in his solo venture was to cull from other sources the best essays on political, economic, and cultural subjects, as well as poetry and prose, and offer it to a national audience. Despite the note to the reader in his first issue apologizing for his journal being "destitute as it is of originality," he soon began to publish original work. A favorable opinion of the Museum from George Washington, often reprinted in advertisements, enhanced its reputation. Carey cast a wide net in soliciting writers and topics for his periodical. Among the distinguished contributors are Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Paine, James Bowdoin, David Rittenhouse, Benjamin West, Jeremy Belknap, Ezra Stiles, Noah Webster, H.M. Brackenridge, Joel Barlow, Timothy Dwight, Benjamin Rush, Joel Dickinson, and Tench Coxe. All of the major issues of the day, as well as scientific and cultural events, found a place in its pages. Not the least of these are the debates surrounding the Constitution, but also internal improvements, manufactures, agriculture, and the general state of the nation, as well as poetry and varied prose. The appearance of the Federal Constitution in the September 1787 issue is one of the first contemporary printings of the document, and the inclusion in the same issue of a "Letter Relative to the Hessian Fly" shows the range of the journal's interests. The first six numbers of the Federalist Papers appear in the November and December issues. The American Museum became a vital source for information about the activities of the federal government, as Carey printed reports from cabinet departments, the proceedings of Congress, state constitutions, treaties with foreign nations, and foreign intelligence. Authors contributing literary essays and poetry include Francis Hopkinson, Philip Freneau, David Humphreys, Timothy Dwight, and John Trumbull. The success of The American Museum helped establish Mathew Carey as the leading printer of his generation. Through the publication of the periodical he was able to develop a distribution network which greatly aided him in coming years as he became a leading book publisher. A congressional change in postal rates for magazines in 1792 forced Carey to end The American Museum in order "to have recourse to some other object that might afford a better reward to industry." James N. Green, Mathew Carey, Publisher and Patriot, pp.6-7. Chielens, American Literary Magazines, pp.19-24.