Julia Ward Howe Biography

JULIA WARD HOWE

Julia Ward Howe Biography, with Autograph Manuscript on Suffrage

1915
  • $3,500
Autograph Manuscript, n.d. [ca. 1882], tipped into Laura E. Richards and Maude Howe Elliott, Julia Ward Howe, 1819-1910, 2 vols. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1915. First edition. Two volumes in original cloth-backed boards and the scarce dustwrappers and original slipcase. Copy #438 of 450 copies of the Large-Paper Edition. [x],392,[2]; [x],434,[2] pp. "I believe in suffrage. I believe in the great awakening by the womanly soul a conscience which will rise up like a flood, & sweep away the petty & effete prejudices."This biography of Julia Ward Howe by two of her daughters, assisted by a third, is illustrated with plates and portraits, including a facsimile manuscript of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic." It won the 1917 Pulitzer Prize for Biography. Special edition, including a page handwritten by Howe on women's suffrage. Howe refers to her first interest in suffrage "about fourteen years ago." She helped found the New England Woman Suffrage Association in 1868, so we date it as ca. 1892, 14 years later. But she might consider her interest in suffrage to have started a bit earlier, right around the end of the Civil War. Complete transcript of Autograph Manuscript"let me finish, as I began, with saying that I believe in suffrage. I believed in it, with unavoidable doubts, when I first began to work for it, perhaps fourteen years ago. I believe in it now without doubt or misgiving. And I no longer believe in it as an abstract right to be dreamed of by philosophers but more to be embodied in humane legislation. I believe in the great awakening by the womanly soul a conscience which will rise up like a flood, & sweep away the petty & effete prejudices." Julia Ward Howe (1819-1910) was born in New York City. Her father was a banker. Her mother died (in childbirth) when she was five years old. Raised as an Episcopalian, she became a Unitarian by 1841. She married Samuel Gridley Howe (1801-1876), a physician and reformer, in 1843, she had six children between 1844 and 1859. Her marriage was difficult, and they separated for a time in 1852. Raising her children in South Boston, and in 1852, she and her husband purchased a country home in Portsmouth, Rhode Island. Howe attended lectures, studied foreign languages, and wrote essays, plays, and dramas. She published two volumes of poetry anonymously in the 1850s. She was an abolitionist, but like many of her day, she did not believe in racial equality. Her husband was one of John Brown's "Secret Six." After meeting Abraham Lincoln at the White House in November 1861, she was inspired to write "The Battle Hymn of the Republic," which was first published in February 1862. She continued writing and became involved in pacifism and women's suffrage. She became editor of the suffragist Woman's Journal in 1872 and contributed to the publication for twenty years. She published a biography of Margaret Fuller in 1883 and her own memoirs in 1899. She served as president of a number of organizations, including the Association for the Advancement of Women and the New England Woman Suffrage Association, and in 1869 the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), which championed the Fifteenth Amendment (although it granted voting rights only to African American men, which caused a break between a significant part of the women's suffrage movement and the abolition and civil rights movement.) Condition: Fine in Very Good printed white dustwrappers with edgewear and a chip at the top of the spine of the second volume in a complete Good slipcase with an old tape repair on the bottom and torn at the top.
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Mercury Astronaut Gordon Cooper’s Signed "Bioscience Data Plan" for Conducting Vital Biomedical Research on the Impact of Space Flight on the Human Body

Mercury Astronaut Gordon Cooper’s Signed “Bioscience Data Plan” for Conducting Vital Biomedical Research on the Impact of Space Flight on the Human Body

GORDON COOPER JR. Typed Document Signed, "NASA PROJECT MERCURY WORKING PAPER NO. 164 / PROJECT MERCURY / BIOSCIENCE DATA PLAN," December 1, 1960, inscribed "My personal copy / Gordon Cooper." 7 leaves + covers, 8 x 10 1/2 in. Three-hole punched on left side; some toning; very good. Medical researchers wanted to gather "aeromedical" data and test effects on the Project Mercury astronaut's body of "significant and unusual stresses of manned capsule flight." The stresses they were looking into included weightlessness, acceleration tolerance, radiation, noise vibration, thermal stresses, and hypobaric and environmental control system effects. At the time, some scientists believed that weightlessness could lead to circulatory failure, disorientation, gastrointestinal and urinary disturbances, and lack of muscular coordination. The key conclusion of Project Mercury's biomedical program was that human beings could function in the space environment for incrementally increasing flight durations of more than one day. Historical BackgroundProject Mercury (1958-1963) was America's first human spaceflight program. Initially begun by the U.S. Air Force, the program transferred to the newly created civilian National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in 1958. After twenty unmanned flights, Project Mercury culminated with six successful manned flights between 1961 and 1963.Millions of people around the world followed the Mercury missions on radio and television. Its success paved the way for Project Gemini (1961-1966) and the Apollo program (1961-1972).Leroy Gordon Cooper Jr. (1927-2004) was born in Oklahoma and learned to fly at an early age. After serving in the Marine Corps in 1945 and 1946, he went to Hawaii to live with his parents and attend the University of Hawaii. In 1947, he married Trudy B. Olson (1927-1994), and they had two children. He joined the U.S. Army as a second lieutenant in June 1949, and transferred to the U.S. Air Force three months later. After service in West Germany and two years of study at the U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology in Ohio, he graduated with a degree in Aerospace Engineering in 1956. Cooper served as a test pilot for jet aircraft at Edwards Air Force Base in California. In 1959, Cooper was the youngest of seven astronauts selected for NASA's Project Mercury. In 1963, Cooper piloted the longest and last Mercury spaceflight, Mercury-Atlas 9. In the 34-hour mission, he became the first American to spend an entire day in space, the first to sleep in space, and the last American to pilot a solo orbital mission. Two years later, he flew as Command Pilot of Gemini 5. He retired from NASA and the Air Force with the rank of colonel in 1971. Always fascinated by racing cars and boats, Cooper held a variety of positions after his retirement related to those fields and to aerospace and land development.
September 1789 Printing of the Act Establishing the Treasury Department

September 1789 Printing of the Act Establishing the Treasury Department, Along With Important Congressional Debates on Organizing the Federal Judiciary

TREASURY DEPARTMENT; JUDICIARY The Pennsylvania Packet, and Daily Advertiser, September 21, 1789 (No. 3320). Philadelphia: John Dunlap and David C. Claypoole. 4 pp., approx. 11 1/2 x 18 1/2 in. This issue of the Pennsylvania Packet includes key debates in the House of Representatives on the bill establishing the federal judiciary, as well as the text of the act establishing the Treasury Department and dramatic news of the French Revolution. Excerpts[Debate on Judiciary Bill][August 29, 1789:]"Mr. [Egbert] Benson [of New York] observed, that if the clause is struck out of the bill, it will involve an abandonment of judicial proceedings on the part of the United States altogether, except in cases of appeals. The difficulties which may arise in this case, are not justly chargeable to the bill itself, they are owing entirely to the constitution-for that is express, that the general government shall exercise all judicial powers: This legislature therefore, have it not at their option to establish judicial courts, or not: The words of the system are plain and full; and the institution of the courts, arise out of the very nature of the government: How far the operation of this power may extend, it is not for us to determine: Whether it will interfere with the state judicatories is a matter that must be the result of experiment." (p3/c4-p4/c1)"Mr. [Theodore] Sedgwick [of Massachusetts] observed, It is necessary to the completion of any system of government, that it should possess every power necessary to carry its laws and ordinances into execution." (p4/c1)"Mr. [Fisher] Ames [of Massachusetts]. A government which may make, but not enforce laws, cannot last long, nor do much good." (p4/c1)"Mr. [James] Madison [of Virginia]. It will not be doubted that some judiciary system is necessary to accomplish the objects of the government; and that it ought to be commensurate with the other branches of the government. To make the state courts federal courts is liable to insuperable objections. But laying these difficulties aside, a review of the constitution of the courts in many states will satisfy us that they cannot be trusted with the execution of the federal laws. they are so dependent on the state legislatures, that to make the federal laws dependent on them, would throw us back into all the embarrassments which characterized our former situation." (p4/c2-3)"On the whole, Sir, I do not see how it can be made compatible with the constitution, or safe to the federal interests to make a transfer of the federal jurisdiction to the state courts, as contended for by the gentlemen who oppose the clause in question." (p4/c3)[September 17, 1789:]"The judicial bill, with the amendments made by the house, was read the third time."Mr. Gerry, Mr. Burke Mr. Jackson, and Mr. Stone objected, and argued at some length against the passing of the bill. They apprehended that it was a system calculated for oppression, and that it would have a mischievous operation."Mr. Madison in a few words defended the bill, and said that though it was not in all its parts agreeable to his mind, it was as perfect as could be formed at this time, or until experience had discovered its positive defects. Had it been enacted in the form in which it came from the senate, he said, he should have been bound to vote against it. But the amendments made by the house had, he believed, removed the principal objections to it." (p3/c1)The bill passed by a vote of 37 to 16.["An Act to Establish the Treasury Department," September 2, 1789, signed in type by Speaker Frederick A. Muhlenberg, Vice President John Adams, and President George Washington.]"there shall be a department of Treasury, in which shall be the following officers, namely: a Secretary of the Treasury, to be deemed head of the department, a Comptroller, an Auditor, a Treasurer, a Register, and an Assistant to the Secretary of the Treasury, which Assistant shall be appointed by the said Secretary." (p. (See website for full description)
Gordon Cooper’s Signed Copy of Biographies of the "Mercury Seven"

Gordon Cooper’s Signed Copy of Biographies of the “Mercury Seven”

GORDON COOPER JR. Printed Document Signed. "BIOGRAPHIES / PROJECT MERCURY / ASTRONAUTS," May 1961, inscribed "My personal copy / Gordon Cooper." 7 leaves + covers, 8 x 10 1/2 in. Three-hole punched on left side; some toning; small holes from being stapled on left side; fine. Official biographies of the "Mercury Seven," Gordon Cooper, Malcolm S. Carpenter, John H. Glenn Jr., Virgil I. Grissom, Walter M. Schirra Jr., Alan B. Shepard Jr., and Donald K. Slayton. Excerpts from Cooper's biography"Leroy G. Cooper, Jr., a Captain in the U.S. Air Force, was born March 6, 1927 in Shawnee, Oklahoma. He is 5 feet 9 inches tall and weighs 150 pounds. The 33-year-old astronaut has bue eyes and brown hair. His wife is the former Trudy Olson of Seattle, Washington. The couple has two daughters: Camala K., 12, and Janita L., 10.""His hobbies are flying, photography, woodwork, hunting, fishing and boating." Historical BackgroundCooper told NASA he had a good, stable marriage. In fact, he had been having an affair with a married woman, and his wife Trudy had left him four months earlier. At his request, Trudy agreed to pretend that they were happily married, believing it was in the best interest of their daughters. They divorced in 1971, shortly after he retired from NASA.Project Mercury(1958-1963) was America's first human spaceflight program. Initially begun by the U.S. Air Force, the program transferred to the new National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in 1958. After conducting twenty unmanned flights, Project Mercury culminated with six successful flights by astronauts between 1961 and 1963.Millions of people around the world followed the Mercury missions on radio and television. Its success paved the way for Project Gemini (1961-1966) and the Apollo program (1961-1972).Leroy Gordon Cooper Jr. (1927-2004) was born in Oklahoma and learned to fly early. After serving in the Marine Corps from 1945 to 1946, he attended the University of Hawaii. In 1947, he married Trudy B. Olson (1927-1994), and they had two children. He joined the U.S. Army as a second lieutenant in June 1949, and transferred to the U.S. Air Force three months later. After service in West Germany and two years of study at the U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology in Ohio, he graduated in 1956 with a degree in Aerospace Engineering. Cooper served as a test pilot for jet aircraft at Edwards Air Force Base in California. In 1959, he was the youngest of seven astronauts selected for NASA's Project Mercury. In 1963, Cooper piloted the longest and last Mercury spaceflight, Mercury-Atlas 9. In the 34-hour mission, he became the first American to spend an entire day in space, the first to sleep in space, and the last American to pilot a solo orbital mission. Two years later, he flew as Command Pilot of Gemini 5. He retired from NASA and the Air Force in 1970. Always fascinated by racing cars and boats, Cooper held a variety of positions after his retirement related to those fields and to aerospace and land development.
The Declaration of Independence – Printed in 1776 London - Where the Press Feared to Call a Tyrant a Tyrant

The Declaration of Independence – Printed in 1776 London – Where the Press Feared to Call a Tyrant a Tyrant

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE Pamphlet. Gentleman's Magazine. London, England, August 1776. Octavo. Lacking a plate. Disbound; minimal wear, some pages loose but intact, some foxing or toning, otherwise fine. "A ____, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a T____, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people"For years, American protests were directed at the actions of Parliament, and royal ministers. That changed with the Declaration of Independence, a substantial part of which is framed as a bill of particular offenses against American freedoms personally committed by the King.The British press could use the words "King," "Prince," and "Tyrant," but many British publishers felt it prudent to avoid printing those words together. Other British printings were even more self-censored, while this printed all the juicy parts. This early British magazine printing of the "Declaration of American Independency" appears on pages 361 and 362, signed in type by John Hancock and Charles Thompson. Excerpts"The history of the present ___ of Great Britain, is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations; all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute t___ over these states.".obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither."He has affected to render the military independent of and superior to the civil power."He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws;giving his assent to their pretended acts of legislation."For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments."He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us."He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us."In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A ___[Prince], whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a t[yrant] ___, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people" Historic BackgroundThis monthly journal of news, science, arts and philosophy give insight into how readers in Great Britain perceived the momentous events occurring in America. One can only imagine the degree of surprise as Londoners came across the "Declaration of Independency" in their Gentleman's Quarterly. The Declaration is also discussed in a later article entitled an "Account of the Proceedings of the American Colonists" Which asks (and concludes): "Whether those grievances were real or imaginary, or whether they did or did not deserve a parliamentary enquiry, we will not presume to decide. The ball is now struck, and time only can shew where it will rest." Transcript from Gentleman's MagazineDeclaration by the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled, July 4 [1776]When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to the. (See website for full description)
MEN OF COLOR: To Arms! To Arms!"

MEN OF COLOR: To Arms! To Arms!”

Frederick Douglass Broadside. "Men of Color / To Arms! To Arms!" U.S. Steam-Power Book and Job Printing Establishment, Ledger Buildings, Third and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, PA, [1863.] Signed in type by Frederick Douglass and 54 others, including many prominent African-American citizens. 44 x 87 in. Framed to 48 x 94 in. A monumental Frederick Douglass Civil War recruiting broadside.African American men had joined Union forces throughout the Civil War, but it took Abraham Lincoln's signing of the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863 to officially allow and encourage them to enlist. This monumental Philadelphia recruiting poster signals the seismic shift in policy.The text of this dramatic poster was adapted from an impassioned editorial Frederick Douglass wrote in the March of 1863 issue of Douglass' Monthly. "There is no time to delay. The tide is at its flood . From East to West, from North to South, the sky is written all over, 'Now or never.'" Partial Transcript"This is our golden moment! The Government of the United States calls for every Able-bodied Colored Man to enter the Army. For generations we have suffered under the horrors of slavery, outrage, and wrong; our manhood has been denied, our citizenship blotted out, our souls seared and burned. Let us rush to arms! FAIL NOW, & OUR RACE IS DOOMED. Our enemies have made the country believe that we are craven cowards, without soul, without manhood, without the spirit of soldiers. Shall we die with this stigma upon our graves? Shall we leave our inheritance of shame to our children? No! a thousand times NO! We WILL Rise! The alternative is upon us! Let us rather die freemen then to live to be slaves. What is life without liberty! We say that we have manhood; now is the time to prove it. STRIKE NOW! And you are henceforth and forever FREEMEN!" Historic Background Once Massachusetts' ardent abolitionist Governor John Andrew had permission from the federal government to raise a corps of "United States Colored Troops," Douglass implored able-bodied black men to enlist. He spent much of the spring recruiting for the 54th Regiment; counting his own sons Charles and Lewis among the enlisted.In May, 1863, War Department General Order No. 143 established a Bureau of Colored Troops. At the request of Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, Douglass traveled through the Union to further its efforts. Douglass' rousing plea was reprinted in newspapers and broadsides across the north, and adapted to serve the needs of local recruiters.References to the 1863 siege of Port Hudson (May 21-July 9) and the battle of Milliken's Bend (June 7), and the absence of note of the 54th Massachusetts glorious charge at Fort Wagner (July 18), suggest that this poster was published between mid-June and mid-July of 1863.The huge poster might have made its first appearance at a July 6 mass meeting, where Professor E.D. Bassett read the text printed here.Recruitment efforts in Philadelphia reached a peak at that time, with pro-enlistment editorials, circulars, and posters flooding the city, and Douglass and colleagues speaking at the National Hall to "deafening applause."[1]Approximately 186,000 black soldiers (including 94,000 former slaves) served in the Union Army during the war; some 38,000 were killed in action. Condition: Ca. 2000, de-acidified by Graphic Conservation in Chicago. Laid down on Japanese paper, framed with UF3 Plexiglas. Current Census[2]Chicago Public Library, via Newman, from Sotheby's, June 20, 1979 (Sang sale), lot 628. On wooden rollers; backed with linen, defects.Library Company of Philadelphia. Ex-John A. McAllister.Smithsonian's Museum of African American History and Culture, ca October 2011.Also Ex-Mercantile Library Company of Philadelphia, ca 1960s.Private Hands:The example offered here. Ex-Mercantile Library of Philadelphia (ca 1960). (In 1989, the Free Library of Philadelphia absorbed the remaining collections of the Mercantile Libra. (See website for full description)
Gerald Ford Defends His Early Commitment to Civil Rights

Gerald Ford Defends His Early Commitment to Civil Rights

GERALD R. FORD Typed Letter Signed, to Arthur F. Bukowski, January 28, 1950, Washington, D.C. 2 pp., 8 x 10 1/2 in. On Ford's Congressional letterhead. This fascinating letter by freshman Congressman and future president Gerald R. Ford to a Catholic college president in Michigan defends his early record on civil rights legislation."Personally, I have lived by and believe in the fundamental principle of equality of opportunity regardless of race, color or creed. I am in favor of such a policy for all citizens and will cooperate to accomplish that objective by the most practical and effective methods." Excerpts"I have your telegram referring to the proposed FEPC legislation and the basic issue of civil rights legislation generally. At the outset, let me apologize for failing to respond as promptly as I would like, but in the last week the House of Representatives has been in constant parliamentary turmoil and as a result I have been unable to attend to my correspondence.""Personally, I have lived by and believe in the fundamental principle of equality of opportunity regardless of race, color or creed. I am in favor of such a policy for all citizens and will cooperate to accomplish that objective by the most practical and effective methods.""Since my election, on the legislative level I have voted for the anti-poll tax proposal and also supported the anti-discrimination amendment to a Coast Guard auxiliary bill. In the future I expect to favor anti-lynching legislation if and when it comes to the floor of the House for consideration and in the meantime I will favor any other sound legislative proposals aimed at correcting basic inequalities in our country."".all measures should have a fair hearing on the House floor. I now hope that Speaker Rayburn will not, for any purpose, - political or otherwise, abuse this wide authority and discretion. I am willing and anxious to be recorded on any and all proposals and I do not want the Committee on Rules or Mr. Rayburn to deny me that opportunity.""The so-called Powell bill as reported out of committee, goes too far too soon. It is my understanding that certain amendments will be offered to the Powell bill which will modify it to conform to what is a practical approach at the present time. If certain amendments are approved by the House, I will favor the legislation on final passage.""In the meantime, it behooves all of us to cooperate with all individuals and groups who are sincerely attempting to remedy all injustices that presently exist." Historical BackgroundCongressman Gerald R. Ford Jr. won election to represent Michigan's 5th district, located in the western part of the lower peninsula, in November 1948 and took office in January 1949.President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC) in 1941 to implement his executive order banning racial discrimination in employment by federal agencies and all companies engaged in war-related work. With the end of World War II, Congress ordered the FEPC to cease operations by June 1946. In 1948, President Harry S. Truman sent a civil rights package to Congress that called for a permanent FEPC to address institutionalized racism in employment, but Congress refused to pass it.In this letter, Ford expresses his hope that Speaker of the House Sam Rayburn (1882-1961), a longtime Democrat from Texas, would allow civil rights bills to come to the floor of the House for discussion. He also refers to a bill introduced by Democratic Congressman Adam Clayton Powell Jr. (1908-1972) of New York. Powell's bill would revive the FEPC and had the support of the Truman administration. It prohibited employers of more than fifty persons and labor unions with more than fifty members in any industry engaged in interstate commerce from discriminating in employment or membership based on race, religion, color, national origin, or ancestry. Republican Senator Robert A. Taft (1889-1953) of Ohio favored a volu. (See website for full description)
Installing Jefferson’s Great Clock at Monticello

Installing Jefferson’s Great Clock at Monticello

Thomas Jefferson Autograph Letter Signed ("Th: Jefferson") as President, to James Dinsmore. Washington, January 28, 1804. With integral transmittal leaf addressed in his hand with his franking signature ("free Th: Jefferson Pr. US.") at top left. 8 x 10 in. A significant letter concerning Jefferson's long-planned installation of large cannonball weights that powered the seven-day clock being installed in Monticello's front entrance hall. Making room for the Great Clock at Monticello and designing a better lumber kiln. Here Jefferson objects to Dinsmore's suggestion to "cutting the wall, not even the cellar wall, to make a space for the descent of the clock weights." He preferred to "have them advanced into the room so as to descend naked till they get to the floor from where they may enter a square hole & go on to the cellar floor."Still operational today, the Great Clock, has faces for both the interior and exterior of the mansion, and operates with a pair of eighteen-pound weights that descend on ropes through open holes in the floor into the cellar.Jefferson then addresses the matter of the recent fire that consumed a large quantity of lumber intended for expanding the mansion. Rather than wait another year to allow green lumber to dry, he suggests a design for an arched, brick roof for the lumber kiln to reduce the threat of more valuable building material being consumed by fire: "we must therefore purchase bricks somewhere, cost what they will, to cover the house with an arch as here represented, it will take about 1500 whole bricks, clinkers. The gable ends may be closed with stone, leaving the Southern one a smoke hole as is shewn in this drawing, so that stopping that and the firehole at the bottom of the other end, a fire may be extinguished in a moment for want of air."In the letter Jefferson sketches a cross-section of the kiln, recommending a 60-degree arch.Condition: Small losses at left margin not affecting text, mostly separated at spine, but reinforced where still attached, loss from seal tear to transmittal leaf. Complete TranscriptDear Sir Washington Jan. 28.04I return you the drawings for the architrave of the front of the gallery, with a preference of that marked b. with the rounded listel. I do not approve of cutting the wall, not even the cellar wall, to make a space for the descent of the clock weights; but would have them advanced into the room so as to descend clear even of the cellar wall. should the box in this case encroach too much on the window, we may avoid the eye sore by leaving them unboxed, to descend naked till they get to the floor whence they may enter a square hole & go on to the cellar floor.The loss of so much plank by fire & otherwise is one of the most afflicting circumstances I have had to meet in the whole course of my building: & the only term to it seems to be the conclusion of the work. to cover the kiln-house with slabs will be only to require double time & fuel to season with and probably to consign another kiln full to the flames. we must therefore purchase bricks somewhere, cost what they will, to cover the house with an arch as here represented. it will take about 1500. whole bricks, clinkers. the gable ends may be closed with stone, leaving in the Southern one a smoke hole as is shown in this drawing, so that stopping that and the firehole at the bottom of the other end, a fire may be extinguished in a moment for want of air, even if it has already made some progress. so the external1 covering of wood may burn down without affecting the plank. speak to mr Lilly to get the bricks, and to mr Hope to do the work as soon as the weather will admit, and in the mean time endeavor to provide make a new provision of plank. John Perry proposes to get the scantling for the N.W. offices this winter, which I should prefer if it can be secured from waste. I am afraid the flooring plank he was to lay upstairs is among that lost, and that we shall not have those ro. (See website for full description)
Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address

Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address, Rare Printing on Silk

Thomas Jefferson Broadside, The inaugural speech of Thomas Jefferson. Washington-City, March 4th, 1801 - this day, at XII o'clock, Thomas Jefferson, President Elect of the United States of America, took the oath of office required by the Constitution, in the Senate Chamber, in the presence of the Senate, the members of the House of Representatives, the public officers, and a large concourse of citizens. Previously to which, he delivered the following address. [Boston]: From the Chronicle Press, by Adams & Rhoades, Court-Street. [March 19, 1801]. On silk. 16 1/2 x 22 1/2 in. 1 p. Jefferson's most famous speech lays out his political program, but also makes a ringing call for patriotism beyond partisanship. It is considered to be one of the most important presidential speeches, and is widely quoted even today - by President Clinton, President Bush, and almost every other current political figure. Alluding to the recent controversial and acrimonious presidential election, Jefferson calls for a calming of partisan passions, and outlines "what I deem the essential principles of our government. . . . We have called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all republicans; we are all federalists." Excerpt".though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will, to be rightful, must be reasonable.the minority possess their equal rights, which equal law must protect, and to violate would be oppression. Let us then, fellow-citizens, unite with one heart and one mind; let us restore to social intercourse that harmony and affection without which liberty, and even life itself, are but dreary things. And let us reflect, that having banished from our land that religious intolerance under which mankind so long bled and suffered, we have yet gained little, if we countenance a political intolerance, as despotic, as wicked, and capable of as bitter and bloody persecutions.every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle. We have called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all republicans; we are all federalists. If there be any among us who would wish to dissolve the Union, or to change its republican form, let them stand undisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be tolerated, where reason is left free to combat it." Historical Background The "Revolution of 1800" marked the downfall of Federalism and the ascension of Republicanism. The election saw the first peaceful transfer of power from one party to another - with few parallels in the history of the world. (Though particularly bitter, the election proved to be a great test of the strength of the Constitution.) Federalist campaigners, who characterized Jefferson as subversive and an enemy to the republic, urged voters to choose "God - and a religious President" over "Jefferson.and no God." The election was also marred by the Adams administration's persecution of opposition editors and politicians under the Sedition Act, designed to silence pro-French Republicans in Congress at a time when war with that country appeared imminent. But Adams lost his bid for re-election, in large part due to opposition from within his own party - Hamilton and his followers were infuriated with Adams for making peace with France.The election became even more controversial when it was found that Jefferson had received an equal number of votes as his running mate, Aaron Burr. At that time, the Constitution still specified that electors were to vote for two candidates, without specifying who was to be president or vice president. The election was thus thrown into the House of Representatives, which took a week - and 36 ballots - to decide in Jefferson's favor.
Bartholdi Signed Note

Bartholdi Signed Note, on His Calling Card, Fundraising for the Statue of Liberty

STATUE OF LIBERTY Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi. Autograph Note Signed, on his calling card, c. 1878. With Marquis de Rochambeau, Autograph Note Signed, on his calling card, and a calling card for Count Srurier, during fundraising effort to present Liberty Enlightening the World to the United States. 3 items. 3 3/4 x 2 1/4 in. Shortly after the end of the American Civil War, French abolitionist Édouard René de Laboulaye and sculptor Frédéric Bartholdi discussed the possibility of a monumental memorial to American independence and freedom. Not until June 1871 did Bartholdi travel to the United States to discuss the idea with influential Americans, including President Ulysses S. Grant. In September 1875, Laboulaye announced the formation of the Franco-American Union as a fundraising organization for the project. Although initially aimed at elites, the Franco-American Union raised funds from across French society, including schoolchildren, ordinary citizens, and 181 French municipalities. French copper industrialist Eugène Secrétan donated 64 tons of the 100 tons of copper needed for the statue.Bartholdi constructed the right arm bearing the torch in May 1876 and exhibited it at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia from August to November 1876. When he returned to Paris in 1877, Bartholdi concentrated on completing the head, which was exhibited at the 1878 Paris World's Fair. By the end of 1879, the Union had raised approximately 250,000 francs. After Laboulaye died in 1883, Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal succeeded him as president of the Union. Ultimately, the Franco-American Union raised 2.25 million francs (approximately $250,000) for the construction. The completed statue was presented to U.S. Ambassador to France Levi P. Morton on July 4, 1884, and de Lesseps announced that the French government had agreed to pay for its transport to New York.The United States was to pay for the pedestal, and fundraising was hampered by the Panic of 1873 that led to a decade-long depression. Finally in early 1885, New York World publisher Joseph Pulitzer announced a drive to raise $100,000. By mid-August 1885, 120,000 donors had raised $102,000, 80 percent in sums of less than $1. The statue arrived in New York in June 1885, but the pedestal was not completed until April 1886. President Grover Cleveland, the former New York governor who vetoed an expenditure of $50,000 for the pedestal, presided over the dedication of the statue on October 28, 1886. The Bartholdicalling card is printed "Aug.te Bartholdi"in cursive at center with his "rue Vavin, 40." address. Bartholdi handwrote on the face of the card: "The Cte de Paris has underwritten 5000 fr.! Regards from Madame to Madame. I cordially shake your hand" and signed the note "B."Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (1834-1904) was born in Colmar, France, to a family of Italian and German Protestant heritage. After his father died when Bartholdi was two years old, his family moved to Paris, where Bartholdi studied painting, sculpture, and architecture under well-known instructors like Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc. The family continued to visit Colmar, often for extended visits. Bartholdi graduated from the Lycee Louis-le-Grand in Paris in 1852. Following his service in the Franco-Prussian War on 1870, Bartholdi became increasingly interested in sculpting monumental works celebrating resistance against oppression, and Enlightenment ideals like Freedom. In his first visit to the United States in 1871, he promoted the idea of the gift of a massive statute from France to the United States in honor of the centennial of American independence in 1876. Also in 1871, he began work on the Lion of Belfort, commemorating the heroic French resistance against the Prussians. That sculpture of red sandstone was completed in 1880. After a decade of fundraising and work, Liberty Enlightening the World (the Statue of Liberty) was finally installed in New York harbor in 1886. Barth. (See website for full description)
French President Poincare Counters Conspiracy Theory by Anti-Semitic Editor Urbain Gohier (Who Later Fabricated the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion")

French President Poincare Counters Conspiracy Theory by Anti-Semitic Editor Urbain Gohier (Who Later Fabricated the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion”)

ANTI-SEMITISM RAYMOND POINCARE, Autograph Letter Signed, to Unknown, May 22, 1916. 3 pp., 5 1/8 x 8 in. The President of the Third French Republic tells an unknown friend about a disturbing letter that he just received from right wing journalist and newspaper editor Urbain Gohier, in which Gohier had accused him, the sitting president, of colluding with Jewish and foreign elements. Complete TranslationMay 22, 1916My dear Friend,I will without delay attend to the settlement of the small matter you alerted me to. I will keep you informed.Since I have the pleasure of my [?], please let me tell you that I have received a letter from Mr. Urbain Gohier that I just don't understand. Here are some pages:"In early 1913, barely elected, you were exposed to a double aggression by M. Gustave Lévy in the [?uvre?]and by a [?]Jacob, called Landau, in a [special?] paper."I established soon after from M. Lévy that you had re-installed him at the university to keep him silent."And you asked me (rue du Comt Marchand)[1] not to execute the master-singer and master-spy Jacob Landau, brother and [?]of the so-called 'Baroness' Heftler, spy.I deferred to your wishes, despite the three years of [?]provocations."But yesterday I was physically assaulted and threatened in the street by the scoundrel. I think it is my duty to set a good example. I am sorry that your tranquility will be upset."I do not know on what Mr. Urbain Gohier bases his peculiar statement that I ever reintegrated Mr. Lévy at the university to keep him silent. I had nothing to do with the integration of Mr. Lévy, and you have known me long enough to know that I would never seek to silence a person, having nothing to fear from anybody whatsoever.I am even more astonished, if that is possible, that Mr. Urbain Gohier attributes to me, regarding Mr. Jacob Landau, an attitude that I have never had. You were there for the conversation that he recalls and which took place, three years ago, on rue de Comt Marchand. Never have I thought to ask Mr. Gohier "not to execute" M. Jacob Landau, and you are witness to the fact that I expressed no such wish to him. Since he told me about M. Jacob Landau in very colorful terms, I responded that I did not know him, - and to this day, I do not. Therefore I cannot fathom how Mr. Urbain Gohier could write: "I am sorry that your tranquility will be upset." My tranquility counts very little at this time; but I wonder what relationship I can have with someone I do not even know. If Mr. Urbain Gohier brings me to court, directly or indirectly, he will make a serious mistake. In any case, from now on, I would be very grateful if you set his memory straight and reminded him that I never said what he says I did. It seems unlikely that after having talked with you, he would persist in his error.Thank you, and best wishes,Poincaré Historical BackgroundThe President includes lengthy excerpts from Gohier's letter so that his correspondent can try to understand the journalist's accusations. According to Gohier, Poincare sanctioned the admission of a Jewish student named Gustave Levy into university in 1913 even though Levy had ties to a "master spy" named Jacob Landau and a double agent named "Baronne Heftler."Urbain Gohier (1862-1951) found a niche as an anti-Semitic, pro-royalist, and anti-military journalist starting in the 1880s. In 1916, he founded and served as editor of an anti-Semitic weekly pamphlet titled Le Vieille-France. Four years later, he fabricated The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which purportedly exposed a Jewish plot to take over the world. After World War II, he was condemned for his support of the Vichy government and collaborationist press. Raymond Poincaré (1860-1934) was born in Bar-le-Duc, France and educated at the University of Paris. Admitted to the bar at age 20, he became the youngest lawyer in France. He successfully defended Jules Verne in a libel suit and was elected to the Chamber of Deputi. (See website for full description)
Articles of Confederation’s Weaknesses Become Evident in New Hampshire

Articles of Confederation’s Weaknesses Become Evident in New Hampshire

NEW HAMPSHIRE GENERAL COURT Manuscript Document Signed by a Clerk, June 23, 1785, [Exeter], New Hampshire. Blindstamped "Archives de Chastellux" at top left. 4 pp., 8 x 13 1/2 in. New Hampshire Act providing "for the Regulation of navigation and commerce," featuring strict prohibitions against imports to or exports from New Hampshire in ships "being the property of any of the Subjects of the King of Great-Britain." It also establishes mechanisms for enforcement and penalties for disregarding the law. Provenance: François-Jean de Beauvoir, Marquis de Chastellux (1734-1788)Historical BackgroundThe Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation in 1777, after sixteen months of debate. It then took until March 1781 to be ratified by the states. The system was inherently flawed; each state, no matter its size, had one vote in Congress; every act of Congress required the approval of nine states; there was no chief executive; Congress could not levy taxes (instead having to beg for requisitions from the states and loans from abroad); Congress lacked the authority to establish uniform regulations for foreign and domestic commerce. While the Treaty of Paris to end the Revolutionary War was pending in 1783, Great Britain closed its West Indian ports to most American goods. Once the war was officially over, British goods flooded American ports. The Confederation Congress had no power to respond. New York imposed a stiff duty on British West Indian imports, but voted against a 5 percent federal import tax. Massachusetts and Rhode Island passed their own protective tariffs. Inconsistent polices increased tension between the states and damaged already strained financial prospects.An emerging nationalist bloc, led by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, proposed reforms. In September 1783, a Congressional committee concluded that Congress should ask the states to cede the power to set duties and regulate trade. On April 30, 1784, Congress passed a resolution asking to states to give it the power to regulate trade and negotiate commercial treaties. The resolution also mandated the power to set discriminatory duties or restrictions against trade with countries, such as Great Britain, who would not treat with the United States."Unless the United States in Congress assembled shall be vested with powers competent to the protection of commerce, they can never command reciprocal advantages in trade; and without these, our foreign commerce must decline and eventually be annihilated. Hence it is necessary that the states should be explicit, and fix on some effectual mode by which foreign commerce not founded on principles of equality may be restrained."Resolved, that it be, and it hereby is recommended to the legislatures of the several states, to vest the United States in Congress assembled, for the term of fifteen years, with power to prohibit any goods, wares or merchandize from being imported into or exported from any of the states, in vessels belonging to or navigated by the subjects of any power with whom these states shall not have formed treaties of Commerce."Only Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, and Virginia agreed to give Congress the requested power. Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Maryland, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and North Carolina added various qualifications or provisos.On March 3, 1786, Congress passed new resolutions, including, "That the states of states of New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and North Carolina, be solicited to reconsider their acts, and to make them agreeable to the recommendations of the 30th April, 1784," and "That the recommendations of the 30th April, 1784, be again presented to the view of the states of Delaware, South Carolina, and Georgia, and that they be most earnestly called upon to grant powers conformable thereto."That October, a Congressional committee examined the acts passed by the states, including new ones passed by Delaware and Georgia, finding seven to be in complian. (See website for full description)
One of the Earliest Announcements of Independence

One of the Earliest Announcements of Independence

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE The Pennsylvania Magazine; Or American Monthly Museum for January-July, 1776. Philadelphia: Robert Aitken. [5]-344pp. A bound volume containing a remarkable issue-one of the most historic magazines ever printed."July 2. This day the Hon. Continental Congress declared the UNITED COLONIES FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES." These issues are the final seven from the only American magazine published in America during the Revolutionary crisis. With maps and other rare woodcut illustrations.As the publisher reports, the June issue was slightly delayed due to a paper shortage. "To our Correspondents. Hermes came too late for insertion this month. Our customers will excuse us, though the day of publication be sometimes delayed: The great difficulty we have procuring printing paper, renders it impossible for us to publish always on the first Wednesday of the month [July 3]."This delay would have left just enough time for the last-minute addition of one of the very first reports of Independence. It was likely published on July 4 to 6; had it been any later, it would have been able to include or at least mention the full text of the July 4th Declaration of Independence (which appears in the July issue, published in the first few days of August.)The full text of the Declaration appears on pp. 328-330, followed by the Constitution of New Jersey approved July 2, the Constitution of Virginia approved July 5, and a summary of the Constitution of Connecticut. There are also military notices from Canada, South Carolina, and Washington at New York. Other highlights include an address from the House of Commons to the King of England lamenting "the condition of our unhappy fellow subjects in America; seduced from their allegiance by the greatest misrepresentations" (February), a graphic account of the siege and capture of Boston by the Continental Army, accompanied by General Washington's letter to Brig. General Stirling that "we are now in full possession" of the town (March), Phillis Wheatley's Ode to Washington (April), a report on the Virginia House dissolving itself and instructing its delegates in the Continental Congress to vote for independence, as well as a resolution issued from Congress calling for each colony that has yet to do so to separate itself from England and form its own state government (May).Including two in-text engravings, and one folding map, "A New Map of North and South Carolina and Georgia" with old repairs and paper loss to the Bottom outer edge of the map. Lacks the four engraved plates and one of the engraved maps. No frontal material was issued for this volume, hence there never were pages 1-4, and this volume starts with page 5, as issued. Condition: Later three-quarter calf in antique style, with contemporary marbled boards. Toning and scattered old foxing and dampstains. In the January 1776 issue, pages 5-6, the cover/contents page of and the Meteorological Diary are supplied in facsimile. In the July 1776 issue, the Declaration pages (p328-30) are fine, but the final pages (p343-44) are supplied in facsimile. Historical BackgroundConceived by printer and bookseller Robert Aitken, best known for his work for the Continental Congress, the Pennsylvania Magazine was launched in January 1775. Soon enough, Aitken found himself needing an editor. For £50 a year, he hired Thomas Paine, who had only arrived in America in December 1774. Paine served as editor from February through July or August 1775. While serving as editor, Paine also became a major contributor, sometimes under the pseudonym "Atlanticus," and at others with no by-line. He wrote prolifically on many topics, including descriptions of inventions, and most of the magazine's revolutionary-era political material. According to John Tebbel, in The American Magazine: A Compact History (New York, 1969), "Paine (and Aitken) did not permit The Pennsylvania Magazine to be simply a propaganda organ. It contained a wide variety of other. (See website for full description)
New York Times Carriers’ Address Reviews the Year 1863 in Bad Verse

New York Times Carriers’ Address Reviews the Year 1863 in Bad Verse, Including Freeing of Russia’s Serfs, and the Battle of Gettysburg

CIVIL WAR Broadside, "Carriers' Address / New York Times / To Our Patrons." New York: Dodge and Grattan, [ca. January 1] 1864. 1 p., 15 1/2 x 21 1/2 in. Intricate borders and patriotic imagery. "For in this struggle vast The liberties of man shall rise or fall, And unborn generations to us call. The laborer on England's soil, The peasants that in Austria toil, The serfs, that over Russia's plains Are dropping now their long worn chains."On or around New Year's Day, some newspapers printed "carriers' addresses" with an appeal for a holiday gift or donation from subscribers. Newspaper carriers were often the printer's apprentices, sometimes younger than teenagers. Excerpts"Old Father Time is a carrier good- O'er al the world he goes his round-Through crowded street and lonely wood, O'er wavy sea and solid ground,He goes and visits every hearth / That dots the thickly teeming earth.To hovel low or palace tall, To desert tent and castled hall. "For in this struggle vast The liberties of man shall rise or fall,And unborn generations to us call, 'Be firm, for on you all our hopes are cast.'The laborer on England's soil, The peasants that in Austria toil,The serfs, that over Russia's plains Are dropping now their long worn chains,All men that beneath the load, Which tyrants lay, or feel the smart,Which drives them on their weary road, Poor slaves, with bitter, burning heart,Have looked with eager, anxious eyes, To where the Starry Banner flies;For well they know that Banner bears The promise of the coming years,And on its every fold they see This blazon, 'All men shall be free' 'Twere all too long to tell the story, Which makes this year ablaze with glory-The heroes of the year to name, Who've found in death's deathless fame, And now sleep well on pillows glory-'Twere all to long to name each day, On which the Starry Banner floatedVictorious over ramparts moated, O'er hills whence hostile batteries play,O'er heaps of wounded, dead and dying, A beaten foe before it flying,But one day stands among the rest, Wearing a brighter crown of glory-Through all the lands , from East to West, Never forgotten be its story. For days, o'er Pennsylvania's hills, And through her valleys far and wide/Had swept in cruel wave on wave, Rebel invasion's furious tide.And as some sudden earthquake pours,/ From dark abysses of the main,A billow vast, which onward roars / And spreads destruction o'er the plain;But when against some moveless crag / It's dashed, 'tis scattered, backward tossed,So 'gainst the height, where waved our flag, / Dashed all in vain the rebel host,Till darkening hopes again grew bright, / O'er Gettysburghs ensanguined height. "On right, on left they fiercely dashed-/ Driv'n backward, on again they came,Their musketry incessant crashed, / Their batteries roared with sheets of flame,While hissing ball and screaming shell / Made the dark air all thick with death,And o'er it all their charging yell / Made e'en the boldest catch his breath.And almost yield to black despair, / But God's hand held the Banner there." "No! The Great River shouts to tell / That Freedom is again victorious,That on that morning Vicksburg fell, / And o'er it waves the Banner glorious,And that his current seeks the sea, / No longer chained by slavery." "Again roared Ocean on his strand, / Again the hills their silence broke,And like a belfry all the land / With joy thrilled 'neath the double stroke.While Freedom's 'chosen voices' still, / The voice of the eternal sea,And of the mountains, earth shall fill, Ne'er shall that day forgotten beWhen Gettysburgh's hard fight was won, And Vicksburg's weary siege was done." "Thanks for the stout arms, black and white,/ Which bear the Banner of the free,And for the stout hearts, which shall yet / Bury oppression neath the sea." Historical BackgroundThis copy, printed for New Year's Day 1864, mentions the global trend towards freedom in 1863. It reviews the events of 1863, including Gettys. (See website for full description)
Counting the Vote in 1876 – Florida’s First Election Fiasco

Counting the Vote in 1876 – Florida’s First Election Fiasco

ELECTIONS Two pamphlets and three documents relating to the disputed presidential election of 1876. 1876-1877. The 1876 presidential election between Republican Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel Tilden came down to a dispute over Florida's electoral votes. These pamphlets and documents include official signed copies of key Florida court and executive decisions. From the papers of Edward Louden Parris, an attorney for Tilden, who ended up losing in the "Compromise of 1877." This item includes the following documents: The State of Florida . vs. Charles H. Pearce, January 27, 1877, signed and sealed.The State of Florida . vs. Charles H. Pearce, January 27, 1877, not signed or sealed.Governor George F. Drew.Documentsigned and sealed, January 26, 1877, appointing four electors.Whereas, in Pursuance of an Act of Legislature.Record and Opinion of the Supreme Court of Florida, in the Case of the state of Florida ex rel. Geo. F. Drew against Samuel B. McLin. Pamphlet,1876In the Matter of the Electoral Vote of the State of Florida: Points. Pamphlet, Washington, D.C. 1877. Historical BackgroundAfter ten years of Reconstruction, the Republicans nominated Rutherford B. Hayes, a dark-horse war hero from Ohio, to succeed the scandal-ridden Ulysses Grant administration. The Democrats nominated Samuel Tilden, a respected lawyer and governor of New York. Tilden won the national popular vote by roughly 250,000, and led the electoral count with 184, only one shy of victory, with the votes of three states - Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana - still contested. Those three states were still occupied by federal troops. Each had electoral boards dominated by Republicans willing to use creative means of counting or throwing out presidential votes, but had all elected Democratic governors in 1876. Conflicting sets of officially certified presidential electors voted in each state, pushing the crisis into the halls of the United States Congress.Democrats proposed the creation of a bipartisan electoral commission with 15 members: 5 Senators, 5 Representatives, and 5 Supreme Court Justices. Supreme Court Justice Joseph Bradley of New Jersey, a moderate Republican, was considered the swing vote. Though historians have not found a smoking gun linking the principals directly, we know that their representatives and Bradley struck a deal. Tilden's camp agreed to adhere to the results while Hayes' agreed to end Reconstruction including federal military occupation, and appoint a Southern Democrat as Postmaster General. Thus, Bradley voted for Hayes. When the President Pro Tem of the Senate came to Florida, alphabetically the first of the three states, he read the commission's results - 8 to 7 for Hayes. The commission also voted 8-7 to award Louisiana and South Carolina's electoral votes to Hayes, who became the 19th president.
Menachem Begin Organizing Opposition and Criticizing Prime Minister Ben-Gurion

Menachem Begin Organizing Opposition and Criticizing Prime Minister Ben-Gurion

MENACHEM BEGIN Autograph Manuscript Signed, in Hebrew, Speech on Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion, [November 1, 1950-July 30, 1951]. 3 pp., 5 x 7 3/4 in. "To the Mapai regime: 'Neither farewell nor see you again.'" Complete TranslationMr. Ben-Gurion feels that the governmental control he longs for[1]- an [autocratic?]government of his party and himself - has irreparably collapsed. For the time being, the change is psychological, but with respect to someone possessing a [tyrannical?]soul who cannot chop the heads off his opponents, the "psychology" is [illegible]. Mr. Ben-Gurion senses that his partners in the disbanded coalition and the candidates for the alternative coalition - their style of speaking is different than it was in times past. To be sure they are willing to have truck with him, but [illegible]: Not over the [illegible]. The "equilibrium" of Mr. Ben-Gurion the [aggressor?]has been destroyed starting from the day he was unsuccessful in convincing [himself?]that he had established the State, the result being that the head of Mapai[2] has in the meanwhile lost his psychological equilibrium. Amongst the public, they still go on assuming that all his steps are calculated in advance, but the truth is that the man has become enmeshed in difficulties[3] ever since [he?]went - or was pushed - blindly[4] into an additional entanglement.Generally speaking, does Mr. Ben-Gurion believe that he will achieve an absolute majority in the next elections for his list?[5] The answer is: "No." Mr. Ben-Gurion knows that even were his emissaries, "the guides"[6] to arrange "[light?]processions" in certain immigrant camps,[7] Mapai would remain in the minority and would be in need of partners in order to maintain its regime. However, that same psychological change, which drives Mr. Ben-Gurion mad - would it not grow deeper during the period of electoral war? How does he stand to achieve his stable government? [Surely?], in his eyes there is no stable government unless it is his?It appears that Mr. Ben-Gurion is thinking about two options. One is - using the precedent that was created in the first Knesset. Mr. Ben-Gurion submits his resignation to the President; the President accepts the resignation, but along with that, "arrives at the conclusion" ahead of time that there is no[8] prime minister save the prime minister who is resigning. And Mr. Ben-Gurion, who will have resigned, continues "to fulfill his duties." Until when? The Transition Law[9] did not limit the time for a dismissed Cabinet[10] to "continue to fulfill the role." Mr. Ben-Gurion can "rule via[11] resignation" to his heart's content.[12]The second option that is pictured in the insurrectionist soul of Mr. Ben-Gurion are new elections following the new elections. Should there not be, in the second Knesset, that "stable majority," about which Mr. Ben-Gurion is dreaming, it may be that he will [propose?]another appeal to the voter[13] until - so hopes, perhaps, the head of Mapai - the voter will grow weary and say: "So be it, better Mapai rule than elections over and over again".Both options alike are [illegible]to the political demoralization being sown by Mapai and its head, out of their ambition for [autocratic?]government. The Mapai regime has destroyed the country's economy. Now it is trampling arrogantly[14] on the law in the country. And it is still not finished[15] making a laughingstock of the status of the parliament in Israel.And if the nation wants to put an end to the destructive demoralization, it must "[illegible] [illegible]" over the calculations of Mr. Ben-Gurion. Mapai will, in any case, be in the minority in the second Knesset, however the voter must see to it that it will be possible to establish a government without Mapai. Then, only then, will there be a stable governing authority in Israel, a governing authority that enjoys the trust[16] of the majority of the nation, the confidence of most parts of the Knesset, a constructiv. (See website for full description)
Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story Writes to Secretary of the Treasury Alexander J. Dallas During the War of 1812

Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story Writes to Secretary of the Treasury Alexander J. Dallas During the War of 1812, Giving Remarkable Advice on the Need to Re-Shape the Entire Government, With Far More Influence for the Courts

JOSEPH STORY Autograph Letter Signed, to Alexander J. Dallas, December 13, 1814, Salem, Massachusetts. 16 pp., 7 7/8 x 9 7/8 in. One of the most important letters we have ever seen of a Supreme Court Justice writing in detail about his plans that would affect political policy and the power and relationship of the courts vis-à-vis the other two branches of government."I would give to the courts of the U.S. the whole jurisdiction of the Constitution. Even in respect to your taxes. If difficulties arise in the collection or exposition of these acts, with few exceptions, those causes must be exclusively tried in the state courts. Are the state courts the only proper tribunals to be entrusted with the execution of the laws of the U.S.?"."If Congress will be so far beyond state jealousy & prejudice as to pass the Bill respecting the Judiciary now before them, almost all the practical difficulties on this subject will cease, and this alone will greatly aid in suppressing conspiracies & misdemeanors ag't the U.S.""What I chiefly wish now to bring into consideration are measures adopted to secure the permanence of the Union under the existing constitution & to counteract the almost over whelming influence of the great states. And this as I have before observed can only be done by great public institutions & by spreading the arms of the U.S. over every legitimate object of patronage & constitutional authority.""In a free Govt like ours it is essential the public opinion should be enlightened on all public & political topics. If the Govt. do not defend itself; it will find few defenders elsewhere. It cannot" Democratic-Republican Supreme Court Associate Justice Joseph Story cautions Secretary of the Treasury Alexander J. Dallas about forces of disunion. (Within the next year, Dallas also served as Secretary of War and Secretary of State). Two days after Story wrote this letter, New Englanders gathered in Hartford, Connecticut to express their grievances over the War of 1812 and their concerns about the federal government's increasing power. They continued secret meetings through January 5 and adopted a series of proposed constitutional amendments, though they stopped short of proposing the secession of New England.Story's solution was the opposite: increase federal power, especially toward large states like Massachusetts that he thought threatened the Union. He advocated an increase in the authority and jurisdiction of federal courts, a national bank, a national bankruptcy law, a small standing army to enforce the laws, and the appointment of patriotic Federalists to some federal positions.Less than two weeks after Story's letter, negotiators signed the Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814, ending the War of 1812. When messengers from the Federalists' Hartford Convention reached Washington in February, their demands were eclipsed by news of the Treaty of Ghent and of Andrew Jackson's overwhelming victory at New Orleans on January 8. Victory halted the movement towards disunion, and many of Story's proposals eventually found their way into law.Excerpts"the critical state of our country calls on every citizen however humble, or however retired from public or political life to state with frankness & candour such considerations & facts as may be useful to the functionaries of the nation.""I will venture also to assert that your propositions for a national bank & for a vigorous system of taxation have met the unanimous approbation of every friend of the Govt. in this section of the nation; and if these propositions had been promptly met & acted upon by Congress I am entirely persuaded that the public confidence in the credit & resources of the nation would have been restored. Unfortunately, Congress have seen fit to do other wise; & their disunion, their want of energy & their delays have absolutely prostrated the national faith & shaken the national patriotism.""Indeed I can say with sorrow & regret that ne. (See website for full description)
Rare New York Senate Print of Proposed State Law to Combat the Dred Scott Decision

Rare New York Senate Print of Proposed State Law to Combat the Dred Scott Decision

SLAVERY AND ABOLITION—NEW YORK STATE New York Senate. "An Act To secure Freedom to all persons within this State," Edward M. Madden, April 9, 1857, Passed the Assembly on April 17; failed in the Senate. Printed with numbered lines for the use of the Senate. 1 p., 6.5 x 11.5 in. "Every slave . who shall come or be brought, or be involuntarily in this state shall be free." Excerpts"Neither descent, near or remote, from an African.nor color of skin shall disqualify any person for being, or prevent any person from becoming a citizen of this state; nor deprive such person of the rights and privileges of a citizen thereof.""Every person who shall hold, or attempt to hold in this state in slavery.under any pretence, or for any time however short, shall be deemed guilty of felony, and on conviction thereof shall be confined in the state prison at hard labor for a term not less than two nor more than ten years." Historical BackgroundIn 1799, the New York legislature passed "An Act for the gradual abolition of slavery" that indentured and would eventually free slave children born after July 4, 1799. In 1817, it passed a law freeing those slaves in 1827. But non-residents and part-time residents could still bring their slaves into the state temporarily.On March 14, 1857, New York Assemblyman Samuel A. Foot introduced resolutions declaring that the U.S. Supreme Court, through its decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford "has in effect declared slavery to be national," and calling for the creation of a joint committee of three senators and five assemblymen to "consider and report what measures (if any) the Legislature of this State ought to adopt to protect the constitutional rights of her citizens." The resolution passed by a vote of 49-24, and the Senate concurred on April 2.On April 9, Edward M. Madden introduced this bill in the Senate. Simultaneously, Foot introduced this bill (#24129) and three resolutions (#23389.08) in the Assembly. Eight days later, the Assembly (with 81 Republicans, 38 Democrats, and 8 American Party members) passed the bill 72 to 38. In the Senate (with 17 Republicans, 9 American Party members [Know Nothings], and 4 Democrats), attempts to move the bill to the Committee of the Whole were evenly divided. Lacking the two-thirds majority required for this procedure, the bill died.Very similar language appeared in an 1859 bill which also failed; New York passed no new Personal Liberty Law during the decade before the Civil War.The New York Senate had thirty-two members in 1857, so it is likely no more than fifty copies of this bill were printed for Senate consideration. We can find no evidence that any other copies have survived.Edward M. Madden(1818-1885) was born in Orange County, New York, and began work at a cotton factory at age nine. He worked as a merchant and then opened a saw factory in Middletown. He entered politics as a Democrat and was a delegate to the 1852 Democratic state convention. He joined the new Republican Party and served as a member of the New York Senate in 1856-1857, 1872-1873, 1875, and 1880-1881. He also served as a delegate to the 1864 and 1876 Republican National Conventions.
Reagan as President Giving Thanks for Painting of a Park Where He Was a Lifeguard

Reagan as President Giving Thanks for Painting of a Park Where He Was a Lifeguard

RONALD REAGAN Typed Letter Signed "Dutch," to Bill and Jean Thompson, March 7, 1988, Washington, D.C. 1 p., 7 x 10 1/2 in. On White House stationery with embossed presidential seal. "I've been living with memories since it arrived. There are no words to properly express my gratitude and my pleasure at having that lovely painting of a spot so dear to my heart." Complete TranscriptTHE WHITE HOUSEWashington March 7, 1988Dear Jean and Bill:What a surprise and what a trip down memory lane. Yes, the painting is the view I had from that very spot, and I've been living with memories since it arrived. Thank you both. There are no words to properly express my gratitude and my pleasure at having that lovely painting of a spot so dear to my heart. In just a few weeks we'll be handcarrying it to the ranch. I'll also drop a line to Fran Swarbrick.Let us know when you'll be in Washington. I hope we are on hand. I say that because there are a few things such as the Moscow summit pending with no exact dates set as yet. If we're here, you can bet you'll be in the Oval Office.Again, a heartfelt thank you for "Lowell Park." Nancy joins me in every good wish and warm regard. Sincerely, Dutch Mr. and Mrs. Bill Thompson517 Brinton AvenueDixon, Illinois 61021Historical BackgroundThe Moscow Summit mentioned in this letter was the fourth of five groundbreaking summits held between President Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev, General Secretary of the Communist Party. It took place between May 29 and June 3, 1988, at the Kremlin. During the conference, the two world leaders continued their ongoing discussion of nuclear arms control, humanitarian issues, and international politics. One of the specific talking points in 1988 was the anticipated Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan. This summit at Moscow had followed summits at Geneva (1985), Reykjavik (1986), and Washington (1987), and preceded the summit at Malta (1989).In the winter of 1988, the Thompsons presented President Reagan with a painting of Lowell Park. Reagan had worked as a life guard at this park along the Rock River near his hometown between ages 16-23. President Reagan promised that the artwork would soon be exhibited at the "ranch," referring to the 688-acre farm near Santa Barbara, California purchased in 1974. Rancho del Cielo was known as the "Western White House." Gorbachev was just one of many VIPs to visit there; others included Queen Elizabeth II and British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.William C. "Bill" Thompson (1917-2005) was born in Dixon, Illinois, and was a businessman and community leader. In August 1942, he married Jean E. Thompson (1920-1997) of Iowa, and they had two children. He was a long-time friend of President Ronald Reagan, and they visited the president in the Oval Office in 1984. They were actively involved in the Ronald Reagan Home Restoration and Preservation Association, a non-profit organization established in 1980 to restore Ronald Reagan's childhood home in Dixon. On September 29, 1983, President Reagan wrote in his White House diary: "Bill & Jean Thompson of Dixon came by. They are really the sparkplugs behind the renovation of my boyhood home."Frances "Fran" Pervier Swarbrick (1922-2018) was a Dixon artist who painted "Looking Upriver from Lowell Park," a view of Ronald Reagan at Lowell Park, which now hangs in the Reagan Presidential Library in California. Born in Minnesota, she attended an art school in Des Moines, Iowa, the American Academy of Art in Chicago, and Carthage College. She married William Henry Swarbrick (1920-2012) in 1944, and he became a Lutheran minister. She worked a newspaper report and a courtroom artist. She became a noted regional artist, poet, and author.Condition: Wear including light paper folds and some minor foxing, else near fine.
Debating the Bill of Rights Amendments in 1789

Debating the Bill of Rights Amendments in 1789

BILL OF RIGHTS The Pennsylvania Packet, and Daily Advertiser. Newspaper, August 22, 1789 (No. 3295). Philadelphia: John Dunlap and David C. Claypoole. 4 pp., 11 3/8 x 18 1/4 in. "Mr. [Egbert] Benson [of New York] moved that the words 'but no person religiously scrupulous shall be compelled to bear arms,' be struck out. He wished that this humane provision should be left to the wisdom and benevolence of government. It was improper to make it a fundamental in the constitution."This issue of the Pennsylvania Packet includes key debates in the House of Representatives on the developing set of amendments that were later ratified as the Bill of Rights. It also prints the Act establishing the War Department. Excerpts"Sixth amendment-'A well regulated militia, composed of the body of the people being the best security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed, but no person religiously scrupulous shall be compelled to bear arms.'"Mr. [Egbert] Benson [of New York] moved that the words 'but no person religiously scrupulous shall be compelled to bear arms,' be struck out. He wished that this humane provision should be left to the wisdom and benevolence of government. It was improper to make it a fundamental in the constitution."The motion was negative, and the amendment agreed to." (p2/c4)[Proposed by Congress without last clause as fourth amendment; ratified as Second Amendment.]"Eleventh amendment-'The enumeration in this constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.'"This was agreed to without amendment." (p2/c4)[Proposed by Congress as eleventh amendment; ratified as Ninth Amendment.]"Twelfth amendment-'Art . 1, sec. 10, between the 1st and 2d par. Insert-'No state shall infringe the equal rights of conscience, nor the freedom of speech, or of the press, nor of the right of trial by jury in criminal cases.'"This amendment was accepted." (p2/c4)[Not proposed by Congress; protections of Bill of Rights later applied to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment (1868).]"Eighteenth amendment-'The powers not delegated by this constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively.'"Passed." (p3/c1)[Proposed by Congress as twelfth amendment; ratified as Tenth Amendment.]"Mr. Tucker moved that certain propositions for amendments to the constitution, which he had laid on the table on Monday, should be read. They being read, he moved that they be referred to the committee of the whole. The question on this motion was lost by a great majority." (p3/c1)"Be it enacted.that there shall be an executive department, to be denominated the Department of War; and that there shall be a principal officer therein, to be called the Secretary for the Department of War, who shall perform and execute such duties as shall from time to time be enjoined on, or entrusted to him by the President of the United States, agreeable to the Constitution, relative to military commissions, or to the land or naval forces, ships, or warlike stores of the United States, or to such other matters respecting military or naval affairs, as the President of the United States shall assign to the said Department, or relative to the granting of lands to persons entitled thereto, for military services rendered to the United States, or relative to Indian affairs." (p2/c1)Historical BackgroundOn June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the Constitution, putting the new government in motion. In September the Confederation Congress certified that the new Constitution had been ratified by more than enough states for it to go into effect (Virginia and New York had ratified in the interim). Thus, the opening of the First Congress on March 4, 1789, signaled a new system of federal government. However, many believed that the system was incomplete. During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, delegates George. (See website for full description)
The New U.S. Senate Considers Bill to Organize the Federal Judiciary: Full Text of the Senate Bill to Establish the Supreme Court

The New U.S. Senate Considers Bill to Organize the Federal Judiciary: Full Text of the Senate Bill to Establish the Supreme Court, Federal Judicial Districts and Circuit Courts, as Well as the Position of Attorney General

JUDICIARY ACT, U.S. SENATE DRAFT The Pennsylvania Packet, and Daily Advertiser. Newspaper, June 29, 1789 (No. 3248). Philadelphia: John Dunlap and David C. Claypoole. 4 pp., 11 3/8 x 18 1/4 in. "the supreme court of the United States shall consist of a chief justice and five associate justices.and shall hold annually at the seat of the federal government two sessions."The U.S. Constitution provided that the "judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and such inferior Courts," leaving to Congress to establish the details. The Judiciary Act erected a three-tiered federal court system-the Supreme Court, the Courts of Appeals, and the District Courts-essentially the system in place today. The foremost issue was the relative power and authority to be respectively accorded the federal and state courts. The Judiciary Act's most controversial provision empowered the Supreme Court to hear, at its discretion, appeals of verdicts reached in the state courts whenever those decisions were deemed to raise questions of constitutionality of state or federal laws. "the supreme court of the United States shall consist of a chief justice and five associate justices.and shall hold annually at the seat of the federal government two sessions." (p2/c1) [expanded in 1802 to 7 and in 1837 to 9 justices]"the United States shall be, and they are hereby divided into eleven districts. the before-mentioned district shall be divided into three circuits, and be called the eastern, the middle, and the southern circuit.and that there shall be held annually in each district two courts, which shall be called circuit courts, and shall consist of any two justices of the supreme court, and the district judge of such districts." (p2/c1)"the supreme court shall have exclusive jurisdiction of all controversies of a civil nature, where any of the United States or a foreign state is a party." (p2/c3)"grand and petit jurors who shall be summoned to serve in the courts of the United States, shall have the same qualifications as are requisite for jurors by the laws of the state of which they are citizens. the mode of proof by oral testimony and examination of witnesses in open court, shall be the same in all the courts of the United States, as well in the trial of causes in equity and of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction as of actions at common law." (p3/c1)"in all the courts of the United States, the parties may plead and manage their own causes personally or by the assistance of such counsel or attornies at law as by the rules of the said courts respectively shall be permitted to manage and conduct causes therein." (p3/c2)"And the supreme court shall also appoint a meet person, learned in the law, to act as attorney general for the United States, and shall swear him to a faithful execution of his office; whose whole duty it shall be to prosecute and conduct all suits in such court in which the United States shall be concerned, and to give his advice and opinion upon questions of law when required by the President of the United States, or when requested by the heads of any of the departments, touching any matters that may concern their departments; and shall receive such compensation for his services as shall by law be provided." (p3/c2) [amended to be appointed by the President] Historical BackgroundOn April 7, 1789, the day after the first Federal Congress, meeting in New York, achieved a quorum, the Senate appointed a committee composed of one senator from each of the ten states to draft legislation to shape the judiciary. Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut received the most votes, becoming chairman, and the primary author of the bill. On June 12, 1789, Senator Richard Henry Lee of Virginia reported from the committee the Judiciary Bill, printed here. The Senate passed the bill on July 17. After the House and Senate made changes and agreed to final text, George Washington signed it into law on September 24.Ju. (See website for full description)
Congress Authorizes a Mint

Congress Authorizes a Mint, and President Washington Proclaims the Location of the Permanent Seat of Government

GEORGE WASHINGTON Columbian Centinel, April 23, 1791. Newspaper. Boston: Benjamin Russell. 4 pp. (pp. 45-48), 10 1/4 x 16 1/4 in Including two March 3, 1791 Acts of Congress: Resolution to Establish U.S. Mint, and Act that President be requested to report to Congress on "the quantity and situation of lands not claimed by the Indians, nor granted to, nor claimed by any of the citizens of the Unties States within the territory ceded to the United States by the State of North-Carolina, and within the territory of the United States north-west of the river Ohio." Also the March 30, 1791 Proclamation of Permanent Seat of Government, signed in type by Washington and Jefferson. Excerpts"Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That a mint shall be established under such regulations as shall be directed by law."Resolved, That the President of the United States be, and he is hereby authorized to cause to be engaged, such principal artists as shall be necessary to carry the preceeding resolution into effect, and to stipulate the terms and conditions of their service, and also to cause to be procured such apparatus as shall be requisite for the same purpose." March 3, 1791. (p1/c1)"By the President of the United State. A Proclamation. Whereas by a Proclamation bearing date the 24th day of January, of this present year, and in pursuance of certain acts of the states of Maryland and Virginia, and of the Congress of the United States, therein mentioned, certain lines of experiment were directed to be run in the neighbourhood of Georgetown in Maryland, for the purpose of determining the location of a part of the territory of ten miles square for the permanent seat of the Government of the United States." (p1/c1)"NOW THEREFORE, for the purpose of amending and completing the location of the whole of the said territory of ten miles square, in conformity with the said amendatory act of Congress, I do hereby declare and make known that the whole of the said territory shall be located and included within the four lines following, that is to say-"Beginning at Jones' point, being the upper Cape of Hunting Creek, in Virginia, and at an angle, in the outset of 45 degrees west of the north, and running in a direct line ten miles for the first line: Then beginning again at the same Jones' point, and running another direct line at a right angle with the first, across the Patowmac, ten miles, for the second line: Then from the terminations of the said first and second lines, running two other direct lines, of ten miles each, the one crossing the Eastern branch aforesaid, and the other the Patowmac, and meeting each other in a point." (p1/c2)Historical BackgroundIn April 1790, Congress asked Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton to prepare a plan for establishing a national mint. In January 1791, Hamilton responded with an extensive plan. In his plan, Hamilton quoted approvingly the adage that "The perfection of the Coins is a great safeguard against counterfeits." On March 3, President George Washington approved this resolution of Congress that a mint be established and that the President engage artists to develop designs for American coins that were difficult to counterfeit.Congress passed An act establishing a mint, and regulating the Coins of the United States in April 1792 to establish a mint at the seat of government (Philadelphia at the time) with five officers-a director, an assayer, a chief coiner, an engraver, and a treasurer. Washington appointed scientist David Rittenhouse (1732-1796) as the first director of the mint and approved the purchase of land in Philadelphia for the mint. He also appointed clockmaker Henry Voight (1738-1814) as the first chief coiner of the mint. Robert Scot (1745-1823) was chief engraver from 1793 until his death.In 1788 and 1789, the General Assemblies of Maryland and Virginia passed laws allowing those states to cede land . (See website for full description)
Bartholdi Plans for Statue of Liberty Right Arm and Torch Exhibit at 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition

Bartholdi Plans for Statue of Liberty Right Arm and Torch Exhibit at 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition

FREDERIC-AUGUSTE BARTHOLDI Autograph Letter Signed, in French, recipient unknown, June 8, 1876, Philadelphia. On "International Expositions, Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce, Superior Commission of International Expositions, General Station, Hotel de Cluny, Rue du Sommerard, Paris" letterhead. 2 pp., 5 1/8 x 8 1/8 in. Complete TranslationDear Mademoiselle,It will give me great pleasure to see my work figured in the respected publication of Mr. Harper. I am thinking of returning to New York on Monday and I will have the pleasure of bringing you, in person, the block and the notes that you asked for.Would you be so kind to thank Mr. Harper for his appreciation of my work and yourself accept the expression of my most devoted feelings of friendship. BartholdiPhiladelphia 8 June 1876 Historical BackgroundShortly after the end of the American Civil War, French abolitionist Édouard René de Laboulaye suggested to sculptor Frédéric Bartholdi the creation of a monumental memorial to American independence and freedom. In 1871, Bartholdi traveled to the United States to sell the idea to President Ulysses S. Grant and other influential Americans.In May of 1876, Bartholdi constructed the right arm bearing the torch, realizing it could stand alone if financing for the entire project failed. The torch's display at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia from August to November 1876 was a definite highlight with the fair's approximately ten million visitors. Many scaled the 42-foot tall display for a fee of 50 cents.Bartholdi returned to Paris in 1877, and concentrated on completing the head, which was exhibited at the 1878 Paris World's Fair. Although fundraising in France initially aimed at elites, contributions were received from every part of society, including schoolchildren, citizens, and 181 municipalities, while French industrialist Eugène Secrétan donated 64 of the 100 tons of copper needed for the statue. After Laboulaye died, Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal, succeeded him as president of the Franco American Union, which ultimately raised 2.25 million francs (approximately $250,000), primarily from the sale of miniatures. The statue was presented in France to U.S. Ambassador Levi P. Morton on July 4, 1884, and de Lesseps announced that the French government had also agreed to pay for its transport. Harper's Weekly published an image of the projected statue in November of 1875. In 1885, Bartholdi included a note in The Statue of Liberty Enlightening the World Described by the Sculptor, Published for the Benefit of the Pedestal Fund (New York: North American Review, 1885), thanking Harper and Brothers and others "for their kindness in contributing many of the wood cuts with which this little work is illustrated."The statue arrived in New York in June 1885, but the pedestal was not completed until April of 1886. President Grover Cleveland, who as New York governor had vetoed a $50,000 expenditure for the pedestal, presided over the dedication on October 28, 1886.Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (1834-1904) was born in Colmar, France, to a family of Italian and German Protestant heritage. After his father died when Bartholdi was two years old, his family moved to Paris. He studied painting, sculpture, and architecture, and graduated from the Lycee Louis-le-Grand in 1852. Following his service in the 1870 Franco-Prussian War, Bartholdi became interested in sculpting monumental works celebrating resistance against oppression, and Enlightenment ideals like Freedom. In his first visit to the United States in 1871, he promoted the idea of the gift of a massive statute from France to the United States in honor of the upcoming centennial of American independence. The Bartholdi Fountain was completed in Washington, DC in 1878, and his sculpture in red sandstone, the Lion of Belfort, commemorating the heroic French resistance against the Prussians, was completed in 1880. The Statue of Liberty was installed in New Yo. (See website for full description)
Alessandro Volta

Alessandro Volta, Inventor of Electric Battery, Signs the University of Pavia Prospectus for the 1817-1818 Academic Year

ALESSANDRO VOLTA Printed Document Signed, "A. Volta direttore" on the reverse. On cream laid paper. 11.25 x 8.125 in. Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) gave his name to the volt, the unit of measurement that gauges electronic potential. He invented the first electric battery at the turn of the nineteenth century by using zinc, copper, and sulfuric acid mixed with water. Volta's research into electricity extended into static electricity as well as into the combustion of methane-a compound that he also discovered in 1776. This University of Pavia prospectus for the 1817-1818 academic year outlined the number and type of students that Professor Eustachio Fiocchi, an instructor of Classical Latin Literature, would have in his first semester class. 60 students were enrolled, including: 40 first to third year students; 18 foreign students ("Esteri"); 7 honors students ("Classe con lode"); and 13 auditors ("Non esaminati").Volta signed the document as Director; he served as chair of the natural philosophy department at the University of Pavia for almost 40 years, between 1779-1819.The University of Paviadates to the Middle Ages, making it one of the oldest in the world. Teaching started there as early as 1361, and for approximately 500 years, it was the only university in Milan and the entire Lombardy region of Italy.Condition: Light folds and one wrinkled and partly chipped margin, else clean and bright.
Act of Congress Attempting to Mitigate Brewing Whiskey Rebellion

Act of Congress Attempting to Mitigate Brewing Whiskey Rebellion, Signed by Edmund Randolph

EDMUND RANDOLPH Document Signed as Secretary of State. An ACT making further provision for securing and collecting the Duties on foreign and domestic Spirits, Stills, Wines and Teas, June 5, 1794. Philadelphia: Childs and Swaine. Signed in type by George Washington as President, Ralph Izard as President pro tempore of the Senate, and Frederick Muhlenberg as Speaker of the House. 4 pp., 8 x 13 3/8 in. Excerpts"all spirits which shall be distilled in the United States, in stills which shall not have been previously entered at some office of inspection, shall be liable, together with the stills or other vessels used in the distillation thereof, to seizure and forfeiture." (sec. 2)"any person or persons, who shall counterfeit the certificates for, or the marks or numbers to be set upon any cask, vessel or package containing wines, teas, or foreign or domestic distilled spirits, or upon stills. shall, for every such offence, forfeit and pay the sum of one hundred dollars." (sec. 7)"That it shall and may be lawful for the judicial courts of the several states, and of the territory of the United States northwest of the river Ohio, and of the territory of the United States south of the river Ohio, to take cognizance of all and every suit and suits, action and actions, cause and causes, arising under or out of the laws for collecting a revenue upon spirits distilled in the United States, and upon stills, which may arise or accrue at a greater distance, than fifty miles from the nearest place established by law for holding a district court." (sec. 9)"That the judicial courts of the several states, to whom, by this act, a jurisdiction is given, shall and may exercise all and every power. for the purpose of obtaining a mitigation or remission of any fine, penalty or forfeiture, which may be exercised by the judges of the district courts, in cases depending before them. " (sec. 18) Historical BackgroundCongress imposed a tax on whiskey in 1791 without fully considering that on the western frontier, surplus rye, barley, wheat, and corn was routinely distilled into whiskey which could be transported to distant markets or even used as a medium of exchange. Farmers resisting the tax included veterans who declared that they were fighting for the principles of the American Revolution. In May of 1794, federal district attorney William Rawle issued more than sixty subpoenas to Pennsylvania distillers who had not paid the tax.The distillers were required to travel to Philadelphia to appear in the federal district court, a journey most could not afford. Congressman William Findley, an Irish-born farmer representing southwestern Pennsylvania, urged relief.Attorney General William Bradford later argued that while federal marshal David Lenox had been attempting to compel compliance, he did not intend to hold the trials in Philadelphia. In any case, hundreds of western Pennsylvania farmers attacked the home of a tax inspector in response.This Act, passed on June 5, 1794, addressed some of the complaints. For instance, it allowed trials in state courts if the defendant was farther than fifty miles from the federal district court. However, many westerners continued to refuse to pay the tax and the rebellion grew.Edmund Randolph (who succeeded Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State) was the only member of President Washington's cabinet to oppose the use of force to impose compliance. In August, Washington sent peace commissioners to meet with the rebels but also summoned the New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia militias into service. The force of nearly 13,000 militia marched westward in September and October. After consulting with the commanders in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and Fort Cumberland, Maryland, Washington returned to the capital in Philadelphia, while Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton continued with the army. As the army marched into western Pennsylvania, the rebellion collapsed. A few rebel leaders we. (See website for full description)