Read'Em Again Books

  • Showing all 16 results

Colorful half-tone picture postcard featuring the Chemawa Indian Training School

Colorful half-tone picture postcard featuring the Chemawa Indian Training School

This colorful postcard features a photo-reproduction view of the young uniformed male students from Chemawa Indian Training School standing under its entrance gate with the institution's main building in the background. Unsused. In nice shape with two minor scuffs on the reverse from where it was apparently mounted in an album. The postcard has a divided back and no white border, both indicators that it was printed between 1907 and 1915. The Chemawa boarding school opened in Oregon in 1880 under the command of General O. O. Howard, the former commissioner of the Freedman's Bureau and the founder of Howard University in Washington, D.C. Howard had his secretary, Lieutenant Melville Wilkensen, and eight Puyallup Indian youths begin construction on land leased from Pacific University. Howard was then in command of the U.S. Army's Department of the Columbia and responsible for regional Indian affairs. In its early years and lasting through the early part of the 20th century, Chemawa followed the pattern for Indian schools that was first established at the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. Native American parents were pressured, and in some cases forced, to allow the Bureau of Indian Affairs to enroll their children at boarding schools often hundreds of miles away from home. There, they were forced to abandon their tribal languages, dress, and traditions while being totally immersed in white, Christian culture. Infractions or resistance was met with punishment. By the 1940s, the draconian restrictions had been relaxed at Chemawa, and students were free, although not encouraged, to speak their native language, braid their hair, wear jewelry with tribal motifs, and perform traditional drumming, singing, and dancing. The Bureau of Indian Affairs still operates the institution today as a four-year high school, where Indian culture is an important part of the both the curriculum and extra-curriculum. While the school initially served only members of the Kalpuya People, by the time of this postcard, students from any tribe could attend, and many did including its most famous alumnus, Spade Cooley, a three-quarters-white Cherokee from Oklahoma, who became the King of Western Swing (sorry, Bob Wills fans) and in one of the biggest scandals of the 1960s, murdered his wife in an alcohol-fueled rage after she taunted him by claiming to have had an affair with Roy Rogers in the early 1950s. Cooley was born in 1910, so it is possible he is one of the younger boys pictured on this card.
Letter from a Union soldier describing General McClellan's taking of Munson Hill

Letter from a Union soldier describing General McClellan’s taking of Munson Hill, a Confederate “fort” that deceptively threatened Washington, D.C during the early months of the Civil War

Elij Matheny This four-page letter is written on patriotic stationery a knight in armor standing on a rock emblazoned "Pennsylvania", the Pennsylvania Coat of Arms, the U.S. flag, and the word "Union" spell-out in stars. It is datelined "Sept. 29th 61", and Matheny provides his mailing address as "Camp Senally Care of Coll Jackson 9 Regt RPC [Pennsylvania Reserve Corp]". The are several spots of light foxing. No envelope. A transcript will be provided. In this letter, Matheny boasts:"gen Mclelland took munson hill yesterday with munson hill is a bout three miles from our camp and was strongley fortified and was heald by the rebles this was done by strdedgey for an open fight it would be hard to take and with great loss of life it is supposed that the reason that they did not carry on the war with more energy than they did was that the expected to whip them with out the loss of life today they are hauling large canon towards the river I dont know where they are going withe them but is gess their will be a fight soon for we are under marshing orders with in 2 days coocked rashiones and to holde our selves in rediness and all of our brigade". In actuality, the 'capture' of Munson's Hill proved to be a major embarrassment for McClellan and the Union Army. After the First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas), the Union army retreated quickly back towards Washington DC and Confederate forces occupied Munson's Hill near Falls Church which had commanding views of Bailey's Crossroads and the Capitol. Soon, a giant Confederate flew above the hill and huge cannons could be seen pointing toward Washington DC, and Confederate sharpshooters could pick-off Union soldiers below. On the night of the 28 September, the Confederate force withdrew from Fall's Church and relocated to Centreville. The next day when Union forces occupied Munson's Hill, they found the fearsome cannons to be nothing more than "Quaker Guns", that is, felled trees that had been stripped of their branches and painted black. The press, both domestic and international, had a field day ridiculing the Union Army and its leaders noting that they were kept at bay for two months by a bunch of logs. Lyricists had as much fun as the press, and satirical sheet music soon appeared, titled The Bold Engineer, "Munson's Hill, and The Battle of the Stove-Pipes. The 9th Pennsylvania Reserve Regiment was organized at Pittsburg in July 1861 and immediately deployed to Washington, D.C. where it was mustered into United States service on July 27 and attached to 3rd Brigade, McCall's Pennsylvania Reserves Division, Army of the Potomac. After its initial bivouacking at Capital Hill in Washington, it moved to Tennallytown, Md., in August, and assumed picket duty at Great Falls in early September. First-hand documentation of one of the biggest sources of ridicule for the Union Army during the entire war.
Report on the resolution of an unpaid debt that was secured by the use of "several negroes" as collateral

Report on the resolution of an unpaid debt that was secured by the use of “several negroes” as collateral

John Howie, J.J. Watts, et al. Three-page report on the resolution of a debt and mortgage related to "several negroes. The report is datelined, "Marion May 14th 1847 / The Mobile Bank vs John Howie, J.J. Watts & Allen Houston." The report was sent as a stampless letter from Marion to Mobile. I bears a manuscript "5" rate mark and a circular, black Marion postmark dated May 15. In nice shape with some dockecting and light wear. It appears that in December 1844, Howie and Watts were served with a judgement of $1169.78, for a loan from The Mobile Branch Bank, and by the following year, it had been increased to $1548.91. Apparently, Howie was owed money by the estate of another man named Earley. The executor of the Earley estate obtained a loan with "a mortgage of several negroes intended as a security for Earley's liabibility for Howie. The deed was denied by Mr. Watts as intended to secure Earley - He had bought the negroes, & again sold them. And . . . at least one lawsuit ensued. Attempts at reconciliation were suggested including that "the Bank could obtain a deed of trust upon the negroes . . . and all litigation stopped.". The second half of the report that discusses the resolution of the debt is even more confusing to my non-legal brain then the first, but I think the take-away is that the nonchalance in discussing the fate of "several negroes," who are not even named, underscores the nature of chattel slavery without even trying. People were bought, sold, and traded just like cattle, land, furniture, precious metals, or any other property without any consideration of their humanity.
Report of an inquest into the murder of a female slave by her Alabama master

Report of an inquest into the murder of a female slave by her Alabama master

Signed by Jesse B. Edwards, Justice of the Peace and acting coroner, plus six jurors One-page manuscript document (7.75" x 9.75") on the first page of an otherwise blank biolium measuring 15.5" x 9.75 " unfolded. The document is dated "the 23rd day of November A.D. 1842" and signed by six jurors in addition to the Justice of the Peace/Coroner. The document reads in part: "We the undersigned jurors summoned to hold an inquest over the body of Isabell Slave of William H. Long . . . have come unanimously to the opinion after careful examination of the body of the deceased, that she . . . came to her death by violence, and from every circumstance & the evidence that has come to our Knowledge are unanimously of opinion that the said marks of vilence found upon the body . . . were inflicted by William H. Jones. . .". Court records reveal that there were three counts to the murder charge including one that stated: "William H. Jones . . . with force and arms . . . feloniously, wilfully and of his malice aforethought, an assault did make, and . . . feloniously, wilfully, and of his malice aforethought, cruelly, barbarously and inhumanly beat and whipped, of which . . . the said Isabel . . . died. And so . . . did kill and murder, contrary to the statute, and against the peace and dignity of the State of Alabama." Jones was tried and convicted by a jury of his peers after which he was sentenced to ten years in the state prison. Jones appealed the conviction on several technicalities including one that claimed the statute against murdering a slave applied only to overseers and not owners. The Alabama Supreme Court found Jones appeals lacking and upheld the lower courts conviction. Almost needless to say, few slave owners who killed their slaves were indicted, found guilty, and sentenced to time in prison. Alabama Supreme Court records show that on only five occasions it reviewed cases against masters or overseers for harming their slaves, only two of the convictions were upheld. In one case an owner was sentenced to ten years for shooting a female slave in the leg when she spurned his drunken advances. The other case was this one against Jones. The prosecutor in this case was William M. Brooks. Brooks was the leader of Alabama's secessionist movement and one of the principal founders of the Confederacy. During the Civil War, Brooks commanded the 3rd Infantry Regiment of Alabama; afterwards, he returned to practicing law in Selma and Birmingham. Exceptionally scarce. As of this listing, no other similar material is for sale in the trade. Once similar indictment is held at Louisiana State University. No similar items have been sold at auction, however the Rare Book Hub reports that in 2003, a Union soldier's letter noted that while out foraging, he had found four slaves murdered by their owner at one plantation.
A nice example of J. Valentines famous anti-slavery propaganda envelope postally used within the United States

A very nice example of J. Valentines fam From Austburg, Ohio to Meadville, Pennsylvaniaous anti-slavery propaganda envelope postally used within the United States

Addressed to E. [Edward] D. Sweeney This terrific anti-slavery propaganda envelope was "Engraved & Published by J. Valentine, Dundee" on greyish wove paper. On the left, it shows Britannia supported by a lion as the protector of a slave while a banner reading "God Hath Made of One Blood All Nations of Man" flies over head. On the right, a slave trader flogs a black man who is lashed to a pole, and another slave lies supine while a woman and child look on. Nearby, another trader holds a cord around the neck of a kneeling slave, and in the background a third trader has bound four black men to a log with neck chains. In distance, a group of slaves waits to be loaded on a slave ship. The envelope is addressed to "E.D. Sweeney (student) / Meadville, Crawford Co / Pa". and is postmarked with a blue Austinburg, Ohio circular handstamp. A combination manuscript/handstamp "due 5" rate mark is above the address. The cover is in nice shape. Some wear, soiling, and docketing on the reverse. This is the first state of Valentine's second anti-slavery envelope with the imprints "Johnston & Hunter Edinr. & London" on the left and "Ackermann & Co London" on the right. (See pp 240-1 in British Pictorial Envelopes of the 19th Century by Bodily et. al). John Valentine, of Dundee Scotland, was a linen printer who in the early 1840s expanded his business to produce billheads, notices, and prints of local scenes. In the late 1840s, he met Elihu Burritt, a radical pacifist who had grown disillusioned with America and moved to England. Burritt had founded the League of Universal Brotherhood and sponsored stores selling free-labor produce and clothing made from free-labor cotton (i.e. goods that had absolutely no connection to slavery). He also convinced Valintine to produce propaganda envelopes that could be sold in both England and America that advocated for his pet causes: anti-slavery, temperance, world peace, and universal brotherhood. (For more information see the Encyclopedia of 19th Century Photography edited by Hannany, Rickard's Encyclopedia of Ephemera, "U.S. Propaganda Covers" by David L. Jarrett in the November, 2008 issue of The Chronicle of the U.S. Classic Postal Issues and "Elihu Burritt" at Wikipedia. Austinburg, Ohio was a major stop on the Underground Railroad and the home of an ardent and early leader of the abolitionist movement, Betsy Mix Cowles. School records show that Edward D. Sweeney was a freshman at Allegheny College in Meadville, Pennsylvania, which was located in Crawford County, the home of John Brown's tannery in Crawford County. Although Brown's tannery and abolitionists like Cowles made Austinburg an important stop on the Underground Railroad, "conductors' were exceptionally cautious in town as a large percentage of Allegheny College students were from the South. (For more information see "The Underground Railroad's Secret Operations in Crawford County" in the Crawford Messenger, 28 Feb 2016 and various Wikipedia articles.) A very scarce propaganda envelope. At the time of listing, no others are for sale in the trade, and OCLC shows none held by institutions. Only six similar U.S.-used anti-slavery propaganda envelopes have appeared at auction in the last 32 years per the Stamp Auction Network and major philatelic auction records. Inflation-adjusted prices-realized have ranged from $506 to $4750 (depending upon condition and auction vagaries) with an average price of $2585.
Advertising envelope for Burr Robbins' Great Menagerie

Advertising envelope for Burr Robbins’ Great Menagerie, Roman Hippodrome and Egyptian Caravan sent shortly after the circus arrived at its winter quarters with a letters from Robbins about improvements including a Dung House and sheep pen

Burr Robbins The letter is datelined "Janesville Wis Oct 30 1875"and written on the circus's illustrated letterhead featuring a portrait of Burr Robbin's. The advertising envelope features a large illustration of the circus on tour under three big top tents with wagons and crowds in the foreground. A banner above reads, "Burr Robbins' Great Menagerie Roman Hippodrome and Egyptian Caravan" and text in the lower left corner reading "Acknowledged to be the Finest Show in America. It is franked with a three-cent Washington stamp (Scott #2070 canceled by a circular Janesville, Wisconsin postmark. In this letter to a lawyer at his hometown in Paw Paw, Michigan, Robbins discusses his desires regarding rental payments and a barn, Dung House, manure heap, and sheep pen. It was written just two weeks after his circus returned to its winter quarters at Janesville, Wisconsin after financially successful, but difficult touring year. For the 1875 season, Robbins's parade was a half-mile in length. It was led by a ten-horse band wagon decorated with gilt lions and serpents as well colorful landscapes paned on the sides. that at the time was the most magnificent of any American circus. Next came an amazing tableaux car with lavish gilt engravings, mirrors and paintings with a huge living lion displayed on top; it was drawn by elephants, camels, and horses. Each of the following 25 wagons displayed richly colored paintings of biblical scenes mounted on both sides. Unfortunately, during its 24 weeks on the road, the show was beset by 65 days of rain, two snow storms, and two tornados. Much of the tentage was destroyed and 40 horses, a zebra, leopard, sacred ox, two bears, reindeer, elk, seven steenbok, two wolves, five monkeys, an ape, seven cocktoos and parrots, one silver pheasant, an antelope, three boa constrictors and two crocodiles were killed in the storms. The loss totaled over $12,000. So, upon arrival at Janesville, Robbins not only quickly went to improving old shops and buildings while building new ones, he also set teams to work repairing road equipment and replenishing his menagerie. Rogers continued to operate his show until 1888 when he retired after 18 years in the business as one of the most successful circus empresarios of his era.
Unusual foldout postcard that opens into a menu for an Alaskan steamship

Unusual foldout postcard that opens into a menu for an Alaskan steamship

Signed Jno. H. A. This foldout postcard measures 11" x 7" when opened into a four-page menu. It is franked with U.S. two-cent Washington stamp (Scott # 554) which has been cancelled by a duplex Seattle & Skagway R.P.O. postmark. An Alaska poster stamp is affixed in the upper left corner. In nice shape with some minor wear. The writing is faint but legible. The menu cover features an illustration of Parliament Buildings in Victoria, British Columbia with a small logo for "The Admiral Line / P.S.S. Co. (Pacific Steamship Company)" in the lower-left corner. The menu opens to display four small portraits of the passenger crew; a white hostess and chef and a black porter and waiter. The menu is titled, "On Board S. S. Admiral Rogers, F. Lanstrom, Commander / Chatham Sound / Luncheon" and features: King Salmon, pork spare ribs, corned beef, sirloin steak, prime rib, roast port, leg of mutton, ox tongue, and kippered cod along with pea soup, garden salad, and assorted relishes, vegetables, pastries, desserts, cheeses, and beverages. The message notes, "We are homeward bound. Left Sitka this morning . . . several stops to make taking on canned salmon. We load it at rate of $5,000 per hour. Put on $18,000 this morning at one cannery. . . . May be in Seattle Monday, but expect to drive home Tuesday. It rains up here most of the time, but does not spoil the trip . . . most relaxing . . . most delightful. Having a great time.".
Full set of all four California Midwinter International Exposition admission tickets

Full set of all four California Midwinter International Exposition admission tickets

Michael H. de Young These four admission tickets each measure " x ". All have red serial numbers and were good for admission for the duration of the fair, January through July 1894. Eachrepresents a different era of California and pairs different vignettes with colorful emblems: 1768-1822 (Spanish rule) - Father Junipero Serra with a California State Seal, 1822-1846 (Mexican rule) - Alta California Ranchero/Californio with a Mexican Republic spread-winged eagle devouring a snake, 1846-1849 (Gold Rush) - James Marshall with the California State Flag, and 1850-1894 (Statehood) - California State Seal and the California State Capitol. All are in nice shape. In 1892, President Benjamin Harrison appointed Michael H. de Young, a San Francisco newspaperman, as a national commissioner of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago. De Young realized that such a fair could be a terrific stimulus for California, which was mired in a severe depression. By the next summer, de Young had convinced San Francisco officials to provide Golden Gate Park as a venue and obtained Congressional approval to hold a world's fair, which he named the California Midwinter International Exposition. Within the fair's 200 acres were 120 structures including four principle attractions: the Fine Arts Building, the Agriculture and Horticulture Building, the Mechanical Arts Building, and the Manufacturers and Liberal Arts building. Over two million people attended. The fair also included a number of rides and exhibits including Daniel Boone's Wild West Show and The Mining Camp. The Mining Camp was by far the most popular exhibit at the fair, but it has come under recent criticism for disregarding people of color and its theme-song that fondly recounted a time when African-Americans and Chinese were denied citizenship. Another popular exhibit that also raises the hackles of socially conscious historians was The Gum Gum Girls. Young women selling chewing gum while dressed in blue peacoat-style blouses with matching hats, black stockings, and scandalously short mid-calf-length skirts and patrolled the fair in pairs targeting sales pitches at unattached men with whom they unabashedly flirted. There were also several "ethnographic" exhibits at the fair including an African village that created considerable cognitive dissonance for Frederick Douglas. Although the village and its people were imported intact from Dahomey, Douglas railed against it as an attempt to dehumanize "the Negro as a repulsive savage." Yet, on the other hand, he found favor with its realistic demonstrations of Dahomian dances and ceremonies. So, too, were some Japanese-Americans offended by the Japanese Tea Garden's jinrikisha rides. While they agreed it was normal for Japanese men to pull the carts in Japan, they found the practice to be demeaning in the United States. After an Anti-Jinrikisha Society announced it would murder any Japanese man who pulled a cart at the fair, exposition organizers solved the problem by hiring Germans to dress in Japanese costumes and darken their complexions with makeup. Few of these tickets have survived. As of this listing, there are no others for sale in the trade. Very infrequently, single tickets have appeared on eBay, and the Rare Book Hub shows no auction records for single tickets and only one sale of a set of four. OCLC lists individual tickets held at two institutions.
Letter send from a young petty officer assuring his brother that he was going not going to renege on his commitment to work for the Purser of Commodore Perry's flagship

Letter send from a young petty officer assuring his brother that he was going not going to renege on his commitment to work for the Purser of Commodore Perry’s flagship, the USS Mississippi, on its voyage to Japan to force the Shogunate to open the country to foreign trade and allow the resupply of American whaling vessels

B. Roberts to J. Edwin Roberts This stampless letter is dated "Navy Yard . New York / May 10. 1852", franked with a strip of three 1-cent Franklin stamps (Scott #7, Type II - no balls on the bottom scrolls), and cancelled with New York postmarks dated May 11. In this response to a query from his brother that undoubtedly questioned the wisdom of going on a potentially dangerous voyage, Roberts answered: "I am well satisfied with your good intentions but I have made up my mind to make this cruise any how. . .I have been doing business for two months for Purser William Speiden, and I find him to be a gentleman and a man who knows his business, and a man who understands his business is a man that pleases me. The Mississippi will go into Commission tomorrow, but it is not known yet when she will proceed on her cruise. . . When this cruise shall end, if I live, I will endeavor to remain on shore.". There was a reason for Robert's melodramatic "if I live" statement. During the Bakumatsu (the final days of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate was dying), it was dangerous for foreign vessels to enter Japanese harbors. Foreign ships were routinely refused entrance and in some instances-as in the case of the an unarmed American merchant vessel-attacked for coming close, and Perry's expedition was specifically charged by Secretary of State Daniel Webster to use force if necessary to open Japanese harbors to commercial trade, even if only for the resupply of coal for American ships cruising in the Pacific. The day this letter was mailed, the Mississippi was sent to Boston to tow the disabled USS Princeton to Baltimore for repair. Then before she could embark on her voyage to Japan, Commodore Perry was first ordered to investigate reports of British harassment of American fishing vessels in the North Atlantic. Upon her return, the Mississippi anchored off the Annapolis, Maryland until, with Perry on board-she led the eight-ship task force around the Cape of Good Hope and onto Japan. William Speiden was considered to be one of the best pursers in the Navy, and for this voyage, he managed to get his son, William Speiden Jr., assigned to the ship as his primary assistant. This nespotic appoint was historically fortunate, as William Jr. maintained one of the most complete, detailed, and well-illustrated log of any maritime voyage. His original two-volume journal is maintained at the Library of Congress, and abridged versions are still in print today. An important letter expressing the concerned confidence of a young seaman about to embark as a crewmember on one of the world's most famous voyages. Made all the more interesting by the use of strip of three scarce stamps for postage.
Letter sent by a Maryland patriot to the future Deputy Quartermaster of the Continental Army-via the renegade "Constitutional Post" to avoid detection by Parliamentary Post agents-requesting that he smuggle two casks of gunpowder to the Eastern Shore under the noses of the officers of the Crown

Letter sent by a Maryland patriot to the future Deputy Quartermaster of the Continental Army?via the renegade “Constitutional Post” to avoid detection by Parliamentary Post agents?requesting that he smuggle two casks of gunpowder to the Eastern Shore under the noses of the officers of the Crown

Sent by Jonathan Worth of Georgetown, Maryland to John Mitchell of Philadelphia This two-page stampless folded letter measures 13" x 8" unfolded. It is datelined "Kent County, November 6th 1775". It is annotated "p Post" and bears a "G Town" postmark as well as two faint manuscript marks: a Philadelphia "1/s" (one shilling) in the upper left corner and "2" (two dwt or pennyweight) above the address. (Lot 145 of Matthew Bennet Auction 290 notes that these are the correct Constitutional Post markings for mail to Philadelphia from Georgetown, an Eastern Shore town within 100 miles of the city). Worth's letter reads in part: "We are in a miserable defensless State in this part of the Countery in regard to not having Gun Powder. We have not only the force of Brittain to Dread but have the most allarming accounts - from some of the lower Counties - of Several Companies there, raising for the King - doe not know how soon, we may have Occasion to march out - in order to stop so dangerous an Insurrection. I should be Extremely glad if you can procure me one or two casks of Good Powder, to be as a Safeguard, in Case of nesessaty; for a part of the militia, to which I belong - if it is not to be had otherway, - Should esteem it a favour, if you will please to try to get it from your Committee - doe suppose they would spare, so small a Quantity on Such an Occasion - if it can be had, please to put the 2 casks in a Large Cask and put the Coffee in on the top of it - in order that it may Come Safe to hand as Some of the officers of the Crown might perhaps meet with it on the way.".
Proceedings of a Court Martial of long-AWOL Confederate soldier that imposed punishment which would be considered cruel and unusual today

Proceedings of a Court Martial of long-AWOL Confederate soldier that imposed punishment which would be considered cruel and unusual today

Trial of Isham Stone This three-page summary of the proceedings of a Confederate Army Court Martial is dated "28th July 1863." The document is in nice shape. Transcript provided. Images in this listing not included. The proceedings document the trial of Isham Stone, a Private in the 50th North Carolina Infantry, who had been "absent without certification" for nine months after being discharged from an army hospital at Petersburg, Virginia. Stone pleaded guilty, and was sentence to what today would be considered cruel and unusual punishment: "And the Court do therefore sentence the said prvt Isham Stone Co "B" 50th Regt N.C.T. to be bucked and gaged four hours each day for twenty days, with a stick ¾ of an inch in diameter, two hours in the morning and two in the evening and be compelled to walk the Guard line around the camp before the sentinels at the point of a bayonet with a "Barrel Shirt" on, for five days, two hours in the morning and two in the evening of each day, and be closely confined during the execution of the sentence.". Bucking and Gagging was a tortuous punishment. A soldier was forced to sit on the ground and bring his knees up to touch his chest. His arms would be wrapped around his legs and tied together with his ankles. Then a rough rod would be inserted under his knees and over his arms. The pain was excruciating. Finally, the soldier was gagged, usually with a stick or bar forced between his jaws like a horse's bit and tied tightly behind his neck. This was done both to cause more pain and to partially muffle his screaming. Upon release, any movement of the legs was almost as painful as being bound, so to stagger around a camp's perimeter in a "barrell shirt" at bayonet point must have been equally agonizing. This punishment was usually reserved for deserters who were not sentenced to execution, and it made a vivid impression of other members of the unit. (A less painful version was used for less serious offenses during the Mexican War; see p 394, Dolph's Sound Off! Soldiers Songs.) Barrel shirts are exactly what they sound like. A prisoner would have a large heavy barrel lowered over his head and onto his shoulders. Manuscript records kept by Confederate court martial boards are decidedly uncommon, and ones imposing bucking and gagging and barrel shirts are rare. As of 2020, other than this example none are for sale in the trade or have appeared at auction per the Rare Book Hub and Worthpoint. OCLC shows none held by institutions.
Letter from the Territorial Governor of Montana encouraging a man from Illinois to emigrate and start a cattle or sheep ranch

Letter from the Territorial Governor of Montana encouraging a man from Illinois to emigrate and start a cattle or sheep ranch

B. F. Potts to Joseph Barber This letter is written on official "Territory of Montana. Executive Department" letterhead, dated November 13, 1872. It is accompanied by its official "Executive Department / Montana Territory" mailing emvelope which is franked with a three-cent green Washington stamp (Scot #147) and cancelled with a circular Virginia City postmark (also dated November 13) and cork killer. The envelope had been roughly opened-but later repaired-causing minor damage to the stamp; however the cover is quite attractive. The letter is bright and fresh. Transcript included. In this letter, Governor Potts answers a query from an Illinois man about the possible to relocate to Montana. An unabashed promoter of his state, Potts responds with vigor and excited encouragement: "If you wish to enter the stock business no place on the Continent can offer you better advantages and I doubt if as good as Montana. The N.P.R.R [Northern Pacific Rail Road] will be in Montana next year and during the building of 600 miles of the Road through Montana Cattle and Sheep will bring a good price. You will be able to purchase Stock here in the Spring at a fair price as many have large herds and will be compelled to sell some in the Spring. Come and see the Country in May next and if you don't like it we will promise to let you leave at any time.".
Small archive of original material (artwork

Small archive of original material (artwork, mockups, photographs, transfers, etc.) for the production of hand-painted/tooled leather screens and wall panels

George D. Thompson The archive contains over 40 items including: 12 pencil sketches, 2 hand-colored pencil sketches, 6 pin-prick transfer patterns, 2 tri-fold screen mock-ups, and 19 b/w 8" x 10" photographs of completed screens and panels. Although it's unclear when George Thompson began selling fine decorative leather screens and wall panels, he was already a master craftsman at the time he was featured in the May 1903 issue of The House Beautiful. Until the 1920s, his company created luxury leather wall panels, doors, tabletops, and screens based on both original designs and historic pieces in a variety of styles including Venetian, Flemish, Florentine, Spanish, Anglo-Japanese, Chinoiserie, Queen Anne, Chippendale, and William & Mary. Contemporary advertisements in architectural and building catalogs and magazines touted that his creations had been installed in the Hotel Belmont, Hotel Regis, the Flower Memorial Library, the the Harry Fisk residence, the Director's Room of the State Bank at Albany, and the dining rooms and libraries of some of the finest New York residences (Fisk, Rice, Delafield, Clark). The paper items in this archive were all actually used in designing and creating Thompsons works and show wear and soiling commensurate the that work. Ten of the photographs bear project numbers ranging from 4039 to 7001. About 2/3s are linen-backed, and a few have dimensions annotated on the reverse. At the time of this listing, there are two other lots of Thompson material for sale in the trade, however both appear primarily to consist of watercolor designs and mock-ups used, perhaps for sales and marketing, as opposed to these items which were used to create the works. Rare Book Hub shows that another lot of Thompson materials was sold at a 2010 Swann Galleries auction. No Thompson materials are held by institutions per OCLC.
Letter from a young man to his mother describing his travels on the Mississippi River and plan to return East by the Ohio

Letter from a young man to his mother describing his travels on the Mississippi River and plan to return East by the Ohio

Thomas C. Awery, Jr. Two-page stampless letter datelined "Steamer 'Mt Vernon' / Mississippi River June 7 1847." The letter bears a manuscript "Cairo, Ill. June / 8" postmark and a manuscript "10" rate marking. In nice shape. Transcript included. In this letter, Awery informs his mother that he is on the way home and describes his trip. "I last wrote you from Natchez which place I left on the night of 31st May for St Louis in the Steamer "Missouri" called the finest boat on the Mrs Hippy River. I found her an exceedingly comfortable boat, though differing very much from our Eastern boats, having very comfortable Staterooms and a most excellent table fully equal to any hotel in the country. I arrived in St Louis on Thursday night (4th visit) remained there a little more than two days and left at three o'clock yesterday for Cincinnati. We go down the Mississippi to Cairo (at the junction of the two rivers) and there turn up the Ohio to Cincinnati where we expect to arrive sometime on the 9th or 10th. I shall stop one day in Cincinnati and from there go to Pittsburgh or Wheeling in another boat which I hope will be better than the Mt Vernon which is a second rate boat though a safe one. From Cincinnati we reach Pittsburgh in about 3 days (Wheeling in two days) and from either of these places get to Baltimore in two days so that I shall be in Baltimore by the 15th and get from there home in two days. I had a very pleasant time in St Louis. . . We are now about 4 hours above Cairo - near a place called "Cape Girardeau" - where I shall try to drop this in the Post Office. . ." Apparently, Awery was not able to drop his letter at the Cape Girardeau, Missouri post office, as it was postmarked in Cairo, Illinois. The Steamer Missouri, often referred to as "The Big Missouri" was, in fact, one of the most luxurious riverboats on the Mississippi. At the time it was also the largest, a fact celebrated by Mark Twain in the second chapter of Tom Sawyer as Tom prepares to hoodwink his first sucker, Ben Rogers, into whitewashing Aunt Polly's fence: "Ben Rogers hove in sight presently. . . Ben's gait was the hop-skip-and-jump-proof enough that his heart was light and his anticipations high. He was eating an apple, and giving a long, melodious whoop, at intervals, followed by a deep-toned ding-dong-dong, ding-dong-dong, for he was personating a steamboat. As he drew near, he slackened speed, took the middle of the street, leaned far over to starboard and rounded to ponderously and with laborious pomp and circumstance-for he was personating the Big Missouri, and considered himself to be drawing nine feet of water. He was boat and captain and engine-bells combined, so he had to imagine himself standing on his own hurricane-deck giving the orders and executing them" A fine first-hand assessment of travel on one of the most sumptuous antebellum American riverboats.
Complete set of eight Civil War currency bills issued by The Mississippi Central Railroad Company

Complete set of eight Civil War currency bills issued by The Mississippi Central Railroad Company

All eight bills (5, 10, 25, 50, & 75 cents and 1, 2, & 3 dollars) feature one of two different illustrations of a classic 4-4-0 locomotive pulling passenger cars on their fronts; the reverses are blank. The bills are in nice shape with decent margins. All are complete with the exception of the tiny tip of the 5-cent bill. Light wear and soiling. In 1852, the Mississippi Central Railroad was charted by the State of Mississippi to build a railroad from Canton, Mississippi to Grand Junction, Tennessee. It was financed by wealthy cotton planters and passed through the towns of Grenada, Water Valley, Oxford, and Holly Springs. Its first train, a passenger train, ran from Holly Springs to Oxford in 1857. In January of 1860, the final leg of track on this 26-mile-long shortline was laid completing a railroad system that linked the Great Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico. In 1862, during the Civil War, General Ulysses S. Grant unsuccessfully attempted to capture the railroad during the Union Army's Vicksburg campaign. Before 1837, banks within the United States could only be chartered by specific acts of state legislatures, however that year, the State of Michigan approved legislation allowing for automatic bank charters if an organization could meet a set of basic requirements. In 1838, New York passed a similar law and other states quickly followed suit. In addition to accepting deposits, paying interest, and making loans, these private organizations were allowed to issue currency, and by 1860, municipalities, private banks, railroads, construction companies, stores, restaurants, churches and even individuals had printed an estimated 8,000 different types of banknotes by 1860. This "free banking era" ended after many private banks went bust during the Panic of 1866.