University Archives

  • Showing all 17 results

Captain George S. Patton Writes to His Father about the New Tank School He is Creating in France

Captain George S. Patton Writes to His Father about the New Tank School He is Creating in France

GEORGE S. PATTON JR., Autograph Letter Initialed, to his father, George S. Patton, January 10, 1918, [Langres, France]. 1 p., 8.25" x 10.625". Expected folds; very good.Complete Transcript Jan 10 18Dear Papa: I hope you have by now decided to go to Thomasville and have started. I also hope that you come over here if you are coming do it before March as we will all be too busy then. I have been up at Arras so have not had a chance to write for a few days the ground there is badly cut up by the shells and it is very cold still it might have been worse. I have 19 officers in my school now and must do a lot of building this month. I hate going about in the snow. I must stop now Much loveG S PHistorical BackgroundIn a letter a month earlier, Patton also urged his mother and sister "Nita" to go to Thomasville, Georgia, where his in-laws and many other northern industrialists had winter homes. His mother at least did visit Thomasville, and Patton's father-in-law Frederick Ayer (1822-1918) died there on March 14, 1918, at age 95. Three weeks later, Beatrice Patton's mother Ellen Barrows Banning Ayer (1853-1918) died at their home in Massachusetts.Arras is a town in northern France some thirty miles south of the border with Belgium. It had been the sight of a major battle in April-May 1917, in which troops of the British Empire made significant gains in the first two days, followed by extensive losses and no real strategic impact. British casualties exceed 150,000, while Germans suffered as many as 130,000 casualties. For most of the war, Arras remained under Allied control but was fewer than ten miles from the front line. By the end of the war, the city was so heavily damaged that three quarters had to be rebuilt.In mid-October, Patton was hospitalized in Chaumont for jaundice. While at the hospital, he shared a room with Col. Fox Conner (1874-1951), Pershing's Assistant Inspector General, and "talked Tank with him." The next day, Patton was told that General James W. McAndrew (1862-1922) wanted to start a Tank school and asked Patton if he was interested in commanding it. Patton agreed but remained in the hospital until November 3. On November 4, Patton wrote in his diary regarding the tank school: "I did not sleep a bit that night and decided to try the Tanks as it aperes the way to high command if I make a go of it."On November 10, 1917, Patton became the commanding officer of the AEF Light Tank School. First, he had to find land, students, supplies, and tanks. In February 1918, he established the school in Bourg, five miles south of Langres, France. Lacking tanks, the school began with plywood mockups. Not until late March 1918 did the school receive its first French-built Renault FT light tanks. Patton and his officers also had to develop tactics for using the tanks in battle.Patton and his mechanized cavalry did not see combat until half a year later. In August 1918, he was given command of the 1st Provisional Tank Brigade. As part of Colonel Samuel Rockenbach's Tank Corps in mid-September 1918, Patton commanded 144 French-built Renault FT light tanks manned by Americans at the Battle of Saint-Mihiel in the first American use of tanks in combat. Saint-Mihiel is a town in northeastern France, held by the Germans since 1914. The attack on Saint-Mihiel, if successful, might open an opportunity to attack the German railroad center in Metz, France, thirty miles to the northeast of Saint-Mihiel. The offensive, involving the American Expeditionary Force and 110,000 French troops as well as 275 French tanks, was successful in driving back the German salient from Saint-Mihiel and the capture of 15,000 German prisoners. However, the muddy roads prevented food supplies and artillery from keeping pace with the advance, and the operation stalled before reaching Metz. On the morning of September 26, at the beginning of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Patton was wounded while getting tanks forward and later received the Distinguished Service Cross for "extraordinary heroism" that day.George S. Patton Jr. (1885-1945) was born in California and educated at the Virginia Military Institute and United States Military Academy, from which he graduated in 1909. An avid horseback rider, he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the cavalry. In 1910, he married Beatrice Banning Ayer (1886-1953), the daughter of a wealthy Boston businessman. He competed in the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden, in the modern pentathlon, where he finished fifth behind four Swedes. He then traveled to France, where he learned fencing techniques. Returning to the United States, he redesigned cavalry saber combat doctrine and designed a new sword. In 1915 and 1916, Patton participated in the Pancho Villa Expedition in Mexico as Commander John J. Pershing's aide. In the spring of 1917, he accompanied Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Force in World War I, to Europe. Patton took an interest in tanks and was soon training crews to operate them. By 1918, he was in command of a tank brigade. After World War I, he served in various army posts and began to develop the methods of mechanized warfare. At the beginning of World War II, Patton worked to develop and train armored divisions in the army. In the summer of 1942, he commanded the Western Task Force in the Allied invasion of French North Africa. He commanded the Seventh U.S. Army in the successful invasion of Sicily in July 1943. After the Normandy invasion of June 1944, Patton's Third Army sailed to France and formed on the extreme right of Allied land forces. Through speed and aggressive offensive action, the Third Army continuously pressed retreating German forces until it ran out of fuel near Metz in northeastern France at the end of August. When the German army counterattacked in the battle of the Bulge in mid-December 1944, Patton's ability to reposition six full divisions to relieve besieged Allied forces in Bastogne was one of the most remarkable achievements of the war. As the Germans retreated, Patton's Third Army advanced, killing, wounding, or capturing 240,000 German soldiers in seven weeks before crossing the Rhine on March 22. After the end of the war in Europe, Patton hoped for a command in the Pacific but after a visit to the United States returned to Europe for occupation duty in Bavaria. In December 1945, the car in which he was riding collided with an American army truck at low speed, but Patton hit his head on a glass partition, breaking his neck and paralyzing him. He died twelve days later at a hospital in Germany. He was buried among some of his men of the Third Army in an American cemetery in Luxembourg.George Smith Patton (1856-1927), was born in Charleston, (West) Virginia. His father was Confederate colonel George Smith Patton (1833-1864), who died at the third Battle of Winchester during the Civil War. The younger Patton changed his middle name to Smith in honor of his father. He graduated from the Virginia Military Institute, studied law, and became an attorney in Lexington, Virginia. In 1877, he moved to Los Angeles, California, where in 1884, he married Ruth Wilson (1861-1928). They settled at Lake Vineyard, California, where they raised produce and operated a winery. In 1902, he began working for Henry E. Huntington's real estate development company, and he served as the first mayor of San Marino from 1913 to April 1922 and again from October 1922 to 1924. They had two children, George S. Patton Jr. and Anne Wilson Patton (1887-1971).WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
Einstein Appreciates a Birthday Gifts that Causes Him to Recall – and Sketch – a Childhood Dexterity Game

Einstein Appreciates a Birthday Gifts that Causes Him to Recall – and Sketch – a Childhood Dexterity Game, ‘Pigs into the Sty’

Einstein Appreciates a Birthday Gifts that Causes Him to Recall – and Sketch – a Childhood Dexterity Game, 'Pigs into the Sty'"What you sent me hit a weak spot of mine, which, as we all know, is a true womanly skill…. The game of patience with the little balls is a simplification of one that was popular in my childhood, called 'Pigs into the Sty.' It went like this...."Einstein generally disliked being the center of attention, and was relatively uncomfortable with birthday celebrations. In 1944, in a New York Times interview, he asked, "What is there to celebrate? Birthdays are automatic things. Anyway, birthdays are for children." He described his 75th birthday as "a natural disaster, a shower of paper full of flattery under which one almost drowned." Despite that, Mrs. Damann clearly had a knack for giving perfect meaningful gifts.ALBERT EINSTEIN, Autograph Letter Signed, to Mrs. Damann, Princeton, March 22, 1947. In German. 1 p., 8¼ x 9¼ in., on lightly embossed "A Einstein" letterhead with his Mercer. St, Princeton, New Jersey address. Signed by Einstein as "A. Einstein". Professionally removed from old board and conservedComplete Translation22 March 47Dear Mrs. Damann,It was sweet of you to think of me on my birthday. What you sent me hit a weak spot of mine, which, as we all know, is a true womanly skill. Aside from that, I know that these little things are not so easy to come by these days. The game of patience with the little balls is a simplification of one that was popular in my childhood, called 'Pigs into the Sty.' It went like this:I think I drew in one too many walls; I guess it was only two. The thing with the pieced-together ball is a masterwork. I wonder who invented it.Thank you so much.Yours, A. Einstein"Pigs into the Sty," a handheld game composed of a round cardboard box with four concentric rings, challenged players to get four clay balls ("pigs") from the outer ring to the center of the maze through small openings in each successive ring. The simple game helped children develop concentration, determination, and dexterity.Despite Einstein's aversion to birthdays, Mrs. Damann again presented him with gifts for his birthday in 1950. He wrote her two letters in March of that year, thanking her especially for the gift of a kaleidoscope. We are offering both of those letters as well.Albert Einstein (1879-1955) was born on March 14 (now known as Pi Day), in the Kingdom of Wurttemberg in the German Empire to non-observant Ashkenazi Jewish parents. In 1894, his family moved to Italy. Einstein went to Switzerland to finish his secondary schooling, and graduated from the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zürich in 1900.When his sister Maja Winteler-Einstein later described his childhood, she recalled, "He filled his leisure time by working on puzzles, doing fretsaw work, and erecting complicated structures with the well-known 'Anker' building set, but his favorite was building many-storied houses of cards."In 1903, he married Mileva Maric (1875-1948), with whom he had two sons. In 1919, they divorced and he married his cousin Elsa Löwenthal.In 1905, he received a Ph.D. from the University of Zürich and published his revolutionary paper on Special Relativity, including the mass–energy equivalence formula, E = mc2.In 1915, Einstein's General Theory of Relativity introduced the idea that gravity can be explained as the warping of four-dimensional spacetime. Many physicists doubted this approach until 1919, when a group of British astronomers confirmed the theory by measuring the bending of starlight grazing the sun during a solar eclipse.In 1922, the forgetful genius found himself in a hotel in Tokyo without money to tip a messenger who delivered the telegram informing Einstein that he had been awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the photoelectric effect. Instead, he gave the boy a tip in the form of a note that he predicted would one day be worth far more: "A calm and modest life brings more happiness than the pursuit of success combined with constant restlessness. Albert Einstein." That note was dubbed his "Theory of Happiness" when it sold at auction in October 2017 for $1,560,000.Ruth Edith Dammann (b. 1901) was born in Berlin, Germany, into a Jewish family. In 1937 she immigrated to New York from Le Havre, France, aboard the S.S. Normandie. She was listed as a single house worker who spoke German and Yiddish. She apparently returned to Europe, and lived in Paris, France, for a time. In June 1941, she again immigrated to New York from Lisbon, Portugal, on the SS Mouzinho, but this time without a visa. She was listed as divorced with an occupation of "Artistic Flowers." The board of special inquiry initially denied her entrance, but she appealed. In September 1941, she was admitted for six months, under Section 3(2) of the Immigration Act of 1924, "the Dept of State having waived passport and passport visa requirements."Einstein sent this letter to Dammann in care of Café Old Europe at 2182 Broadway in New York City. William Kanter, who had operated Café New York in Vienna before the paramilitary Sturmabteilung forced its closure in 1933, reopened Café Old Europe in November 1945. It was an "exile café" that became an "international social center," especially for displaced Austrian and German Jews, with dining, dancing, and entertainment.Einstein is so pleased with the gift of a kaleidoscope that he writes a second thank you note"I have got to write to you again to let you know just how much I am enjoying the kaleidoscope. It always sits on my table and I look into it again and again as I sit and work. You really hit the bull's eye with it!"Einstein generally disliked being the center of attention, and was relatively uncomfortable with birthday celebrations. In 1944, in a New York Times interview, he asked, "What is there to celebrate? Birthdays are automatic things. Anyway, birthdays are for children." He described his 75th birthday as "a natural disaster, a shower of paper full of flattery under which one almost drowned." Despite that, Mrs. Damann clearly had a knack for giving perfect meaningful gifts.WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Apollo 11 Armstrong

Apollo 11 Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collins Signed Eagle Descent Photo, Probably the Finest Known With Zarelli LOA

Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins Signed Apollo 11 Eagle Descent Photo, With LOA A stunning photo of the spidery Lunar Module "Eagle" after undocking from the Command Module and during its descent. Boldly SIGNED by all three astronauts on the mat below the photo, "Neil Armstrong", "Buzz Aldrin', and "Michael Collins". Both the mat and the photo are in fine condition with blue marks to right edge on mat, and upper left corner edgewear. Photo size 13.75" x 10.75". Mat size 20" x 16" Accompanied by a Letter Of Authenticity for all three signatures by Steve Zarelli of Zarelli's Space Authentication. Superb presentation! From the collection of Elton Stepherson, one of the earliest Afro-American employees of Nasa A gripping moment in history as the Eagle had undocked from the Command Module "Columbia", and was in its troubled descent heading for the lunar surface. The residual pressure inside the tunnel that had originally connected the two spacecraft before undocking wasn't sufficiently vented, causing the Eagle to get an additional boost as it separated causing the module to be thrown off course by nearly 4 miles and leaving it with under one minute of fuel left at the time of touchdown. For interest, the mesmerizing 'hold your breath' details are described below to refresh the memory of the event which occurred nearly 50 years ago: More than 240,000 miles (370,000 km) away, in low orbit around the Moon, Armstrong and Aldrin undocked their spidery lunar module, Eagle, from the command and service module, Columbia, and began their Powered Descent toward the surface. For the first 26 seconds, as Eagle's descent engine burned, Armstrong kept it at 10percent of its rated thrust, producing a gentle acceleration which enabled the computer to gimbal it and ensure that the thrust was directed precisely through the center of mass, before going full-throttle. Flying with the engine bell facing the direction of travel and the windows toward the surface, he noticed that they were coming in "long"—they flew over the crater Maskelyne W a few seconds early, for example—and so were likely to overfly their intended landing site. After the flight, it would be judged that very small residual pressures in the tunnel between Eagle and Columbia during undocking had imparted a slight radial velocity that had perturbed their trajectory. (On future flights, approval for undocking would not be granted by Mission Control until the tunnel's atmosphere had been fully vented.) To Armstrong, however, it really did not matter on the first landing attempt; as he told his biographer, James Hansen inFirst Man, "I didn't particularly care where we landed, as long as it was a decent area that wasn't dangerous." Four minutes into the Powered Descent, Eagle rotated "face up" so that the radar on its underside was able to acquire the lunar surface and supply data on altitude and rate-of-descent. "We needed to get the landing radar into the equation pretty soon," Armstrong told Hansen, "because Earth didn't know how close we were and we didn't want to get too close to the lunar surface before we got that radar." This showed them to be 6.3 miles (10.1 km), somewhat lower than the computer reckoned, because it was tracking theirmeanheight above the surface, rather than theiractualheight. Aldrin knew that the radar offered the most reliable calculations and planned to instruct the computer to accept that data, but he had to wait for Mission Control to verify it. When they did, he keyed a command to monitor the convergence of the two estimates as Eagle maneuvered. At this point a yellow caution light lit on the instrument panel and an alarm tone sounded. "Program alarm," called Armstrong, then glanced down to the computer display and added, "it's a 1202. Give us a reading on the 1202 program alarm." Neither he nor Aldrin had any idea which of the dozens of different alarms the 1202 represented and certainly had no time to flip through their data books to find out. Fortunately, seated in Mission Control was Steve Bales, the guidance officer and an expert on the lunar module's computer. He checked with Jack Garman, a colleague in the mission support room, and assured Gene Kranz that 1202 was an "Executive Overflow," meaning the computer was momentarily overloaded, but it would not jeopardise the landing. With typical enthusiasm, Bales yelled into his mouthpiece: "We're Go on that, Flight!" Bales' call was relayed to Armstrong by Capcom Charlie Duke—"We're Go on that alarm"—but it was not to be the end of the 1202: It flashed onto Eagle's display a further three times, but so long as it was only intermittent it did not pose a risk because the computer was able to recover. Three minutes before the scheduled touchdown on the Moon, the computer flashed another alarm: "1201." This was another form of executive overflow and was quickly cleared, with Duke telling Armstrong and Aldrin "We're Go … Same type, we're Go." For Armstrong, the alarms were little more than an irritation and, as long as everything continued to look fine, he had every intention of pressing on. However, Buzz Aldrin, in his 1989 autobiography,Men from Earth, stressed that the alarmswerea potentially serious obstacle in which "hearts shot up into throats" at Mission Control. Even Steve Bales, who quickly diagnosed the alarms and advised Kranz appropriately, had only become familiar with which of the various alarms mandated an abort, and which did not, a few days earlier. On the afternoon of 5 July 1969, the Apollo 12 backup landing crew of astronauts Dave Scott and Jim Irwin had been in the lunar module simulator in Houston, running practice descents when a 1201 alarm was thrown at Kranz's flight control team. From his seat, Steve Bales could only discern that, although everythinglookedokay with the hardware, there wassomethingamiss with the computer. He advised an abort and Kranz made the call. Scott punched the Abort Stage button and completed a successful return to lunar orbit, but later that evening Bales and Kranz came under fire from the simulation supervisor who had thrown the problem at them. Kranz was criticized on two counts: for ordering an abort when it was not needed (if the guidance system wasworking, if the thrusters wereworking, if the descent engine's performance wasgood,and if the astronauts' displays wereworking, he should have pressed on) and for violating a basic rule of Mission Control, that flight directors had to havetwoindependent cues before calling an abort. It was a tough, but valuable lesson. By the time Apollo 11 lifted off, Bales had drawn up a list of those program alarms which would make an abort mandatory and those which would not. Neither 1201 nor 1202 were on his list. When the first alarm flashed up, Charlie Duke—who had been sitting at the Capcom's console during the 5 July simulation—and backroom expert Granville Paules instantly recognized it as "the same one we had in training." Gene Kranz did not want to be stampeded into an abort now that they were flying the mission for real. On the other hand, if the alarms continued, they could bring Eagle's computer grinding to a halt and make an abort unavoidable. By the time the 1201 alarm appeared, Eagle was already descending below 5,000 feet (1,500 meters) and had performed the "pitch-over" maneuver and was now flying tilted backward, about 20 degrees off-vertical. The astronauts could now "see" the lunar terrain spread out before them. After polling his team, Kranz received a collective "Go for Landing," a message which Duke now passed on to Armstrong and Aldrin. Yet the furore over the program alarms meant that it was another minute or so, not until a few seconds after 3:15 p.m. CDT, that Armstrong had chance to look at the surface … and behold a particularly nasty sight: the near slope of a vast crater, as big as a football field, its hinterland dotted with boulders the size of small cars. At first, he considered landing "short" of the crater—later dubbed "West Crater"—then picking a spot somewhere amidst the boulders, although the risk of touching down on a slope or in a tight place quickly changed his mind. At an altitude of around 500 feet (150 meters), a little higher than he had intended, Armstrong selected the semi-automatic mode that would enable him to control attitude and horizontal velocity, while the computer operated the throttle. He pitched Eagle almost upright in order to direct virtually all of its thrust downward and slow the rate of descent, then selected "Attitude Hold" and let Eagle fly a shallow trajectory over the obstacles. As soon as he was clear, he began to seek a suitable location to land. Drawing closer now, and dropping below 200 feet (60 meters), Armstrong began to discern lunar dust, kicked up by the descent engine, obscuring the surface. The dust, he told James Hansen, was not a "normal" cloud of dust, like those encountered in the high desert on Earth, but effectively a "blanket"—asheetof moving particulates which essentially wiped out visibility, apart from several boulders poking through it. Moving almost horizontally, the dust "did not billow up at all; it just moved out and away in an almost radial sheet." In Mission Control, Kranz's team knew that Armstrong had intervened early, but they did not yet knowwhy; they could not have known about the yawning crater and the forbidding field of boulders. "The partnership," between Mission Control and the astronauts, wrote Andrew Chaikin in his 1994 bookA Man on the Moon, "had all but dissolved." In this final phase, everyone on Earth had to understand that Armstrong, the man in command, was now running the mission. Charlie Duke called to Kranz: "I think we'd better be quiet!" "Rog," agreed the flight director. "The only call-outs from now on will be fuel." Gradually, it seemed, the situation improved and Armstrong began arresting Eagle's forward and sideways motion with the thrusters; he intended to land in the first clear spot that he could find. He was virtually silent in those final minutes, the only voice coming from Aldrin, who called out a steady stream of altitudes and velocity components to guide Armstrong—and a tense, listening world—down. "Once I got below 50 feet," Armstrong told Hansen, "even though we were running out of fuel, I thought we'd be all right. I felt the lander could stand the impact … I didn'twantto drop fromthatheight, but once I got below 50 feet I felt pretty confident we would be all right." The fuel was of primary concern, and at 3:16 p.m. CDT Kranz received notification that the "low-level" light had illuminated. Less than 100 feet (30 meters) above the surface, Aldrin reported "Quantity Light," indicating that only five percent of fuel remained in Eagle's descent engine. In Mission Control, a 94-second countdown started; when this countdown reached zero, the lander would have only 20 seconds left in which to either touch down on the surface or abort. "I neverdreamed," Kranz recounted years later, "that we would still be flying this close to empty." Watching the fuel gauge on his display like a hawk, lunar module control officer Bob Carlton reported that only 60 of the 94 seconds remained—an urgent report passed on to Eagle by Charlie Duke—although the astronauts were too preoccupied to respond. "They were too busy," Kranz said later. "I got the feeling they were going for broke. I had this feeling ever since they took over manual control." In Mission Control, the silence was so pervasive and so enduring that one could have heard a pin drop. Kranz crossed himself and prayed. Still, the notion that Armstrong may have been going for broke did not mean that he and Aldrin were being reckless; if they had been stilltoo highwhen the Quantity Light came on, there would have been no alternative but to abort, but at relatively low altitude it seemed safer and more prudent to press on with the landing attempt. After all, during several of his Lunar Landing Training Vehicle (LLTV) runs above Ellington Field, Texas, Armstrong had successfully touched down with less than 15 seconds of fuel in his tanks, so he was not particularly "panic-stricken" about the low levels. At 3:17:26 p.m. CDT, Aldrin called out that they were barely 20 feet above the surface and, 13 seconds later, announced "Contact Light" as one of the sensor prongs projecting below Eagle's footpads touched alien soil. Armstrong would later tell Hansen that he did not react instantaneously when the light glowed blue, thinking it to have been an anomaly and not entirely certain, thanks to the dust, that they had really touched down. As a result, he was a second or two late in shutting down the engine. Forty seconds had now passed since Charlie Duke's last call, yet post-mission analysis would reveal that—due to propellant sloshing around in the descent stage tanks and giving inaccurate readings—Eagle actually had around 45 seconds of fuel remaining. … "Shutdown!" called Armstrong, punching the Engine Stop button. Meanwhile, Aldrin began reciting each step of his post-landing checklist and they jointly took the requisite actions to shut down now-unneeded systems—"ACA out of detent, Mode controls: both auto, Descent engine command override: off, Engine arm: off." Lastly, Aldrin added, "413 is in," which told Eagle's Abort Guidance System to remember the attitude of the vehicle on the surface. Outside, the dust which had lain undisturbed for a billion years or more began to settle. The altimeter ceased flickering and the surface shuddered, then fell still. They had set down on a broad, roughly level plain. It was later determined that Armstrong landed about 4 miles (6 km) downrange of their intended spot, at co-ordinates 0.67409 degrees North by 23.47298 degrees East. The color of the surface seemed to be a mixture of ashen greys, tans, and browns and brightened into an intense, chalky white. Some nearby rocks seemed fractured or disturbed by the descent engine; Armstrong thought they looked like basalt. The surreal stillness of the scene and the silence of ages surrounded them. Inside their bulky space suits and bubble helmets, their mouths bone-dry from ingesting pure oxygen for so long, both men were breathing hard; yet they took a few seconds to grin at each other, before Armstrong keyed his mike. "Houston," he radioed, in perhaps the most electrifying statement of the 20th century, "Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed!" Charlie Duke's response was entirely appropriate for his personality, defusing with humor the enormity of what had just happened. "Roger, Tranquility, we copy you on the ground. You've got a bunch of guys about to turn blue! We're breathing again. Thanks a lot." Prior to launch Armstrong had told Duke and Aldrin that he intended to change Eagle's radio callsign to "Tranquility Base" whilst on the Moon, but it came as something of a surprise to those who didnotknow. Aldrin did not expect him to use it so soon after landing and even Duke seemed tongue-tied when he tried to pronounce it in those euphoric first seconds. In Mission Control, "euphoria" was an understatement. "The whole [room] was pandemonium," wrote Deke Slayton in his autobiography,Deke, co-authored with Michael Cassutt. "It took about 15 seconds to calm down." Around the world, the feeling was the same. Walter Cronkite was uncharacteristically speechless. Seated in the CBS studio next to former astronaut Wally Schirra, he stumbled over his words as he stammered to his audience: "Boy … Man on the Moon!" To paraphrase the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Robert Hofstadter, the first landing on the Moon may well be the only occurrence from the 20th century to be remembered clearly a thousand years from now. In Houston, the lighting of cigars, the waving of flags, the slapping of backs, and the free-flowing of tears which only Americans could produce in such copious quantities would go on long into the night. John Houbolt—the NASA engineer who advocated lunar-orbital rendezvous for Apollo—recalled Wernher von Braun turning to him, shaking his hand and saying warmly "Thank you, John." For Houbolt, being so honored by the man who created the Saturn V, it was one of the greatest compliments of his life.
Bunker Hill Monument Guestbook Signed by Visitors During Civil War

Bunker Hill Monument Guestbook Signed by Visitors During Civil War

Bunker Hill Monument Guestbook Signed by Visitors During Civil War These remarkable books contains approximately 42,000 names and original signatures of visitors to the famous Revolutionary War battle site and commemorative monument, while the nation was embroiled in the Civil War. Visitors from throughout the United States and around the world visited the monument and inscribed their names in this guestbook, from First Lady Mary Lincoln to humble privates in the Union Army and local citizens. This unique artifact juxtaposes famous people and common people, men and women, children and adults, native-born and foreign-born, as they visited this early monument to America's Revolutionary heritage when the Union it created was in peril. [CIVIL WAR.] Bunker Hill Monument Visitor's Guestbooks, 3 vols. (1) ca. May 1860-June 1862. Approx. 510 pp., 8.625" x 13.5". Lacking spine; boards rubbed and detached; first 88 pp. have faded ink; one page partially cut out, reputedly having the signature of the Prince of Wales Albert Edward (with handwritten comment, "(oh what Hawkers!) Here is where Prince Albert Edward of Wales registered his name."); succeeding page cut; two or three other pages removed, but perhaps before signatures were added.(2) June 10, 1862 – July 22, 1863, approx. 540 pp., 9" x 13.5". Lacking spine; boards rubbed; two lines removed from one page; some damage to endpapers. (3) June 4, 1864 – February 28, 1865, approx. 550 pp., 9.25" x 13.5". Spine and boards rubbed; some damage to endpapers. Among the prominent signers of / names in the guestbooks are: Edwin Emery (1836-1895), "Bowd. Coll. Brunswick Me." was an 1861 graduate of Bowdoin College who served in the 17th Maine Volunteer Infantry, rising from a private to a 2nd lieutenant. From 1877 to 1890, he was an instructor in the U.S. Revenue Marine, the forerunner of the U.S. Coast Guard Academy. Timothy Matlack Bryan Jr. (1832-1881), "Philadelphia," an 1855 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy and an officer in Massachusetts and Pennsylvania regiments during the Civil War. Elisha Hunt Rhodes (1842-1917), was an officer in the Civil War, who rose from the rank of corporal to colonel in the 2nd Rhode Island Volunteer Infantry. His wartime diary played a key role in Ken Burns's documentary The Civil War. Nathan Appleton Jr. (1843-1906), "Boston Mass," son of prominent Boston merchant and member of "The Boston Associates" Nathan Appleton (1779-1861). William Steffe (1830-1890), "Philadelphia Pa Bearer of despatches from Gen Butler," was a South Carolina native who, as a Philadelphia bookkeeper and insurance agent, created the tune for the Civil War marching song, "John Brown's Body," later used by Julia Ward Howe for her "The Battle Hymn of the Republic." George Jones (1800-1870), "Chaplain U.S. Navy," served as chaplain of Commodore Matthew Perry's expedition to Japan of 1852-1854, and as the first chaplain of the U.S. Naval Academy. Samuel T. Alexander (1836-1904), "Honolulu, Sandwich Islands [Hawaii]," was a co-founder of major agricultural and transportation businesses in the Kingdom of Hawaii. Rafael Pombo (1833-1912), "Bogota, New Granada," was a Colombian poet. Baron George D'Utassy (1827-1892), "Hungary," was a former Austrian army officer who defected to the Hungarian revolutionaries in 1848, then fled with the failure of the revolution, arriving in Canada by 1855 and in New York City in 1860. He led the Garibaldi Guard, or the 39th New York Volunteer Infantry, composed of 11 different nationalities, in the Union Army from 1861 to 1863. William W. Wheaton (1833-1891), "Detroit Mich," was a wholesale grocer and mayor of Detroit from 1868 to 1871. Charles H. Dall (1816-1886), "Calcutta E. I.," was a Unitarian minister, graduate of Harvard Divinity School, and husband from 1844 of women's rights advocate Caroline Wells Healey Dall (1822-1912). In 1855, he went alone to Calcutta, India, as the first American Unitarian foreign missionary and remained there, except for occasional visits to the United States, until his death. William Lowndes Yancey (1814-1863), "Alabama," was a journalist and politician and one of the leading "Fire-Eaters," who favored secession of the slaveholding states. He served in the Confederate Senate from 1862 to 1863. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) (1841-1910), "England," toured North America from July to November 1860. He visited Boston from October 17-20. Miles J. Fletcher (-1862), "Indianapolis, Ind." was professor of English literature at Indiana Asbury University from 1852 until 1862, and the Indiana Superintendent of Public Instruction from 1861 to 1862. Edward Payson Ripley (1845-1920), "Dorchester Mass," served as president of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway from 1895 to 1920. Mary Lincoln (1818-1882), was the First Lady of the United States from 1861 to 1865, as wife of President Abraham Lincoln. In May 1861, she traveled to Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Boston, and visited the Bunker Hill Monument on May 18, 1861. Elizabeth Todd Grimsley (1825-1895), "Springfield Ills.," was Mary Lincoln's cousin and a bridesmaid at her wedding to Abraham Lincoln in 1842. She accompanied the Lincolns to Washington in February 1861 and accompanied Mary Lincoln on her trip north in May 1861. Of the visit to Boston on that trip, she later wrote, "Through Senator Sumner, who was a warm friend and admirer of both President and Mrs. Lincoln, our coming was anticipated, and everything arranged for a charming reception at the Revere House, dinings and drives, and we met many of the most distinguished men of Boston and Harvard; saw all that could be seen in so short a time, and returned to Washington, delighted with our jaunt...." Grimsley returned to Springfield in August 1861. William Henry Letterman (1832-1881), "ΦΚΨ Philadelphia Penna," was the co-founder of Phi Kappa Psi fraternity at Jefferson College in Pennsylvania, when he was an undergraduate. He went on to receive his medical degree from Jefferson Medical College in 1856. His older brother Jonathan K. Letterman (1824-1872) served in the Army of the Potomac as a surgeon and is considered the "Father of Battlefield Medicine" for his improvements in medical organization and the treatment of casualties. Fletcher Webster (1813-1862), "Marshfield," was the oldest son of Daniel Webster and a graduate of Harvard College. He served as Chief Clerk of the State Department in his father's first term as Secretary of State (1841-1843). He commanded the 12th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry and was killed at the Second Battle of Bull Run on August 30, 1862. Chauncey M. Depew (1834-1928), "Peekskill N.Y.," was an attorney for Cornelius Vanderbilt's railroads, president of the New York Central Railroad system, and later a United States Senator from New York (1899-1911). Paul Dahlgren (1846-1876), "Washington D. C.," was the son of Rear Admiral John A. Dahlgren of the U.S. Navy, known as the "father of American naval ordnance." The younger Dahlgren died in Italy while serving as U.S. consul general in Rome. Charles K. Robinson (1835-1887), "East Saginaw, Mich.," graduated from the Ann Arbor Law School in April 1860. In 1861, President Lincoln appointed him as Receiver of the United States Land Office, a position he held until 1865. Beneath his entry on July 5, 1861, is that of "Mrs. C.K. Robinson" (Carrie M. Williams) and the notation "Married at 5 o'clock A.M. July 3d A.D. 1861 at Detroit, Mich." He operated a banking house in Michigan from 1866 to 1873, then moved to California, where he served as mayor of Oakland (1882-1883). William J. Conkling (1826-1904), "Springfield Illinois," attorney and younger brother of James C. Conkling, friend and political ally of Abraham Lincoln. Major John T. Sprague (1810-1878), "Albany N.Y.," was a veteran of the Second Seminole War, about which he published a history in 1848. He went to Texas in the spring of 1861, was arrested by the Confederates, paroled, and returned to New York to describe "The Treachery in Texas" in a paper he delivered to the New York Historical Society. He served as Adjutant General for the state of New York from August 1861 to January 1865. George M. Arth (1835-1886), "Washington City D. C.," was a bassist. He joined the U.S. Marine Band, known as "The President's Own" in August 1861. He was in the orchestra at Ford's Theater on April 14, 1865, when John Wilkes Booth assassinated Abraham Lincoln. Robert H. Sayre (1824-1907), "Pennsylvania," was the chief engineer of the Lehigh Valley Railroad from 1854, was one of the founders of the Bethlehem Iron Company, predecessor of Bethlehem Steel Corporation, and designed and constructed the company's first iron works between 1861 and 1863. Mary E. Walker, M.D. (1832-1919), "Rome N.Y.," graduated from the Syracuse Medical College in 1855 and became one of the few female physicians in the country. During the Civil War, she applied for appointment as an Army surgeon and was rejected. She worked as a volunteer surgeon until General George H. Thomas appointed her as an assistant surgeon in September 1863. She was captured by Confederates in April 1864 and spent four months in prison until exchanged for a Confederate surgeon. She received a Medal of Honor in January 1866, the only female recipient of the Medal, but it was revoked in 1917, then restored in 1977. Thomas L. Livermore (1844-1918), "Galena, Illinois," was born in Galena, Illinois, and was studying at Lombard College in Galesburg, Illinois, when the Civil War began. He enlisted in the 5th New Hampshire Volunteer Infantry in August 1861 and rose through the ranks to become colonel of the 18th New Hampshire by the end of the war. He practiced law in Boston after the war and became known for his historical works, especially that on the statistics of Civil War unit strengths and casualties. Richard Rogers Bowker (1848-1933), "New York," was not quite 13 when he visited the Bunker Hill Monument, but he later became a successful journalist, editor of Publishers Weekly and Harpers Magazine, and founder of the R. R. Bowker Company that provides bibliographic information to the publishing industry. Thomas Francis Meagher (1823-1867), "New York," was an Irish nationalist in the Rebellion of 1848 against British rule. Convicted of sedition, Meagher was first sentenced to death, then commuted to transportation to Australia. He escaped in 1852 and traveled to New York City, where he studied law and worked as a journalist. He served in the Union Army during the Civil War, rising to the rank of brigadier general. Charles C. Bonney (1831-1903), "Chicago, Illinois," was a teacher, lawyer, and judge in Illinois, and organizer of the Parliament of the World's Religions, held in conjunction with the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, at which Bonney served as President of the World's Congresses (held in many different fields). John J. Macdonald (1834-1862),"Prince Edward Island," from a Catholic family, eloped with a Protestant girl, and moved to Boston, where he started a dry goods store. He enlisted in the 28th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry and went with it to the islands of coastal South Carolina, where he was killed in battle in mid-June 1862. Levi Parsons (1822-1887), "San Francisco, California," was born in New York but moved to California in 1849, and in 1850 became one of the pioneer judges of the California Supreme Court. He left California in 1866, and lived in New York City for the rest of his life. Mercy P. Whitney (1795-1872), "Sandwich Islands," was an early Congregational missionary with her husband Samuel Whitney to Hawaii, living there from 1819 until her death, with occasional visits to the United States. Anthony Trollope (1815-1882), "London," was a prominent English novelist of the Victorian era. Trollope and his wife traveled to America in September 1861 to write a travel book, but his publishers wanted a book about the war. In November, his wife went back to England, and he traveled to Washington and spent some time with the Union Army in northern Virginia, before traveling west to Kentucky, Missouri, and Illinois early in 1862. His book North America was published in 1862. Owen G. Lovejoy (1846-1900), "Princeton Ills," was the oldest son of Owen Lovejoy (1811-1864), who was an abolitionist, attorney, and Republican Congressman from Illinois who aided the political rise of Abraham Lincoln. The younger Lovejoy also became an attorney. Charles Bunker Dahlgren (1839-1912), "U.S.S. San Jacinto," was the oldest son of Rear Admiral John A. Dahlgren of the U.S. Navy, known as the "father of American naval ordnance." Charles B. Dahlgren was serving on the USS San Jacinto under Captain Charles Wilkes, when the ship seized Confederate emissaries James M. Mason and John Slidell from the British mail packet RMS Trent of Cuba on November 8. The San Jacinto arrived at Hampton Roads, Virginia, on November 15, and reported the capture to Washington. Authorities ordered him to proceed to Boston to place Mason and Slidell in Fort Warren with other captured Confederates. The ship arrived in Boston on November 24, and six days later, Dahlgren visited the Bunker Hill Monument. The resulting British outrage over the Trent affair led the Union to the brink of war with Great Britain, but the release of Mason and Slidell at the end of the year eased tensions and ended the crisis. Esther E. Baldwin (1840-1910), "Smyrna Delaware" was an American Methodist missionary to China from 1862 to 1880, and served as the president of the New York Woman's Missionary Society for two decades. She wrote Must the Chinese Go?, first published in 1881 and reissued in several editions, which challenged misrepresentations against Chinese immigrants and earned her the title of the "Chinese Champion." On April 15, 1862, she married the missionary Rev. Stephen L. Baldwin (1835-1902), "Fuh Chau, China," in Delaware, and they visited the Bunker Hill Monument on April 24, 1862. John B. Brownlow (1839-1922), "Knoxville Ten," was the older son of William G. "Parson" Brownlow (1805-1877), the fiery Unionist newspaper publisher and Methodist minister in eastern Tennessee. John B. Brownlow was a colonel in the Union Army during the war, and in 1865, when his father became Governor of Tennessee, he succeeded his father as editor of the newspaper Brownlow's Knoxville Whig. Charles Francis Adams Jr. (1835-1915), an American author and historian, great grandson of President John Adams and grandson of President John Quincy Adams. He served in the 1st Massachusetts Volunteer Cavalry in the Civil War from 1861 until the end of his three-year enlistment in September 1864. (June 11, 1862) Lt. Orlando B. Douglas (1836-1920)served as a lieutenant and adjutant with the 18th Missouri Volunteers and was twice wounded during the Civil War. He was a first cousin of Stephen A. Douglas. He later received a medical degree from New York University and served on the medical faculty there. For many years, he was the director of the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. (July 1, 1862) Samuel Archer King (1828-1914), "Aeronaut," was a ballooning pioneer who made his first ascent from Philadelphia in 1851. He later made several ascents from Boston and Charlestown, Massachusetts. (July 7, 1862) Samuel Northrup Castle (1808-1894), "Honolulu Sand Islds," was born in New York and went to the Sandwich Islands as a missionary in 1837. He later became a sugar merchant and member of the legislature and Privy Council in the Kingdom of Hawaii. (July 8, 1862) James W. Nesmith (1820-1885), "Oregon, U.S.S." was born in New Brunswick, Canada, but grew up in Maine and New Hampshire. He moved to Ohio in 1838 and Oregon in 1843. He represented Oregon in the U.S. Senate as a Democrat from 1861 to 1867 and from 1873 to 1875. (August 12, 1862) Edgar R. Hills (1855-1922), "aged 6½ Brookline Mass". (August 14, 1862) Zebulon L. White (1842-1889), "Tufts College," became a prominent journalist after graduating in 1866, first as writer for the New York Tribune, then as editor of The Providence Press. Tufts' President A. A. Miner wrote, "The College reckons many noble men in the catalogue of its alumni, but none truer or nobler than Zebulon Lewis White." (August 23, 1862) Robert S. Montgomery (1829-1905)andMrs. Susan D. Montgomery (1831-1881), "Palmetto, Bedford Co Tenn Amid Secesh & Guerillas." Montgomery was born in South Carolina, moved to Tennessee in 1844, married Susan Dysart in 1855, and opened a mercantile business in Palmetto. They and their family left Tennessee during at least part of the war but returned to Palmetto after the war. (August 25, 1862) Richard W. Montgomery (1837-aft. 1910), "New Orleans," worked on river boats on the Mississippi River, and was a well-known riverboat gambler. (August 29, 1862) Lt. George W. Caleff (1829-1898), "Charleston Jail, S.C. prisoner of war 13 months, fed on sour Bread and moving Ham." Caleff was a member of the 11th Massachusetts Volunteers and was taken prisoner at the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861. Initially, he was imprisoned in a tobacco warehouse in Richmond, Virginia. In September, Caleff was among thirty-two officers transferred to Charleston, South Carolina. He was later exchanged. (August 30, 1862) Henry Eagle (1801-1882)was commissioned a commodore in the U.S. Navy on July 16, 1862. He commanded the USS Monticello in Virginia in 1861, and the USS Santee in the Gulf Squadron in 1861 and 1862. (September 3, 1862) James G. Sands (1833-1904), "Lawrence Kansas" owned a saddle and harness shop. Eight months after Sands visited Boston, William Quantrill's raiders burned his business to the ground and killed his brother-in-law and more than 150 others. By January 1864, Sands was back in business and defiantly advertised, "Established in 1855. Sacked in 1856. Stood the Famine in 1860. Totally Destroyed in 1863. Defies all Competition in 1864." (September 16, 1862) William Morrin (1826-1873), "New Zealand," was born in London and settled in Auckland, New Zealand in 1855, where he established a grocery business. He sold his interest in the business in 1872 and returned to Canada. (September 29, 1862) Frederick F. Low (1828-1894), "California," was born in Maine and moved to California in 1849. He became a banker and represented California in the U.S. House of Representatives from June 1862 to March 1863. He served as governor of California from December 1863 to December 1867, and as U.S. Minister to China from 1869 to 1873. (September 29, 1862) California Hundred membersCharles W. Hill (1834-1897), George I. Holt (1832-1914),andJames M. Pelham (1829-1866). On December 10, 1862, the "California Hundred" organized as a group of volunteers in San Francisco, California, and took a ship to Massachusetts, where they arrived on January 4, 1863. They became Company A and were joined by seven companies from Massachusetts to form the 2nd Massachusetts Cavalry. After picket and scout duty until July 1863, they engaged in numerous skirmishes with John S. Mosby's Confederate rangers. Four hundred more Californians followed them to Massachusetts to fill out the regiment. The 2nd Massachusetts Cavalry served in Philip H. Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley Campaigns of 1864, and later in the Siege of Petersburg and the Appomattox Campaign. A Massachusetts native, "Hill" was a teacher in California when he enlisted. In June 1863, he told his captain that he had deserted eleven months earlier from the 1st Missouri Cavalry, in which he had served as 2nd Lieutenant under the name George W. Nash. On June 5, 1862, at Sedalia, Missouri, Nash led a scouting party of 78 men in pursuit of a group of marauders who had stolen wagons from a forage train. Nash questioned local resident William S. Field, who refused to give any information and clearly sided with the Confederacy. Nash took Field into custody and later while Field tried to escape, two of Nash's men shot and killed him. Critics insisted that Nash ordered them to execute Field. While awaiting a trial before a military commission for the murder of Field, Nash deserted in mid-July and made his way to California, where he volunteered as Charles W. Hill. He was imprisoned in St. Louis, and in March 1865, President Lincoln confirmed Nash's dishonorable discharge of July 1862. After spending a few years in Indiana, Nash moved to Arizona. Born in New Hampshire, Holt was a painter and was discharged from a Maryland hospital in June 1865. An Illinois native, Pelham was a carpenter and was discharged for disability from a Maryland hospital in June 1865, and returned to Illinois. (January 17, 1863) California Hundred membersWesley R. Crumpton (1841-1928), William H. H. Bumgardner (1841-1864),andHenry Schrow (1832-1919). Crumpton was promoted to corporal, reduced to the ranks, again promoted to corporal, then sergeant, and finally promoted to 2nd Lieutenant in July 1865. Bumgardner died at a Virginia farmhouse of wounds received in action against Mosby's guerrillas at Mount Zion Church, July 6, 1864. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Born in Germany, Schrow went to California in 1849 and remained there until 1852. He was a member of Commodore Matthew Perry's Expedition to Japan in 1852-1853 and was the last known survivor of that expedition in 1918. In the 2nd Massachusetts Cavalry, he gained promotion to corporal and was discharged from a Washington hospital in June 1865. (January 19, 1863) George B. McClellan(name cut out)(1826-1885), "Maj. Genl USA," served as Commanding General of the United States Army from November 1861 to March 1862; he was the Democratic nominee for President in 1864. (January 30, 1863) Edward H. Wright (1824-1913), "Col. & A.D.C. U.S. Army," was a graduate of the College of New Jersey (Princeton) and Harvard Law School. He served as Aide-de-Camp to Generals Winfield Scott and George B. McClellan, reaching the rank of colonel. (January 30, 1863) William P. Mason Jr. (1835-1901), "Capt. & A.D.C., U.S.A.," was born in Boston and was a graduate of Harvard and the Cambridge Law School. He served as aide-de-camp on General George B. McClellan's staff from November 1861 until he resigned in April 1863. (January 30, 1863) David A. Butterfield (1834-1875), "Denver Colorado Territory," was born in Maine, moved to Kansas in 1856, to Denver in 1862, and back to Atchison, Kansas in 1864. One month after visiting Bunker Hill, Butterfield established Butterfield's Overland Despatch with service from Atchison to Denver. Between July and November 1864, the service carried 14 million pounds of freight, and Butterfield developed a stagecoach line on the same route in 1865. He soon sold out to a competitor and moved to Mississippi and then Arkansas. (June 9, 1864) Samuel Nickelson (1814-1877), "Pulaski Tenn," was born in Massachusetts and learned cotton carding and spinning. He moved to Tennessee in 1841, then went to California in the Gold Rush of 1849 and remained there three years. He returned to Tennessee and began manufacturing cotton goods in Pulaski, Tennessee. In 1864, he moved to Massachusetts, but returned to Gallatin, Tennessee, in 1868, and opened a woolen mill. (June 10, 1864) Charles Speed (1848-1935)andLucien Speed (1850-1912), "Louisville Ky," were sons of Kentucky state senator James Speed (1812-1887). In December 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed James Speed as U.S. Attorney General, a position he held until July 1866. (June 11, 1864) Lt. Frank M. Gould (1844-1903)was born in Rhode Island and married Mary J. Tillingast in June 1861. He joined the 3rd Rhode Island Artillery in February 1862. He received an appointment as a 2nd lieutenant in Company G of the 33rd U.S. Colored Troops in June 1863, and his resignation was accepted on June 8, 1864. (July 5, 1864) John Todd Stuart (1807-1885), "Springfield Ills." was Abraham Lincoln's first law partner and Mary Lincoln's first cousin. He represented Illinois in Congress as a Whig from 1839 to 1843 and as a Democrat from 1863 to 1865. (July 6, 1864) Jonas King (1792-1869), "Athens, Greece," was a Congregational missionary to Greece from 1831 to 1869, with an interruption from 1852 to 1854, when he was imprisoned and then exiled. His appeals and the intervention of the U.S. government furthered religious liberty in Greece. During his life, he was widely known in Christian circles in the United States and in other countries. Beneath his entry in the guestbook, he wrote, "The Union must be preserved so long as the sun and moon shall endure, and the Stars of heaven continue to shine." (October 10, 1864) The visitors to the Bunker Hill Monument came from a wide variety of occupations and residences. Merchants, industrialists, lawyers, physicians, clergymen, newspaper editors, and other professionals are frequent among the entries. Most of the visitors were from New England and New York, but visitors from Philadelphia, Washington, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Louis, and New Orleans appear regularly, as do a surprising number from San Francisco and Sacramento, California. A large number of Canadian visitors are also present, especially from the maritime provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Visitors from the South appear with some frequency in 1860 but virtually disappear in 1861 and 1862. Foreign visitors came from as far away as China, India, Russia, and South Africa. Some were American missionaries home for a visit, while others were diplomats or members of foreign navies, seeing the sights of Boston. Couples on a honeymoon trip were common in the pages, as were Union soldiers, sailors, and marines, and merchants in town on business. Other entries suggest motives of memorial or commemoration. In July 1861, just weeks after Senator Stephen A. Douglas died, appeared the entry, "S. A. Douglass Chicago." At the foot of another page is the entry "Sam Patch New Orleans." Patch (1807-1829) became the first American daredevil after leaping into the Niagara River near the base of Niagara Falls. After his death in a failed jump a few months later, he became a folk hero, and actor Dan Marble (1807-1849) gained great success in staging "Sam Patch" plays throughout the United States and England in the 1830s and 1840s. There are several entries for "Jeff Davis" with residences including Richmond and "From the South." After several entries in the same handwriting for visitors from Lowell, Massachusetts, comes "A. Lincoln Washington D.C." also in the same hand.There are several entries for "Jeff Davis" or "Jefferson Davis" with residences including "Richmond, NC" and "Richmond." Another for "Stonewall Jackson" gives his residence as "Tombs." Humor comes through in some entries, like that of "Jeff Decker not Davis," who did not want to be identified with the President of the Confederacy. The fictious visitor "E. P. Unum" was listed as a "Cosmopolitan," and the "Spirit of Darkness" from "Hades." E. C. Munson listed his residence as "The World." Sometimes, the visit was personal. In June 1864, W. E. Abbott of Syracuse, New York, added, "A Grandson of one of its defenders." Corporal J. H. Smith of the militia added after his name, "My Grandfather had a ship burnt in the revolution." Susie W. Ferneaux added the commentary, "The Union forever. Freedom for all." Historical Background In 1823, a group of Bostonians formed the Bunker Hill Monument Association to raise funds for the creation of a monument to commemorate the June 17, 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill. By 1825, the Association had purchased property and selected a design—a 221-foot granite obelisk designed by Solomon Willard. On June 17, 1825, the fiftieth anniversary of the battle, the Marquis de Lafayette performed the cornerstone-laying ceremony, and Congressman Daniel Webster delivered an oration. On June 17, 1843, the Bunker Hill Monument Association held a celebration for the dedication of the monument, and again, former and future U.S. Senator and former and future Secretary of State Daniel Webster was the principal speaker, with President John Tyler in attendance. The Bunker Hill Monument Association continued to maintain the monument and grounds until 1919, when it turned the property over to the Commonwealth of Massach
George Washington

George Washington, 2800 Pages of News! Compelling Contemporary Views During his Lifetime

Archive of British and American Newspapers and Magazines Offers Compelling Contemporary Views of George Washington This archive includes nearly 2,800 pages of newspapers and magazines from 1754 to 1798, spanning the entire period of George Washington's public career. It provides a foreign perspective from London on both Colonel Washington's early military career against the French and his Farewell Address to the nation shortly before leaving the Presidency. It also includes newspapers from Philadelphia and New England during and after his two terms as President, illustrating the reverence with which Americans in the Early Republic viewed him. [GEORGE WASHINGTON.] Archive of newspapers and magazines, 1754-1798. Some chipping and tears on edges; some water damage to some issues; most bindings absent from Gentleman's Magazine volumes. Items and Excerpts - The Gentleman's Magazine (London, England), complete issues for 1792, 1793, and individual monthly issues for April-June 1754, August-December 1754, June 1794, July 1795, September-December 1796. Approximately 2,250 pp., 5.25" x 8.25". The Gentleman's Magazine (1731-1922) was a monthly magazine published in London, England. It was the first periodical to use the term "magazine." Edward Cave (1691-1754) began the magazine and edited it under the pen name "Sylvanus Urban" until his death. The iconic illustration of St. John's Gate on the front of each issue depicted Cave's home, the magazine's "office." Samuel Johnson had his first regular employment as a writer with The Gentleman's Magazine. Under the leadership of David Henry (1709-1792) and after 1778 also John Nichols (1745-1826), The Gentleman's Magazine experienced great growth and was read throughout the English-speaking world. It included a stunning array of material, including the fluctuating prices of commodities, daily closing quotations for stocks and bonds, mortality figures for the city of London, theatre reviews, original poetry, parliamentary debates, theological disputes, lists of both civil and military promotions, Church preferments, and thousands of obituaries. David Henry was a friend of Benjamin Franklin and a first cousin of Patrick Henry, and The Gentlemen's Magazine included extensive coverage of news from America. It printed the entirety of the United States Constitution in 1787, and Washington's Farewell Address in 1796. George Washington was a subscriber to The Gentleman's Magazine. o June 1754: "Account of a Journey from Williamsburg to the French Fort, near Lake Erri, in Virginia": "Mr Washington was sent by Governor Dinwiddie, with a letter to the French commandant on that river, by which he was required to depart." (p252/c2) "The purport of the answer which he brought to governor Dinwiddie, was, that the Commandant would send his letter to the marquis Duguisne, that whatever he commanded should be done, and that in the mean time he was determined to kept his station." (p255/c1) o September 1754: "Col. Washington with 400 men, having encamped in a wood, at the great meadows, on the Ohio, and defeated a party of French, that had been dispatched to intercept some provisions, receiv'd intelligence soon afterward, that the French hearing what happened, and that he was soon after to be reinforced with 500 men from New York, were marching 900 men from Monongahela to attack him." (p399/c1-2) "The disadvantage which we have sustained by being thus obliged to abandon the Ohio, is imputed to the delay of the reinforcement from New York, which ought to have joined Col. Washington many months before this action." (p399/c2-p400/c1) "There have been frequent councils lately held here upon this subject; and we have good authority to say, that our interest in America will in a very short time be effectually supported; and the disputes there decided without producing a declaration of war." (p400/c2) o January 1792: President George Washington's Message to Congress, October 25, 1791: "It is sincerely to be desired that all need of coercion in future may cease and that an intimate intercourse may succeed, calculated to advance the happiness of the Indians and to attach them firmly to the United States." (p81/c1) "The completion of the census of the inhabitants, for which provision was made by law, has been duly notified...and the returns...will give you the pleasing assurance that the present population of the United States borders on four millions of persons." (p82/c1) o February 1792: "The president of the United States has nominated Thomas Pinckney, esq. late Governor of South Carolina, to be minister plenipotentiary to the court of Great Britain...." (p175/c2) "On Friday the 17th of December, 1791, was presented to the President of the United States a silver-mounted box, made of the celebrated oak that sheltered sir Wm. Wallace, the Scottish hero, after his defeat at the battle of Falkirk, about the beginning of the 14th century, by Edward I. This box was a present sent to the earl of Buchan from the Goldsmiths Company at Edinburgh. That patriotic company afterwards, at his lordship's request, gave him leave to present it to the President, as above, as more deserving of it than himself, and the only man in the world to whom he thought it justly due. The box was delivered by Archibald Robertson, a Scotch gentleman just settled in America, who, at the same time, delivered a letter from his lordship to the President, requesting, that at his decease he should consign it to the man who, in his opinion, should best deserve it of his country." (p177/c1) In his will, Washington bequeathed the box to the Earl of Buchan; Buchan bequeathed the box to "Washingtons University in Columbia." It was stolen in transit in the nineteenth century and last appeared in England in 1958. o February 1793: "Our worthy President has been unanimously reelected; not a voice through all the Continent against him.... The war with the Indians continues with unabated fury; it is feared that a general confederation had been formed, among the Southern and Northern Indian nations, to attack the American frontier at once from South to North...." (p177/c2) o June 1794: "American Congress, March 5. 'Gentlemen of the Senate, and of the House of Representatives, The Secretary of State having reported to me upon the several complaints which have been lodged in his office against the vexations and spoliations on our commerce, since the commencement of the European war; I transmit to you a copy of his statement, together with the documents upon which it is founded. Geo. Washington." (p569/c1) "March 12.... Resolved, that the President of the United States be authorized, if in his judgement the safety or welfare of the United States shall require it, to lay an embargo, generally or particularly, upon ships in the ports or harbours of the United States, not exceeding at any one time forty days...." (p570/c1) o July 1795: "General Washington, at the period mentioned by your correspondent Philanecdotos, was colonel of a regiment of continental militia raised by the colony of Virginia, to serve against the French on the banks of the Ohio; on which occasion he signalized his courage and conduct, and gave a flattering presage of those services he was destined to render his native country when employed in a more ample field, which afforded a wider scope for the display of his military talents." (p566/c2) o Supplement 1796: Washington's Farewell Address, September 17, 1796 "Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens." (p1093/c1) "Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course. If we remain one people, under an efficient government, the period is not far off, when we may defy material injury from external annoyance; when we may take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality, we may at any time resolve upon, to be scrupulously respected; when belligerent nations, under the impossibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation; when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by justice, shall counsel. "Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation? Why quit our own to stand upon foreign ground? Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor, or caprice? "'Tis our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. I hold the maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them." (p1094/c2) - The Providence Gazette and Country Journal (Rhode Island), January 7–December 30, 1786, 52 issues, 208 pp. The Providence Gazette and Country Journal (1762-1817) was the first newspaper published in Providence, Rhode Island. Sarah Updike Goddard (ca. 1701-1770), her son William Goddard (1740-1817), and her daughter Mary Katherine Goddard (1738-1816) established the weekly newspaper in 1762. When William Goddard moved to Philadelphia to establish the Pennsylvania Chronicle in 1767, Sarah Goddard published The Providence Gazette and Country Journal with the assistance of Philadelphia-born John Carter (1745-1814), who had been a printer's apprentice to Benjamin Franklin. Carter purchased The Providence Gazette and Country Journal in 1768. Postmaster-General Franklin appointed John Carter as the postmaster of Providence in 1772, and Carter held the position until 1792. o February 25: "should hostilities (which in the present situation of affairs seem almost inevitable) break out between the savages and the Thirteen Stripes, General Washington has expressly declared his intention of not appearing again in arms; and that he has peremptorily refused accepting any command; determined not to sacrifice, among a race of wild Indians, those honours which he so recently acquired against a great nation, once so justly celebrated for its conquests and commerce." (p2/c1) o August 5: "My design, by this address, is to rescue, from seeming inattention, the brilliant conduct of Colonel, the late Major Thayer, in the defence of Mud Island, in the river Delaware, from the 12th of November until the 16th of the same month in the year 1777.... The Commander in Chief, his Excellency George Washington, had not an idea of holding the place through the campaign; but wished to retard the operations of the enemy until the main army should be reinforced by the Massachusetts brigades, marching from the conquest of Saratoga; when he would be in sufficient force to cover the country, or meet the enemy's whole force in the field." (p2/c3) o December 2: "Baltimore, Nov. 10. We are informed that the Jack-Ass, and two she Asses, with the foreign Pheasants and Partridges, which arrived in the Iris, on the 7th inst. from l'Orient, are a present from the Hon. the Marquis de la Fayette to his Excellency General Washington. The Asses are from two to three years old, and cost at Malta three hundred guineas. The silver and golden Pheasants of China are beautiful birds, and cost sixteen guineas each. But this is not all; every expence attending their transportation has been paid, and a careful person employed, at a handsome salary, to present them to the General!" (p3/c1) o December 9: An American in London to James Tilghman, ca. May 1786: "I have had it in contemplation to write to you for some time past, on a subject in which I find myself more and more interested: I have endeavoured to shake it off from my mind, because I am persuaded that General Washington is too great in himself to be concerned at any calumny, and his character too fair and pure to need any defence of mine. I have the honour to be introduced to a party of sages, who meet regularly at a coffee-house, where they discuss politics, or subjects to communicate useful knowledge. This set of men often mention our great and good General, and commonly in a proper manner; but some give credit to a charge exhibited against him by young Asgill, of illiberal treatment and cruelty towards himself. He alledges that a gibbet was erected before his prison window, and often pointed to, in an insulting manner, as good and proper for him, to atone for Huddy's death; and many other insults, all of which he believes were countenanced by General Washington, who was well inclined to execute the sentence on him, but was restrained by the French General Rochambeau." (p1/c1) George Washington to James Tilghman, June 5, 1786: "That a calumny of this kind had been reported I knew:—I had laid my accounts for the calumnies of anonymous scribblers, but I never had conceived before that such an one as related could have originated with, or met the countenance of Capt. Asgill—whose situation often filled me with the keenest anguish:—I felt for him on many accounts, and not the least when viewing him as a man of honour and sentiment, I considered how unfortunate it was for him, that a wretch who possessed neither should be the means of causing him a single pang, or disagreeable sensation. My favourable opinion of him however is forfeited, if being acquainted with these reports he did not immediately contradict them. That I could not have given countenance to the insults which, he says, were offered to his person, especially the groveling one of erecting a gibbet before his prison window, will, I expect, readily be believed, when I explicitly declare that I never heard of a single attempt to offer an insult; and that I had every reason to be convinced that he was treated by the officers around him with all the tenderness and every civility in their power." (p1/c2) [Issue also includes copies of ten letters from 1782 related to Asgill's imprisonment and release.] In April 1782, the Board of Associated Loyalists in Monmouth, New Jersey, executed Continental Army Captain John Huddy in retaliation for the death of a Loyalist soldier. General George Washington responded by ordering the hanging of the British Captain Charles Asgill. After months of deliberation, Congress and Washington decided instead to release Asgill. In 1786, as these letters make clear, Washington was troubled to learn that Asgill was spreading rumors that he had been treated inhumanely as an American prisoner. - The Pennsylvania Packet, and Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia), January 24, 1789, only pp 1-2 of original 4-page issue. "The American army furnished an instance of the effects of victory upon the human mind, which may serve to establish the inferences from the facts related by Doctor Blane. The Philadelphia militia who joined the remains of General Washington's army in December 1776, and shared with them a few days afterwards in the capture of a large body of Hessians at Trenton, consisted of 1500 men, most of whom had been accustomed to the habits of a city life. These men slept in tents and barns, and sometimes in the open air during the usual colds of Dec. and January; and yet there were only two instances of sickness; and only one of death, in that body of men in the course of near six weeks, in those winter months. This extraordinary healthiness of so great a number of men under such trying circumstances, can only be ascribed to the vigor infused into the human body by the victory of Trenton having produced insensibility to all the usual remote causes of diseases." (p2/c2) - The Connecticut Courant (Hartford), December 19, 1791, 4 pp. "Mr. Benson called up a resolution which he had laid on the table yesterday, for the appointment of a committee to meet a committee of the Senate, for the purpose of considering and reporting to Congress the most eligible manner of carrying into effect a resolution of the United States in Congress assembled, of the 7th of August, 1783, directing that an equestrian statue of General Washington should be erected. "In a conversation, which took place on the subject, it was observed, that in the resolution of the old Congress, the spot, contemplated for the erection of the statue, was to be the permanent seat of government; it was therefore by some gentlemen thought premature to proceed to the immediate execution of that resolve; as the statue, though well mounted, could not conveniently ride after Congress, to the banks of the Potowmack." (p1/c3) - Claypoole's American Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia), November 3, 1798, 4 pp. At a celebration of President John Adams' birthday in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, they drank a series of toasts, including: "5th. George Washington Commander of the armies of the United States; may our country never forget to honour the man who sacrifices his own happiness to her safety." - Connecticut Journal (New Haven), scattered issues from May 26, 1784–December 28, 1797, approximately 77 issues, 312 pp., 10" x 16". o July 8 and 15, 1795: [Full text of the Jay Treaty with Great Britain.] o December 31, 1795: George Washington to Congress, December 17, 1795 "The sentiments we have mutually expressed of profound gratitude to the source of those numerous blessings—the author of all good—are pledges of our obligations to unite our sincere and zealous endeavours, as the instruments of Divine Providence, to preserve and perpetuate them." (p2/c3) o April 7, 1796: George Washington to the U.S. House of Representatives, March 30, 1796 "The nature of foreign negotiations requires caution; and their success must often depend on secrecy: and even when brought to a conclusion, a full disclosure of all the measures, demands, or eventual concessions, which may have been proposed or contemplated, would be extremely impolitic: for this might have a pernicious influence on future negotiations; or produce immediate inconveniences, perhaps danger and mischief, in relation to other powers." (p3/c2) "To admit then a right in the House of Representatives to demand, and to have as a matter of course, all the Papers respecting a negotiation with a foreign power, would be to establish a dangerous precedent." (p3/c2) This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses. WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
Thomas Jefferson Exceptional Presidential Address to the Cherokee Nation Manuscript

Thomas Jefferson Exceptional Presidential Address to the Cherokee Nation Manuscript

Thomas Jefferson Exceptional Presidential Address to the Cherokee Nation Manuscript - Document Signed, "Th: Jefferson," as President, 4 pages, 8" x 10", Washington, January 10, 1806, an address directed to "My Friends & Children Chiefs of the Cherokee Nation." With one additional word, "inclosed" added to the text in Jefferson's hand. Laid into a slightly larger sheet, expected folds, else very fine condion. This extraordinary manuscript, signed by President Thomas Jefferson, is his address, in the presidential role as "The Great White Father" of the Indian Nations, to his "Children," the Chiefs of the Cherokee Nation. At the time of writing, the Cherokees had visited Washington to make a treaty defining their boundaries. The purchase of Louisiana and the control of the Mississippi River opened vast territories in the West, and the Indians, forced by the advance of the white pioneers, were crossing the rivers to new hunting grounds. Some of the Cherokees had migrated to the West, but others had remained in Georgia and Tennessee. This is a sterling example of Jefferson's great eloquence, on this occasion following successful treaty negotiations. Jefferson's message reads in full: "My Friends & Children Chiefs of the Cherokee Nation. Having now finished our business, & finished it I hope to mutual satisfaction, I cannot take leave of you without expressing the satisfaction I have received from your visit. I see, with my own eyes, that the endeavors we have been making to encourage & lead you on in the way of improving your situation have not been unsuccessful; it has been like grain sown in good ground, producing abundantly. You are becoming farmers, learning the use of the plough & the hoe, enclosing your grounds & employing that labour in their cultivation which you formerly employed in hunting & in war; & I see handsome specimens of cotton cloth, raised, spun & wove by yourselves. You are also raising cattle & hogs for your food & horses to assist your labours; go on, my Children, in the same way, & be assured the further you advance in it the happier & more respectable you will be. Our brethren whom you have happened to meet here from the west & the north west, have enabled you to compare your situation now with what it was formerly. They also make the comparison. They see how far you are ahead of them, & by seeing what you are they are encouraged to do as you have done. You will find your next want to be mills to grind your corn, which by relieving your women from the loss if time in beating it into meal, will enable them to spin & weave more. When a man has inclosed & improved his farm, built a good house on it, & raised plentiful stocks of animals, he will wish when he dies that these things should go to his wife & children, whom he loves more than he does his other relations, & for whom he will work with pleasure during his life. You will therefore find it necessary to establish laws for this. When a man has property earned by his own labour he will not like to see another come & take it from him, because he happens to be stronger, or else to defend it by spilling blood. You will find it necessary then to appoint good men, as judges, to decide contests between man & man, according to reason, & to the rules you shall establish. If you wish to be aided by our council & experience in these things we shall always be ready to assist you with our advice. My Children, it is unnecessary for me to advise you against spending all your time & labor in warring with & destroying your fellow men, & wasting your own numbers. You already see the folly & the inequity if it. Your young men however are not yet sufficiently sensible of it. Some of them cross the Mississippi to go & destroy people who never did them an injury. My Children this is wrong, & must not be. If we permit them to cross the Mississippi to war with the Indians on the other side of that river, we must let those Indians cross the river to take revenge on you. I say again, this must not be. The Mississippi now belongs to us, it must not be a river of blood. It is now the water path along which all our people of Natchez, St. Louis, Indiana, Ohio, Tennessee, Kentucky, & the western parts of Pennsylvania & Virginia are constantly passing, with their property to & from N Orleans. Young men going to war are not easily restrained. Finding our people on the river, they will rob them, perhaps kill them. This would bring on a war between us and you. It is better to stop this in time, by forbidding your young people to go across the river to make war. lf they go to visit, or to live with the Cherokees on the other side of the river we shall not object to that. That country is ours. We will permit them to live in it. My Children, this is what I wished to say to you. To go on in learning to cultivate the earth, and to avoid war. If any of your neighbors injure you, our beloved men whom we place with you will endea vor to obtain justice for you & we will support them in it. If any of your bad people injure your neighbors, be ready to acknowledge it & to do them justice. It is more honorable to repair a wrong than to persist in it. Tell all your chiefs, young men women & children that I take them by the hand & hold it fast, that I am their father, wish their happiness & well being, & am always ready to promote their good. My Children, I thank you for your visit, & pray to the Great Spirit who made us all & planted us all in this land to live together like brothers, that he will conduct you safely to your homes & grant you to find your families & your friends in good health." A month earlier, in Jefferson's 1805 Message to Congress (now called the State of the Union Address), he wrote that "our Indian neighbors are … becoming sensible that the earth yields subsistence with less labor and more certainty than the forest, and find it their interest from time to time to dispose of parts of their surplus and waste lands for the means of improving those they occupy and of subsisting their families while they are preparing their farms … " Provenance: The Collection of Nathaniel Stein, Sotheby's, New York 30 January 1979, lot 98. WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
Leslie Groves Signed Contract for "The Manhattan Project"

Leslie Groves Signed Contract for “The Manhattan Project”

Leslie Groves Signed Contract for "The Manhattan Project" - Leslie Groves Signed Contract for "The Manhattan Project" - A Highly Important Artifact in the History of the Atomic Bomb HARPER & BROTHERS, Printed Contract Signed with Typed Insertions, to Leslie R. Groves Jr. and Richard H. Groves, October 7, 1960, New York, NY. 4 p., 8.5" x 13.75". Very good.This contract between Harper & Brothers and Leslie R. Groves and his son Richard H. Groves is for a 100,000- to 150,000-word manuscript tentatively entitled "The Manhattan Project." Harper & Brothers provided an advance of $2,500 and 10 percent royalties on the first five thousand copies. Two-thirds of all royalties were to be paid to Leslie Groves and the remaining one-third to Richard Groves.Harper and Brothers published Groves's account of the Manhattan Project as Now It Can Be Told: The Story of the Manhattan Project in 1962. In 1983, Da Capo Press republished the book with a new introduction by physicist Edward Teller.Leslie R. Groves Jr. (1896-1970) was a United States Army General with the Corps of Engineers who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project that developed the atomic bomb during World War II. Born in New York to a Protestant pastor who became an army chaplain, Groves graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1918 in a course shortened because of World War I. He entered the Corps of Engineers and gained promotions to major by 1940. In 1941, he was charged with overseeing the construction of the Pentagon, the largest office building in the world, with more than five million square feet. Disappointed that he had not received a combat assignment, Groves instead took charge of the Manhattan Project, designed to develop an atomic bomb. He continued nominally to supervise the Pentagon project to avoid suspicion, gained promotion to brigadier general, and began his work in September 1942. The project headquarters was initially in the War Department building in Washington, but in August 1943, moved to Oak Ridge, Tennessee. He and physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer selected the site in Los Alamos, New Mexico, for a laboratory, and Groves pushed successfully for Oppenheimer to be placed in charge. Groves was in charge of obtaining critical uranium ores internationally and collecting military intelligence on Axis atomic research. Promoted to major general in March 1944, Groves received the Distinguished Service Medal for his work on the Manhattan Project after the war. In 1947, Groves became chief of the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project. He received a promotion to lieutenant general in January 1948, just days before meeting with Army Chief of Staff Dwight D. Eisenhower, who reviewed a long list of complaints against Groves. Assured that he would not become Chief of Engineers, Groves retired in February 1948. From 1948 to 1961, he was a vice president of Sperry Rand, an equipment and electronics firm. After retirement, he served as president of the West Point alumni association and wrote a book on the Manhattan Project, published in 1962.Richard H. Groves (1923-2011) was born in Honolulu, Hawaii, as the son of General Leslie R. Groves Jr. He graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1945, and served in the Corps of Engineers in Germany after World War II. He received a master's degree in soil mechanics from Harvard University in 1950 and a master's degree in international affairs from George Washington University in 1965. He also served two tours in Vietnam. In 1945, he married Patricia Bourke Hook (1923-2014). Groves served in the U.S. Army for 36 years and attained the rank of three-star general.Ex. Leslie Groves Family, Christie's Auction.WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
President Obama signed and hand written golf score card from the Klipper Golf Course in Hawaii

President Obama signed and hand written golf score card from the Klipper Golf Course in Hawaii

Barack Obama - President Obama signed and hand written golf score card from the Klipper Golf Course in Hawaii - Golf score card on card stock, 12" x 6", tri-fold in full color. A classic example of a Golf score card from the Klipper Golf Course in Hawaii, but this one has the unique handicap advantage of being signed and entirely filled out by President Barack Obama. Completed in graphite, Barack was the designated score keeper who penciled his name in caps as "POTUS", in addition to the players,"BOBBY", "MIKE", and"MARTY", and continued to pencil in the scores of the players for 18 holes. Near fine with light creases and obviously loved!Accompanied by impeccable provenance which will include a signed statement by Samuel Sutton, President Obama's personal valet, who worked in such capacity in the White House under both the Obama and the George Bush administrations. The statement affirms his prior ownership and a description of the piece with an image.Bill Clinton was famous for the creative way he kept score. Both George Bushes would speed-golf through 18 holes as if they had to beat the clock, not the course. And President Obama? Long, slow rounds. A lot of time hunting for balls in the woods. Unlike Mr. Clinton, who had a reputation for shaving strokes off his score, Mr. Obama "doesn't fudge his scores," Mr. Van Natta said, adding: "If he shoots an 11 on a hole, he will write down 11." (Mr. Obama shoots in the 90s on a good day, Mr. Van Natta said.) White House officials, trying to protect their boss from guffaws, refuse to divulge Mr. Obama's scores. The president himself envelops his golf game in a cloak of secrecy. Unlike the drill with many of his predecessors, who allowed reporters to watch them play the first hole, and then return to the 18th to watch the grand finish, the White House press pool covering Mr. Obama is kept far away from the action.The other players listed included "Bobby", "Mike Ramos", and "Marvin Nicholson" known as President Obama's "secretary of swing," whose official title is White House travel director and who at age 42, has played golf with the president about 140 times, far more than anyone else in or out of government, with several others as pals who all went to Punahou School in Hawaii, and still hang out today. A one-of-a-kind signed and completely hand filled out score card by President Obama, while President! The absolute perfect gift for a golf lover! Would look stunning framed.
Harry Truman on the Death of FDR he Writes "It was a Very Sad Occasion"

Harry Truman on the Death of FDR he Writes “It was a Very Sad Occasion”

Harry S. Truman - Harry Truman on the Death of FDR he Writes "It was a Very Sad Occasion" - Harry Truman on the Death of FDR he Writes "It was a Very Sad Occasion" TRUMAN, Harry S. (1884-1972), President. Printed document inscribed and boldly signed "Harry Truman" as President, the mimeograph press release of his announcement of the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt and his own accession to the Presidency. Dated "The White House, Washington, D.C., 13April1945". 1 page, legal folio, 8" x 12.5". Fine. Presented matted framed and glazed to an overall size of 16" x 20.5" TRUMAN ANNOUNCES FDR'S DEATH TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Truman has penned at the bottom of the page: "It was a very sad occasion 12/5/55."Truman's press release, composed only hours after the sudden death of FDR, is a heartfelt tribute, reading in part: "It has pleased God in his infinite wisdom to take from us the immortal spirit of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the 32nd President. The leader of his people in a great war, he lived to see the assurance of victory but not share in it. He lived to see the first foundation of the free and peaceful world to which his life was dedicated, but not to enter that world himself. Now, therefore, I, Harry S.Truman, President do appoint Saturday,April14 as a day of mourning and prayer. I earnestly recommend the people to assemble and to pay out of full hearts their homage of love and reverence to the great and good man whose death they mourn." Vice-President Truman was enjoying a bourbon and water with Speaker Sam Rayburn at the Capitol late on 12Aprilwhen a telephone call summoned him to the White House, where Eleanor Roosevelt met him and said, simply, "Harry, the President is dead." Sold at Christies 20 years ago for over $12,000 This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses. WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Franklin D. Roosevelt WWII Letter Re: The Nazis and The Vatican

Franklin D. Roosevelt WWII Letter Re: The Nazis and The Vatican, Fantastic

Franklin D. RooseveltRoosevelt WWII Letter Re: The Nazis and The Vatican, FantasticRoosevelt WWII Letter Re: The Nazis and The Vatican, Fantastic Roosevelt, Franklin D., as thirty-second President Typed letter signed on White House Stationary, 1 page, 8" x 10.5". Dated "30 March 1944" and boldly signed by Franklin Roosevelt as "Franklin Roosevelt", to the Bishop of Fort Wayne, the Reverend John F. Noll; White House stationery. Presented matted, framed and glazed to a completed size of 15.5" x 18". FDR TO BISHOP NOLL: "If it develops that we are forced to fight in [Rome] … it will be because the enemy has so disposed himself as to force that action. He alone will be responsible." On 22 March 1944, Bishop Noll wrote to President Roosevelt, urging that the Allied forces by-pass the Vatican City and Rome. FDR forwarded the letter to General George C. Marshall, requesting a preparation of reply for his signature: "The thoughts you expressed in your letter of March twenty-second have been uppermost in my mind for many weeks. I earnestly hope that the present campaign will develop in such a manner as to permit the Allied forces to circumvent Rome and spare the Eternal City from war's devastation. While the safety of our military personnel must of necessity be the prime consideration in this great conflict and much will depend upon the strategic requirements, I can say without prejudice to military security that every effort will be made to drive the enemy northward without a battle within the precincts of Rome. If it develops that we are forced to fight in that city, it will be because the enemy has so disposed himself as to force that action. He alone will be responsible. Our commanders in the field are under instructions to spare those shrines which are so dear to the heart of the Christian and civilized world. I believe that these orders are being scrupulously obeyed. If as a consequence of this total war some sacred and historic edifices are damaged or destroyed, we can rest confident in the thought that still greater monuments will arise in a world spiritually cleansed by this great struggle." After liberating the island of Sicily and moving northward through Italy, the Allied forces were stopped at Cassino in the Fall of 1943, just ninety miles south of Rome. The Nazis, entrenched within the monastery at Monte Cassino, kept the Allies at bay for more than six months; they knew the Allies could not advance on Rome without capturing Cassino. On 12 February, leaflets were dropped on the city, warning that the monastery, hitherto exempted from shelling, was about to fall under attack. "Allied bombers struck at the monastery on Monte Cassino. In four hours, more than four hundred tons of bombs were dropped on one of the shrines and showpieces of early medieval Christian culture ... The monastery itself was reduced to ruins" (Gilbert, The Second World War, p. 498). Allied forces, however, would not take Cassino until 18 May in spite of repeated assaults by land and by sea. Rome, liberated just 17 days after the fall of Cassino, survived the war virtually unscathed with the Vatican City completely intact. This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses. WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
John Tyler Rare ALS as VP

John Tyler Rare ALS as VP, Only 2 or 3 Others Have Sold Dated in this 30 Day Period

Tyler (President) John John Tyler Rare ALS as VP, Only 2 or 3 Others Have Sold Dated in this 30 Day Period JOHN TYLER, Autograph Letter Signed, to Unknown, March 10, 1841, Washington, D.C. 1 p., 7.875" x 7.875". Trimmed, backed with tissue, and expertly conserved; some soiling and small stains. In this rare letter from his very brief tenure as Vice President of the United States (March 4-April 4, 1841), John Tyler (1790-1862) recommends Robert N. Crittenden (ca. 1818-1853) of Lancaster County, Virginia, for a position as a clerk in one of the departments of the federal government. The letter may have been sent to President William Henry Harrison (1773-1841). By the time a clerk added a file note on the verso three months later, Harrison was dead, and Tyler had been President for two months. We can locate only two other examples at auction of a letter of Tyler's in this period, both more than 20 years ago. The first sold for over $7,000 and the second, over $3,500, both at Christie's. The subject of the letter was likely related to U.S. Senator John J. Crittenden (1787-1863) of Kentucky, who was serving as U.S. Attorney General and who had attended Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia with Tyler in 1806. Like many of Tyler's cabinet members, Crittenden resigned in September 1841 in protest over Tyler's departure from the Whig Party's agenda. Complete Transcript Washington City March 10th 1841. Mr Crittenden of Virginia is a member of a highly respectable Family in the State of Virginia, and is a young man well deserving your attention, amicable in his deportment, and attentive to his business. He wants an office in one of the departments. His appointment would be in accordance with my own wishes. John Tyler [verso:] June 9, 1841 R N. Crittenden Va. / for / Clerkship John Tyler – Prst / for / Mr Crittenden This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses. WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
Declaration Signer T. McKean and Constitution Signer J. Ingersoll Rare Broadside

Declaration Signer T. McKean and Constitution Signer J. Ingersoll Rare Broadside, “Electors of a President and Vice President of the United States”

McKean Thomas Declaration Signer T. McKean and Constitution Signer J. Ingersoll Rare Broadside, "Electors of a President and Vice President of the United States" THOMAS MCKEAN ET AL., Printed Letter Signed, to Isaac Worrall, August 3, 1792, Philadelphia. 1 p., 8" x 13.25". Expected folds; some chipping and tears on edges and folds; general toning; ink smear affecting one two words, but signatures all clear. This fascinating letter seeking nominations for members of Congress and presidential electors from Pennsylvania is signed by Thomas McKean as part of a committee. McKean signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation, and served as President of Delaware (1777), President of the Continental Congress (1781), Chief Justice of Pennsylvania (1777-1799), and Governor of Pennsylvania (1799-1808). Other signers include John Barclay, James Hutchinson, A. J. Dallas, Hilary Baker, and Jared Ingersoll. Excerpts "By the enclosed copy of the minutes of the proceedings of a general meeting of the Citizens of Philadelphia, you will perceive, that the Citizens are desirous to obtain information 'of the sense of the people in the different parts of the State, respecting the characters proper to be nominated as Representatives in Congress, and Electors of a President and Vice-President of the United States'; and they have committed to us the task of endeavoring to collect the materials, on which their judgment and choice, on this important business, may be fairly, independently, and satisfactorily, exercised." "All that we are authorized to do, (all that we have undertaken or mean to do, on the present occasion) is, to obtain a list of the various characters, whom the citizens of every denomination, and in every part of the State, deem to be qualified for Representatives in Congress, and Electors of a President and Vice-President of the United States; and to submit this list, without the influence of a selection, or a comment, to the deliberate consideration, and unbiased suffrages of the People." "Permit us, therefore, Sir, to request, that you will, as expeditiously as you can, communicate, by a letter addressed to the Honorable Thomas McKean, Esq. Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, the names of the persons (particularly of those in your neighbourhood) who, according to your own opinion, and the opinions of the inhabitants of the County in which you reside, ought to be preferred at the ensuing elections of Thirteen Representatives in Congress, and Fifteen Electors of a President and Vice-President of the United States." Thomas McKean (1734-1817) was born in the province of Pennsylvania to Irish immigrants and studied law under his cousin in New Castle, Delaware. He gained admission to the bar in Delaware in 1755 and in Pennsylvania in 1756. He served in the General Assembly of the Lower Counties (Delaware) from 1762 to 1776. Although he primarily lived in Philadelphia, he became the leader of the movement for American independence in Delaware. He served as one of Delaware's delegates to the First and Second Continental Congresses and voted for the Declaration of Independence. He left before most of the delegates signed the Declaration and signed it later, perhaps as late as 1781. During the Revolutionary War, he was forced to relocate his family five times to evade British forces. He drafted the Delaware Constitution of 1776 virtually by himself, and it was the first state constitution produced after the Declaration of Independence. As a member of the Second Continental Congress from 1777 to 1783, McKean helped draft the Articles of Confederation and signed them. He served as Chief Justice of Pennsylvania from 1777 to 1799, and was a member of the convention in Pennsylvania that ratified the U.S. Constitution. Initially a Federalist, he became a Democratic-Republican in 1796 over Federalist domestic policies and compromises with Great Britain. He served three terms as governor of Pennsylvania from December 1799 to December 1808. John Barclay (1749-1824) was born in Ireland and emigrated to America by 1775. He served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, then as President Judge of the Courts of Bucks County, Pennsylvania (1789), alderman in Philadelphia (1790-1791), and mayor of Philadelphia (1791-1793). He later served as a Federalist in the Pennsylvania Senate from 1811 to 1813. James Hutchinson (1752-1793) was born in Pennsylvania into a Quaker family and began his medical education in 1771. He received a degree from the Medical Department of the College of Philadelphia in 1774 and served as apothecary to the Pennsylvania Hospital from 1773 to 1775. After studying surgery in London, he returned to Philadelphia in 1777. He served as a surgeon and volunteer soldier in the Revolutionary War, which led the Quakers to disown him. He also served as Surgeon-General of Pennsylvania from 1778 to 1784. He supported Pennsylvania's radical constitution of 1776 but became an anti-Federalist after 1788. He died as a result of his work with victims of the yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia in 1793. Alexander James Dallas (1759-1817) was born in Jamaica and grew up in Scotland and England. He returned to Jamaica in 1781 and two years later moved to Philadelphia, where he practiced law and edited a newspaper and a magazine. He served as Secretary of the Commonwealth under Pennsylvania Governor Thomas Mifflin from 1791 to 1801. Because Mifflin was an alcoholic, Dallas served as de facto governor for much of the late 1790s. He helped found the Democratic-Republican party in Pennsylvania. From 1801 to 1814, he was the U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. In 1814, President James Madison appointed him as Secretary of the Treasury, a position he held for two years. For a brief period in 1815, Dallas also served as acting Secretary of War and acting Secretary of State. Hilary Baker (1746-1798) served as a member of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention of 1787, alderman of Philadelphia (1789-1796), and mayor of Philadelphia (1796-1798). He died in the yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia. Jared Ingersoll (1749-1822) was born in Connecticut, the son of a prominent British official with strong Loyalist sentiments. The younger Ingersoll graduated from Yale College in 1766, and studied law in Philadelphia. Admitted to the bar in 1773, he continued the study of law in London from 1773 to 1776. He became committed to the cause of American independence, returned to Philadelphia in 1778, and established a law practice. He served as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1780 and 1781, and to the Philadelphia Convention of 1787, at which he signed the U.S. Constitution. Ingersoll later served as Attorney General of Pennsylvania (1790-1799; 1811-1817) and as U.S. District Attorney for Pennsylvania (1800-1801). This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses. WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
Unique Signed Abraham Lincoln Signed 1840 Financial Document involving the Schools of Sangamon County and with many fabulous associations!

Unique Signed Abraham Lincoln Signed 1840 Financial Document involving the Schools of Sangamon County and with many fabulous associations!

Lincoln Abraham Promissory Note Signed"A. Lincoln," April 20, 1840. Single page printed recto with docket and additional notes on verso, 7.5" x 6.25". Expert conservation to several intact tears, with light chipping infilled with period paper. Remaining flaws do not overly affect a fine appearance. On April 20, 1840, William Butler borrowed $100 from school fund commissioner Erastus Wright and promised with this document to make payments semi-annually with 12 percent annual interest until repaid. Nathaniel Hay and Abraham Lincoln co-signed the note as sureties that Butler would repay the loan. Hay immediately paid $6 as interest for the first six months, paid $12 in April 1841 for interest for one year, and paid $106 on September 6, 1842, for the principal and remaining interest. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 had established the principle of setting aside the sixteenth section (640 acres) of each township for the support of education. In Illinois, each county appointed a school commissioner to sell land in these sections and to make loans of the proceeds to support public schools in the county. In the case of the loan to Butler represented by this document, the school fund gained $24 in 29 months on the loan of $100. When purchasers or borrowers failed to pay their debts, the school commissioner turned to the local courts to obtain payment. Lincoln and his partners handled dozens of such cases for Wright. Erastus Wright (1799-1870). Wright moved to Springfield, Illinois, in 1821, and became one of the earliest teachers in Sangamon County. A native of Massachusetts, Wright was a fervent abolitionist, and his home was reputedly a stop on the underground railroad. More colorfully, in 1830, Wright obtained an elk that had been partially trained to work in harness but was "rough to ride." Wright hitched the elk to his wagon to haul it into town. For ten years, Wright was the school commissioner of Sangamon County, and he made loans and sold land on behalf of the school fund for the county. In 1865, he was a pallbearer at Lincoln's Springfield funeral. William Butler (1797-1876). In 1828, Butler came to Sangamon County, Illinois, where he was appointed Clerk of the Circuit Court by his early friend and Abraham Lincoln's later law partner Judge Stephen T. Logan. In that capacity Butler met Lincoln, who was a struggling young lawyer. He gave Lincoln the test that admitted him to the bar and entered Lincoln's admission into the court record. Although Lincoln had passed the bar, he faced a difficult task of becoming a successful attorney. Butler took Lincoln under his wing, beginning a friendship that would continue for life. Lincoln was heavily in debt ($400), due in part to his generous nature. Butler paid those debts, over Lincoln's objections, and provided frequent dinner visits, laundry washing, and he even sold Lincoln's horse for him. Between 1836 and 1842, Lincoln ate most meals with the Butler family. When Lincoln dressed for his wedding, it was at the Butler home. It is difficult to overstate the importance of William Butler in the early life of Abraham Lincoln. He saw the potential and encouraged the young man. His influence was a major factor in Lincoln's success, first as a successful attorney and later as President. Butler "took no little interest in Lincoln, while a member of the Legislature." wrote contemporary biographer William H. Herndon. "After his removal to Springfield, Lincoln boarded at Butler's house for several years. He became warmly attached to the family, and it is probable the matter of pay never entered Butler's mind. He was not only able but willing to befriend the young lawyer in this and many other ways." Nathaniel Hay (1808-1856). In 1832, Hay came to Springfield with his father John Hay, who operated a brick yard in Springfield. When he returned from Congress, Abraham Lincoln made his first investment loans to Nathaniel Hay and John Hay. Lincoln also purchased bricks from Hay's brick yard for his home. Among John Hay's seven sons were also Charles, a Warsaw, Illinois, physician whose son John became one of Lincoln's Civil War secretaries and later biographer, and Milton, who had studied law in the office of Stuart & Lincoln. Lincoln had handled cases for the Hays from the beginning of his law practice. In November, 1839, Lincoln had sued Thomas Laswell in the Sangamon County Circuit Court for failure to deliver cord wood to Hay's brickyard in accordance with an agreement made the preceding year. He also sued Mock & Lawell on Hay's behalf to recover a stud horse and bridle. Lincoln and Nathaniel Hay traded professional services on Lincoln's part for bricks on Hay's part, and when Hay died, Lincoln admitted that Hay's estate should have a credit for bricks that Hay supplied for "the pit of a privy" in August 1855, against a promissory note that Hay gave Lincoln in March 1855. This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses. WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Superb Abraham Lincoln Signed Photo Authenticated

Superb Abraham Lincoln Signed Photo Authenticated, Slabbed, and Graded Mint 9!

A Superb Abraham Lincoln Signed Photo Authenticated, Slabbed, and Graded Mint 9 by PSA - A Resolute President, One Month After the Union Victories at Gettysburg and VicksburgLINCOLN, ABRAHAM. Carte-de-visite portrait photograph signed "A. Lincoln" as President, Washington, DC, August 9, 1863. Albumen photograph, 2.5" x 3.5" including card backing, lower corners rounded, top edge trimmed, Gardener's backstamp on verso. Hamilton and Ostendorf, Lincoln in Photographs: An Album o f Every Known Pose, O-71B. Authenticated, slabbed, and graded Mint 9 by PSA. Sold for over $65,000 at Christie's in 2004. On Thursday, August 6, in accordance with a proclamation issued by Lincoln, a day of thanksgiving and prayer was observed throughout the North in the wake of recent important Union military successes at Gettysburg and Vicksburg. In this well-known portrait by Gardner, Lincoln is seated at an ornate circular table, his legs crossed, holding a newspaper in his left hand, his reading glasses in his right. His expression - especially in the lines about his mouth - is resolute and determined. According to John Hay, who accompanied the President to Gardner's studio, Lincoln "was in very good spirits" that day. The images of Lincoln by Gardner that day are the first photographs taken in Gardner's new studio. Lincoln had promised Gardner to be the first to sit for a portrait, and decided on a Sunday visit, in order to avoid curiosity seekers and onlookers in the streets of the capital. Ex-Shapell Manuscript Foundation, Ex-Christie's. This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses. WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.
Vladimir Lenin's Widow

Vladimir Lenin’s Widow, Nadezhda Krupskaya, ALS Re: Soviet Education & Indoctrination: “This constitutes good reading material”

Lenin Vladimir Vladimir Lenin's Widow, Nadezhda Krupskaya, ALS Regarding Soviet Education & Indoctrination: "This constitutes good reading material"   1p Russian autograph letter signed by Nadezhda Krupskaya (1869-1939), Soviet stateswoman and widow of national hero Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924), and signed by her (translated) as "Communist Greetings, N. Krupskaya". Postmarked from Moscow, Soviet Union and dated February 17, 1937. Written in Russian Cyrillic in purple ink on cream laid paper. Expected light paper folds, else near fine. The letter measures 5.5" x 7.5".  Accompanied by the original transmittal envelope, which is an official Enlightenment Commissariat cover featuring Krupskaya's preprinted name. The envelope is stamped, postmarked, and bears several philatelic markings; it is letter-opened at top and with a closed tear.   Krupskaya wrote this letter to a certain "Comrade Tikhonov" in her capacity as Deputy People's Commissar for Education, a position second only to the education minister himself, and one she held between 1929-1939. While Krupskaya wielded limited political power, she exercised considerable influence in the affairs of the Enlightenment Commissariat, especially concerning adult education and support for public libraries. Krupskaya also wrote regularly on the topic of children's education, promoting the thesis that investing in education and indoctrination of the youth greatly benefited Soviet society. The letter is rather typical of her views.   Translation:   "Dear Comrade Tikhonov,   I have received your letter and the issues of Za Gramotnost [Yes to Literacy] newspaper you have sent. I liked that the newspaper tries to interest semi-literate readers in political matters, and to expand their horizons. This constitutes good reading material.   Students' letters, on the other hand, look too much alike, as if they were dictated by the teachers - all follow the same pattern. If left to their own devices, students will likely express similar thoughts, but present them in a different manner.   It is important for students to write on their own - and not just about their studies. Newspapers should periodically include articles that stimulate students to express their opinion.   Overall though, your little newspaper is quite good.   Communist Greetings,   N. Krupskaya".   Krupskaya had married Lenin in 1898, soon after both were exiled to Siberia on different criminal charges. The pair, who had met at a Marxist discussion group in 1894, were married until Lenin's death in 1924.    This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Robert E Lee fantastic ALS mentioning his surrender and Joseph Johnston "the Army of N. Virg from the time I took command of said Army… to the time of its surrender"

Robert E Lee fantastic ALS mentioning his surrender and Joseph Johnston “the Army of N. Virg from the time I took command of said Army… to the time of its surrender”

Lee Robert Autographed letter signed. Single page on lined paper stock, 7.75" x 5.75". Dated "28 June '65" and signed by Robert E Lee as "RE Lee". Page with uneven toning, professional repair on verso to separation along folds. Signature and writing with strong contrast.   A spectacular letter written 2 1/2 months after Lee's surrender to Grant.  Robert E. Lee pens a letter of commendation issued to Provost Marshal Cornelius Boyle at the close of the Civil War. In full:   "Major Cornelius Boyle has served as Provost Marshal Genl. of the Army of N. Virg. From the time I took command of said army in May '62 to the time of its surrender in Apr. '65, during all that time performed the duties of his office faithfully & well. He filled the same office in said Army under Genl. J.E. Johnston. [Signed] R E Lee."   Prior to the surrender, the Confederate espionage organization in Washington was prepared to continue to support eh Army of Northern Virginia in its campaign of 1865. Because Lee planned to leave Richmond and revert to a war of maneuver the secret communication lines from Washington to the organization's two main customers would be much longer and harder to keep in operation. But Mosby, Major Cornelius Boyle, and the Confederate Signal Corps' Secret Line all remained outside the area of Union control and prepared to carry out their responsibilities. Thus, they were in place and prepared to assist the Confederate cause when Booth fled Washington after the assassination of Lincoln.   On April 9, Lee sent a message to Grant announcing his willingness to surrender. The two generals met in the parlor of the Wilmer McLean home at one o'clock in the afternoon.   Characteristically, Grant arrived in his muddy field uniform while Lee had turned out in full dress attire, complete with sash and sword. Lee asked for the terms, and Grant hurriedly wrote them out. All officers and men were to be pardoned, and they would be sent home with their private property–most important, the horses, which could be used for a late spring planting. Officers would keep their side arms, and Lee's starving men would be given Union rations.   However several confederate spies were not allowed access to their private homes. Boyle was denied entry into the city of Washington, and was not able to regain possession of his confiscated land due to his espionage activities during the war. His family lost everything after the war, and this letter of commendation from General Robert E Lee may have been for the purpose of reestablishing himself professionally.    This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE!
Robert E. Lee ANS as Commander of Virginia Forces

Robert E. Lee ANS as Commander of Virginia Forces

Lee Robert Robert E. Lee ANS as Commander of Virginia Forces   LEE, ROBERT E. Confederate General. Autograph Note Signed as Commander of Virginia Forces, on the reverse of the final page of a Letter Signed to him from the important Confederate diplomat James Murray Mason at Winchester, Va., dated May 7, 1861.   Lee's rather lengthy note reads:   "Respy referred to the Govr & council -- Mr Amblers case might be considered as coming within the provision of the ordinance on the subject -- Mr Ambler occupied a responsible office under the Govt: at Washinton. RE Lee."   James Mason had a long and distinguished record in national politics by this time; in the Senate he served for ten years as Chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. He was also a prominent and longtime Southern Rights advocate. On April 17th, the Virginia State Convention had voted for secession, virtually removing the State from the Union. Later in 1861, he was appointed to the potentially important diplomatic position of Confederate Commissioner to Great Britain. While en route there, the U.S. Navy captured his ship and took Mason prisoner. The diplomatic repercussions of this incident almost caused a war between Great Britain and the United States. Mason's letter concerns his son-in-law, John Ambler, who had worked for the U.S. Navy Dept. in Washington before Virginia's secession. After that, he worked for the Confederacy as Acting Quartermaster at Harper's Ferry. Mason,praising his son-in-law's many excellent qualities and experience, writes to ask that Ambler receive a "proper appointment" so that he may remain in his post. This dates from early in the war, when Lee was involved in recruiting military personnel. He had made the difficult decision to resign from the U.S. Army on April 20th, and three days later he was named commander of Virginia's forces. In that position he made " … an extraordinary record in fortifying the rivers and mobilizing the volunteers … " as Douglas S Freeman writes in the Dictionary of American Biography. The second leaf of the letter is inlaid. Choice, very fine condition. An excellent and quite scarce Lee item during the early wartime mobilization period.   Ex-Robert Batchelder collection (priced by him at $10,500).   Provenance: This remarkable piece is offered directly from the estate of Robert Batchelder, who is among the most important dealers of the 20th century, beginning his passion in autographs and historical documents in the late 1960s. Each piece will include Robert Batchelder's original description indicating the noted retail price which could have been 20 years ago, in addition to his inventory folder containing his handwritten notes. His highly diverse background and amazing achievements include a long list of important societal memberships. Examples worthy of noting include an honorary membership in the Society Cincinnati, and membership in the Manuscript Society, the ABAA (Antiquarian Booksellers Association of America), the ANA (American Numismatic Association), the PAGCA (Pennsylvania Antique Gun Collectors Association), the PADA (Professional Autograph Dealer Association), and the UACC (Universal Autograph Collectors Club). He was a graduate of University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School and served in the U.S. Army Air Force.   A portion of the commission on Batchelder lots will be donated to the Alzheimer's Foundation.   This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.   WE PROVIDE IN-HOUSE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE.