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Susanne Schulz-Falster Rare Books

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Dissertations qui ont été lues dans l’Assemblée publique de l’Académie des Sciences et des Belles-Lettres à Berlin. Les années 1784, 1785, & 1786. Pour le jour anniversaire du Roi.

HERTZBERG, Ewald Friedrich Count von. Tall 8vo, pp. [iv], 132; uncut in contemporary paste-paper wrappers; faint dampstaining to upper margin of last signature, else very clean and crisp; a fine, wide-margined copy. First edition of these essays by the Prussian statesman and foreign office official Ewald v. Hertzberg (1725 - 1795), written after the conclusion of his political career and in his capacity as curator of the Berlin Academy. His annual discourses collected here caused a great sensation at the time, since he introduced in them a detailed review of the financial situation of the state. The three essays are entitled Sur la forme des Gouvernemens, & quelle en est la meilleure?, Sur la population des États en general, & sur celles des États Prussiens en particulier, and finally Sur la veritable richesse des États, la Balance du Commerce & celle du Pouvoir.Of these, the first one is of particular interest. In his discussion of the most favourable form of government, Hertzberg opposes the absolute system (following Montesquieu) and supports a limited monarchy. 'The king governs the state independently, but in accordance with fundamental laws and fixed rules, which he does not change without good reason; for if he violates them, he degenerates into a despot. He campaigns for equal representation and supports the rights of the peasant to be represented in government.' The second essay deals in great detail with population statistics. Hertzberg quotes from contemporary authorities such as Süssmilch and Moheau, and gives comprehensive population tables. He maintains that in Prussia population growth is particularly pronounced, as births clearly outstrip deaths in almost all areas. He also gives detailed financial figures on government expenditure to increase industrialisation of the country. The final essay deals in general with national wealth, balance of trade and political strength and stability of the European powers.Hertzberg, who had been one of Frederick the Great's strongest political advisors and had been enobled for his efforts, fared less well with his successor Frederick William. He was highly influential in the establishment of the Berlin Academy, of which he became curator in 1786. Wilhelm von Humboldt deemed him 'the most learned of all the Prussian ministers'. Even though Hertzberg campaigned to free the Berlin Academy from French influences, he gave and published his own talks in the French language. Goldsmiths'-Kress 13314.
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Expériences et Réfléxions sur les Avantages que l’on peut se procurer par les Ventilateurs Naturels.

AVOGADRO, Giuseppe, Conte di Casanova.] Small 8vo, pp. 40; some light foxing; in contemporary marbled boards; minor wear to head and tail of spine and extremities. Rare first French edition of this brief essay examining the use and potential benefits of the recently invented 'ventilateurs naturels', devised by Giuseppe Avogadro, and here translated anonymously. The work first appeared as Saggio di alcuni sperimenti e di varie riflessioni sopra i vantaggi, che si possono trarre dai naturali ventilatori, in 1791. The removal of fetid and noxious fumes, especially located around sewers and latrines, is achieved by the introduction of 'un courant d'air atmosphérique qui chassât avec force l'air fétide qui s'y trouvoit sans mouvement' (p. 8). Experiments carried out at 'l'Hospice de charité de Verceil, et ensuite dans l'Hôpital de la même Ville, où l'on en éprouva les plus prompts et les plus salutaires effets' (p. 37). Born in Vercelli in 1731, Avogadro went on to become Prime Minister of the Department of Sesia, and was created a knight of the Legion d'Onore. An agronomist, he wrote a number of works including, 'Avviso sulla cultura ed irrigazione delle praterie; Metodo per coltivare il lino, secondo il celebre Duhamel; Metodo facile e pratico per la costruzione di una volta' (Dizionario Biografico Universale, p. 239). OCLC locates just one copy at the American Philosophical Society.
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Über den Freyhafen von Venedig mit Rücksicht auf den österreichischen Seehandel im allgemeinen. Nebst einer vergleichenden Übersicht der Industrieverhältnisse Großbritannien’s, Frankreich’s und Österreich’s.

CZOERNIG, Carl Joseph. 8vo, pp. x, 232; some light browning, due to paper quality; uncut and mostly unopened in the original printed wrappers; a little creased and dog-eared, else fine; with heraldic book plate to verso of title. First and only edition of this assessment of the naval trade of Venice, and by extension the Austrian Empire, after the creation of the free port of Venice in 1829. Czoernig gives an introduction to Venetian trade before concentrating on the advantages and disadvantages of the creation of the free port, the enclosed free trade zone where ships could enter, load and unload, without incurring any customs duties or inspections. The economic advantage was clearly that it revived the flagging economic fortunes of Venice, since it again acted as an important distribution centre for the hinterland, potentially with detrimental effect on the other free port, Trieste. Czoernig, however, confirms the predominance of the existing free port of Trieste, because of better road connections and established trade routes to the Austrian Empire. Venice would complement this, by increasing the trade with Lombardy and Italy. Czoernig (1804-1899), chief government statistician and president of the Austrian statistical commission, refined the purpose of government statistics. He wanted it to grow beyond being a mere tool of financial administration and become a study of every phase of a country's economic and social life. For this purpose he introduced innovative and direct methods of gathering statistical information. According to his preface his findings on the Venetian trade are based on a detailed study of thousands of shipping manifestos. Goldsmiths'-Kress 26750.6; Menger c. 144; not in Humpert; see Pibram in ESS IV p. 688 for further information on Czoernig.
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Doutes d’un Provincial, proposés a MM. les Médecins-Commissaires, chargés par le Roi, de l’examen du Magnétisme animal.

SERVAN, Joseph Michel Antoine.] 8vo, [ii], pp. 126; uncut in contemporary block-printed wrappers, overprinting waste from a religious publication, printed in red and black. First edition, one of two issues, of Servan's vigorous defence of Mesmerism, following the negative reports published by the Société Royale de Médecine. 'The best of the many attacks published by the pro-Mesmerists against the report of the first Royal Commission' (Norman M142). Servan (1737-1807), a distinguished French lawyer, and associate of Voltaire and d'Alembert, defends Mesmer by pointing out the subjectivity of the report of the royal commission, making it 'one of the most thoughtful contemporary criticisms of the findings of the commission' (Crabtree 111). He supports his stance by personal experience, and reports that he had been cured by a Mesmerist when traditional medicine had failed to help him.Mesmer's theory of a universal magnetic fluid influencing tides and men alike, led to a large scale investigation of psychological phenomena, resulting ultimately in modern psychopathology and psychotherapy. By concentrating on the 'rapport' of patient and doctor, Mesmer seems to have dealt effectively with nervous disorders. A highly effective publicist, Mesmer generated enormous interest in his teachings all over Europe. See Caillet 10163 and Cioranescu 60157 for other issue with imprint; Norman catalogue M 142; Crabtree 111.
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Synonymisches Handworterbuch der deutschen Sprache für alle, die sich in dieser Sprache richtig ausdrücken wollen. Nebst einer ausführlichen Anweisung zum nützlichen Gebrauche desselben.

EBERHARD, Johann August. 8vo, pp. xvi, 459; bound in contemporary sprinkled half calf over sprinkled boards, spine ruled in gilt, with gilt-lettered and decorated spine label; typographic bookplate on front paste-down, and early ownership inscription in ink on front free endpaper and title; a very fine copy. First edition of this handy guide to the synonyms of the German language, an invaluable help to correct German usage. Since language is the expression of thought, Eberhard argues, it is of the highest importance to express it correctly and actually convey all the nuances desired. He has arranged the dictionary in some twelve hundred groups of words, that have related or similar meanings, such as: 'Begriff, Idee, and Vorstellung; or 'sich entschließen, sich vornehmen, sich vorsetzen, and vorhaben'. Their meaning and use is then explained in detail with the help of examples. The comprehensive index at the end makes the individual articles easily accessible.This handy guide to the German language evolved out of Eberhard's six volume Versuch einer allgemeinen deutschen Synonymik (1795-1802), which was long reckoned the best work on the synonyms of the German language. The abridgement proved popular and was reprinted numerous times, the last (17th) edition being published in 1910. The German theologian and philosopher Eberhard (1739-1809) was a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences and close associate of Nicolai and Moses Mendelssohn. His career in the church was hampered by his liberal ideas, and he subsequently became professor of philosophy at Halle. Zaunmüller 57: 'Gute Behandlung der Bedeutungsunterschiede der deutschen Synonymik'; rare, no copy of the first edition in NUC.