CAUCHY, Augustin Louis, Baron.
4to, 1 leaf, 68 pages, 1 leaf (errata). Stain in lower outer corner of title-page and small repair in lower inner corner, some leaves browned in the extreme margins. Original(?) blue wrappers, uncut. FIRST EDITION of one of Cauchy?s most important papers, the culmination of his work on definite integrals, begun with a mémoire in 1814. ?Genuine complex integration is still lacking in the 1814 mémoire? In a mémoire détaché of 1825 [Cauchy] took a long step towards what is now called Cauchy?s integral theorem? The important 1825 mémoire was neither used nor quoted until 1851, a circumstance utterly strange and hard to explain? (DSB). Parkinson, Breakthroughs, 1825. Bell, Men of mathematics, p. 250: ??a landmark in the history of mathematical analysis.? See En français dans le texte 231 (note).
CAUCHY, Augustin Louis, Baron.
4to, 2 leaves, 56 pages. Some minor spotting in the margins. Original mauve printed wrappers (spine very neatly repaired), uncut and partly unopened. FIRST EDITION. ?Cauchy had introduced his important calculus of residues in 1826 and devoted several articles in his Exercises de Mathématiques to the technique. In this separately published memoir he shows that his method produces a multitude of formulae, among which are those given by Lagrange and Fourier on the theory of heat. He demonstrates how, with the aid of the calculus of residues, one can integrate linear equations with partial differences and use the integrals to verify conditions similar to those encountered in questions of mathematical physics when one considers solid bodies or fluids where the dimensions remain finite? (Roger Gaskell, Catalogue 32, item 19). See En français dans le texte 231 (note).
[NIGHTINGALE.] [HERBERT, Sidney.]
Folio, 2 leaves, pp. iii?lxxxv, 607, (1), 1 folding hospital plan, 7 folding charts, 10 coloured diagrams (5 folding), and 5 folding coloured plates of barrack and hospital designs. Edges of a few leaves and plates at the ends slightly chipped. Original blue printed wrappers (somewhat darkened, neatly restored). Loosely inserted are four pages of manuscript notes on House of Commons paper. FIRST EDITION of the official ?Blue Book? or report of the Commission set up by Lord Panmure, largely at Florence Nightingale?s instigation. Her material contributions to the Report are in the Evidence and in Appendix LXXII, pp. 361?394 and 516?543 (although these pages include Appendixes LXXXIII?LXXV). ?In a sense the whole Report may be regarded as one of Florence Nightingale?s works, and she herself thought of it as such. It was actually written by Sidney Herbert in August 1857, but he had much assistance from Miss Nightingale? Throughout 1857 she was in constant touch with Herbert, Sutherland, McNeill, Farr and many others in connection with the work of the Commission, examining the evidence presented to the Commissioners, gathering statistical data, working out the details of hospital construction; editing, correcting and advising. Finally, on its appearance, she arranged for the Report to be reviewed in the most influential monthly and quarterly journals, and nominated the reviewers in collaboration with Herbert? (Bishop & Goldie). The Report was the result of the official inquiry, and in a sense a parallel to Miss Nightingale?s own Notes on matters affecting the health, efficiency. and hospital administration of the British Army, which appeared later in 1858. Bishop & Goldie 51.
Large 8vo, pp. ix, 1 leaf, pp. 187, 11 folding plans of hospitals, 3 folding samples of forms, and 2 large folding plans of London and Paris. Tear in fold of the large plan of Paris neatly repaired. Original dark mauve cloth (spine neatly repaired), brown endpapers, uncut. Paper very slightly browned in the margins, but a very good copy. Inscribed at the top of the title-page ?Presented to W.J. Nixon Esq. by the Council of the Nightingale Fund, Decmber 1874? and with the Fund?s blind stamp adjacent (William J. Nixon, House Governor, the London Hospital); signature of E.W. Goodall, Hampstead, Jan. 2 1907. Third and definitive edition. See G&M 1611, the first separate edition of 1859, consisting of 108 pages, and very similar in appearance to Notes on Nursing. ?The little book, revolutionary in character, set the seal on Miss Nightingale?s authority on the subject of hospitals, and gave a new direction to their construction? (Sir James Paget in 1859). For this third edition, Miss Nightingale wrote in the preface that it had been ?necessary to rewrite the whole of it, and to make so many additions to the matter that it is in reality a new book.? The new edition caused The Lancet to say of it in 1864 that ?no one has studied the great subject with which this important book deals so thoroughly as its authoress.? Bishop & Goldie, Bio-bibliography, 101.
8vo, pp. (vii), 108, + 8 pages of advertisements at the end, folding letterpress table and 4 folding plates of hospital plans. With the half-title and the final advertisements. Original brown cloth (neatly rebacked, one upper corner a little worn), brown endpapers. Contemporary inscription ?From the Author? (not in Nightingale?s hand) on half-title. FIRST EDITION IN BOOK FORM. ?Based on Nightingale?s extensive knowledge of English and Continental hospitals, the work was the most exhaustive study to date of hospital planning and administration. She blamed the majority of hospital deaths on overcrowding, lack of light and ventilation, and the collection of large numbers of the sick under one roof? (Norman). ?The little book, revolutionary in character, set the seal on Miss Nightingale?s authority on the subject of hospitals, and gave a new direction to their construction? (Bishop & Goldie). It was made up of two papers read before the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science and three articles reprinted from The Builder. This copy has neat contemporary annotations and markings in the margins, evidently by an important physician with experience of the subject, which add to and sometimes correct the text, e.g. ?In 1817 & 18 the Irish fever patients did better by the road-side than in hospital. Stromeyer takes the windows out of fever as I did out of cholera hospitals.? G&M 1611. Bishop & Goldie, Bio-bibliography, 100 (iii). Norman catalogue 1599.
Small 8vo, ff. 345, (7). Woodcut device on title, historiated woodcut initials, numerous pictorial woodcuts in the text, text printed in italics. Some foxing, dampstain in fore-edge margin of first and last leaves. Contemporary vellum, spine lettered in gilt, upper cover a little stained, a few small holes in the vellum. Early inscription erased from title leaving two tiny holes. Bookplate of Clifton College Science Library. Fourth edition of the only printed work to cover the whole field of metallurgy as known at that time, and the first comprehensive account of the fire-using arts. This work is the fruit of Biringuccio?s actual experience, and embraces virtually the whole field of technology. It is divided into ten books, which deal with (1) metallic ores; (2) the ?semi-minerals? (including mercury, sulphur, gems and glass); (3) assaying and preparing ores for smelting; (4) the parting of gold and silver, both with nitric acid, and with antimony sulfide or sulphur; (5) alloys of gold, silver, copper, lead, and tin; (6) the art of casting large statues and guns; (7) furnaces and methods of melting metals; (8) the making of small castings; (9) miscellaneous pyrotechnical operations, including alchemy, distillation, smithing and pottery; and (10) the making of saltpetre, gunpowder and fireworks. ?Virtually all of Biringuccio?s descriptions are original. He is important in art history for his description of the peculiarly Renaissance arts of casting medallions, statues, statuettes, and bells. His account of typecasting, given in considerable detail, is the earliest known. The Pirotechnia contains eighty-three woodcuts, the most useful being those depicting furnaces for distillation, bellows mechanisms, and devices for boring cannon and drawing wire. ?[It] is a prime source on many practical aspects of inorganic chemistry. Biringuccio?s approach is in strong conflict with that of the alchemists, whose work he evaluates in eleven pages of almost modern criticism, distinguishing their practical achievements from their theoretical motivations. Duveen pp. 79?80. See Dibner 38; Parkinson, Breakthroughs, 1540; Stillwell, The awakening interest in science, VI, 827. Partington, II, pp. 32?37. Singer, History of technology, III, p. 27, etc.
2 volumes, 8vo, pp. xxiv, 528, engraved allegorical frontispiece; pp. xvi, (529)?898, (14) index, and 12 folding engraved plates (plate VII is unnumbered and is a world map of prevailing winds). Titles within double ruled borders, woodcut head- and tailpieces and initials. Contemporary speckled calf (short cracks at tops of joints of volume 1 and small piece chipped from head of spine, label chipped), a nice, very clean set. Signature of John Alexander in upper margin of titles. Third edition of the second English translation, by Dugdale revised by Shaw, from the Latin edition revised in part by Newton and first published in 1672. Varen?s Geographia generalis (Amsterdam, 1650) was the standard geographic text for more than a century. It is in three sections: the first examines the mathematical facts relating to the earth, the second examines the effects of the sun, stars, climates and seasons, and the third treats the divisions of the surface of the earth. In this Varen laid down the principles of what is now known as regional geography. ?Varenius?s work long held the position as the best treatise on scientific and comparative geography? (DSB). Wallis 360.02 (with incorrect collation). This edition not in Babson.
[DIGBY, Sir Kenelm.]
Large folio (41 x 27.6 cm.), pp. (xliv), 466. Without the final blank leaf Nnn4 (as usual). Woodcut ornament on title, woodcut head- and tailpieces. Faint dampstain in upper margin throughout, occasional very faint dampstain in lower margin, a few tiny wormholes in gathering A. Contemporary red morocco (ends of spine rubbed, corners a little worn, a few small repairs, some dark stains and small scratch marks on upper cover), gilt borders and panels on sides, spine richly and delicately gilt in compartments, inner gilt dentelles, endpapers replaced probably in the early 20th century, gilt edges, armorial bookplate. An impressive copy. Inscribed by Digby at the foot of the title-page ?for my Lord Digby? (Digby?s cousin John Digby, earl of Bristol). FIRST EDITION, presentation copy to a close relative (the book is dedicated to Digby?s son) on large paper, in contemporary red morocco. This introduction by Digby of Gassendian and Cartesian atomism into England provided Boyle and Newton with the foundations for their achievements in chemistry and physics. ?Digby?s Two Treatises is a landmark work in several fields of early science. It is the first fully developed expression of atomism or corpuscular theory; the first important defence of Harvey on the circulation in English; a modern presentation of the nervous system predating Descartes; and a ground-breaking work in embryology. It also contains the first recorded patch-test for allergy; the fullest early account in English of teaching lip-reading; and material on conditioning anticipating Pavlov? (Rubin). Of the 38 chapters, Digby devotes six to light and colours, three to magnetism and three to generation and physiology. Wing D1448. Duveen pp. 171?172. Thorndike VII, pp. 498?502. Needham, History of embryology, pp. 102?107. Keynes, Bibliography of?Harvey, p. 121. Rubin, D., Sir Kenelm Digby F.R.S. 1603?1665. A bibliography based on the collection of K. Garth Huston, Sr., M.D. (1991) for Jeremy Norman & Co, pp. 12?15, expanding on the summary quoted above.
[LAMANDÉ, Mandé Corneille.]
4to, 2 leaves (half-title and title), 135 pages, and 1 long folding plate of the bridge. Original blue marbled wrappers (spine a little worn), uncut. Folding plate a little spotted, otherwise a very clean copy. Small bookplate of ?L?Ingénieur Maillebiau? FIRST EDITION. The new bridge over the Seine at Rouen was decided upon in 1810 and work began the following year following the plans of Lemasson. In 1812 it was placed under the direction of Lamandé, who proposed several changes. It consists of two equal parts, which may be considered as two distinct bridges not in line with each other, their axes comprising an angle of 146º in order to bring the two bridges perpendicular to the two arms of the river. Each bridge consists of three segmental arches, the middle ones having a span of 101 feet 8 inches and the lateral arches a span of 85 feet 3 inches. Lamandé gives a history of the bridges at Rouen, beginning with Queen Matilda?s bridge of c. 1160. That was replaced one of boats which lasted for nearly two centuries, and was in turn replaced by this new bridge. It was destroyed in 1940. See Cresy, E., An encyclopædia of civil engineering (1847), 1, p. 276.
Large 4to (300 x 213 mm.), pp. vi, (ii), 145, VII, fine engraved portrait of Volta by Garavaglia, addenda slip pasted to last page. Contemporary green half roan, marbled sides. Sides rubbed and somewhat stained, edges worn, spotting on a few leaves, otherwise a fine copy with wide margins on excellent quality paper. FIRST EDITION, and a large paper copy. This account of the overthrow of the galvanic theory of animal electricity by Volta, in which he reviewed his reasons for identifying galvanic and common electricity, formed the conclusion of the great Italian physicist?s publications on his theory. The memoir was originally submitted under the name of a student in a prize competition in 1805, but not published until 1814, by Volta?s pupil and successor, Pietro Configliachi, with additional notes by Volta. At the end is a bibliography of Volta?s publications listing 44 works, all except one or two in journals or other works. The present book is thus one of Volta?s few separately published books. Dibner, The founding fathers of electrical science, p. 20, reproducing the portrait. Wheeler Gift 726. Scolari/Fossatti, Bibliografia, 220, describing this work as a ?fondamentale memoria di capitalissima importanze?.
Engraving and aquatint (48 x 60.5 cm) by F. Jukes from an original drawing by J. Parry. Slight dust soiling overall, single tiny hole near the top edge neatly repaired. ?Telford's engineering career developed from 1793 on his appointment as ?General Agent, Surveyor, Engineer, Architect and Overlooker? (Gibb, 28) to the important 68-mile Ellesmere Canal, joining the rivers Mersey, Dee, and Severn. The canal, now a thriving leisure facility, still makes use of many buildings and structures designed and built under Telford?s direction. The most remarkable is Pontcysyllte cast-iron aqueduct over the Dee, based on his embryo sketch design of March 1794, except for the piers, but not developed until after the iron trough concept had been proved operationally at Longdon-on-Tern aqueduct on the Shrewsbury Canal in 1795?6. At Pontcysyllte, with the support and approval of William Jessop, Telford deviated from traditional bulky masonry construction by building eighteen upright masonry piers and forming nineteen arches with cast-iron ribs supporting an iron trough with 1 in. thick sides, 1007 ft. long and 126 ft. high. The ironwork was made and erected by William Hazledine, the masonry was built by John Simpson, and the whole supervised by Matthew Davidson. The result, the supreme engineering achievement of the canal age, was still in service in 2003. Sir Walter Scott thought it ?the most impressive work of art he had ever seen? (ibid., 35) (ODNB). It is still the longest navigable aqueduct in Britain. Skempton does not list any work on the Pontcysyllte aqueduct. This fine and large engraving is probably therefore the first and best contemporary illustration of this pioneering structure. It includes a summary of the construction details in the lower right corner.
Folio, pp. 7, (3), 129, (3), 131?152, (2), 153?182, (2), 183?214, and 8 engraved plates (6 double-page) of designs for the West Riding, Bethlem, and other asylums. Early manuscript pagination in upper corner of rectos and plates. Foxing on the plates, otherwise a clean copy. Original blue boards (corners a little worn), new paper spine with printed paper label, new endpapers. FIRST EDITION of the four Reports for 1815, one of the most important documents in the history of psychiatry. The actual report of the committee comprises the first 7 pages, the four Reports themselves containing the Minutes of Evidence, taken from some of the leading figures in psychiatry of the time. There were four Reports in 1815, published between 25 May and 26 June, and a further three in 1816. ?Together they were a survey of the conditions and treatment of the insane wherever they were confined? A revelation to all but a few when they appeared, they are today a historical source of the first importance containing information nowhere else to be found about how the insane actually fared as opposed to what was written about insanity in books, a disparity between theory and practice which emerges glaringly. Next to them the two earlier Parliamentary enquiries?appear almost insignificant. In contrast the 1815/16 Committee?s Minutes of evidence is a monumental documentary?with plans of asylums, covering all aspects of asylum life?? (Hunter & Macalpine, pp. 696?703). COPAC has one entry but gives full pagination, recording 2 copies.
Small 8vo, pp. ix, 249, (1). With 112 illustrations in the text. Original red cloth (spine faded and a little worn at ends, small hole in cloth on upper cover, upper edge of upper board bumped and with 2 cm. damage to edge), printed advertisements on the endpapers. Signature of Ernest Talbot Dove, 1901, on the half-title. FIRST EDITION. One of the first books in the English language on the automobile, the most important development in personal transport after the horse. The year 1896 saw the publication of the first automotive books in English ? the other books published that year included those of Knight and Sennett. Farman was a mechanical engineer, and his book gives a great deal of information on the history and technology of the horseless carriage and on early motor cars. It was published in Paris in the same year in French (Farman was born in Paris and his first language was French). He was the brother of the aviator Henry Farman, and together they established the largest motor agency in Paris, the Palais de l'Automobile, dealing in Delauney-Bellevilles, Panhard-Levassors, and Renaults. Norman catalogue 766.
EXPOSITION UNIVERSELLE, 1855.
8vo, 2 leaves (half-title and title), 511 pages, and 2 folding plans. Contemporary green straight-grained cloth, green morocco spine gilt in compartments, gilt edges. Mild foxing on the first and last few leaves but a fine copy. Lettered on the upper cover that this copy is a gift from the Prince Napoléon, president of the commission, his his arms in gilt on the lower cover, and a letter from his office to M. Rossignol Dolléons pasted to the front flyleaf. FIRST EDITION. The Exposition Universelle was the second international exhibition in the world, after that in London in 1855. It was larger than its predecessor but the same number of countries participated. This book gives details of the organisation, documentation, finances and statistics of this important event.
GRAAF, Regnier de.
8vo, 12 leaves, pp. 151, (17), and 3 engraved plates (2 folding). Title within double ruled border with publisher?s woodcut device. Folding plates somewhat soiled and creased. Contemporary panelled calf, nicely rebacked, gilt edges (tips of corners worn). Manuscript ex libris of Thomas Lucas, 1727, on front pastedown and with his initials in blind on both covers. FIRST EDITION IN ENGLISH. See G&M 974 (the first, exceedingly rare, edition of 1664). The first canalisation of the pancreatic duct. De Graaf was one of the earliest investigators of the pancreatic secretion. He collected the pancreatic juice of dogs by means of introducing a temporary cannula, made from the quill of a duck, into the pancreatic duct of a living dog. He studied the liquid so obtained, commenting on the small quantity secreted and on its apparent properties. He discusses the uses of this juice in digestion. He compared it with human pancreatic juice and found the two to have identical properties. ?De Graaf?s account of his unsuccessful attempts to collect pancreatic juice, followed by his eventual success, is one of the most interesting passages in the history of the experimental method?? (Foster). Wing G1463. Foster, Lectures on the history of physiology, pp. 153?157, and Selected Readings in the History of Physiology, pp. 166?168. Russell, British anatomy, 329. Norman catalogue 924 (this copy). This was the only English edition, and while not as difficult to find as the first edition, it is still of considerable rarity.
HELLOT, [Jean], [Pierre-Joseph] MACQUER, & LE PILEUR D?APLIGNY.
8vo, pp. x, (vii), 206, 209?508, (4) adverts, and 6 engraved plates. Contemporary red morocco (joints and ends of spine very neatly repaired), flat spine richly gilt and with green morocco label, sides with rope-twist borders, marbled endpapers. Second edition in English (but see below) of this collection, consisting of three separate works: Jean Hellot?s L?art de la teinture des laines (1750), Pierre-Joseph Macquer?s L?art de la teinture en soie (1763), and Le Pileur d?Apligny?s L?art de la teinture des fils et étoffes de coton (1776). These are three of the thirteen key works in the history of dyeing published before 1856 (Edelstein), and ?the major importance of [Hellot?s] book lay in the careful discussion of techniques which made it a standard work for the remainder of the century? (DSB). The anonymous translator evidently considered the French dyers of the period, who were subject to regulation and inspection, to be superior to those in England, to whom these authoritative works were unknown. Only the work by Hellot had been translated before (Dublin, 1767), but the present translator considered that translation very inferior. The book is dedicated to the Society of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. This collection was first published in Paris in 1785, but that edition is very rare, ESTC recording only 2 copies. It is possible that the sheets of the two editions are the same. Cole 615. Neville I, p. 607 (lacking the final advert leaves). Edelstein, Historical notes on the wet-processing industry, pp. 83?85.
RUTHERFORD, Ernest, Lord.
8vo, pp. (ii) blank, viii, (ii), 399, 1 plate. Two leaves of advertisements inserted at the end. Original green cloth. Paper very slightly browned in the margins, but a very good copy. A few annotations in the margins and numerous annotations on p. 326. FIRST EDITION. The first textbook on the subject, recognised as a classic at its publication (DSB). ?After the discovery of thorium emanations in 1900, new concepts of atomic structure followed from the brilliant experiments of Rutherford. A new theory of atomic disintegration was proposed, then the nuclear nature of the atom. He discovered and named alpha, beta, and gamma rays emitted from radioactive salts and predicted that disintegration of some radioactive elements would generate helium. He also produced in the laboratory the first artificial transmutation of one element into another? (Dibner 51). Horblit 91. Norman Catalogue 1870.
4to 244 [i.e. 243] pages, 266 pages, 176 [i.e. 175] pages. Pp. 81?84 in the first part missing, pp. 240?243 in the first part loose but present. Contemporary calf, spine gilt in compartments (ends of spine very worn, label missing), two old paper library labels (one chipped) on spine. Corners of front endpapers and first leaf worn away, diminishing wormtrack in lower blank corner of some 20 leaves towards the end. Pencilled ex libris of William O?Grady, Ireland 1819 on rear endpaper. MANUSCRIPT in three parts in a very legible hand, probably a fair copy although the first and third sections end in the middle of a sentence (there are no blank leaves). The first and second parts are on obstetrics and the third is on physiology. The first begins with female anatomy, and progress to generation, the signs of pregnancy. The greater part is on the illnesses during the first three months of pregnancy, the middle of pregnancy, and the last three months, followed by illnesses of the foetus in the womb. The second part begins with the same three periods of pregnancy and then progresses to natural birth and assisted birth. With the fortieth lecture begins a section on abnormal conditions of the child and the mother, including hernia and caesarean section, etc. The last part of this section is on the care and cure of abnormal conditions of the infant. The third section, on physiology, includes lectures on the choice of food and drink, digestion, bile, chyle, blood vessels, the function of the heart, the pulse and the blood (a long section), secretion, etc. etc. According to Hirsch, the lectures of Antoine Petit (1722?1794) on anatomy, surgery, medicine and especially obstetrics were very well attended and he himself was one of the most respected and beloved practitioners in Paris. In 1746 he became regent and in 1760 member of the Académie des Sciences (although he is still described as Régent in this manuscript dated 1765). Later he was appointed to the chair of anatomy at the Jardin du Roi.
HERSCHEL, Sir John F.W.
Large 4to, 3 leaves, pp. (v?xx), 452, (2) errata, (2) adverts, lithographed frontispiece of the telescope and 17 engraved or lithographed plates (4 folding) mostly from drawings by the author. Original green blindstamped cloth, t.e.g. Half-title and final advert leaf browned, otherwise a fine and clean copy. FIRST EDITION of Herschel?s monumental survey of the stars of the southern hemisphere, completing the task begun by his father William, who fifty years earlier had catalogued the northern celestial hemisphere. Herschel selected the Cape of Good Hope for the site of this project, and spent five years there. Using a 20-foot reflecting telescope brought from England, he swept the whole of the southern sky. By the time he left in 1838 he had catalogued 1,707 nebulae and clusters, and listed 2,102 pairs of binary stars. He carried out star counts, on William Herschel?s plan, of 68,948 stars in 3,000 sky areas. He produced detailed sketches and maps of several objects, including the Orion region, the Eta Carinae nebula, and the Megallanic Clouds, and extremely accurate drawings of many extragalactic and planetary nebulae. He recorded in detail the brightening behaviour of Eta Carinae in December 1837. Herschel invented a device called an astrometer, and with it introduced numerical measurements into stellar photometry. See DSB 6, p. 326 and ODNB for long accounts of Herschel?s time in South Africa. Norman catalogue 1056. This was Herschel?s magnum opus.
HÔTEL-DIEU de LYON.
4to, 6 leaves, 116 pages. With a full-page engraving of Mary with the body of Jesus on a2, woodcut device on title, woodcut headpieces and initials. Contemporary limp vellum, some minor worming in the upper margin and pastedown endpapers, but a nice copy. Second edition (see below) of the book which defines the duties of all those who worked at the Hôtel-Dieu in Lyon, the oldest and one of the most important hospitals in France. Drawn up by the rectors of the hospital, this book lists the responsibilities of the rectors in charge of various departments, and of all those who worked in them, both non-medical and medical, including the surgeon, the apothecary, the paediatrician, and the midwife. Several chapters are devoted to those with culinary duties. The Hôtel-Dieu was founded in 542, but became a fully functional hospital after 1454. It was the first French hospital to treat syphilitic patients in 1495. It was enlarged in the 17th century and rebuilt in the 18th as a magnificent edifice, which became the best hospital in France. It ceased to function as a hospital in 2010 and is now a hotel. The BnF lists only one earlier edition, in 1646.