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From the German P.O.W. camp

From the German P.O.W. camp, Stalag Luft III — site of “The Great Escape”; Relic German Tank Badge

World War II From the German P.O.W. camp, Stalag Luft III — site of "The Great Escape"; Relic German Tank Badge   Dug from the P.O.W. camp, Stalag Luft III in Zagen, Poland, a relic German tank badge worn by Feldgendamerie, Military Police measuring 2.25" x 1.5". As the tide of war changed for Nazi Germany, the Feldgendarmerie became more popularly known by the pejorative "Kettenhunde" (Chained Dogs) for the gorget they wore with their uniforms. Dug relic bearing the expected losses and heavy oxidation consistent with long exposure to the elements.   From the collection of "Great Escape" relics assembled by the founder of "The War Museum" and will come with a *special certificate - copy. As a collector and curator for over 50 years, these items largely obtained from former Allied prisoners of war as well as local farmers and townspeople in the town of Zagen, Poland (formerly Sagen, Germany). The camp is seven square miles in total and is covered in pine forests.  In the last weeks of the war as the Russians reached the camp, the German guards hurriedly buried their equipment, changed into civilian clothes and fled.  The Allied POW's were sent on a forced march in the snow southward to Nurnberg, then to another camp at Moosburg where they were liberated on April 29, 1945. At Zagan there are still various compounds and many areas of derelict buildings and footings.  In the 1950's and '60's the local townsfolk and farmers explored and excavated relics from the areas which were only accessible with a four wheel drive vehicle in the more remote parts, having various maps and a compass and even then it was easy to get lost.   Such relic hunting has not been permitted over the last several decades, making these early recoveries prized and sought after pieces of history.  The camp is virtually inaccessible by foot apart from an area near to the Zagan POW Museum. Most of the relic floor & roof tiles, floor boards, drain pipe pieces, electrical insulators from the high-voltage fences, barbed wire, etc. all have their identical counterparts in the Zagan POW Museum.   The P.O.W. camp at Sagen was known as Stalag Luft III, and was managed by the Luftwaffe to house Allied airmen downed over Germany. The Germans established the camp, located in Lower Silesia, in March 1942 and the camp remained in service until January 1945. It was the scene of two famous escape plots, both involving tunneling: one in 1943, which was depicted in the film The Wooden Horse (1950) and another in 1944, immortalized in the 1963 film The Great Escape (1963) starring Steve McQueen, James Garner, Richard Attenborough, Charles Bronson, and James Coburn.   Unlike the film, the real-life "Great Escape" did not involve Hollywood stars or props, but rather was an extremely sophisticated attempt to mount a mass escape of 200 or more prisoners via a tunnel dug from inside one of the barracks to the woods outside the perimeter of the camp. Tunneling was particularly difficult at Stalag Luft III, as the Germans had established the P.O.W. camp specifically in order to prevent the practice. The barracks stood on raised platforms so any tunnel started within could be easily detected. Complicating matters further, the sub-surface soil was sandy and bright yellow which contrasted sharply with the drab, gray surface soil, thus rendering it difficult to mask tunneling projects as the excess soil would stand out when dumped on the surface. The prisoners employed a wide range of subtle ruses to dispose of the soil without tipping off the guards. The sandy sub-soil was also prone to collapse, further hindering tunneling operations.   The plot, conceived by R.A.F. Squadron Leader Roger Bushell, played by Attenborough in the 1963 film,  in the Spring of 1943, involved the construction of several tunnels simultaneously so that if one was discovered, the others would hopefully remain secret. The strategy proved successful. When one of the long tunnels was uncovered, the guards stopped their search as they could not imagine that two others were still under construction. The tunnel that ultimately proved successful was nicknamed "Harry." The entrance was hidden beneath the tiles of stove housed in one corner of a barrack and the 102 meter tunnel ran beneath two barbed wire fences and was to emerge in the trees just beyond the outer perimeter. Although over 600 prisoners worked on the tunnels only 200 were slated to use it for their escape.   On the night of March 24, 1944, the prisoners began their escape. Much to their dismay, as they emerged on the other side, they realized that the tunnel entrance was short of the tree line. Amazingly, 76 men escaped through the tunnel before guards spotted what was going on. As the 77th man surrendered to the guards, the others bolted into the woods. Of the 76 that escaped, 73 were recaptured—half of which were executed by the SS.   * Original certificate has photo of a collection, this lot is the Gorget only.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
From the German P.O.W. camp

From the German P.O.W. camp, Stalag Luft III — site of “The Great Escape”; Nine German Uniform Buttons

World War II From the German P.O.W. camp, Stalag Luft III — site of "The Great Escape"; Nine German Uniform Buttons   Dug from the P.O.W. camp, Stalag Luft III in Zagen, Poland, a collection of nine relic German uniform buttons worn by Feldgendamerie, Military Police measuring .75" diameter. As the tide of war changed for Nazi Germany, the Feldgendarmerie became more popularly known by the pejorative "Kettenhunde" (Chained Dogs) for the gorget they wore with their uniforms. Dug relic bearing the expected losses and heavy oxidation consistent with long exposure to the elements.   From the collection of "Great Escape" relics assembled by the founder of "The War Museum" and will come with a *special certificate - copy. As a collector and curator for over 50 years, these items largely obtained from former Allied prisoners of war as well as local farmers and townspeople in the town of Zagen, Poland (formerly Sagen, Germany). The camp is seven square miles in total and is covered in pine forests.  In the last weeks of the war as the Russians reached the camp, the German guards hurriedly buried their equipment, changed into civilian clothes and fled.  The Allied POW's were sent on a forced march in the snow southward to Nurnberg, then to another camp at Moosburg where they were liberated on April 29, 1945. At Zagan there are still various compounds and many areas of derelict buildings and footings.  In the 1950's and '60's the local townsfolk and farmers explored and excavated relics from the areas which were only accessible with a four wheel drive vehicle in the more remote parts, having various maps and a compass and even then it was easy to get lost.   Such relic hunting has not been permitted over the last several decades, making these early recoveries prized and sought after pieces of history.  The camp is virtually inaccessible by foot apart from an area near to the Zagan POW Museum. Most of the relic floor & roof tiles, floor boards, drain pipe pieces, electrical insulators from the high-voltage fences, barbed wire, etc. all have their identical counterparts in the Zagan POW Museum.   The P.O.W. camp at Sagen was known as Stalag Luft III, and was managed by the Luftwaffe to house Allied airmen downed over Germany. The Germans established the camp, located in Lower Silesia, in March 1942 and the camp remained in service until January 1945. It was the scene of two famous escape plots, both involving tunneling: one in 1943, which was depicted in the film The Wooden Horse (1950) and another in 1944, immortalized in the 1963 film The Great Escape (1963) starring Steve McQueen, James Garner, Richard Attenborough, Charles Bronson, and James Coburn.   Unlike the film, the real-life "Great Escape" did not involve Hollywood stars or props, but rather was an extremely sophisticated attempt to mount a mass escape of 200 or more prisoners via a tunnel dug from inside one of the barracks to the woods outside the perimeter of the camp. Tunneling was particularly difficult at Stalag Luft III, as the Germans had established the P.O.W. camp specifically in order to prevent the practice. The barracks stood on raised platforms so any tunnel started within could be easily detected. Complicating matters further, the sub-surface soil was sandy and bright yellow which contrasted sharply with the drab, gray surface soil, thus rendering it difficult to mask tunneling projects as the excess soil would stand out when dumped on the surface. The prisoners employed a wide range of subtle ruses to dispose of the soil without tipping off the guards. The sandy sub-soil was also prone to collapse, further hindering tunneling operations.   The plot, conceived by R.A.F. Squadron Leader Roger Bushell, played by Attenborough in the 1963 film,  in the Spring of 1943, involved the construction of several tunnels simultaneously so that if one was discovered, the others would hopefully remain secret. The strategy proved successful. When one of the long tunnels was uncovered, the guards stopped their search as they could not imagine that two others were still under construction. The tunnel that ultimately proved successful was nicknamed "Harry." The entrance was hidden beneath the tiles of stove housed in one corner of a barrack and the 102 meter tunnel ran beneath two barbed wire fences and was to emerge in the trees just beyond the outer perimeter. Although over 600 prisoners worked on the tunnels only 200 were slated to use it for their escape.   On the night of March 24, 1944, the prisoners began their escape. Much to their dismay, as they emerged on the other side, they realized that the tunnel entrance was short of the tree line. Amazingly, 76 men escaped through the tunnel before guards spotted what was going on. As the 77th man surrendered to the guards, the others bolted into the woods. Of the 76 that escaped, 73 were recaptured—half of which were executed by the SS.   * This is a copy of the original certificate and has photo of a collection, this lot is the buttons only.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Recovered from the German P.O.W. camp

Recovered from the German P.O.W. camp, Stalag Luft III — site of “The Great Escape”; A Relic Belt Buckle Worn by a Feldgendamerie

World War II Recovered from the German P.O.W. camp, Stalag Luft III — site of "The Great Escape"; A Relic Belt Buckle Worn by a Feldgendamerie   Dug from the P.O.W. camp, Stalag Luft III in Zagen, Poland, a relic belt buckle worn by Feldgendamerie, Military Police measuring approximately 2" x 2.5". As the tide of war changed for Nazi Germany, the Feldgendarmerie became more popularly known by the pejorative "Kettenhunde" (Chained Dogs) for the gorget they wore with their uniforms. Dug relic bearing the expected losses and heavy oxidation consistent with long exposure to the elements.   From the collection of "Great Escape" relics assembled by the founder of "The War Museum" and will come with a *special certificate - copy. As a collector and curator for over 50 years, these items largely obtained from former Allied prisoners of war as well as local farmers and townspeople in the town of Zagen, Poland (formerly Sagen, Germany). The camp is seven square miles in total and is covered in pine forests.  In the last weeks of the war as the Russians reached the camp, the German guards hurriedly buried their equipment, changed into civilian clothes and fled.  The Allied POW's were sent on a forced march in the snow southward to Nurnberg, then to another camp at Moosburg where they were liberated on April 29, 1945. At Zagan there are still various compounds and many areas of derelict buildings and footings.  In the 1950's and '60's the local townsfolk and farmers explored and excavated relics from the areas which were only accessible with a four wheel drive vehicle in the more remote parts, having various maps and a compass and even then it was easy to get lost.   Such relic hunting has not been permitted over the last several decades, making these early recoveries prized and sought after pieces of history.  The camp is virtually inaccessible by foot apart from an area near to the Zagan POW Museum. Most of the relic floor & roof tiles, floor boards, drain pipe pieces, electrical insulators from the high-voltage fences, barbed wire, etc. all have their identical counterparts in the Zagan POW Museum.   The P.O.W. camp at Sagen was known as Stalag Luft III, and was managed by the Luftwaffe to house Allied airmen downed over Germany. The Germans established the camp, located in Lower Silesia, in March 1942 and the camp remained in service until January 1945. It was the scene of two famous escape plots, both involving tunneling: one in 1943, which was depicted in the film The Wooden Horse (1950) and another in 1944, immortalized in the 1963 film The Great Escape (1963) starring Steve McQueen, James Garner, Richard Attenborough, Charles Bronson, and James Coburn.   Unlike the film, the real-life "Great Escape" did not involve Hollywood stars or props, but rather was an extremely sophisticated attempt to mount a mass escape of 200 or more prisoners via a tunnel dug from inside one of the barracks to the woods outside the perimeter of the camp. Tunneling was particularly difficult at Stalag Luft III, as the Germans had established the P.O.W. camp specifically in order to prevent the practice. The barracks stood on raised platforms so any tunnel started within could be easily detected. Complicating matters further, the sub-surface soil was sandy and bright yellow which contrasted sharply with the drab, gray surface soil, thus rendering it difficult to mask tunneling projects as the excess soil would stand out when dumped on the surface. The prisoners employed a wide range of subtle ruses to dispose of the soil without tipping off the guards. The sandy sub-soil was also prone to collapse, further hindering tunneling operations.   The plot, conceived by R.A.F. Squadron Leader Roger Bushell, played by Attenborough in the 1963 film,  in the Spring of 1943, involved the construction of several tunnels simultaneously so that if one was discovered, the others would hopefully remain secret. The strategy proved successful. When one of the long tunnels was uncovered, the guards stopped their search as they could not imagine that two others were still under construction. The tunnel that ultimately proved successful was nicknamed "Harry." The entrance was hidden beneath the tiles of stove housed in one corner of a barrack and the 102 meter tunnel ran beneath two barbed wire fences and was to emerge in the trees just beyond the outer perimeter. Although over 600 prisoners worked on the tunnels only 200 were slated to use it for their escape.   On the night of March 24, 1944, the prisoners began their escape. Much to their dismay, as they emerged on the other side, they realized that the tunnel entrance was short of the tree line. Amazingly, 76 men escaped through the tunnel before guards spotted what was going on. As the 77th man surrendered to the guards, the others bolted into the woods. Of the 76 that escaped, 73 were recaptured—half of which were executed by the SS.   * This is a copy of the original certificate and has photo of a collection, this lot is the belt buckle only.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Galveston Bay & Texas Land Company Stock Certificate

Galveston Bay & Texas Land Company Stock Certificate, Near Mint

Texas Galveston Bay & Texas Land Company Stock Certificate, Near Mint   Near Mint Condition, one page, 8" x 12.75", New York, October 16, 1830. Certificate number 798 certifying "...That the Subscribers as the Trustees and Attorneys of Lorenzo de Zavala, Joseph Vehlein, and David G. Burnet, have given and do hereby give to Rodman Moulton...One Sitio of Land within the limits of four adjoining tracts of Land in Texas heretofore severally granted to the said Lorenzo De Zavala on the 12th of March 1829, Joseph Vehlein on the 21st December 1826, and 17th 1828, and David G. Burnet on the 22th of December 1826 as Empresarios for Colonizing the same according to the terms of the said grants, and the Laws of the United States of Mexico and the State of Coahuila and Texas." At the end of the document are signatures of the three "Trustees & Attorneys," Anthony Dey, William H. Sumner, George W. Curtis, and Secretary W. H. Willson, with signature on verso of "Rodman Moulton". With a borderless map of eastern Texas along the lower margin containing shaded areas of the company's landholdings. Smoothed folds, chipped edges which are lightly toned in places.   The Galveston Bay & Texas Land Company was comprised of a group of northeastern speculators who purchased the colonization contracts in eastern Texas from empresarios Burnet, de Zavala, and Vehlein.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Dorr Rebellion Petition to Release Traitor Thomas Wilson Dorr From Prison

Dorr Rebellion Petition to Release Traitor Thomas Wilson Dorr From Prison

Rhode Island Dorr Rebellion Petition to Release Traitor Thomas Wilson Dorr From Prison   A blank petition requesting the release, Amnesty and Pardon for the offenses of a treasonable character committed against the State of Rhode Island by Thomas Wilson Dorr, 8" x 13" who at the time was in prison for life for his crimes. The Thomas Wilson Dorr Rebellion of 1841-43 is considered the most significant constitutional and political event to occur in Rhode Island history whose incredible legacy is described below:   While Rhode Island had been a haven refuge for free thinkers and religious dissidents since its founding in the seventeenth century, weakness in its political structure became apparent during the industrial revolution.   Roger Williams founded the Rhode Island Colony in 1636 after he was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious views. Williams settled at the tip of Narragansett Bay near the Mashassuck River where the farmland was rich and fertile. He called the site Providence. The charter he received from King Charles II allowed Rhode Island "to hold forth a lively experiment that a most flourishing civil state may stand and best be maintained with full liberty of religious concernments".   Under the charter received from King Charles, only landowners could vote. Before the industrial revolution when most people were employed as farmers, this was considered democratic. As the industrial revolution moved large numbers of workers from farm to factory, a permanent landless, and therefore voteless class developed. By 1829, 60% of the state's free white males were ineligible to vote. Prior to the 1840's, several unsuccessful attempts were made to replace the charter with a new state constitution that provided broader voting rights. In 1841, suffrage supporters, led by Thomas Wilson Dorr, gave up on attempts to change the system from within. In October, they held a People's Convention that enfranchised all white males with one year's residence. Voters overwhelmingly supported a referendum on the People's Convention in December. When efforts to implement the referendum were opposed by the conservative Charterite government, Dorr and his followers attempted to implement it by force.   As the three-car train carrying Thomas Wilson Dorr wound its way north from Connecticut on May 16th, 1842, the streets of Providence came alive. Word had gotten out that Dorr, the so-called people's governor, was returning from his ten-day trip that included stops in Washington, Philadelphia, and New York. Dorr's goal was to take up the reins as governor of Rhode Island under the People's Constitution, a document that he authored in 1841. There was just one problem: another man, Samuel Ward King, considered himself to be governor of Rhode Island under a royal charter granted in 1663 by King Charles II of England. "In the small state of Rhode Island, with the population of about a hundred thousand, there are at this moment two Governors, two Senates, two Houses of Representatives, and other things in proportion. A clear exemplification of Jefferson's maxim that 'the world is governed too much.'" —The Charleston Mercury. A huge crowd greeted Dorr at the train depot and escorted him around the city. In the spring of 1842, Rhode Island was torn between rival governors, two separate legislative assemblies, and two competing visions of the nature of American constitutionalism.   The parade on May 16th ended at the home of Burrington Anthony. Tired after his long journey from New York, Dorr still mustered the strength to deliver a fiery 45-minute address to the crowd that gathered in front of Anthony's house. No transcripts of the speech survive, but most first-hand accounts maintained that Dorr reiterated his ardent belief in the doctrine of the people's sovereignty.   The crisis in Rhode Island represents a question of great moment for Americans before the Civil War: who were the rightful monitors of the constitutional order? Today, many take it for granted that that function falls under the United States Supreme Court. But that question was far from clear for Americans of an earlier generation. For them it seemed quite plausible that the Court, Congress and the Executive each had roles and that their interrelationship remained uncertain. And even more outside our "modern" understanding and yet clearly compelling to many Americans, was the possibility of a role for "the people" — as a check on unconstitutional actions of government. "The establishment of any mode of convenience for amending the constitution through the action of the legislature cannot impair the general unalienated and inalienable right of the People at large to make alterations in their organic laws in any other mode which they may deem expedient." —Thomas Wilson Dorr. A far different view of the political order was predicated on the belief that American constitutionalism was based on the rule of law and that a government could only be amended through prescribed legal means. According to the prominent Massachusetts statesmen Daniel Webster, "giving the slightest countenance" to Dorr's ideology "subjected all American government to the unbridled license of a mob."   The Rhode Island Suffrage Association formed early in 1841 with the goal of replacing the state's legal structure with a modern document. "Reformers have taken steps to achieve a revolution in government because the state still adheres to the royal charter." —John Quincy Adams. More than any other state, Rhode Island failed to reconcile large-scale immigration with political democracy. During the American Revolution most states wrote new constitutions but Rhode Island continued to operate under its colonial charter. Lacking provisions for formal amendment, the 17th century charter became outdated as the 19th century wore on. Nearly 80% of Rhode Island's white male citizens could vote in the Revolutionary period. By 1840, however, the number had dropped to 40%. Rhode Island's legislature was reluctant to expand its suffrage requirements especially in light of a growing foreign population, many of whom were Irish Catholics.   After numerous attempts to petition the legislature for a new constitution had failed, Dorr and the Rhode Island Suffrage Association organized an extralegal People's Convention, drafted a new constitution for the state, and sent out to the people to be ratified. The document contained liberal suffrage provisions but excluded African-Americans from the franchise. A white-only clause was inserted over Dorr's strenuous objections. But nevertheless the People's Constitution was attacked in the abolitionist press. "What meanness, hypocrisy, oppression! Let the most determined opposition to this despicable prescription be made by the people." —William Lloyd Garrison. However, the People's Constitution did enfranchise the large laboring class of Irish Catholic immigrant workers who were unable to vote under the charter. The document was ratified by a lopsided vote in late December 1841. Elections under the People's Constitution were held in April 1842. Dorr ran unopposed for governor.   The People's government met in assembly in early May under the specter of arrest. Both governments were uncertain on how to proceed. The charter authorities acted first by seeking the intercession of President John Tyler. Tyler was reluctant to get involved, but as a precaution he did reinforce troops at Fort Adams in Newport and also held troops in standby in New York. Dorr, acting against the advice of many of his supporters, decided to capture the arms stored at the state arsenal on Cranston Street in Providence. On the foggy evening of May 17, Dorr, along with an armed force of about 230 men and two Revolutionary-era cannon, marched from the Anthony home to the arsenal. Among those defending the arsenal and its contents were Dorr's father, brother, and uncle. Undeterred, Dorr demanded the occupants surrender; when they refused, Dorr ordered the cannons to be fired. The foggy night air prevented the cannons from firing. Dorr and his men fled into the night.   The New York Herald humorously reported: "Killed: zero; Wounded: zero; Missing: 481; Scared: 960; Horribly frightened: 789; Fainted on the battleground: 73; Women in hysterics: 22; Temperance pledge broke (before the battle): 330; Governors missing: 1." The failed attempt to take the arsenal quickly became the butt of jokes in conservative Whig circles, but the seriousness of what Dorr tried to do in Providence was not lost. In a letter to her cousin, Providence resident Susan Backus captured the paranoia of the city's populace. "The Rhode Island war, I am in hopes, is almost over, but I am not sure, for reports say Governor Dorr is coming back with troops sufficient to take and kill us." —Susan Backus   Following a month in exile, Dorr determined it was time to return to Rhode Island in order to reconvene the People's Legislature on July 4th at Chepachet, a small village located in the town of Glocester. Residents of Providence feared that Dorr would once again try to sack and burn the city on his way to Chepachet. Dorr had the support of the fiery New York Irish Protestant labor leader Mike Walsh. However, the charter government undertook an effective anti-Catholic campaign that successfully deterred the Irish from aiding Dorr. Dorr was slow to realize how much support he had already lost by his attempted attack on the arsenal. Few elected members of the People's Government went to Chepachet, and upon his arrival there, Dorr was met by a small rag-tag force of poorly armed men. Facing a force of nearly three-thousand charter militia, Dorr prudently released his men from service and once again fled Rhode Island. The charter forces operating under statewide martial law arrested more than 260 people over the next several days. During the upheaval, the legislature called for yet another constitutional convention. This time it was approved by an expanded electorate, including African-Americans, who received the right to vote after special referendum on the issue. 'That 1843 constitution, and we use 1843 because it went into effect in May 1843", it was the Law & Order Constitution that was drafted by the Law & Order Convention in the concluding months of 1842 after Dorr had been vanquished and had gone into exile. That constitution was productive of an incredible amount of internal strife in Rhode Island."   Dorr lived in exile in New Hampshire and later Massachusetts for nearly a year and a half. During his time in New Hampshire, Dorr was protected by Democratic Governor Henry Hubbard. There was a five thousand dollar bounty on his head. In October 1843, he decided to return to Rhode Island to face charges of treason. His purpose in doing so was to test the concept of the people's sovereignty in court. In 1844, he was tried and convicted of treason against the state of Rhode Island. Dorr had the distinction of being the first man convicted of treason against a state. The murdering abolitionist John Brown would become the second in 1859. Dorr was sentenced to life in prison at hard labor and solitary confinement. His political adversaries began to feel pressure for his release and after a period of twenty months in a dank cell he was released from prison. Dorr liberation stock was issued to raise money for the cost of bringing his case by writ of error before the United States Supreme Court. Dorr's imprisonment became a rallying cry of northern Democrats in the 1844 presidential campaign.   Dorr's time in prison ruined his already fragile health and as a result he never ventured far from his parents' elegant home on the East Side of Providence. He remained a bachelor, dying of complications from severe rheumatism, in December 1854. He never wavered in his belief of the sovereignty of the people. "The Doctrine of Sovereignty: There is One overall, God blessed forever; and under him the People are sovereign. His Revealed Word is the higher law, to whose principles and rules of action recourse is had by the framers of constitutions and by legislators, to impart justice and equity to political institutions. The application of these principles and rules to the Constitutions and legislative acts of States, and to men in their political relations, is what has been called the democracy of Christianity. Rights are the gift of God. The definition and protection of them are the objects of just government." —Thomas Wilson Dorr   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Dividing Line Between "Indians and the white people"

Dividing Line Between “Indians and the white people”, Official Act 1787, Signed and Sealed

Native American Dividing Line Between "Indians and the white people", Official Act 1787, Signed and Sealed   [NATIVE AMERICANS.] Acts and Resolutions passed by the General Assembly of Rhode Island, March 1787. Printed Document Signed by Henry Ward, Secretary. 22 pp., 7.625" x 12.125". With partially missing embossed paper over wax seal on first page; first page separated; residue from binding on first page; good.   Excerpts:   "It is Voted and Resolved, by Consent of Parties, That John Jenckes, of Providence, Esq.; Joseph Hazard, of South-Kingstown, Esq; and Joseph Stanton, jun. of Charlestown, Esq; be, and they are hereby appointed a Committee to run the Indian Line, so called, in Charlestown, to erect and fix certain permanent Bounds and Monuments, to ascertain the dividing Line between the said Indians and the white people; and that the same shall be final."   "And whereas there is an Action now pending before the Superior Court of Judicature, &c. in and for the County of Washington, wherein the Indian Council have demanded, against Joseph Clarke, of said Charlestown, the Possession of a certain Tract of Land, which they claim as their Right of Inheritance: It is therefore further Voted and Resolved, by and with the Consent of the Parties, That the said Committee shall hear and determine the said Action, and make Report of the same to the said Superior Court, at their Term to be holden on the First Monday of October next, which shall be final: And that if the said Indians have any of the Lands of the said Joseph Clarke in Possession, the said Committee shall determine the same, and fix the Lines and Boundaries accordingly."   "Whereas Joseph Cuzzens and James Wampy, Two of the Indian Council of the Narragansett Tribe of Indians, have represented unto this Assembly, that John Skesuck and Daniel Skesuck, Two of the said Tribe, heretofore petitioned this Assembly for Liberty of selling about Forty Acres of Land lying in Charlestown, bounded Easterly on Benjamin Hoxsie's Land, Southerly, partly on Thomas Wilbour's Land, and partly on Daniel Stanton's Land, Westerly and Northerly, on Isaac Saunder's Land, and also represented, that the said Land did belong to them, and that they were about removing into the Western Territory: That thereupon the Assembly supposing the Facts to be true, did pass an Act, and empowered them to dispose of the same under the Direction of Joseph Hoxsie, Esq; That the same is now notified for Sale, when in Fact the said John Skesuck and Daniel Skesuck, had no other Right to the said Land than the rest of the said Tribe: And that if the said Land be sold and the said John Skesuck and Daniel Skesuck remove off, they will leave behind them a Number of their Sifters who are poor, and the said Tribe will be unable to maintain them: And thereupon they prayed this Assembly (as the Indian Council were not notified of the said Petition) that the Sale of the said Land may be prohibited until a full and fair Enquiry can be made, whether it will be reasonable and adviseable to suffer the said Land to be sold under the Circumstances attending the same:   "Which being duly considered, It is Voted and Resolved, That the Sale of the said Land be prohibited: That the said John Skesuck and Daniel Skesuck, and all others concerned, appear at this Assembly at the next Session, to be heard upon the Premises; and that in the mean Time all further Proceedings be stayed."   Historical Background:   In 1675, a Puritan expedition forced most of the indigenous Narragansetts in Rhode Island into the southern swamps of the area. During the 1780s, American frontier settlers brought wild hogs into the area, which ruined the clam beds on which the Narragansetts depended for food. Forced to trade with the Americans for food, the Narragansetts fell heavily into debt, which they tried to pay by selling grants of lands to the American settlers.   Through this resolution, the Rhode Island legislature appointed a committee of three Americans to establish a dividing line between American settlers and native Narragansetts in southwestern Rhode Island around Charlestown. The town is now the headquarters for the Narragansett Indian Tribe, which today has approximately 2,600 members.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
Samuel Morse "You Say You Have Also Invented a Telegraph"

Samuel Morse “You Say You Have Also Invented a Telegraph”

Morse Samuel Samuel Morse "You Say You Have Also Invented a Telegraph"   Bi-fold autograph letter signed, with integral transmittal leaf addressed in the hand of Morse. Partial separations along fold intersections. Signed by Samuel Morse as "Saml. B. Morse", and dated "Washington March 24, 1846". Penned to recto of first page, balance of pages blank. Red wax seal present with corresponding small hole where the document was opened. Lovely vibrant dark ink.   Samuel Morse offers a blunt but humorous response to a competitor in the race for sophistication in the manner of telegraphy. Written less than two years after he had established the first long-distance telegraph line between Washington and Baltimore. Morse tersely responds " … you say you have also invented a Telegraph, and that you intend doing nothing in relation to it 'until I have had time to speak.'"   "You do not give me any clue to your plan, so that I am unable to speak. But as I am a Yankee I have the privilege of guessing, and also of guessing twice, if I guess wrong the first time.  I guess then your plan is a tube filled with water, which has often been the subject of our thoughts and planning's, and which has long been discarded not because it is not feasible for a certain distance but from its expense and some other inconveniences which virtually make it impracticable. Beside is it a plan calculated and thrown aside before electric telegraphs were thought of.  Now if I have guessed right you are in the vocative, if wrong why there is a chance for your life. Let us have it, for if it is new and original with you, you need no patent papers to secure to you the benefits … I have many communications on various plans from all parts of the country. None as yet can compete with the lightening"   The recipient was likely the Reverend Joseph Tracy (as shown on the address leaf, 1793-1874) who had claimed to have had developed method of using short and long pulses as a code for telegraphy, independently of Morse - and several years after the formulation of Morse's own code (see Edward L. Morse. "the Dot and Dash Alphabet", The Century Magazine, vol. 83, March 1912, pp.700-701)   A superb example with great content by Morse demonstrating the race for methods of communication.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
Marilyn Monroe LS Re: Talent Agency William Morris

Marilyn Monroe LS Re: Talent Agency William Morris, the Same Year She Appeared in “All About Eve” and “The Asphalt Jungle”

Monroe Marilyn Marilyn Monroe LS Re: Talent Agency William Morris, the Same Year She Appeared in "All About Eve" and "The Asphalt Jungle"   1p typed letter signed by Hollywood actress Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962) as "Marilyn Monroe" at center right. Dated April 5, 1950--a very significant year in Monroe's career. On pale blue paper with "William Morris Agency, Inc. / 202 North Canon Drive, Beverly Hills" letterhead. A clerical inscription in red pencil appears at lower right. Expected light paper folds including a horizontal one affecting a few letters of Marilyn's signature. Double hole punched at top. Minor fading to some areas of the typed text. Else near fine. 8.5" x 11". Provenance: From the Collection of Dr. Goodman Basil Espy III.   The letter addressed to the Cashier at 20th Century Fox Film Corporation reads in part:   "Gentlemen:   You are hereby notified that I/we have authorized the WILLIAM MORRIS AGENCY, INC., to accept delivery of any and all checks and /or sums of money which may from time to time be or become payable to me from you; and I hereby authorize you to deliver all such checks and/or sums of money to said WILLIAM MORRIS AGENCY, INC…."   1950 was a banner year for the aspiring Hollywood actress. Though Monroe had garnered a contract at Columbia Pictures in 1948, it was not renewed, and the actress had fallen back on a few bit parts and pin-up and nude modeling. In 1950, however, Monroe landed small roles in two musicals and two dramas: Love Happy, A Ticket to Tomahawk, Right Cross, and The Fireball. Co-stars of these productions included Mickey Rooney, the Marx Brothers, June Allyson, and Anne Baxter. Also in 1950, Monroe secured larger--though still small--roles in two critically acclaimed films; as Angela Phinlay in the John Huston directed Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer production The Asphalt Jungle, and as Miss Casswell in Joseph Mankiewicz's 20th Century Fox drama All About Eve.   Monroe's breakthrough was in part orchestrated by Johnny Hyde (1895-1950), the co-founder and Vice President of the William Morris Agency. Hyde took an interest in the starlet, and secured her a 7-year-long contract at 20th Century Fox in December 1950, just a few days before his death of a heart attack. Among Hyde's recommendations to Monroe were cosmetic surgery and superficial alterations to her appearance. These changes to Monroe's chin, nose, hairline, and hair created the flamboyant "blonde bombshell" look that we know today.   Provenance   Dr. Goodman Basil Espy III is a Georgia-based collector whose collection--amassed over 70 years--was just liquidated. His primary interests included Hollywood memorabilia, especially anything pertaining to Marilyn Monroe; sports legends of football, boxing, and baseball; and vintage radios.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Marilyn Monroe ALS to Lefty O'Doul

Marilyn Monroe ALS to Lefty O’Doul, Mentor of Husband Joe DiMaggio: “your [sic] one of my favorite people you know”

Monroe Marilyn Marilyn Monroe ALS to Lefty O'Doul, Mentor of Husband Joe DiMaggio: "your [sic] one of my favorite people you know"   1p autograph letter signed by Hollywood actress Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962) as "Marilyn" at lower right. Undated, but probably dating from the early 1950s. Inscribed overall by Monroe in blue pen on watermarked cream stationery paper emblazoned with a large "M" at upper left. Expected paper folds and a few wrinkles. Isolated stains along the right side and bottom do not affect the legibility of the handwriting. 6" x 8". Accompanied by the original transmittal envelope, also inscribed in Monroe's hand. Letter-opened at top and with expected wear. Provenance: From the Collection of Dr. Goodman Basil Espy III.   In full, with unchanged spelling and punctuation:   "Dear Jimmy,   I was so happy you met us at the airport and I got to see you again - your one of my favorite people you know.   Thank you for inviting me to your birthday party. I would love to come but the Doctor said I must stay in bed - so I'm sorry Jimmy that I can't be there but I'll be thinking about you   Have a Happy Birthday and a wonderful time   Marilyn".   The letter is undated, but probably dates from the period of Marilyn's courtship or marriage to Joe DiMaggio (1914-1999), the ex-New York Yankees baseball legend who had been mentored by Monroe's letter recipient, Francis Joseph "Lefty" O'Doul (1897-1969). Monroe and DiMaggio first met in 1952 and were married in January 1954. Monroe and DiMaggio spent their honeymoon in Asia on a three-week-long baseball junket also attended by Lefty and his wife Jean. Monroe divorced DiMaggio in October 1954.   "Jimmy Gold" appears to have been a pet name of Monroe's for O'Doul. Lefty O'Doul was an accomplished professional baseball player in his own right. He served as the manager of the Pacific Coast League team the San Francisco Seals between 1935-1951, during which time he coached DiMaggio. The two remained close friends, and it is likely that Monroe knew him through DiMaggio.   Provenance   Dr. Goodman Basil Espy III is a Georgia-based collector whose collection--amassed over 70 years--was just liquidated. His primary interests included Hollywood memorabilia, especially anything pertaining to Marilyn Monroe; sports legends of football, boxing, and baseball; and vintage radios.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Abraham Lincoln Collector Frederick H. Meserve ALS Praising Fellow Civil War Historian

Abraham Lincoln Collector Frederick H. Meserve ALS Praising Fellow Civil War Historian

Lincoln Abraham Abraham Lincoln Collector Frederick H. Meserve ALS Praising Fellow Civil War Historian   1p ALS inscribed overall and signed by Lincoln collector Frederick H. Meserve (1865-1962) as "F.H. Meserve" at bottom. Written at his Upper East Side address in New York City on January 13, 1953. The cream stationery paper is in near fine condition, with expected light paper folds, 8.375" x 10.875".   Frederick H. Meserve, a world-renown collector of Lincoln and Civil War era photography, ephemera, maps, and books, lauded Arnold F. Gates (1914-1993), a fellow Civil War enthusiast. The 88-year-old collector wrote in part: "Dear Arnold, As Editor of 'The Round Table' you have put the society on the map. The size, the type, the arrangement of topics, but above all, the words, and careful reporting, make it an addition to current history. I felicitate you, and every member of the society will be grateful to you and your associate editors."   Meserve's praise was more than just kind words; it demonstrated how much the Lincoln scholar valued Gates' contributions to the field. Coming from Meserve, long since recognized as one of the world's top Lincoln experts, this was highly complementary.   Frederick H. Meserve began collecting Lincolniana in 1897, with the intention of illustrating his father's Civil War diary. Meserve continued collecting over the next sixty years, eventually amassing 200,000 pieces including some previously "lost" or unknown images of Lincoln. Meserve's collection was so esteemed for its completeness that he essentially became the custodian of "Lincoln's image." For example, Meserve was approached by medal and currency engravers, as well as by the sculptors of Lincoln's Memorial Monument, for direct access to his presidential photographs. In 2015, the Meserve-Kunhardt Collection was acquired by the Yale Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library (New Haven, Connecticut.)   Meserve's correspondent Arnold F. Gates also had a lifelong interest in the Civil War. Gates served as an editor and officer of the Round Table Yearbook of New York City between 1952-1967. Gates edited and published works relating to the Civil War period, including The Rough Side of War: The Civil War Journal of Chesley A. Mosman, First Lieutenant, Company D, 59th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Arthur Lee FF Docketed by Nicholas Gilman

Arthur Lee FF Docketed by Nicholas Gilman, Brother of Rare Constitution Signer

Lee Arthur Arthur Lee FF Docketed by Nathaniel Gilman, Brother of Rare Constitution Signer   Address leaf signed by Arthur Lee (1740-1792) as "Free A Lee" in the lower left corner. Also stamped "Free" under the "Board of Treasury" inscription in the upper right hand corner. The leaf is addressed to "Nathaniel Gilman Esqr. Commr. of the Loan Office for the State of New Hampshire." Postmarked from New York City on August 31, 1788. Docketed by recipient Nathaniel Gilman at right as "augt. 20th : 1788 - relative to requisition of Congress for paym Int." Trimmed at top. With expected paper folds and minor paper abrasion verso corresponding to seal mark, otherwise near fine. Folded, the leaf measures 5.5" x 3.25". Accompanied by a photocopy of the original letter from the Board of Treasury dated August 30, 1788.   Board of Treasury commissioners Arthur Lee and Samuel Osgood (1747-1813) signed the original letter addressed to Nathaniel Gilman, New Hampshire Commissioner of the Loan-Office, containing a circular copy of Congressional Resolutions recently passed on August 20, 1788.   With untouched spelling and grammar. The original letter, a copy of which is included, stated:   "Sir: -   The United States in Congress having on the 20th of August Instant past a Requisition for one years Interest on the Domestic Debt. (Copy of which together with any Instructions we may judge necessary shall be transmitted to you in the Course of next Week - ) -, we desire you will not forward to the Treasurer, any further Sums, which you may receive in Indents, on account of former Requisitions; as we shall necessarily be obliged to direct their being reissued -   We are, Sir, Your most Obedt Humble Servants -- Samuel Osgood (signed) Arthur Lee (signed)."   Just 2 weeks earlier, 5 Board of Treasury Committee members made recommendations before Congress regarding the nation's finances. Although the United States still owed large payments to foreign lenders--notably France and the Netherlands--interest payments collected in previous years were in surplus. Therefore, the Committee recommended that the nation tackle interest payments on its Domestic Debt.   Congress passed 7 resolutions designed to make book-keeping easy and payment plans convenient. Interest payments on the Domestic Debt totaling $1,686,141.12 was due on or before July 1, 1789. Each of the 13 states was billed different amounts. While Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia had the largest bills, Nathaniel Gilman's New Hampshire had the 4th smallest bill at $59,258; only Georgia, Delaware, and Rhode Island owed less than New Hampshire. (See attached for a copy of the original Congressional Resolutions.)   Arthur Lee came from a politically influential Virginia family; his older brothers Richard Henry Lee (1732-1794), Francis Lightfoot Lee (1734-1797), and William Lee (1739-1795) were important figures in the Revolutionary War and early Republican eras. Arthur Lee found his true niche in American diplomacy. During the Revolutionary War, Lee served as an American agent tasked with ascertaining if European powers approved of American independence. Between 1782-1785, Lee served as a delegate to the Continental Congress; between 1784-1789, he served on the Treasury Board.   Nathaniel Gilman was the younger brother of rare Constitution signer Nicholas Gilman, Jr. (1755-1814). Like Lee, Gilman came from a politically active family. His father, Nicholas Gilman, Sr. (1731-1783) had served as New Hampshire's first state treasurer; Gilman's brothers Nicholas and John Taylor Gilman (1753-1828) were both delegates to the Continental Congress. Nicholas later served as a Congressman and Senator from New Hampshire, and John Taylor as Governor of New Hampshire.   Nathaniel Gilman fought during the Revolutionary War between 1776-1778 before being invalided out of the 3rd New Hampshire Regiment. As we know, he acted as New Hampshire's state loans commissioner during the 1780s, but declined George Washington's federal appointment in 1790.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
Huddie "Lead Belly" Ledbetter Rare Archive

Huddie “Lead Belly” Ledbetter Rare Archive, Handwritten Letter & Set List, Plus More!

Ledbetter Huddie Huddie "Lead Belly" Ledbetter Rare Archive, Handwritten Letter & Set List, Plus More! An archive of five pieces featuring a rare Autograph Letter Signed, "H Ledbetter," 1 page, 7.75" x9.75", New York, March 28, 1949, in pencil to one of his managers Austen C. Fairbanks; Autograph Manuscript, 1 page, 8.5" x 4", [no place, no date, but c. late 1948 to early 1949, being a set list used in a live performance kept in blue pencil; Martha Promise Ledbetter (1904-1968) Autograph Letter Signed, "Martha Ledbetter," 2 pages, 5.75" x 8.75", New York, May 10,1949 in green ink to Ledbetter's other manager, Marjorie Fairbanks (and Austen's mother); an original promotional flyer for a "'High-Cost -of-Living' Hootenanny"featuring Ledbetter, Woody Guthrie and other folk singers, 7" x 11",[New York, December 1947; and a superb and possibly unpublished 8" x10" black and white photograph showing Ledbetter in a suit, strumming his guitar surrounded by a crowed of adoring schoolchildren. Together five pieces,most of which are in fine condition. Flyer bears some moderate, uneven toning,photograph is creased at edges and corners.   Of particular interest is Ledbetter's letter to his manager, Austen Fairbanks, whom, together with his mother, Marjorie Fairbanks, took over his management in early 1948. Ledbetter's letter reads in most part [with original spellings retained: "i rec[eived a Check for $150 was ok But we did not rec[eive no money order for $25 so if you got the Stub Keep it we waundered what was the mat[ter so far the moth of mar[ch we Have at this time rec[eived $175 that['s all. So the mein time Don['t for get april Pleas[e. your Letter was fine the Harvard Concert they Call agon say it was fro the 21 of april so if they call agon I [kno[w what to do it was from the order of Rudie Blosh…"  By the time he composed this letter, Ledbetter was already cognizant that he was losing control of his muscles, though he lacked an accurate diagnosis. He had been recently released from the hospital after finding himself unable to walk. Writing that he had a doctor who was "fixing"him up, he announced he was "walking near Perfect now."  According to his most authoritative biography to date, he composed the song "Walk Around My Bedside" in celebration. (Charles K. Wolfe, et al, The Life and Legend of Leadbelly, 1992, p.254)Following his recovery, Ledbetter remained in New York performing mainly in jazz clubs and on the radio preparing for his trip to Europe in May.   Martha Promise's letter was written soon after Ledbetter's departure for Europe, his only time ever spent outside of the United States. She writes in most part [with original spellings retained: "How goes every Thing Well I hope as that's leaves me ok felling much better Since Iread your letters and also I got the check and thank[s a million I am not worried about Huddie as longs I know he is with you and Aussten becurse I know he will be Taking Care of and I Am Sure any kind of care he needs you will see to that I am a[wfull Thrilled to here every thing is going fine. Any kind of clippings you can send me will be very Thankfull of Them[. I were very surprised how Quick they made the trip I couldn['t believe my eyes when I got the telegram he were there already every thing is very lonesome and Quiet here Thursday were ladys day at the Ball game and I enjoyed it very much ladys can always go for 50¢ That['s one thing grand about it 'ha ha' Well this here to be a very short letter becourse There is no news give Clayton my love and alsothe rest of the Boys…" Ledbetter's trip would be cut short due to his deteriorating health.While in France, a Paris physician diagnosed him with ALS (or Lou Gehrig's Disease) and Ledbetter returned to the United States at the end of May. Heplayed only two more shows, one with Woody Guthrie in Chicago, and then a tribute to the late John A. Lomax in Austin, Texas on June 15, 1949. By July hewas admitted to Bellevue and would be in and out of the hospital after that.For some time, Lead Belly would sing and play his guitar. The day he found himself unable to play, he cried. Huddie Ledbetter died on December 6, 1949.   The set list, which appears to date from 1948, features thirteen songs, including [with original spellings retained "They Hung Him on the Cross," "work song," "July on Johnson," "Bring me Little Water Silvie," "The Gray goos[e,""Bushwhase [i.e.Bourgeois Blues,""mid night on the see,""Tell me where did Sleep Las night," "Mory don't you weep," "459 Blues," "Com[e Long all you Cow Boys," and "One a Little Boy walking Down the Road."Perhaps the most profound among these great songs is Lead Belly's 1939 song,"Bourgeois Blues." Following a recording session with Alan Lomax at the Library of Congress in Washington, Lomax, Ledbetter and their wives decided to celebrate over dinner, but they found it difficult to find a restaurant willing to seat blacks and whites together. It became a favorite among left-wing groups: Lead Belly was invited to sing it at Camp Unity, the Communist Party U.S.A.'s summer retreat. The song was also a popular favoriteamong other singers, and would be recorded also by Pete Seeger and Ry Cooder.   The flyer advertises"The Hootenanny," held at Town Hall in New York on the evening of September 27, 1947 (Brooklyn Daily Eagle,September 27, 1947, p. 12). The program featured not only Ledbetter closing the show, but other greats including Woodie Guthrie. Interestingly, the listing of the various artists on the bill also list the songs they planned to perform save for Lead Belly, who intended to "announce his own numbers" during the program.   The period 8" x10" shows Ledbetter, dressed in a suit and bow tie, singing amidst a throng of adoring school children, one of which, a little girl, gleefully rests her ear upon his guitar, eyes shut with a huge smile on her face. Apparently unpublished,we have yet to discover another example of this photograph. The photograph contradicts one of the great myths of Lead Belly—the image of a rough,ex-convict (the wild-eyed "murderous minstrel", a label that Time bestowed upon him in 1935). In actuality,Ledbetter enjoyed a wonderful rapport with children, many of whom sensed something special about the man (Wolfe, 265).   Extremely Rare. Ledbetter's holograph in any form is exceptionally rare. Prior to our recent purchase of this letter, no known fully signed letters or documents were known outside of a few institutions. The only other Ledbetter holograph material that has appeared in the market consist of a signed photograph and a couple of signed flyers. The signed photograph alone realized nearly $6,000 at a 2014 auction.    This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
“Don’t Give up the Ship!” James Lawrence

“Don’t Give up the Ship!” James Lawrence, One of the Rarest American Autographs, Rarest Major Naval Name, 3pp Letter to John Rodgers

Lawrence James "Don't Give up the Ship!" James Lawrence, One of the Rarest American Autographs, Rarest Major Naval Name, 3 Page Letter to John Rodgers   JAMES LAWRENCE, Autograph Letter Signed, to John Rodgers, September 6, 1810, Brookline, [Massachusetts]. 3 pp., 7.625" x 9.375".  Expected folds; tear on seal affecting two words and loss of paper on third page; tear on fold affecting one word.   Less than three years before he immortalized himself as a U.S. naval hero with the charge, "Don't give up the ship!" Lieutenant James Lawrence, in command of the USS Argus, writes to Commodore John Rodgers regarding two sailors who had deserted from his previous command, the USS Wasp.   Complete Transcript:   "Brookline Septr 6th 1810 Sir I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your enclosure, this morning, the man who signs himself Simon Latham, deserted from the Wasp previous to my taking charge of her, on examination a few days past I found that after making good the time he was absent, his time was up the last of August, and gave the Purser orders to make out his account, the day he was to have been paid off (the 2d Inst) he deserted from the boat whilst getting off wood,—the other, Truly, I understand from Captn Shaw, when last in Norfolk, had been transfered from the Gunboat to the Wasp as no account was sent with him by Purser Lyon, I have calculated his shipment from the date of entry on the Wasps books, in fact I was ignorant of his having been sent from the Gunboats untill I saw Captn Shaw  his time is now out, but as it appeared on his account; being made out that he was upwards of a month in debt, I declined discharging him untill he was out of debt, Purser Tutle's charge against him at the time he left the Wasp was near $150 I am informed. very respectfully your obedt servt Jas Lawrence Commodore J. Rodgers"   [Address:] Commodore John Rodgers / U S Frigt President / New York   [Docketing:] Lieut. Lawrence / 6th Septbr 1810     James Lawrence (1781-1813) was born in New Jersey and was raised by his half-sister, after his loyalist father fled to Canada during the American Revolution. He studied law but entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman in 1798. He rose through the ranks to command a small gunboat by 1805 in actions off Tripoli. He also served as second-in-command to Stephen Decatur in the daring destruction of the captured USS Philadelphia. As a first lieutenant, he commanded the USS Vixen, the USS Wasp, and the USS Argus. Promoted to commandant in November 1810, Lawrence commanded the USS Hornet on a diplomatic mission to Europe in 1811. In 1812 and 1813, he captured several British ships during the War of 1812. When he returned to the United States in March 1813, he learned of his promotion to Captain and took command of the USS Chesapeake at Boston. Leaving port on June 1, he immediately engaged the HMS Shannon in a fierce battle. Wounded by small arms fire from the Shannon, Lawrence ordered his officers, "Don't give up the ship." His men carried him below deck, but a British boarding party soon took control of the Chesapeake. Lawrence died of his wounds three days later, while the Chesapeake was bound for Halifax, Nova Scotia, as a British prize of war. Lawrence was honored with a Congressional Gold Medal and the Thanks of Congress.   John Rodgers (1772-1838) was born in Maryland and served as an apprentice to a ship's captain as a teenager. He became captain of his own ship in 1793 and sailed out of Baltimore for four or five years. In 1798, President John Adams appointed Rodgers as a second lieutenant on the USS Constellation, one of the first three ships of the U.S. Navy. He spent the next forty years in the Navy, serving during the Quasi-War with France, both Barbary Wars, and the War of 1812, eventually rising to the rank of commodore in 1805. During the War of 1812, his flagship was the USS President, with which he captured 23 prizes. After the war, he led the Board of Navy Commissioners from 1815 to 1824, and again from 1827 until his retirement in 1837. He also served briefly as the Secretary of the Navy in 1823.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
"John Kennedy

“John Kennedy, Jr. Large Vintage Photo, Waiting for His Father. PSA Encap. Type 1, Authentic

Kennedy Jr. John John Kennedy, Jr. Large Vintage Photo, Waiting for His Father. PSA Encap. Type 1, Authentic   Phenomenal Vintage Type One, Authentic photo, personally owned by White House photographer, Cecil Stoughton. Stoughton was best known for being President John F. Kennedy's photographer during his White House years. Encapsulated PSA, "Original Photograph / Type 1 / Authentic / c. 1960's / Cecil W. Stoughton / Stoughton Coll." Photo size 10" x 8". Encapsulated to 13.25" x 10".   The wonderful photo depicts an adorable John Kennedy, Jr. standing with his hands behind his back, while dutifully waiting for his father, President Kennedy. The photo was taken following Veterans Day ceremonies at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington Virginia on November 11, 1963. Also pictured: First Sergeant Eldon J. Johnston who is standing by the car door at left. The photo was taken as a set by Cecil Stoughton, several of which (including this photo) appear in the archives on the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum website. Stoughton's unique pencil notes appear on the verso of the photo as Negative number C389-39-63, along with Stoughton's address sticker.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
John Kennedy

John Kennedy, Jr. Baby Gift Given to Jacqueline & President-Elect John Kennedy – A Lovely “Mother’s Manual”

Kennedy John John Kennedy, Jr. Baby Gift Given to Jacqueline & President-Elect John Kennedy - A Lovely "Mother's Manual"   A lovely soft-cover "Mother's Manual" gifted to President-elect John F. Kennedy and Jacqueline Kennedy upon the birth of their son John F. Kennedy, Jr. on November 25, 1960. Published in 1950 by A. F. Coomes, the pocket booklet measures 2.75" x 4.25", and is inscribed on the front paste down, "To Mrs. Kennedy, I hope Our Blessed Mother will always hear your prayers. Guide you and your family in everything you do. Love, Marie Ippolito." The booklet also contains eight prayer cards, two of which are inscribed on the reverse: "for Mrs. John F. Kennedy," and "To Caroline, from Nancy." In fine condition.   Accompanied by a letter of provenance from Mary Barelli Gallagher, the secretary to Senator John F. Kennedy and then later to First Lady Jackie Kennedy, in part:   "This baby gift is one of the many gifts that had arrived daily to the home of President—Elect and Mrs. John F. Kennedy, 3307 N St. N. W., Georgetown, Washington, D.C. on the occasion of John Jr.'s Birth. .. Mrs. Kennedy would ask that I prepare a letter of thanks to the sender for her to sign, and this is one of the gifts that she offered me to take home. I donated the vast majority of these gifts to various charities, others I gave away to friends, relatives, etc., keeping the more interesting ones, such as this, for myself (as told in Chapter 8 - "John-John," pages 61-62, of my book that is referenced below)"   Provenance: Ex-Bonhams March 9, 2017 sale; Ex-Mary Barelli Gallagher.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
Ernest Jones

Ernest Jones, Freud Biographer & British Psychoanalyst, ALS Re: Royal Society

Freud Sigmund Ernest Jones, Freud Biographer & British Psychoanalyst, ALS Re: Royal Society   2pp autograph letter signed by influential British psychoanalyst Ernest Jones (1879-1958) as "Ernest Jones" at the center of the second page. Written at The Plat, Jones's cottage and clinic in Elsted, Midhurst, Sussex, England, n.d. Inscribed overall in Jones's hand on watermarked cream laid paper with Jones's address embossed at top. Expected paper folds and isolated discoloration, else near fine. 5.25" x 7".   In this undated letter, Jones wrote friend Thomas Horder, 1st Baron Horder (1871-1955) about recent developments in the medical field. Jones also criticizes the process by which honorary designations are granted in light of his own rejected nomination to the Royal Society.   "My dear Horder   So the cabal succeeded last evening and reaction has once more triumphed. It is a great pity for the profession, but I make no doubt that you are philosopher enough to bear it in the personal sphere. Years ago I ceased to covet honours when I found what 'human' factors operated in regard to them. Curiously enough I made an exception in respect of the F.R.S. [Fellow of the Royal Society] which I believed to be an objective standard. But when recently I was nominated for that honour my backers didn't reckon with Gordon Holmes, that fanatically anti-psychological person, being on the Council. So that was that, + now I know there is no exception.   Yours very sincerely   Ernest Jones."   Ernest Jones was a friend and colleague of pioneering Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, who later became Freud's official biographer. Jones's 3-volume opus Sigmund Freud: Life and Work, was published by London-based Hogarth Press between 1953-1957. Jones played a significant role in establishing and legitimizing psychoanalysis in Great Britain, being widely considered as the first authoritative English-speaking psychoanalyst.   Jones's letter recipient 1st Baron Horder was a physician whose patients included every British monarch between Edward VII and Elizabeth II (with the exception of Edward VIII) as well as several prime ministers. The object of Jones's contempt at the Royal Society was Gordon Morgan Holmes (1876-1955), a leading British neurologist who researched war trauma among other topics.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Ernest Jones Muses On Sigmund Freud

Ernest Jones Muses On Sigmund Freud

Freud Sigmund Ernest Jones Muses On Sigmund Freud   Single page typed letter signed on letterhead of "The Plat, Elsted, Nr Midhurst, SX",  5" x 7". Typed on the recto, with the last sentence and signature on the verso. Dated "March 18", and signed by Ernest Jones as "Ernest Jones". Fine condition.   Ernest Jones established both the British Psychoanalytical Society and the American Psychoanalytic Association, wrote a three-volume biography of Sigmund Freud, and played a key role in helping Sigmund and Anna Freud escape Nazi Austria, as well as numerous other continental analysts. Jones met Freud in 1908 in Salzburg and thus began a personal and professional relationship which, to the acknowledged benefit of both, would survive the many dissensions and rivalries which marked the first decades of the psychoanalytic movement, and would last until Freud's death in 1939. The major undertaking of Jone's final years was his monumental account of Freud's life and work, published to widespread acclaim in three volumes between 1953 and 1957.   Although the year of the letter is not known, Jones discusses and analyzes Freud's theories on "consciousness", and "narcissism" with Dr. Saul, and alludes to his publications. The letter is shown in part below:   " … About my terrible sentence I would remark that (1) although I was not quoting him, I had Freud's thought in my mind rather than my own. (2) You do not lay enough stress on my word "seem"   I entirely agree with your thesis myself and am altering "seem" to "appear" in my next edition. Personally I do not think that anything called "consciousness" really exists. It is only a facon de parler. As to the difference of humans from animals it is interesting to reflect that this seems to be due to life. It does not exist with savages or of course children. So that particular form of narcissism is acquired not innate … "   Freuds analysis on consciousness and narcissism are well known, with this letter touching upon the concepts most likely during the period while he was creating his volumes on Freud's work   After Hitler took power in Germany, Jones helped many displaced and endangered Jewish analysts to resettle in England and other countries. In March 1938, Jones flew into Vienna at considerable personal risk to play a crucial role in negotiating and organizing the emigration of Freud and his circle to London   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Felix Frankfurter Letter to Leader of Democratic Women

Felix Frankfurter Letter to Leader of Democratic Women

Frankfurter Felix Felix Frankfurter Letter to Leader of Democratic Women   Felix Frankfurter, Autograph Letter Signed, to Dorothy Wonderly Smith McAllister, January [17?], 1938, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1 p., 5.25" x 8". On Law School of Harvard University letterhead. Expected folds; very good.   Frankfurter thanks Dorothy McAllister for her kind words on his speech and is grateful for her husband's service on the bench.   Complete Transcript:                         Jany [17?] My dear Mrs. McAllister:     How kind of you to send me your generous use of my survey speech. I am indeed glad that you thought so well of it. Evidently Mr. Justice Holmes dictum applies: "We need education in the obvious more than investigation of the abstruse."     It's a great comfort to find such [good?] men on the Bench as your husband, and now finally Reed.     Will you write                         Very sincerely yrs                         Felix Frankfurter   Felix Frankfurter (1882-1965) was born into a Jewish family in Vienna, Austria, and immigrated to New York City in 1894. He graduated from the City College of New York in 1902 and from Harvard Law School. In 1906, he began working for Henry Stimson, the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York. When President William Howard Taft appointed Stimson as Secretary of War in 1911, Stimson appointed Frankfurter as an assistant. From 1913 to 1917, he taught administrative law at Harvard Law School, but took a leave during World War I to serve as special assistant to the secretary of war and as Judge Advocate General. After the war with encouragement from Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis, Frankfurter became more involved in Zionist causes. In 1920, he helped to found the American Civil Liberties Union. In 1921, Frankfurter was given a chair at Harvard Law School. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's election in 1932, Frankfurter became an adviser to the president. In 1938, Roosevelt nominated Frankfurter to the U.S. Supreme Court. After a tempestuous nomination process, Frankfurter received confirmation and served on the court from January 1939 to August 1962. He wrote 247 opinions for the court, 132 concurring opinions, and 251 dissents. An advocate of judicial restraint, he had an argumentative style that was not popular among his Supreme Court colleagues.   Dorothy Wonderly Smith McAllister (1899-1983) was born in Michigan and graduated from Bryn Mawr College in 1920. She married Thomas F. McAllister (1896-1976) in 1921, and they had two daughters. He served as a justice of the Michigan Supreme Court from 1938 to 1941 and as judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit from 1941 to his death. From 1937 to 1941, she served as the director of the Women's Division of the Democratic National Committee. She served as the chair of the National Committee to Defeat the Unequal Rights Amendment, a group opposed to the Equal Rights Amendment. She also served as chair of the board of directors of the National Consumers' League.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
Republican Institution Henry Dearborn Fantastic 26 Item Archive

Republican Institution Henry Dearborn Fantastic 26 Item Archive

Dearborn Henry Republican Institution Henry Dearborn Fantastic 26 Item Archive   HENRY DEARBORN, Archive of 26 documents related to "A Republican Institution in the Town of Boston," 1818-1892. All in very good condition; expected folds; some edge and fold tears with no or minimal effect on text.   This interesting archive of materials relates to "A Republican Institution in the Town of Boston." Chartered in February 1819, the Institution's purpose was to promote political thought and discussion. The organizers insisted that it was "absolutely necessary that the Republicans of the Town of Boston should be possessed of some respectable building wherein they may meet together to transact their business, and also a place to receive their Brethren from all parts of the Union." To acquire a building, they agreed to sell four hundred shares in the Institution for $25 each, and one person could purchase only up to four shares.   The Republicans were opposed to the Federalists and originally favored a strict construction of the Constitution and were jealous of the rights of the states. At the time A Republican Institution was founded, their candidate James Monroe was President of the United States, and Republicans had a majority in both houses of Congress. However, in Massachusetts, Federalists had control of state government under Governor John Brooks. In 1824 the Institution began to refund to members the amounts they had paid if they wished to withdraw, and the majority did, greatly reducing the membership. In 1893, A Republican Institution had sixty-three members, one of whom had been a member since 1841, but most of whom had joined in the 1880s or 1890s.   The first president of A Republican Institution was General Henry Dearborn, a veteran of both the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, the fifth Secretary of War of the United States from 1801 to 1809, and the Senior Officer of the United States Army from 1812 to 1815. This archive includes two early documents signed by Dearborn as president.   Items and Excerpts: --P. P. F. Degrand, Manuscript Document Signed, Resolutions, n.d., ca. 1818. 2 pp., 7.375" x 12.25". "The Committee to whom was referred the subject of a Constitution for the Republican Institution beg leave to Report, that they have given due consideration to the business for which they were appointed, and in their opinion it will require considerable time to accomplish an instrument of so much importance. And as it is necessary to take some immediate measures for the collection of the Instalments, they take the liberty to submit for your consideration the following Resolutions" [6 resolutions, all accepted.] --Henry Dearborn, Partially Printed Document Signed, to John S. Perkins, receipt for one installment on one share in the "Republican Institution," February 27, 1819. 1 p., 8.25" x 5". --Leach Harris, Autograph Document Signed, Report and Proposed Resolutions, March 2, 1819. 1 p., 7.5" x 12.5". --William B. Bradford, Partially Printed Document Signed, to John S. Perkins, receipt for whole installment on one share in the "Republican Institution," September 21, 1821. 1 p., 8.5" x 5". --Henry Dearborn, Partially Printed document Signed, to Thomas R. Dascomb, Certificate for one share in "A Republican Institution," December 1, 1821. 2 pp., 10" x 8.5". With embossed paper seal and ribbon. --Joseph Ingersoll, Autograph Document Signed, Audit of Treasurer's Accounts, December 2, 1822. 2 pp., 7" x 9.125". --William Ingalls, Manuscript Document Signed, Report and Proposed Resolutions, 1823. 1 p., 8" x 13".   --Copy of A. Dunlop letter giving legal opinion, October 20, 1823. 2 pp., 7.875" x 12.75". "I am of opinion that the provision in the 12th article of the Bye Laws is void, and that the only mode in which delinquent subscribers can be compelled to pay Instalments due is by actions against them." "The usual mode of compelling payments of instalments is by a provision in the Charter of incorporation authorizing the sale of shares and this is clearly good, but in the charter of the Institution there is no such provision. Of course if the Subscribers are bound to pay their Instalments, they are debtors to the Corporation & may be sued." --Jonathan Simonds, Manuscript Document Signed, Report and Proposed Resolutions, 1823-1824. 1 p., 8" x 13.25". --William B. Bradford, Autograph Document Signed, Receipt to Nathan Fisk, March 11, 1824. 1 p., 3" x 7". --David Horner and G. S. Fairbanks, Partially Printed Document Signed, to Abel Baker, Power to Proxies, November 18, 1826. 1 p., 6.25" x 14.5". With paper seals. --Moses Andem, Partially Printed Document Signed, to Warren [Lummoes?], Power to Proxies, November 22, 1826. 1 p., 6.25" x 7.75". --Jonathan Simonds and J. H. Thayer, Manuscript Document Signed, Report of Audit of Accounts of William B. Bradford, Treasurer, November 12, 1828. 2 pp., 8" x 9.75". "Your Committee are compelled further to state that the late Treasurer refuses to pay over the funds of the Institution to his Successor in office, unless your committee will allow a compensation for time devoted to paying off those members who withdrew, between the 3d August & 30th Septr 1826, a claim, that your Committee consider, they were not only unauthorized to concede, But conterary likewise to the By-laws of the Institution." --Receipt for Advertising in the Boston Courier, March 16, 1832. 1 p., 6" x 3.25". --George Hallet and Prince Hawes, Partially Printed Document Signed, Bond, March 22, 1832. 1 p., 8" x 9.75". With paper seals. --Ellis Thayer and Andrew Wright, Partially Printed Document Signed, Bond, March 30, 1832. 1 p., 8" x 9.75". With paper seals. --John K. Simpson and John Rayner, Partially Printed Document Signed, Bond, March 4, 1842. 1 p., 8" x 9.75". With paper seals. --Isaac Waters and Moses Bass, Manuscript Document Signed, Audit of Treasurer's Accounts, February 10, 1847. 1 p., 10" x 16". --Receipt for Advertising in the Boston Daily Advertiser, February 16, 1875. 1 p., 8" x 3.375". --William Parkman, Autograph Document Signed, Report of purchase of ten shares of Boston and Maine Railroad Corporation, September 29, 1891. 2 pp., 8.5" x 10.5". --Manuscript Document, Resolution on Death of John W. Cumings, March 4, 1892. 2 pp., 8" x 10". "His long service in the management of our Institution made his relation with its members a very close one and endeared him to all our hearts. In losing him we have lost a wise adviser and a warm friend." --A. H. Quincy, Manuscript Document Signed, Report and Proposed Resolution, n.d. 1 p., 8.375" x 11.75". --Abstract of payment of shares, n.d. 1 p., 8" x 5.75". --Manuscript Document, "Abstract return of Original Subscribers No. 2," n.d. 1 p., 11.5" x 8.25". --"Report of Geo. Blake & James A. Wells" on newspapers, n.d. 1 p., 4.5" x 7.875". --List of names, n.d. 3 pp., 7.785" x 9.75".   Henry Dearborn (1751-1829) was born in New Hampshire and studied medicine with a doctor in Portsmouth before opening his own practice in Nottingham, New Hampshire in 1772. In 1775, he fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill as a captain in the 1st New Hampshire Infantry. He was captured during the Battle of Quebec at the end of 1775 and was released on parole in May 1776 but not exchanged until March 1777. He fought at Ticonderoga and in the Saratoga campaign. He joined General George Washington's main army at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, as a lieutenant colonel. Dearborn joined Washington's staff in 1781 as deputy quartermaster general and commanded the 1st New Hampshire at the Battle of Yorktown with the rank of colonel. He was discharged from the Continental Army in June 1783 and settled in Maine. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives as a Democratic-Republican from the District of Maine (then part of Massachusetts) from 1793 to 1797. In 1801, President Thomas Jefferson appointed Dearborn as Secretary of War, a post he held until March 1809. President James Madison appointed him as collector of the port of Boston, a position Dearborn held from March 1809 to January 1812, when he became the Commanding General of the U.S. Army. After mediocre service in the War of 1812 on the northern frontier with Canada, Dearborn was discharged from the army in June 1815. In 1818, Dearborn ran for Governor of Massachusetts, but his article criticizing Israel Putnam's performance at the Battle of Bunker Hill sparked a long-lasting controversy that harmed his campaign in a largely Federalist state. The Senate rejected Madison's nomination of Dearborn for Secretary of War, and Dearborn served as minister to Portugal from May 1822 to June 1824. He then retired to his home in Massachusetts. Dearborn married three times—to Mary Bartlett in 1771, to Dorcas Marble in 1780, and to Sarah Bowdoin, widow of James Bowdoin, in 1813.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
George Washington Signed Important Military Letter

George Washington Signed Important Military Letter, Fantastic Content

Washington George George Washington Signed Important Military Letter, Fantastic Content   George Washington single page letter signed, "G: Washington". Washington also wrote in his own hand "BGenl Glover".  Dated "Headquarters [Newburgh, New York],  September 23, 1782".  The letter is written by Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., first comptroller of the treasury and first aide-de-camp to Washington. 7.75" x 12.75". Lightly toned, verso silked. Small separation along folds. On the verso, another hand has drawn a map with the caption, "plan of a house / 43, by 40 feet". It is possible that this is General Glover's house, into which he had moved when he retired (and which coincided with the  writing of this letter). Matted with a lovely portrait of Washington to a complete size of 23" x 18.5".   Letter is shown in full below:   "I have received your letter of the 24th of August. In the present State of the Army, and the Difficulty attend[in]g the Recruit[in]g Service in the States, it is impossible for me to comply with your request for discharging your two Servants,  Soldiers in the Massachu[set]ts Line. Neither, for the same reasons, can I consent to their remain[in]g longer out of Service. You will therefore please to order them immediately to join their Regiments, or send on two others of equal goodness -- and to the Acceptance of the muster[in]g Officer in your State, as Substitutes, to take their places....I  am  Sir / Your most obe Servt-- Go Washington"   Verso in another hand has a sketch with the note "Plan of our house / 48 by 40 feet" Perhaps these were early considerations for Mount Vernon…   By 1782, Washington was faced with several problems, some of which are reflected in this letter. Individual states who felt the war had come to an end, ignored sending their financial quotas which were necessary for the support of the military sector. However, the fighting had not subsided, and the situation was compounded by the desertion of soldiers and resignation of officers because of poor rations, lack of pay, and reinforcements that rarely came. "The states now became more supine than before, and Washington's urgent pleas for exertion and his arguments for the necessity of continued effort had small effect. ... [And] he was compelled to possess his soul in patience while his countrymen indulged in an orgy of profiteering, even to the extent of carrying on clandestine trade with the British, as they had done at the beginning of the struggle. It was impossible for Washington to stop these things; they were civil matters to be handled by Congress and the states, but very little was done by either. He was certain the war  was not yet over. The King's speech at the opening of Parliament ... showed little sign of  yielding and the war continued for two dreary years.... Though the enemy was reduced to inactivity through Washington's efforts, domestic conditions were slowly going from bad to worse. The army more dissatisfied than ever from neglect and chronic lack of pay, showed an unrest which increased Washington's anxiety daily...."   Of additional interest was the direct reference made to not being able to comply with the discharge of two servants. Prior to the revolution, many free African Americans supported the anti-British cause, (most famously Crispus Attaucks), believed to be the first person killed at the Boston Massacre. At the time of the American Revolution, some blacks had already enlisted as Minutemen. Both free and enslaved Africans had served in private militias, especially in the North, defending their villages against attacks by Native Americans. In March 1775, the Continental Congress assigned units of the Massachusetts Militia as Minutemen. They were under orders to become activated if the British troops in Boston took the offensive. Peter Salem, who had been freed by his owner to join the Framingham militia, was one of the blacks in the military. He served for seven years. In the Revolutionary War, slave owners often let their slaves enlist in the war with promises of freedom, but many were put back into slavery after the conclusion of the war.   In April 1775, at Lexington and Concord, blacks responded to the call and fought with Patriot forces. Prince Estabrook was wounded some time during the fighting on 19 April, probably at Lexington and today a memorial in his name stands at Lexington in recognition of him for being the first black combatant of the American Revolution and for representing the thousands of slaves who fought for their country even though their own freedom was not afforded to their people until almost a hundred years later. The Battle of Bunker Hill also had African-American soldiers fighting along with white Patriots.  Many African Americans, both enslaved and free, wanted to join with the Patriots. They believed that they would achieve freedom or expand their civil rights. In addition to the role of soldier, blacks also served as guides, messengers, and spies. American states had to meet quotas of troops for the new Continental Army, and New England regiments recruited black slaves by promising freedom to those who served in the Continental Army. During the course of the war, about one-fifth of the northern army was black. At the Siege of Yorktown in 1781, it was estimated the American army to be about one-quarter black.   General John Glover, the recipient of this letter, played a significant role during the American Revolution. He defended the American position in New York City in 1776 by his command of vessels transporting troops from Long Island. He also manned the boats and led the advance on Trenton, thereby making Washington's famous crossing of the Delaware possible by keeping the enemy on land; stopped Burgoyne's offensive; and attempted to recapture Rhode Island.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Zachary Taylor Rejects Soldier for "Loss of Penis"

Zachary Taylor Rejects Soldier for “Loss of Penis”

Taylor Zachary Zachary Taylor Rejects Soldier for "Loss of Penis"   Single page manuscript document signed, 8" x 10". Dated "June 13, 1833", and boldly signed by future President Zachary Taylor as "J. Taylor, Col / 1st Infy Comdg". Counter signed by R.C. Wood, and Thomas Barker. Lightly toned, with a mounting stain running along the extreme left edge.   An incredibly illuminating military rejection document in which three "Recruits" from 1833 are individually examined by the military surgeon. Two of which are rejected for medical reasons revolving around  Tuberculosis (phthisis pulmonalis, consumption, and scrofulous), however one recruit was determined to be unfit for military duty, under the disability termed "Loss of Penis". The term "Loss of Penis" can be most anything from the actual loss of the "appendage" to the lack of the organ's functional ability (in various forms). The military surgeon described the situation as "loss of Penis which disability in the opinion of the board existed previous to his Enlistment".   Aside from making one think about the "Why???", upon further review with today's military requirements and disqualifications one discovers that there is quite an extensive list of disqualifiers that revolve around reproductive dysfunction, including alterations and/or congenital abnormalities for both men and woman.  A point which is extremely pertinent for today's transgender, and gender fluid debates regarding enlisting in the military. For more information on the various conditions that prevent qualifying, one can visit the military.com website.   The letter is shown in part below:   "Upon the examination of the Recruits at Fort Crawford, June 13, 1833 three men rejected by asst Surgeon R.C. Wood…   James Kavenagh Rejected for scrofulous tumours … Samuel Williams Rejected for Phthisis Pulmonalis which disease may have been produced by exposure + fatigue … John Forrester Rejected for loss of Penis which disability in the opinion of the board existed previous to his Enlistment ...   The last sentence is equally perplexing as it also gives one pause as to how the doctor would KNOW enough to even make such a comment as to when (or how) the person incurred his Penis disability? (And needless to say we feel deep regret that Mr. Forrester now has his condition put out for public awareness on the Internet)   A most unique military letter signed by future president Zachary Taylor.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
J.E.B. Stuart Original Patent Model and Archive

J.E.B. Stuart Original Patent Model and Archive

Stuart James J.E.B. Stuart Original Patent Model and Archive   J.E.B. Stuart archive including his original patent model and patent for his famous sword hanger   J.E.B. Stuart was a household name and among the best known of all Confederate commanders. His cavalry exploits during the Civil War and his prior service on the Plains and Bleeding Kansas are well known among military historians. Few know however, that J.E.B Stuart designed and patented an innovative sword hanger just prior to the war. This lot contains:   1) His original submitted brass working model along with the original patent office tag, patent number 25, 264 "J.E.B. STUART / METHOD OF ATTACHING / SABERS & BELTS / PATENTED OCT. 4TH / 1859". CONDITION: Fine overall as framed in 32? x 24? shadowbox. Brass hanger measures 5? x 3?. The original 3? x 3? patent card is also very good to fine with dark easily discerned text with light soiling. Frame also contains 7? x 10? printed US Patent Office description and drawing of patented device, along with a facsimile photograph of Stuart.   2) 16? x 10-1/2? single page printed circular describing the belt. CONDITION: Cracked at folds with some paper loss along central fold.   3) A single page full drawing of the device, on verso full page ALS, Ft Riley, Kansas Territory, January 25, 1860 by Stuart to State of Virginia encouraging purchase of his device for state troops since the US government had adopted it. Dated 'January 25, 1860", and signed by James Ewell Brown Stuart as "J.E.B. Stuart". 8.25" x 10.5" CONDITION: Cracked at folds with some paper loss along central fold. Scotch tape stains on same central fold darkening paper where tape removed. Chipping and brown edges at top and bottom barely effecting text. Stuart signature panel is fine. Ink and print all dark and easily discerned.   James Ewell Brown Stuart (1833-1864), known to his friends as J.E.B., graduated from West Point in 1854. He was among the best American officers serving in Texas and Kansas with the US Army prior to the Civil War and was a participant in the capture of John Brown at Harper's Ferry. He resigned his commission in the U.S. Army when the war began and distinguished himself in numerous battles. As Confederate commander, Stuart would be killed at the Battle of Yellow Tavern, May 12, 1864 at the age of 31 by a member of Custer's Michigan Cavalry Brigade. Robert E. Lee now truly lost his eyes and ears for the Army of Northern Virginia. This is an incredible archive concerning the most iconic of American cavalry commanders, none better known than possibly George Armstrong Custer. It is amazing that Stuart's patented sword hanger was rare during the Civil War but saw expanded used after the Civil War in the Indian Wars being manufactured at the Frankford Arsenal almost exactly in the same configuration he designed.   PROVENANCE: Patent Model sold at auction by US Patent Office to O. Rundle Gilbert, Garrison, New York; Cliff Peterson, Beverly Hills, CA; Henry Truslow Collection, Sunbury, PA.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Oscar Straus ALS

Oscar Straus ALS, First Jewish Cabinet Member

Straus Oscar Oscar Strauss ALS, First Jewish Cabinet Member OSCAR S. STRAUS, Autograph Letter Signed, to Isidor Lewi, September 12, 1893. On "United States Hotel" stationery. 1 p., 5.75" x 9".  Expected folds; small tear on one fold affecting one word; very good.   This brief letter by Oscar Straus, later Secretary of Commerce and Labor under President Theodore Roosevelt, thanks Isidor Lewi for clippings of his editorials and promises to look for opportunities for Lewi.   Complete Transcript       "Saratoga Springs, N. Y., Sep 12, 1893 Dear Mr Lewi  Today I received the editorial clipping from the Albany Evening Journal, which evidently comes from your friendly pen. The papers you wrote to me some six days ago you had mailed, never reached me. The clerk was on the watch for them. You see I am here yet. I am taking the waters with much benefit and shall stay until Saturday morning.  I will bear in mind your wish and shall find pleasure in informing you should a suitable place present itself to my notice.       Very truly yours       Oscar S. Straus Mr Isidor Lewi"   Oscar S. Straus (1850-1926) was born in Otterberg, Germany, into a Jewish family that emigrated to the United States and settled in central Georgia. After the Civil War, Straus moved to New York City and graduated from Columbia College in 1871 and Columbia Law School in 1873. He practiced law until 1881 and then became a merchant. In 1882, he married Sarah Lavanburg, and they had three children. He served as U.S. Minister to the Ottoman Empire from 1887 to 1889 and again from 1898 to 1899. In 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt appointed Straus as the United States Secretary of Commerce and Labor, the first Jewish member of a presidential cabinet. Straus left the position in 1909, when William Howard Taft became president and again served as U.S. Minister to the Ottoman Empire from 1909 to 1910.   Isidor Lewi (1850-1939) was born in Albany, New York, the son of a Jewish physician who had fled the Austrian Empire during the 1848 revolutions, and his wife, the daughter of a German theologian. Lewi graduated from the Albany Academy and began his career as a journalist with Albany newspapers. In 1891, he moved to New York City and joined the staff of The New York Tribune. Beginning as a reporter, he became a special writer, copy editor, and contributor to the editorial page. He reported military preparations for the Spanish-American War in 1898, and was in Austria when World War I began, where he reported on the mobilization of the Austrian army and the plight of Americans stranded in Austria. He married widow Emita Peninnah May Lewi (Wolff)(1851-1931) in 1903. Deeply concerned about Jewish interests, he edited The New Era, a monthly magazine devoted to Judaism, from 1904 until near his death.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
William Jennings $40 Million Claims Marvelous Certificate

William Jennings $40 Million Claims Marvelous Certificate

Stocks and Bonds William Jennings $40 Million Claims Marvelous Certificate   [WILLIAM JENNINGS.] Blank Printed Stock Certificate, ca. 1850, Philadelphia. 1 p., 12.5" x 6.5" Edge tears on left where it was removed from binding.   This marvelous engraved certificate depicts a miserly old man leaving behind an enormous safe guarded by a dog, while a family arrives with a key to open it. Although unfilled, certificates like this one promised shares in the inheritance based on how much the individual contributed to legal fees.   Excerpts "The Estate of William Jennings, Esq. of Acton Place, London / Estimated at $40,000,000 in 1850." "By authority of a Convention of the heirs of WM. JENNINGS, Deceased, now resident in the United States of America, and convened to raise funds and organize proceedings for the recovery of the vast Estates of said decedant—this Certificate of Loan declares that there is due to ________________ or order the sum of ________________ Dollars, payable out of the proceeds first realized from said Estate."   When William Jennens/Jennings died without a will in 1798, the Court of Chancery named George Augustus William Curzon, a descendent of his aunt, as his heir. Curzon's mother administered the estate for her son, but he died young, so she passed the estate to her second son, Richard William Penn Curzon (1796-1870), but some alleged that he was the illegitimate son of an unmarried woman named Anne Oake. The courts divided Jennens's personal property among several relatives, but subsequent legal proceedings regarding the estate continued until 1915 without reaching a conclusion. The litigation eventually exhausted through legal fees the Jennens inheritance of approximately £2 million.   However, William Jennens' uncle and namesake William Jennens (b. 1676) was a British army officer in the American Indian Wars. If he was the William Jennings who married Mary Jane Pulliam, then many Americans may also have been co-heirs. Another story is that John Addis married the only daughter of Mary Jennings Shea, the sister of William Jennens/Jennings, and they had six children before his death in Philadelphia in 1810. In 1850, two conventions were held in the United States to take the necessary steps to recover the estate. Organizers solicited every descendant of anybody named "Jennings." Raising funds for litigation began in England, but many alleged relatives in the United States and even unrelated people named "Jennings" sent money in hopes of sharing in the inheritance. Newspapers in the 1850s occasionally reported that a certain family or families had been discovered to be the legal heirs of Jennens/Jennings, and rumors swirled in England as well.   The convoluted nature of this case that continued for more than a century may have inspired Charles Dickens, who included the ongoing case of Jarndyce v. Jarndyce as a key plot device in his "Bleak House", published serially in 1852 and 1853.   William Jennens/Jennings (1701-1798) was born to Anne Guidott and Robert Jennens, who were married in Westminster Abbey in 1700. Robert Jennens was an aide-de-camp to John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. William Jennens's godfather was King William III (1650-1702). Robert Jennens bought Acton Place in 1708 and remodeled it until his death in 1725. William Jennens lived in unfurnished rooms in the basement with his servants and dogs and avoided social conduct. He conducted business in London, and he developed a reputation as a miser while he amassed his fortune. He died unmarried and without a will and was described as the richest man in Great Britain at the time of his death.   James H. Spencer (1824-1887) was a physician in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. According to this certificate, he was the chairman of the executive committee of a Convention to initiate legal proceedings for the recovery of the estate for the proper American heirs.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
Myles Standish British Relatives

Myles Standish British Relatives

Standish Myles Myles Standish British Relatives   [MYLES STANDISH.] Thomas Morris, Manuscript Document Signed, June 1, 1705. 2 pp., 8" x 12.75". Expected folds; some dirt on outside panels; signature seal intact.   In this attractive manuscript, Thomas Morris agrees to Sir Thomas Standish's offer of £50 to drop all of his legal cases against Standish except for two still in dispute. Standish was the 2nd Baronet of Duxbury, the possible birthplace of Mayflower leader Myles Standish.   Excerpt "Memorandum is this day covenanted concluded and agreed by and between Sir Thomas Standish of Duxbury pallatine in the County of Lancaster Esq. Barronett on the one parte and Thomas Morris of [?y] in the said County [?] on the other parte That the said Sir Thomas Standish shall pay or cause to be paid the Sume of fifty pounds unto Mr. Robert Leigh of Chorley for the use of the said Thomas Morris in three months after Date hereof And that the said Thomas Morris in consideration thereof shall stay all proceedings either att law or in Equity upon account of any Court or [?] given to him the said Thomas Morris to save him [?] from any bond or bonds in which he was bound as Security with Sir Richard Standish also father of the said Sir Thomas Standish and to accept the said fifty pounds in full satisfaction of all [?tions] thereupon in full of all accounts save and except one bond [?] for payment of one hundred and fifty pounds to Mr [?] of [?] being now in doubt whether the same be the proper debt of the said Sir Richard Standish or of Christopher Banistor late of the Bancke in the said County Esqr. and one other bond payable to Thomas Logh of Leigh...."   The ancestry of Myles Standish (c. 1584-1656), the English military officer whom the Pilgrims hired as their military adviser for Plymouth Colony, is obscure. He accompanied the Pilgrims on the Mayflower in 1620 and played a leading role in the defense and administration of the Plymouth Colony. He served as the commander of the Plymouth Colony from 1621 until his death. He married twice and had seven children with his second wife.   Standish was likely from Lancashire and may even have been born at the Duxbury manor that Thomas Standish later owned. The precise relationship between Myles Standish and Thomas Standish cannot be determined.   Thomas Standish (1678-1756) was the son of Richard Standish, a Whig Member of Parliament for Wigan. Thomas Standish was the 2nd Baronet of Duxbury, in Lancaster, a baronetcy created for his father in 1677. In 1711, Thomas Standish was appointed High Sheriff of Lancashire. His son Thomas Standish (1703-1756) was the 3rd Baronet of Duxbury.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.