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If it had Happened Otherwise: Lapses into Imaginary History

If it had Happened Otherwise: Lapses into Imaginary History

Churchill, Winston, et al. Edited by J. C. Squire A collection of alternative histories of famous events and people, proposed by the likes of G. K. Chesterton, Emil Ludwig, Hilaire Belloc, Harold Nicolson, and, of course, Winston Churchill. Contributions include such speculations as: "If Byron had Become King of Greece," "If Drouet's Cart had Stuck," "If Napoleon had Escaped to America," "If Booth had Missed Lincoln," and "If it had been Discovered in 1930 that Bacon Really Did Write Shakespeare." Churchill's contribution, titled "If Lee had not Won the Battle of Gettysburg," is a bit more complex than the other entries, as he presents a counter-counter-factual irony, writing from the perspective of an historian in a world where Lee won the Battle of Gettysburg and the Confederacy won the Civil War, and imagining instead the opposite reality. He brilliantly understands and discredits the argument that the South could have remained an independent nation if Lincoln had only let the Confederacy quietly secede. One of Churchill's few pieces of fiction, and uncommon in such an early printing in a dust jacket. Ref. WOODS B18. Very good in a very good, price-clipped dust jacket. Bound in green cloth over boards with spine titled in gilt. Two prior owner bookplates on front pastedown and front free endpaper, respectively. Minor edge wear to book and jacket. Ink spotch to fore edge of textblock. Original cloth over boards. Octavo. [i]-[viii], 1-289 pages
  • $863
Dagbok öfwer en Ostindisk resa åren 1750

Dagbok öfwer en Ostindisk resa åren 1750, 1751, 1752. Med anmärkningar uti naturkunnigheten, främmande folkslags sprak, seder, hushållning m.m. jåmte 12 tabeller och afledne skepps-predikanten Torens bref.Stockholm, Lorentz Ludwig Grefing (printed by N. von Oelreich), 1757. 8vo. With 12 folding engraved plates (numbered 1-12), a small woodcut ornament at the start of the dedication and a decorated initials and an elaborate head-pieces, both built up from typographical ornaments. Contemporary(?) gold-tooled half sprinkled calf, with a beige title-label lettered in gold on the spine, sprinkled paper sides, red edges.

OSBECK, Peter and Olof TORÉN. [8], 376, [16] pp.First edition of an account of two Swedish voyages to China and the East Indies, the first by the Swedish minister, botanist and explorer Peter (Pehr) Osbeck (1723-1805) and the second by the Swedish naturalist Olof Torén (1718-1753). Osbeck's journal contains interesting observations on the languages, cultures and domestic economy of the area's he visited, but the work's main value lies in the sections on foreign plants and fish, depicted in the engravings. The book opens with a preface by Osbeck, dated Stockholm, 25 April 1757, followed by Osbeck's journal of his voyage to Java and China (pp. 1-311). His journal has "definite scientific merit" (Stafleu) and appeared in an English translation in 1771. Included on page 312 is a letter from Linnaeus to Osbeck. Osbeck's journal is followed by Torén's En Ostinsie Resa til Suratte, China &c., narrating in seven letters to Linnaeus his voyage to China, from 1 April 1750 to 26 June 1752.The binding shows very slight signs of wear, slightly foxed and browned throughout, the plates are very slightly foxed but otherwise very clean and clear. Overall in good condition.l Cordier, Sinica, col. 2097; Cox I, p. 298 note (incorrectly dated 1756); Krok, p. 565; Pritzel 6865; cf. Lust 349-350; Stafleu, Linnaeus and the Linnaeans, p. 149 .
  • $3,297
  • $3,297
[TELINGATER & KUKRYNIKSY] Kukryniksy. Otchetnaia vystavka za 6 let: Karikatura

[TELINGATER & KUKRYNIKSY] Kukryniksy. Otchetnaia vystavka za 6 let: Karikatura, politplakat, kniga, zhurnal, gazeta, zhivopis’, teatr [i.e. Kukryniksy. Exhibition of 6-Year Work: Caricature, Political Posters, Books, Magazines, Newspapers, Paintings, Theatre]

[16] pp.: ill. 26x17,5 cm. In original wrappers with letterpress design. Some soiling of covers. One of 3000 copies. Scarce. This is the catalog for the first ever exhibition of Kukryniksy art. It was initiated by Maxim Gorky who also wrote an article for Pravda about this and introduction for the catalog. There was only one their show in the 1930s. The catalog includes caricatures from posters, books, magazines, newspapers, paintings and a photograph of a caricature doll of Vsevolod Meyerhold. The unique design of the catalog allowed to print an agitprop quote by Vladimir Maiakovsky through the whole catalog. The exhibition, poster (in the shape of a triangle - symbol of the group) and this catalog were designed by Solomon Telingater (1903- 1969) who used constructivist graphic method proposed by El Lissitzky in his designs. Telingater wrote influential books on typography and designed some of the most memorable books of the Soviet period. He was the first Soviet citizen to receive the Gutenberg award for his achievements in designing books and typefaces. He designed books as if they were films, or a monumental poster-as sophisticated artistic construction. This kind of book was produced for its collective impact, not merely for the joy of the individual reader. All elements of the book, including the text itself, are connected as one visual art object which makes a very strong impression on its readers. Kukryniksy was a creative group of three artists - Kupriyanov, Krylov and Sokolov - mostly known for their caricatures. It is an exemplary collection of Soviet caricatures and satire. It also contains a satirical group portrait drawn by A. Kanevsky. Kukryniksy said about Telingater that «his innovative methods were first of all sensible and thanks to that increased an impact on the reader. When we worked with him we tried to preserve creative unity of our and his work». Their longtime collaboration was backed up by longtime friendship. Worldcat shows copies located in Princeton and Ohio Universities, Getty Institute, Amherst College, NYPL and the MET.
  • $750
[TRADITIONAL WOODEN ARCHITECTURE] Krest'ianskaia izba na Severe Rossii (Totemskii krai) [i.e. Peasant House in the Russian North (Totemsky District)]

[TRADITIONAL WOODEN ARCHITECTURE] Krest’ianskaia izba na Severe Rossii (Totemskii krai) [i.e. Peasant House in the Russian North (Totemsky District)]

Osipov, D.I. [4], 20 pp., 8 ills. Original illustrated front wrapper preserved. No back cover, some foxing. One of 600 copies produced. Very rare provincial print. First issue of a series "Reports of Scientific Society for Research of the Region of the Totma Museum called after A.V. Lunacharsky". This book on architecture of the Vologda province was written by Dmitry Osipov (1887-1934). He was a member of the Association of Urbanist Architects headed by N. Ladovsky. In 1918, Osipov won a competition on designing a Monument of the Soviet Constitution. Being a central structure in Lenin's Plan of Monumental Propaganda, it was located on Tverskaya square in 1918-1941. He also co-designed with L. Vesnin the village of Kizelovskaya power plant in 1921. Together with A. Rukhliadev, he released some technical publications. This book was aimed to inherit useful principles of North construction in contemporary wooden buildings. The edition comprises 8 full-page lino-cuts by artist Evgeny Pravednikov (1890-1940). Born in St. Petersburg, Evgeny Pravednikov first studied at Penza Art School, then at the Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg. He began contributing in prerevolutionary periodicals with caricatures but was forced to move in the province after 1917. Thus he turned up in Totma (a town of the Vologda province). Pravednikov lived in Totma for about ten years. There he taught drawing at the Petrovsky Craft School and headed its art department. In the early 1920s, he led the historical and archaeological department at the Totma Museum. He is credited with the discovery and study of some early Soviet archaeological sites: Chernyakovskaya, Borovskoye, Krestovskaya, the Pustoshensky burial ground, and the Starototemskoye settlement. Pravednikov traveled a lot around the region, making sketches of wooden architecture. In that new atheist state, he initiated preservation of monuments of iconography and church arts and crafts. Pravednikov insisted on museum storage of monuments, although he collaborated with the magazine "Crocodile", caustically ridiculing clergy and religion under the pseudonym Alexander Topikov. In 1927, Pravednikov tried to encourage local authorities to finance a large-scale historical and ethnographic expedition through the region, but he was refused. Then, Pravednikov family left for Moscow where he embarked on book design. During the Great Purge, the artist was arrested and executed in prison. Not found in the USA.
  • $950
[GAMREKELI AT HIS BEST] Sharavandedi: Leksebi da p'oemebi. Ts'

[GAMREKELI AT HIS BEST] Sharavandedi: Leksebi da p’oemebi. Ts’, 1 [i.e. Aureole: Verses and Poems. The First Book]

Vakeli, I. Tbilisi: Samkhedro stamba, 1923. 139, [4] pp. 22.5x15.5 cm. In original illustrated wrappers. Restored and slightly soiled, blank lower corners of p. 41-44 lost, some pale water stains and small tears, otherwise very good and clean. First edition. One of 1000 copies. A very rare collaboration between two esteemed representatives of Georgian art, Iona Vakeli (1900-1988) and Irakli Gamrekeli. This book is probably one of the only examples by Gamrekeli of a series of abstract drawings for a book of poetry. The main motifs are the industrial city, pictured in chaotic lines and odd angles combined with dancing signboards. The work anticipates the design for H2SO4. Interestingly Gamrekeli used the poor quality of paper available at the time to the advantage of his sharp black & white images. Published in 1923, "Sharavandedi" marked a major breakthrough in the career of the Georgian proletarian poet and playwright, Iona Vakeli. Still only twenty-three years old, the Tbilisi State University student had been trying for several years to achieve success as a writer. Until "Sharavandedi" he had not managed to publish anything more than a pair of verses in the Georgian magazines "Rider", "Theater and Life" and "The Communist". Vakeli would go on to write many poems as well as an astonishing body of work in other fields - thousands of pages of Pushkin, Lermontov, and Goethe translations, and brilliant plays that were regularly performed on the Tbilisi stage, including "Shamil" (premiered on December 30, 1935; director, Dodo Antadze and Sergo Chelidze; stage designer, Tamar Abakelia), and "Aprakune Chimchimeli" (premiered on May 18, 1934; director, Vaso Godziashvili and Niko Godziashvili; stage designer, Petre Otskheli), etc. New Georgian Book Design, 21. Not found in the Worldcat.
  • $2,500
  • $2,500
[TELINGATER

[TELINGATER, SEDEL’NIKOV AND SOVIET POLAR AVIATION] Geroicheskaia Epopeia. Arkticheskii pohod i gibel’ «Chelyuskina» – Ledyanoi lager’ – Sovetskoe pravitel’stvo organizuet spasenie – Letchiki-geroi Sovetskogo Soyuza – Strana sovetov vstrechaet geroev Arktiki. Al’bom foto dokumentov [i.e. A Heroic Epic. The Arctic Voyage and Loss of the Chelyuskin – The Camp on the Ice – The Soviet Government Organizes the Rescue – Pilot Heroes of the Soviet Union – The Country of the Soviets Welcomes the Heroes of the Arctic. An Album of Photo Documents]

[8], 157 pp.: ill., 24 ills. (some folding), 2 miniature pennants. 36x27 cm. In original velour binding with silver lettering and the image of an airplane on the front cover and silver lettering on the spine; in original cloth case. Illustrated endpapers. Very good condition, a tear of a transparent leaf (with map affected), p. 107-110 and one insert detached from the block. Most tissue leaves preserved. First and only edition. One of 5,000 copies. Scarce. An early photobook about an expedition of the ice-breaking steamer Chelyuskin, its crash, and rescue mission. Design was produced by Solomon Telingater, Nikolai Sedel'nikov, and Paula Freiberg. All of them are mostly known for their constructivist experiments in book design. The book contains visual materials about the expedition of Chelyuskin (1933-1934) and a camp on an ice floe that the crew had to set up. The expedition was supposed to work out a scheme for delivering cargo along the Northern Sea Route. On November 4, 1933, Chelyuskin reached the Diomid Islands in the Bering Strait and was driven by ice northwards into the Chukchi Sea, from where its ice drift began. On February 13, 1934, Chelyuskin was crushed by the ice in the Chukchi Sea as a result of strong compression and sank. A total of 104 people went out onto the ice. The mission to airlift the Chelyuskinites to safety began on March 5. Pilot A. Lyapidevsky was able to remove twelve women and children from the ice floe. The last flight that brought the remaining crew members to the mainland took place on April 13, 1934. Some pilots were unable to lift anyone from the ground due to the small carrying capacity of aircrafts, but brought food or delivered a doctor to the ice floe. The rescue of the ship's crew from the "ice siege" was monitored by the whole country, reports were broadcast on the radio and printed in newspapers. Finally, the Chelyuskinites reached Moscow by train and were met by young pioneers with flowers. Memoirs of the rescue operation began to appear in Soviet press from 1934 onwards. The first edition dedicated to this topic was the two-volume "A Heroic Epic. Voyage of the Chelyuskin" with the sequel "How We Saved the Chelyuskinites." Together, these volumes contained detailed reminiscences of the expedition members and pilots: A. Liapidevskii, S. Levanevskii, M. Vodop'ianov, I. Doronin, M. Slepnev, V. Molokov, M. Babushkin, etc. In two months and 23 air routes, the pilots managed to transfer 104 people from the "ice siege". The pilots were the first to be honored with the title Hero of the Soviet Union. This particular book includes pictures of the expedition members, a map of the camp, drawings by participants, a folding reproduction of a wall newspaper "We Won't Surrender in Chukchi Sea and on Drifting Ice Floes", diary notes, and two miniature silk pennants. Most photographs were taken by members of the expedition during the winter on the ice floe, but there are also photographs of the meeting of the rescued in Moscow. Some of the photos are mounted, the rest are printed. Among the inserts are three folding leaves. A photomontage composition features pilots' portraits and photos of their airplanes flying above. One folding map shows Soviet Arctic voyages of the 1930s. Another one demonstrates rescue air routes for the Chelyuskinites with the names of pilots indicated. The cover of the book was made from the same material that was used to make the warm clothes of the Chelyuskin crew. The binding color exists in five versions: white, cream, blue, and two shades of gray. The writer Lev Nikulin, who was involved in the publication of "A Heroic Epic," wrote: "When you see how the books about the expedition and the rescue of the Chelyuskinites are made, you feel a certain embarrassment at the thought that your work as a writer is less polished and thorough than that of the superb craftspeople from the Red Proletarian printing shop." Karasik, M. The Soviet Photobook, 1920-1941. P. 352-353. Worldcat shows copies located in LoC, Yale, Michigan, North Carolina, Wesleyan Universities, Getty Institute, NYPL, Houston Museum of Fine Arts.
  • $4,500
  • $4,500
Christianity in the Making

Christianity in the Making, 3 Volumes (Vol. I, Jesus Remembered; Vol. 2, Beginning From Jerusalem; Vol. 3: Neither Jew Nor Greek)

Dunn, James D.G. Large Thick Octavos. In three volumes. Many scholars consider these volumes of over 3,000 pages the definitive study of early Christianity from its earliest beginnings to the period at the end of the 2nd Century. In the first volume, Jesus Remembered, Dunn has excavated the gospels to disclose Jesus of Nazareth and his mission, within the methods of Palestinian Judaism. In the second volume, beginning from Jerusalem, he examines the origins of the church from Paul's mission found in Acts and the Pauline epistles. The third volume: Neither Jew nor Greek, he traces the tradition from the destruction of the Jerusalem temple until the landmark formulation of Irenaeus, who established the four gospels as the essential truth of the Christian church. His work in details relates the extra-canonical literature as well as the Gospel of Thomas, as well as the importance of how Bar Kokhba's revolt forced the 2nd century post-apostolic writers to reinterpret that event and the Greco-Roman culture. Dunn insist that James, the brother of Jesus, merits recognition equal to that of Peter and Paul because of how he kept the influence of Jerusalem central to the Christian faith expanded throughout the Roman world. It is an essential reference to the serious student of the earliest days of Jesus as well as how Jesus was remembered, and his message spread throughout the Roman empire in the first two centuries. Vol. I. xvii, 1019 pages; Vol. 2. xv, 1347 pages; Vol. 3. xiv, 946 pages. A fine set bound in tan cloth, spines lettered in dark brown, each in their original dust jackets. A lovely set. No names, bookplates ot notes. (the set is in print in paperback only at $224).
  • $438
Chilias logarithmorum ad totidem numerous rotundos

Chilias logarithmorum ad totidem numerous rotundos, praemissa demonstration legitima ortus logarithmorum eorumque usus . [with:] Supplementum chiliadis logarithmorum, continens praecepta de eorum usu

KEPLER, Johannes the first theoretical work on the construction of logarithms. First edition, the Macclesfield copy, of Kepler's logarithmic tables, constructed by means of his own original method. Of the greatest rarity, especially when complete with the correction leaf and the second part, which gives examples of the application of logarithms and details of their construction. It was through the use of these tables that Kepler was able to complete his monumental Tabulae Rudolphinae (1627), the superiority of which "constituted a strong endorsement of the Copernican system, and insured the tables' dominance in the field of astronomy throughout the seventeenth century" (Norman). Kepler indicated the importance of logarithms allegorically on the frontispiece to the Tabulae Rudolphinae. On the top of the temple stand six goddesses. The third from the left represents logarithms: in her hands she holds rods of the ratio of one to two, and the number around her head shows the Keplerian natural logarithm of 1/2: 0.6931472. But logarithms played another important role in Kepler's astronomical work, since without them he may never have discovered his third law of planetary motion. Kepler discovered this law early in 1618, at the same time that he first had access to tables of logarithms (see below). Moreover, his initial formulation of the third law was (to use modern terminology) in terms of a log-log plot, rather than the more familiar terms of squared periods and cubed distances: "The proportion between the periodic times of any two planets is precisely one and a half times the proportion of the mean distances" (Werke VI, 302). "In a sense, logarithms played a role in Kepler's formulation of the Third Law analogous to the role of Apollonius' conics in his discovery of the First Law, and with the role that tensor analysis and Riemannian geometry played in Einstein's development of the field equations of general relativity. In each of these cases we could ask whether the mathematical structure provided the tool with which the scientist was able to describe some particular phenomenon, or whether the mathematical structure effectively selected an aspect of the phenomena for the scientist to discern" (Brown, p. 555). Provenance: The Earls of Macclesfield, Shirburn Castle, with engraved bookplate, shelf-mark on front pastedown, and blind-stamped Macclesfield crest on blank margins of first three leaves. After painstakingly extracting from the observational data of Tycho Brahe his first two laws of planetary motion around 1605 (first published in Astronomia nova, 1609), there followed a period of more than twelve years during which Kepler searched for further patterns or regularities in the data."Then, as Kepler later recalled, on the 8th of March in the year 1618, something marvelous 'appeared in my head'. He suddenly realized that The proportion between the periodic times of any two planets is precisely one and a half times the proportion of the mean distances. why, after twelve years of struggle, [did] this way of viewing the data suddenly 'appear in his head' early in 1618? . It seems as if a purely mathematical invention, namely logarithms, whose intent was simply to ease the burden of manual arithmetical computations, may have led directly to the discovery/formulation of an important physical law, i.e., Kepler's third law of planetary motion . Kepler announced his Third Law in Harmonices Mundi, published in 1619, and also included it in his Ephemerides of 1620. The latter was actually dedicated to Napier, who had died in 1617. The cover illustration showed one of Galileo's telescopes, the figure of an elliptical orbit, and an allegorical female (Nature?) crowned with a wreath consisting of the Napierian logarithm of half the radius of a circle. It has usually been supposed that this work was dedicated to Napier in gratitude for the 'shortening of the calculations', but Kepler obviously recognized that it went deeper than this, i.e., that the Third Law is purely a logarithmic harmony" (Brown, p. 555). Kepler further illustrated the importance he attached to logarithms in the famous frontispiece to Tabulae Rudolphinae (which he designed himself): one of the muses standing on the temple is 'Logarithmica', and in her halo shines the number 69314.72 (100,000 times the natural logarithm of the number 2). "Kepler first saw Napier's tables [Mifirici logarithmorum canonis descriptio, 1614] in the spring of 1617, but he examined them only superficially at that time. Not until 1619 did Kepler have a copy of Napier's tables, but by then he was more familiar with the logarithms in a book of 1618 by Benjamin Ursinus [Trigonometria logarithmica], his former assistant at Prague and Linz, who had adapted Napier's logarithms, abbreviating the tabular data to two places. The value and significance of the new tables now became clear to Kepler" (Belyi, p. 655). "However, he was not content simply to accept the new mechanical aid as he found it. Napier, in his work, had simply presented the tables of numbers without stating how his logarithms were to be computed. So in the first instance his "wonderful canon" must have operated like a magic trick. In fact, in the beginning, mathematicians as serious as Maestlin mistrusted the new aid to calculation. Was it permissible for a rigorous mathematician to utilize numerical tables about whose construction he knew nothing? Was there not danger that employing them might lead to false conclusions, even if the calculation was proved to agree in many cases? When Kepler, during his visit to Württemberg in 1621, discussed these questions with Maestlin, the latter even ventured so far as to observe "it is not seemly for a professor of mathematics to be childishly pleased about any shortening of the calculations." Kepler differed. He wanted to prove and interpret the new aid to calculation by solid methods and subsequently calculate logarithms himself. "In the winter of 1621-1622 he carried out hi
  • $75,000
  • $75,000
Mechanica sive motus scientia analytice exposita.

Mechanica sive motus scientia analytice exposita.

EULER, Leonhard THE BIRTH OF ANALYTICAL MECHANICS. First edition of "Euler's famous work on mechanics in which he introduced the use of analytical methods instead of the geometrical methods of Newton and his followers" (Timoshenko, p. 29). Mechanica won the praise of many leading scientists of the time: Johann Bernoulli said of the work that "it does honour to Euler's genius and acumen," while Lagrange in his own Mécanique analytique acknowledged Euler's mechanics to be "the first great work where Analysis has been applied to the science of motion." "In an introduction to the Mechanica Euler outlined a large program of studies embracing every branch of science. The distinguishing feature of Euler's investigations in mechanics as compared to those of his predecessors is the systematic and successful application of analysis. Previously the methods of mechanics had been mostly synthetic and geometrical; they demanded too individual an approach to separate problems. Euler was the first to appreciate the importance of introducing uniform analytic methods into mechanics, thus enabling the problems to be solved in a clear and direct way. Euler's concept is manifest in both the introduction and the very title of the book, Mechanica sive Motus Scientia analytice exposita. This first large work on mechanics was devoted to the kinematics and dynamics of a point-mass. The first volume deals with the free motion of a point-mass in a vacuum and in a resisting medium; the section on the motion of a point-mass under a force directed to a fixed center is a brilliant analytical reformulation of the corresponding section of Newton's Principia; it was sort of an introduction to Euler's further works on celestial mechanics. In the second volume, Euler studied the constrained motion of a point-mass; he obtained three equations of motion in space by projecting forces on the axis of a moving trihedral of a trajectory described by a moving point, i.e. on the tangent, binormal and principal normal. Motion in the plane is considered analogously. In the chapter on the motion of a point on a given surface, Euler solved a number of problems on the differential geometry of surfaces and of the theory of geodesics" (DSB). "On the path to rational mechanics, the principal question facing Euler was how to reorganize mechanics by applying the analytic method, along with how to formulate the fundamental, general principles at its base. The analytic method, which refers to his systematic employment of the terms and symbols of differential and integral calculus, was for Euler a heuristic mode of thought and a means to an end rather than simply an algorithmic approach. Behind the synthetic geometric format of Newton's Principia, including conic sections and quadratures, Euler saw a host of methods: infinitesimals, geometric limit procedures, interpolation techniques, and infinite series. Still, Newton had not devised the partial differential equations of motion. Euler was more indebted to the Continental geometers, led by the Bernoullis, who in an ad hoc fashion were applying differential calculus, then barely half a century old, to achieve precise solutions of problems of motion, its generations, and its alteration - including instantaneous acceleration - in physics that neither analytic geometry nor the ancient synthetic method of Euclidean geometry could attain. Breaking decisively with those two geometries, Euler sought to express Newtonian mechanics with Leibnizian differential equations and the partial differential equations that the Bernoullis had introduced, and he added many more of the latter. He differed from Leibniz, however, in evolving his concept of function by examining formulas and the relations between quantities rather than curves; he thus formalized the subject. By 1734 Euler had returned to writing the Mechanica with a singleness of purpose and soon completed the first volume. By then he had written for the Commentarii nine articles on mechanics and eleven on solving its problems; he was to include a summary of these in the Mechanica. "In 1736 the Petersburg Academy, which had promised funding for the publication of most of Euler's future books, issued his 980-page Mechanica sive motus scientia analytice exposita (Mechanics, or the science of motion set forth analytically) in two volumes. These were each too large to appear in the Commentarii but were, as noted on the title page, supplements to it. Their title states Euler's central concept, though he briefly considered Dynamica as an alternative title. Johann I Bernoulli wrote in a letter that he thought Dynamica had merit, but Euler quickly settled on Mechanica and dedicated these volumes to his 'illustrious and most excellent' friend, academy president Korff. "The preface to the Mechanica emphasizes its importance: '[I]f analysis is needed anywhere, then it is certainly in mechanics. Although the reader can convince himself of the truth of the exhibited propositions, he does not acquire a sufficiently clear and accurate understanding of them, so that if those questions be ever so slightly changed he will not be able to answer them independently unless he turns to analysis and solves the same propositions using analytic methods. This in fact happened to me when I began to familiarize myself with Newton's Principia and Hermann's Phoronomia; although it seemed to me that I clearly understood the solutions of many of the problems, I was nevertheless unable to solve problems differing slightly from them. But then I tried, as far as I was able, to distinguish the analysis [hidden] in the synthetic method and to my own ends rework systematically those same propositions, as a result of which I understood the problem much better. . . . I expounded . . . [the propositions anew] using a systematic and unified method and reordered them more conveniently.' "In putting forward simple and uniform analytic methods and logically arranging fundamental propositions and new definitions, t
  • $7,500
  • $7,500