TIBETAN PAINTED SCROLLS. An Artistic and Symbolic Illustration of 172 Tibetan Paintings Preceeded by a Survey of the Historical, Artistic, Literary and Religious Development of Tibetan Culture. With an Article of P. Pelliot on a Mongol Edict, The Translation of Historical Documents and an Appendix on Prebuddhistic Ideas of Tibet[Tibetan Scrolls]; Tucci Giuseppe 3 volumes. First of the Edition. Originally published in Rome. One of 500 sets only. Profusely illustrated in black and white and in colours, the text volumes with well over 100 plates in black and white, the folio plate volume with a profusion of full-page colour plates and a great number in duotone, some repeats, folding charts and plates. Quarto and Folio, publisher's original maroon leatherette, the covers with large gilt decorative devices and lettering, the spine panels fully gilt with images of the Buddha in gilt and lettering and designs in gilt xv, 327, ; viii, , 331-798; folio volume of plates pp. A superb set, as pristine and essentially mint. Beautifully preserved. FIRST OF THE EDITION AND A SUPERB COPY. 'Tibetan painting reproduces the Tibetan soul like a mirror in which we can discern what this people have learnt from India, China or Central Asia and what they have created on their own initiative. When we look at on after another of these specimens we can see reflected in the images they present the culture and the spiritual history of a people who lived for ages and is still living under the domination of religion. This painting is an unfolding panoramic vision of Tibetan soul, its religious life and its history.' Giuseppe Tucci
Doughty Charles M 2 volumes. First edition, second issue of the 1936 "New and Definitive Edition" with the introduction by T. E. Lawrence and the prefaces to the first through third editions. Portrait frontispiece in first volume, maps, plans, and collotype plates including large fold-out maps at the inside of the rear covers of both volumes. Royal 8vo, original brown cloth with gilt lettered spines. 674; 696. A very handsome set, clean and fresh, just a little minor rubbing to the bottom board edges. ARABIA DESERTA is perhaps one of the best-known classics of exploration and travel. Few writers of any genre have worked such magic or mischief on the English language as Doughty. He disapproved of Victorian style, and mingled his own with Chaucerian and Elizabethan English and Arabic. But whatever the style, the result is perhaps the finest book on Arabia ever written. We will let another Arabist, Lawrence, speak on Doughty's behalf: "I have talked the book over with many travellers, and we are agreed that here you have all the desert, its hills and plains, the lava fields, the villages, the tents, the men and animals. They are told of to the life, with words and phrases fitted to them so perfectly that one cannot dissociate them in memory. It is the true Arabia, the land with its smells and dirt, as well as its nobility and freedom. There is no sentiment, nothing merely picturesque, that most common failing of oriental travel-books. Doughty's completeness is devastating. There is nothing we would take away, little we could add. He took all Arabia for his province, and has left to his successors only the poor part of specialists. We may write books on parts of the desert or some of the history of it; but there can never be another picture of the whole, in our time, because here it is all said." (- from the Introduction).
Evelyn John First Nonesuch Edition, Limited, One of 625 copies. The George Cheever Shattuck copy. 8vo, in the publisher's original marbled paper covered boards over green cloth spine. 109 pp. A fine and bright copy with only the most minimal evidence of age. EDITED BY GEOFFREY KEYNES FOR THE NONESUCH PRESS. Practical advice for gardeners found in this heritage gardening how-to. Beautifully printed by the Nonesuch Press. As to the provenance of the volume: Dr. George C. Shattuck, professor emeritus at the Harvard School of Public Health and an authority on tropical medicine was an important member of the Harvard and greater Boston community. Dr. Shattuck, was active in France, Cuba, the Belgian Congo, Guatemala, the Yucatan and along the Amazon River before joining the Harvard School of Public Health, where he was clinical professor of tropical medicine from 1938 to 1947. During World War II he was a consultant on tropical medicine to several hospitals.
[Gay, John] Moore Edward, editor First of the Edition, the Didot Stereotype edition, with the fine provenance of Henry Lee of the important Boston family. With an engraved frontispiece and title-page. 12 mo, contemporary full tan mottled calf, gilt lettered and elaborately decorated with gilt tooling separating compartments on the spine, with gilt rolled borders to the covers. 235 pp. A handsome copy, the first free-fly and first prelim excised, otherwise the book and text-block are complete. One of Gay's best known works, the fables are not moral tales: "for a Fable he gives now and then a Tale or an abstracted Allegory; and from some, by whatever name they may be called, it will be difficult to extract any moral principle. They are, however, told with liveliness; the versification is smooth; and the diction, though now and then a little constrained by the measure of the rhyme, is generally happy." [Samuel Johnson] Henry Lee's copy with his bookplate. The Lee family was engaged in early mercantile capitalism in America and was an important figure in its development. The family showed remarkable powers of adaptation to successive forms of capitalism, mercantile, industrial, and financial; and, as opportunity served, they were to do more than their share in promoting the cultural welfare of America. Of the broad pictures that emerge, is the commercial family compact, the set of families that intermarried and did business with the world, using one another in special positions of trust. The Lees exported and imported and wholesaled their goods in America. They had ships at sea and were active in the Calcutta trade and the East Indian affairs. It is Henry Lee's bookplate that is affixed here.
THOMAS CARLYLE. A History of the First Forty Years of His Life 1795 – 1835 [with,] THOMAS CARLYLE. A History of His Life in London 1834-1881[Carlyle, Thomas]; Froude James Anthony 4 volumes. First Edition of each set. Illustrated with portraits and etchings. Tall 8vo, publisher's original sepia cloth, the spines lettered and blocked in gilt, the covers blocked in blind, the two volumes of Carlyle's Life in London in brown cloth as issued by the publisher, designed to marry the two volumes of Carlyle's First Forty Years. xviii, 432, 24 ads.; vi, 495; viii, 460, 24 ads.; viii, 486, [2 ads.] pp. A very good and pleasing set, the hinges strong and in good order, a bit of light rubbing to the bindings due to the composition of the cloth, still a very bright and pleasing set with the gilt and bindings in good order and the text-blocks clean and well preserved. RARE FIRST EDITION OF ALL VOLUMES OF THIS FORMIDABLE BIOGRAPHY OF THOMAS CARLYLE. 'Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881) the British essayist, historian, and philosopher from the Scottish Lowlands was a leading writer of the Victorian era, he exerted a profound influence on 19th-century art, literature, and philosophy. Born in Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, Carlyle attended the University of Edinburgh where he excelled in mathematics, inventing the Carlyle circle. After finishing the arts course, he prepared to become a minister in the Burgher Church while working as a schoolmaster. He quit these and several other endeavours before settling on literature, writing for the Edinburgh Encyclopædia and working as a translator. He found initial success as a disseminator of German literature, then little-known to English readers, through his translations, his Life of Friedrich Schiller (1825), and his review essays for various journals. His first major work was a novel entitled Sartor Resartus (183334). After relocating to London, he became famous with his French Revolution (1837), which prompted the collection and reissue of his essays as Miscellanies. Each of his subsequent works, including On Heroes (1841), Past and Present (1843), Cromwell's Letters (1845), Latter-Day Pamphlets (1850), and History of Frederick the Great (185865), were highly regarded throughout Europe and North America. He founded the London Library, contributed significantly to the creation of the National Portrait Galleries in London and Scotland, was elected Lord Rector of Edinburgh University in 1865, and received the Pour le Mérite in 1874, among other honours. Carlyle occupied a central position in Victorian culture, being considered not only, in the words of Ralph Waldo Emerson, the "undoubted head of English letters", but a "secular prophet". Carlyle is now recognised as "one of the enduring monuments of our literature who, quite simply, cannot be spared." Carlyle was a renowned conversationalist. Ralph Waldo Emerson described him as "an immense talker, as extraordinary in his conversation as in his writing,I think even more so." Charles Darwin considered him "the most worth listening to, of any man I know." William Lecky noted his "singularly musical voice" which "quite took away anything grotesque in the very strong Scotch accent" and "gave it a softening or charm". Henry Fielding Dickens recollected that he was "gifted with a high sense of humour, and when he laughed he did so heartily, throwing his head back and letting himself go." Thomas Wentworth Higginson remembered his "broad, honest, human laugh," one that "cleared the air like thunder, and left the atmosphere sweet." Lady Eastlake called it "the best laugh I ever heard". Charles Eliot Norton wrote that Carlyle's "essential nature was solitary in its strength, its sincerity, its tenderness, its nobility. He was nearer Dante than any other man." Frederic Harrison similarly observed that "Carlyle walked about London like Dante in the streets of Verona, gnawing his own heart and dreaming dreams of Inferno. To both the passers-by might have said, See! there goes the man who has seen hell". Higginson rather felt that Jean Paul's humorous character Siebenkäs "came nearer to the actual Carlyle than most of the grave portraitures yet executed", for, like Siebenkäs, Carlyle was "a satirical improvisatore". Emerson saw Carlyle as "not mainly a scholar," but "a practical Scotchman, such as you would find in any saddler's or iron-dealer's shop, and then only accidentally and by a surprising addition, the admirable scholar and writer he is." Carlyle's two most important followers were Emerson and Ruskin. In the 19th century, Emerson was often thought of as "the American Carlyle", and he described himself in 1870 as "Lieutenant" to Carlyle's "General in Chief". Ruskin publicly acknowledged that Carlyle was the author to whom he "owed more than to any other living writer", and would frequently refer to him as his "master", writing after Carlyle's death that he was "throwing myself now into the mere fulfilment of Carlyle's work".' wiki
[Japan; Japanese Illustrated Books] [Bunjin -ga; Literati Paintings] An Album of copies of Literati Paintings. Illustrated with 56 Literati Paintings mounted on 25 double-sided accordion-fold boards, some with woodblock colour, some finished in colour by hand, the illustrations mounted with gilt-speckled borders. Oblong folio, the album 28 3/4 x 17 1/2 cm., the paintings 22 x 13 1/2 cm., the upper cover of the album with original padded silk brocade and paper label. The album includes 7 'Poetry Competition paintings and poems from the '100 Famous Poems', an 8th century Heian period compilation. A very pleasing example, well preserved with minor rubbing to the extremities, the mountings and illustrations all in fine condition. A FINE EXAMPLE. THE JAPANESE ART OF BUNJIN-GA WAS INTRODUCED IN THE 17TH CENTURY FROM CHINA'S SOUTHERN SCHOOL OF PAINTING. This occurred during the Ming dynasty through the 'Painting Manual of the Mustard Seed Garden', although that in itself was based on Song and Yuan dynasty landscape painting; and the poetry of the Japanese literati painting was in the style of Classical Chinese poetry, termed Kanbun in Japan. Literati painting in Japan is generally referred to as Bunjinga (literati painting; Ch. Wen ren hua) or Nanga (Southern School painting; Ch. nan zong hua), both terms borrowed from China. Wen ren hua refers to the status of artists who belonged to the scholar-gentleman class. Nan zong hua was coined by the Chinese painter and theorist Dong Qichang (b. 1555d. 1636), who used it to describe art by literati, ostensibly amateurs, whose paintings were indebted to their mastery of calligraphy, expressed their inner feelings, and sought to capture the spiritual essence of their subjects. Japanese Literati Painting and CalligraphyP. J. Graham, F. L. Chance.
Proclamation of the Establishment of the State of Israel [Fine Art Print, The Historic Lithograph to Commemorate Jewish Statehood.][Szyk Arthur, Artist] An original lithograph by the artist, Arthur Szyk, plate signed "Arthur Szyk, New Canaan, 1948." Beautifully done in the style of a medieval manuscript but with modern themes and imagery. The renowned historic proclamation is illuminated in numerous colours and exquisite details. The central Hebrew text of the Declaration is surrounded by miniature vignettes telling of both Jewish history and the newborn State of Israel. The images include Moses, with his brother Aaron the High Priest and the warrior Hur; Ezekiel, the prophet who called for restoration to the Land; skulls and bones as a reminder of the Holocaust; King David, the first King of the Jewish People in Jerusalem; and the symbols of the twelve tribes of Israel; the present day is represented with the pioneer (chalutz) who sows the land on the right and the soldier who defends the land on the left. The image measures 14 inches x 18 1/2 inches on paper 16 1/2 inches x 21 inches, accompanied by a copy of the original English translation as issued at the time of printing. The lithograph and English translation all are in very fine condition. THE SCARCE LITHOGRAPHIC PRODUCTION OF SZYK'S FAMOUS COMMEMORATIVE OF THE PROCLAMATION OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL. Polish born Jewish artist Arthur Szyk originally gained popularity through his World War II caricatures, in which he often depicted the leaders of the Axis powers. After the war, he devoted himself to political issues, such as supporting the creation of Israel. He first visited Israel in 1914 from his native Poland and after permanently resettling in America became the leading activist artist in America to help the cause of bringing about the State of Israel. In her memoirs, Julia Szyk records that on the day the independence of the Jewish state was declared, her husband wept and then sat down to begin this masterwork, devoting more than six months to its completion, the lithographs were printed within the first year of Statehood. It is said that this work and his completed Declaration of Independence of the United States hung side by side in the Szyk household until his death in 1951.
Salinger J. D First Edition, Second Printing, Same month as the first printing and with the same two tones of paper as the first printing. Very possibly the text block was not reprinted but a new title page was issued with additional copyright information added. This copy also comes with the original review penned by Eudora Welty and published in the New York Times on April, 3 1953. 8vo, publishers original black cloth, lettered in gilt on the spine. In the original dustjacket which is the same as the jacket issued with the first printing. 302 pp. A fine copy, the dustjacket with mild wear at the extremities. A very pleasing, tight and clean copy, with no evidence of use to the text-block or volume. FIRST EDITION, FIRST REPRINT IN THE ORIGINAL MONTH OF PUBLICATION. "J.D.Salinger's writing is original, first rate, serious and beautiful. Here are nine of his stories, and one further reason that they are so interesting, and so powerful seen all together, is that they are paradoxes. From the outside, they are often very funny; inside, they are about heartbreak, and convey it; they can do this because they are pure." - Eudora Welty A number of the stories appeared first in The New Yorker. The stories included in the book are: A Perfect Day for Bananafish, Uncle Wiggily in Connecticut, Just Before the War with the Eskimos, The Laughing Man, Down at the Dinghy, For Esmé -- With Love and Squalor, Pretty Mouth and Green My Eyes, De Daumier-Smith's Blue Period, Teddy. A number of the Salinger's best are included here.
Bowditch Ernest W A handsome folding map of Boston and adjacent areas, suitable for framing. Printed and illustrated in colours. 24 x 18 inches, publisher's original folding green case protects the foldout map. A very fine copy, bright and clean, the map beautifully preserved with only the most minimal evidence of age or use. A VERY HANDSOME SPECIMEN AND AN ESPECIALLY WELL PRESERVED COLOURED FOLDING MAP OF BOSTON AND ENVIRONS.
Twain Mark 2 volumes. First edition, title-pages dated 1924, later impression with K-Y noted. With a fine portrait frontispiece in each volume and with holograph facsimile of Twain's writing. Tall 8vo, publishers original dark-blue ribbed cloth gilt lettered on the spines, t.e.g., with a facsimile of Twains autograph in gilt on the upper covers. 361, index; 357, index, ads pp. A fine set, the hinges tight and strong, the books very well preserved with minimal evidence of age. A FINE COPY OF AN EARLY REISSUE OF THE FIRST EDITION. "As might be expected of anything which Mark Twain wrote, this autobiography is unlike any other ever written-as unconventional and unorthodox as its great author. Always, when the time came for him to go on with the dictation, he chose as his subject whatever was most interesting to him at the moment, regardless of chronological order. For he believed that a mans thoughts, not his outward acts are his true history, which alone reveal him completely. "The resulting book is a stream of table-talk: anecdotes, humorous and serious; reminiscences of his mother, his daughter Susy, his boyhood days in Missouri; chronicles of his friendships with all manner of men, from General Grant and President Cleveland to his Irish coachman and the unfamed intimates of his vagabond youth; bold expressions of opinion on every sort of topic-all are here, full of the vigor and the humanity of their author, and forming an inexhaustible mine of entertainment, amusement, and delight." Dictated by Twain over several years with the stipulation that it be published after his death.
Shakespeare William 12 volumes. This finely printed edition with the important provenance of C.H. St John Hornby, founder of the Ashendene Press. Each volume with his handsome bookplate. Title pages printed in red and black. 8vo, handsomely bound by Zaehnsdorf in three-quarter crushed tan morocco over brown paper covered boards, the spine with raised bands separating the compartments, two compartments lettered in gilt, top edge gilt. A very handsome set, very well preserved with little evidence of age, the bindings all in excellent condition, the hinges tight and strong, the text-blocks clean and crisp. A fine set. A VERY ATTRACTIVE AND PLEASING SET OF THE WORKS PRINTED ON FINE PAPER BY THE CHISWICK PRESS, AND WITH THE OUTSTANDING PROVENANCE OF ST JOHN HORNBY, FOUNDER OF THE ASHENDENE PRESS. This set also includes Pericles and the many Poems and Sonnets written by Shakespeare.
SACRED POETRY: CONSISTING OF PSALMS AND HYMNS, Adapted to Christian Devotion, in Publick and Private. Selected from the best authors, with variations and additionsBelknap Jeremy; [Psalms; Hymns] Created by Jeremy Belknap, A New Edition with Additional Hymns. With six pages of musical notations. 16mo, original full contemporary straight grain red morocco, the covers bordered with gilt fillet rules at the borders, the spine with raised bands, gilt ruled compartments, one compartment lettered in gilt, marbled endpapers. v, 255 pp. A very well preserved copy with fine and pleasing binding. A NICE PERSONAL PRINTING OF THE PSALMS AND HYMNS AND A VERY WELL PRESERVED COPY. Jeremy Belknap was born in Boston, Province of Massachusetts Bayr. His uncle was Mather Byles, one of New England's intellectual leaders. He was educated at the Boston Latin School and Harvard College, where he graduated in 1762. In 1764 he moved to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where he "kept the school" and studied theology with Samuel Haven. In 1767 he began his ministry in Dover, New Hampshire, where he would spend twenty years at the Congregational Church. After the Battle of Lexington in 1775 some units of the Dover militia were called out to support the Siege of Boston. Belknap accompanied them and remained through the next winter as chaplain to the New Hampshire troops involved with the siege. Besides attending to his growing congregation, Belknap served as a secretary to the convention of New Hampshire ministers from 1769 until 1787. This position required travel throughout the state, and he used it as a chance to begin accumulating notes on the history of New Hampshire. In 1772 he began to write his history. In 1784 he published the first volume of the History of New Hampshire, but it would take until 1792 to complete the work. Its reputation grew over the years, and after his death, Alexis de Tocqueville named him as America's best native historian. The History represented a new approach in its field. Besides just narrating events, he added two innovations. He tried to clearly separate facts from analysis and opinion, and he provided many annotations to show the source and location of records that he had inspected. He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1784. In 1785 he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Belknap accepted a new position in 1787, when he moved back to Boston to become pastor of the Federal Street Church. He would serve there until his death. He remained active in research, writing, and promoting American history as a field. He continued his quest into history, seeking ways to report and preserve historic sources. On January 24, 1791, he invited nine friends with similar interests to meet at his home. They agreed to help build a repository for these records. The meeting resulted in the Massachusetts Historical Society, which was the first historical society and served as a prototype for many later ones. They also pledged to contribute family papers. John Eliot, a fourth-generation descendant of the 17th-century "Apostle to the Indians" and himself a minister, added Governor Thomas Hutchinson's manuscript for the History of Massachusetts Bay, which his father Andrew Eliot had saved during the Revolution when a mob looted the governor's home.
MACEDONIA THRACE AND ILLYRIA Their Relations to Greece from the Earliest Timess Down to the Time of PHILIP son of AMYNTAS[Greece]; Casson Stanley First Edition. Profusely decorated throughout with 106 full-page plates and textual illustrations, and 19 maps including a large multi-folding map at the end of the volume. 8vo, publisher's original dark-green cloth, the spine decorated and lettered in gilt, the upper cover with gilt ornamental device at the center, both covers blocked in blind. xx, 357 pp. A fine copy, bright and clean, the maps and illustrations all in excellent condition, the text-block and hinges beautifully preserved. FIRST EDITION. The chief purpose of this important work, awarded the Conington Prize for 1924 is a reconstruction of the earlier history of the North Aegean coastline and its hinterland. The region is a large one, extending from the Adriatic coast to the Black Sea, and from the Save and Danube to the Peneios and the Dardanelles. The period covered extends from the earliest times down to the appearance of Philip II, son of Amyntas. The work is profusely illustrated with photographs, drawings and maps and remains one of the best source works on those areas of the Hellenic Empire barely studied until modern times.
Smythe F. S First Edition. With over 60 illustrations from photographs on 48 plates and 3 maps, one of which is large, folding and printed in colour. Tall 8vo, publisher's original black cloth lettered in gilt on the spine, xvi, 420 pp. A fine copy, the cloth well preserved, the gilt bright, hinges perfect and sharp, the textblock clean, some of the inevitable foxing to the prelims and edges as is typical. FIRST EDITION OF THE FIRST ASCENT OF KAMET. While attempts to climb Kamet began in 1855, the first ascent was not made until 1931 by Frank Smythe, Eric Shipton, R.L. Holdsworth and Lewa Sherpa, members of a British expedition. Kamet was the first summit over 25,000 feet to be climbed, and was the highest summit reached until the first ascent of Nanda Devi five years later. Due to its position near the Tibetan Plateau, Kamet is remote and not as accessible as some Himalayan peaks. It also receives a great deal of wind from the Plateau. Early explorers of the region faced long approach marches of around 200 miles from Ranikhet through dense mountain forest.
Wilde Oscar. [Mueller, Hans Alexander. Illus] First Edition Thus. Illustrated throughout with wood engravings by Hans Alexander Mueller. 8vo, decorated boards with overall patterned design in purple and green, lettered on the spine, and housed in the slipcase with paste down title label. 93 pp. A fine and well-preserved copy, with extremely minor overall age mellowing to the exterior. BEAUTIFULLY BOUND AND ILLUSTRATED WITH THE WONDERFUL ARTWORK OF HANS ALEXANDER MUELLER. Inspired by his experiences while in prison and written while in exile in France, THE BALLAD OF READING GAOL was Wilde's last artistic gasp. Because of his sobering position at the time, the poem is free from a great deal of the affectation that colored his earlier work. "Had [it] been written a hundred years ago, it would have been printed as a broadside and sold in the streets by the balladmongers; it is so common as that, and so great as that" (Jackson, The Eighteen-Nineties, p. 99). ".He did not wring his hands, as do Those witless men who dare To try to rear the changeling Hope In the cave of black Despair: He only looked upon the sun, And drank the morning sun. He did not wring his hands nor weep, Nor did he peek or pine, But he drank the air as though it held Some healthful anodyne; With open mouth he drank the sun As though it had been wine!."
4 volumes. First edition of each volume. With numerous maps throughout. 8vo, publisher's original crimson cloth lettered in gilt on the spines, in bright, original pictorial dustjackets. xxi, 395; xi, 325; xi, 312; xi, 304. Index in each volume. A very clean and very bright set, the books handsome and fine, the jackets bright and fresh, an excellent set. AN IMPORTANT SET OF FIRST EDITIONS. By the beginning of World War II, Churchill had already penned half a million words of this manuscript. Lying dormant through almost six years of war followed by an even longer period in which Churchill wrote his war memoirs, this work finally was brought to fruition in 1956. The first two volumes of this set were published in April and November 1956 respectively, the third in October 1957, and the last in March 1958. Whereas the first two volumes sold briskly, the final two were less successful and were not reprinted for years. Sir Winston Churchill ranks among the greatest men of history. He was born in 1874, a descendent of the great Duke of Marlborough. After an education at Harrow and Sandhurst he entered the army in 1895 and embarked on one of the most varied and distinguished careers of the century. He acted as a correspondent for the Morning Post during the Boer War and his dramatic escape from prison in Pretoria brought him to public attention. He embarked on his political career in 1900 by entering Parliament. While there he held many major offices of state: Home Secretary, Secretary of State for War, First Lord of the Admiralty in which he oversaw naval operations for the First World War, Colonial Secretary, Chancellor of the Exchequer and eventually in 1940, Prime Minister. The latter office he would hold throughout World War Two and again from 1951 to 1955. He was a prolific writer, always submerged in simultaneous multi-facted projects. He finished both A HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING PEOPLES and his other great multi-volume work THE SECOND WORLD WAR during the same period as he was perfecting his style of painting and writing PAINTING AS A PASTIME. His death in 1965 sent the whole world into mourning and his funeral was on of the most moving public events of the century.