WP Watson Antiquarian Books Archives - Rare Book Insider
last 7 days
last 30 days

WP Watson Antiquarian Books

La Dissection des parties du corps humain ?[bound with:] VESALIUS

La Dissection des parties du corps humain ?[bound with:] VESALIUS, Andreas ( ) and Jacques GRÉVIN (ca 1539-1570). Les Portraicts anatomiques de toutes les parties du corps humain ?

ESTIENNE, Charles (1504-1564) and Estienne de la RIVIÈRE (died 1564) 2 vols in one, folio (400 x 255 mm), I: pp [xvi] 405 [3, including terminal blank], with Colines' 'Tempus' device on title, 62 full-page woodcuts (including 6 repeats), 101 smaller woodcuts, and criblé initials; II: pp [viii] 106 [2] with printer's device on verso, and 40 engraved full-page plates; both works ruled in red throughout, both large, fine copies in early reversed calf.First edition in French of the Estienne and the first edition of Grévin's adaptation of Vesalius' Fabrica, and the first appearance of Vesalius in the French language.The Estienne is of one of the most attractive illustrated anatomical books of the sixteenth century. It is the French book which most superbly illustrates the union of art and science in Renaissance anatomy, to paraphrase En Français dans le texte. A Latin edition was published by Colines the year before, but the French version, his penultimate book, is much rarer and also contains two full-page woodcuts not included in the Latin edition, including the famous skeleton on p 13 by Mercure Jollat (dated 1532).The full-page woodcuts are striking examples of Mannerist art and are some of the most memorable images in medical iconography. As an illustrated anatomy it is surpassed only by Vesalius. Although published two years after Vesalius, the woodcuts were begun in 1530 and much of the printing had been completed by 1539, when work was interrupted by a lawsuit brought by the co-author, the surgeon Étienne de la Rivière, against Estienne. It is in fact likely that Vesalius, who was in Paris from 1533 to 1536, saw Estienne's work and was influenced by it.This is the 'first published work to include illustrations of the whole external venous and nervous systems' (Garrison and Morton) and is particularly important in neurology for containing the most detailed pre-Vesalian brain dissections. 'His eight dissections of the brain, made in 1539, give more anatomical detail than had previously appeared, particularly the first graphical presentation of the difference between convolutional patterns of the cerebrum and cerebellum' (McHenry, Garrison's history of neurology). 'In the De dissectione, Estienne stated at the outset the principle of the new anatomical method: "One should not believe in books on anatomy but far more in one's own eyes"' (DSB).Full description provided upon request.
Lyell family album of 85 autograph letters written to or concerning Charles Lyell from eminent chemists

Lyell family album of 85 autograph letters written to or concerning Charles Lyell from eminent chemists, physicists, physicians, and explorers.

LYELL, Sir Charles (1797-1875) and others Together 85 letters by physicists, chemists, explorers, geographers, geologists, and doctors and surgeons, the letters edge-mounted in a large contemporary autograph album (361 by 265 mm), contemporary dark purple half morocco over purple roan boards, gilt edges, with manuscript label 'Chemists, Physicians, Travellers, and Geographers'. In fine condition, with its original waxed linen protective cover. Most of the letters are accompanied by a facing photograph or portrait print of the letter's author. The album was compiled by a member of Lyell's family, Leonard Lyell (1850-1926), nephew of Charles Lyell and son of Katherine Mary Lyell. His signature is on the inside front cover.An autograph album from the family of Sir Charles Lyell, and a veritable Who's Who of Victorian scientists, doctors and surgeons, and explorers. It reveals the complex weave of scientific, social, and institutional connections that formed the fabric of the Lyell family's life in particular and Victorian science in general. It also illuminates Lyell's Scottish connections in the sciences, the role of the British Institution and its lecturers, the Royal Society, and the Athenaeum Club, the leading London club for intellectuals. Many of the letters are written on Royal Institution or Athenaeum stationery. This is an immensely valuable archive that has never been researched before and none of which has been published; it sheds new light on the working practice of Charles Lyell, Michael Faraday, Francis Galton, and many others, and in particular the network of correspondence Lyell maintained in gathering geological information from far-flung parts of the Empire and elsewhere.The correspondents include Humphry Davy, Michael Faraday, William Wollaston, Jacob Berzelius, Justus von Liebig, August Wilhelm Hoffman, John Tyndall, Edward Frankland, David Brewster, Hermann von Helmholtz, William Grove, Benjamin Brodie, Alexander Shaw, Matthew Ballie, James Clark, Henry Holland, Andrew Clark, Joseph Lister, Alexander Burnes, Basil Hall, John Richardson, William Parry, Leopold McClintock, George Back, Charles Augustus Murray, James Brooke, Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, Francis Galton, James Grant, John Wilkinson, Henry Lefroy, Karl Lepsius, Friedjof Nansen, and others.Full details of contents upon request.
A Discourse of Gravity and Gravitation

A Discourse of Gravity and Gravitation, grounded on Experimental Observations: Presented to the Royal Society, November 12. 1674 .

WALLIS, John (1616-1703) 4to (200 x 155 mm), pp [iv] 36, with folding engraved plate; a very good copy in plain wrappers, worn.First edition of Wallis's response to Sir Mathew Hale's critique of Boyle's experiments on the weight and spring of air, and part of Wallis's project to provide the mathematical basis of mechanics. 'In 1673 and 1674 Sir Matthew Hale (1609-1676), the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, anonymously published two books criticising the explanation of the barometric experiments by the weight and spring of the air. For some reason, Boyle was not willing to answer and John Wallis was commissioned to do so. Wallis dealt with the weight of fluids in the . Discourse concerning Gravity . presented to the Royal Society in November 1674 The Council ordered it to be printed at its expense in January 1675. We cannot deal here with Wallis' tract except to point out that although Wallis avoids the mixed mathematics format, he provides a detailed theoretical critique of Hale's explanations of the barometric experiments and of new experiments adduced by Hale. What seems highly relevant here is that in a matter in which Boyle was the highest authority, the Society's answer to Hale's challenge was entrusted to Wallis. This suggests that the experimentalist's and the mathematician's approach to hydrostatics and pneumatics were regarded as conflicting in no fundamental way. On the contrary it suggests that it was thought useful to combine them for answering critics. Boyle and Wallis did agree in rejecting to pay serious consideration to the investigation of the "nature" of key physical notions such as gravity or spring. Judging from the occasions in which they cooperated in crucial matters, this agreement seems to have powerfully brought them together.' (Antoni Malet in The Mechanization of Natural Philosophy, p 177).Hale's two anonymous works were Essay touching the gravitation or non-gravitation of fluids (1673) and Difficiles nugae, or, Observations touching the Torricellian experiment (1674). These two prompted both the present work by Wallis and also a reply by Thomas Hobbes in his Decameron physiologicum (1678, chapter VIII).Wallis begins by setting out his mathematical approach to the laws of motion, stating that it is not his intent to discuss the causes or nature of gravity, but rather to give as precise as possible a mathematical description of gravity and related phenomena. He then embarks on a detailed critique of Hale's 'explanations', which are rooted in philosophy and not in quantitative analysis.Wing W574
Historiae coelestis libri duo: quorum prior exhibet catalogum stellarum fixarum Britannicum novum & locupletissimum

Historiae coelestis libri duo: quorum prior exhibet catalogum stellarum fixarum Britannicum novum & locupletissimum, una cum earundem planetarumque omnium observationibus sextante, micrometro, &c. habitis; posterior transitus syderum per planum arcus meridionalis et distantias eorum a vertice complectitur. Observante Johanne Flamsteedio in Observatorio Regio Grenovicensi continua serie ab anno 1676 ad annum 1705 completum.

FLAMSTEED, John (1646-1719) Large folio (390 x 267 mm), pp [ii] vi 60; 387 [3]; 120, [2, errata], with engraved frontispiece, engraved dedication leaf, ten engraved headpieces, and four engraved plates; prelims a bit spotted, a few minor marginal tears not affecting text, a fine, crisp copy in contemporary panelled calf, with gilt arms of Queen Anne within gilt panels on both covers, the binding repaired in various places, rebacked with original spine laid down. The exceptionally rare first edition of Flamsteed's catalogue of fixed stars, published without his consent by Edmund Halley and the Royal Society. Flamsteed had the undistributed edition confiscated, and, apart from one section, burned the lot, as 'a Sacrifice . to heavenly Truth'. Flamsteed's catalogue and sextant observations is one of the foundations of modern observational astronomy, and his data was crucial to Isaac Newton in writing the Principia. Flamsteed's catalogue was far more extensive and accurate than anything that had gone before. He was the first to utilize instruments with telescopic sights and micrometer eyepieces; he was the first to study systematic errors in his instruments; he was the first to urge the fundamental importance of using clocks and taking meridian altitudes. The catalogue contains about 3000 naked eye stars (Ptolemy and Tycho listed 1000, Hevelius 2000) with an accuracy of about 10 seconds of arc. However, Flamsteed, although appointed first Astronomer Royal in 1675, was reluctant to publish what he considered preliminary observations. Isaac Newton and Edmond Halley pressed him to do so. Flamsteed's refusal led to one of the most famous, and bitterest, disputes in the history of astronomy, and to the present work being published against Flamsteed's will. Flamsteed's response, in 1716, was to destroy 300 of the 400 copies printed, apart from the section of sextant observations.His own 'authorised' version of the star catalogue was only published posthumously, by his widow, in 1725. The frontispiece, featuring Flamsteed's portrait, is by George Vertue after J.B. Catenaro; the engraved dedication to Queen Anne and her consort, Prince George of Denmark, is by Guernier after Catenaro; the engraved plates are by John Senex; and the fine headpieces, several depicting Flamsteed's astronomical instruments, are also engraved by Guernier after Catenaro.Provenance: arms of the dedicatée Queen Anne on binding; inscription on front fly-leaf, 'in hoc catalogo britannico continentur 2348 stellae fixae & variationes ascentiones recte & declinationes in illo exhibitae annis 71 perficiuntur, nempe variationes hisce locis applicatae dant illos qui egrediente anno domini 1760 caelo correspondebunt' ('this British catalogue contains the right ascension and declination of 2348 fixed stars and their variation over a period of 71 years, and can be used to obtain these variations up to the year 1760'); a few eighteenth-century ink notes in margins of catalogue of fixed stars at beginning, including the following in the lower margin of the first leaf of text: 'NB The variations in R[ight] A[scension] and D[istance] to P[ole] are for the time in which the stars are changing their procession by one degree that is to say in 72 years. Hence as from the year 1690 to the year 1786 there are 96 years then 96 - 72 = 24 & 72 ÷ 24 = 3 [therefore] for the year 1786 add the variation and 1/3 of it'; Edward Henry Columbine (1763-1811), hydrographer and colonial governor (signature 'E. H. Columbine' on title); Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford (Sotheby's Catalogue of the Valuable Library removed from The Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford, Tuesday, 7th May, 1935) Parkinson p 139; Gingerich, 'A unique copy of Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis,' pp 189-197 in Flamsteed's Stars: New Perspectives on the Life and Work of the First Astronomer Royal, 1646-1719 (Willmoth, ed) (1997)
Prose de' Signori Accademici Gelati di Bologna distinte ne' seguenti trattati.[bound

Prose de’ Signori Accademici Gelati di Bologna distinte ne’ seguenti trattati.[bound, and possibily issued with:] Leggi dell’Accademia de’ S.S.ri Gelati di Bologna .

MONTANARI, Geminiano (1633-1687) et al. ACCADEMIA DEI GELATI 2 vols in bound in one, 4to (206 x 155 mm), pp xvi, including frontispiece] 432 [recte 442]; 24, with engraved frontispiece to first work, 16 engraved emblems within borders, and 2 full-page white-on-black woodcuts of the Pleiades, numerous head- and tail-pieces and other woodcut illustrations; a few marginal tears, some occasional worming to inner blank margins, overall a very good copy in contemporary Italian vellum with title in manuscript on spine.First edition, Montanari's discovery of variable stars, 'one of the earliest and most important chapters in the history of astrophysics' (see below). The volume itself is a collection of essays on various topics by the Accademia members, noted especially for Montanari's essay 'Sopra la Sparizione d'alcune Stelle et altre novita Celesti. Discorso Astronomico' (pp 369-392 [recte 402], a pioneering work on periodic variable stars. Montanari catalogues a number of stars of variable brightness. Montanari had devoted himself to 'inventing and marking precision instruments. He constructed enormous objective lenses, that were greatly praised by Cassini; one of them, dated 1666, is preserved in Bologna .'Montanari's greatest achievements, however, were in astronomy, particularly in his observations of the star Algol, which contributed to one of the earliest and most important chapters in the history of astrophysics, the study of the variable stars. He sent the results of his observations, which struct a fresh blow at the Aristotelian concept of the heavens' immutability, to the Royal Society in London and gave the first report of them in the paper "Sopra la sparizione d'alcune stelle et altre novita celesti," published in Prose de' signori accademici Gelati ((1671). In this paper he catalogued many stars of variable brightness, again drawing particular attention to Algol . Montanari seems not to have noticed the regularity of the phenomenon, but he was reasonably accurate in indicating the extremes of the variation' (DSB, which goes to explain that his failure to notice the periodicity was due to deterioration of his sight which prevented him from making regular observations).There are two striking white-on-black plates illustrating 'Pleiades Montanarii 1668' and "Pleiades Galilaei 1610'. The frontispiece, featuring the emblem of the Accademia, is by Lorenzo Tinti after Agostino Carracci. Praz notes 'the widespread interest of men of letters in the composition of their own devices' in this work (Praz, p 77).The second title sets out the rules governing the Accademia, along with a list of its members. They include many prominent artists and scientists such as Ferdinando Cospi, Ovidio Montalbani, Antonio Manzini, Giovanni Paolo Castelli, Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo, Caro Dati, Lorenzo Magalotti, and of course Montanari himself.The pagination of this work is in full: [xvi] pp 160 ff 161-169; pp 171-390; ff 391, 392; pp 393-432; 24. The text contains significant corrections in manuscript.Riccardi I.2 172
De lucidis in sublimi ingenuarum exercitationum liber. In quo disseritur de radiis solis directis nullam attritionem

De lucidis in sublimi ingenuarum exercitationum liber. In quo disseritur de radiis solis directis nullam attritionem, nullamque caliditatem in aere producentibus, ad reflexorum refractorumque discrimen: De duplici galaxia, caelesti, & elementari: De cometis in caelo, & in ignis elemento genitis, tum per consensationem aetheris utriusque sine gravitatis acquisitione; tum etiam per astrorum concursum, antiquioribus ignotum; De cometarum eclipsi; de cauda lucente solum in umbra cometici capitis, & de nubium triplici differentia specifica, densiorumque levitate summa cum puritate conjuncta.

GALILEI, Galileo (1564-1642)] LICETI, Fortunio (1577-1657) 4to (195 x 140 mm), pp [viii] 120, author's woodcut device ('Fortasse Licebit') on title; a very good, unpressed copy, some very slight browning, in contemporary vellum, old stamp and inscription on title.First edition of this treatise on astronomy, covering optics, comets, the galaxies, and the interpretation of astronomical observations. The work is written in the form of a dialogue between Liceti and Libert Froidmont (1587-1658), author of two anti-Copernican texts). This work, comprising 183 sections, was written in response to, and quotes extensively from, Galileo's 'Letter to Leopold'. 'Liceti's book on the Bolognese stone attacked Galileo's explanation (in the Starry Messenger and the Dialogue) of the secondary light of the moon seen in thin crescent as a reflection of sunlight from the earth. These attacks became the subject of several letters to Galileo early in 1640. On 11 March, Prince Leopold wrote from Pisa that although to him Liceti's arguments seemed too frivolous to deserve reply, nevertheless he would like to have Galileo's opinion. Galileo then composed a lengthy treatise in the form of a letter to Prince Leopold, copies of which circulated for several months before Liceti asked to have one in order that he might formally reply. Galileo's Letter to Prince Leopold was several times revised and expanded, the final version occupying about fifty printed pages.'It was not until January 1641 that Galileo finally sent off his polished and amplified text of the Letter to Leopold. Liceti acknowledged receipt of a copy on 5 Feburary, and in due course he published his reply to it, in 183 sections [the present work]' (Drake, Galileo at work, pp 410-12).Liceti discusses Galileo's Sidereus nuncius, his observations of sunspots, and other findings, along with the theories of Brahe, Kepler, Snell, and others. The nature of galaxies and the possible plurality of worlds are also examined.The fourth preliminary leaf is a catalogue of Liceti's works, 44 titles listed.Fortunio Liceti, a friend and adversary of Galileo, was an Aristotelian university man '"of great reputation" (as one can read in [Galileo's] Dialogue), the great teratologist, professor of philosophy and medicine at the University of Bologna. Professor Liceti had an incomparable intellectual formation in medicine, literary and archaeological erudition, and astronomy and natural philosophy. He knew a good twenty-two hypotheses on comets and all the theories of Aristotle's commentators on the nature of light.' (Redondi, Galileo: heretic pp 20-21).Carli and Favaro 185; Piantanida 2199; OCLC: Michigan, Toronto and Yale; Harvard also has a copy
Bibliotheca scriptorum historiae naturali omnium terrae regionum inservientium. Historiae naturalis Helvetiae prodromus. Accessit . Jacobi le Long

Bibliotheca scriptorum historiae naturali omnium terrae regionum inservientium. Historiae naturalis Helvetiae prodromus. Accessit . Jacobi le Long, Bibliothecarii oratoriani De scriptoribus historiae naturalis Galliae .

SCHEUCHZER, Johann Jakob (1672-1733) 8vo (162 x 98 mm), pp [xiv] 241 [1, blank]; a very good copy in contemporary boards, text long-sewn, lacking paper spine cover revealing sewing and red vellum panels between cords, with old labelling in manuscript.First edition of this early bibliography of natural history, arranged geographically by country. 'The earliest general bibliography of the subject listing among other topics geology and mineralogy. It was compiled as a preparation for the author's comprehensive work on the natural history of Switzerland, the first volume of which also appeared in 1716. It is arranged according to countries, including a section on America. The last section of the text contains a list of French writers on natural history, compiled by the famous bibliographer J. le Long (1665-1721)' (Schuh, Biobibliography of mineralogy). Well over a thousand titles are listed, with size, printer, and occasionally pagination given, as well as later editions of a given title. The work was intended as a prodromus to the author's Helveticae Historia Naturalis, Oder Natur-Historie der Schweizlands (3 vols, Zürich, 1716-18).Provenance: engraved bookplate on verso of title, 'Pantaleon Bortius Vic. Gen. Triden.' above coat-of-arms; i.e. Pantaleone Borzi (1697-1748), Vicar General of Trento, signed the Imprimatur for Otto Aicher, Regole Economiche, Trento 1746, otherwise I can find little about himCobres I p 4 n 2; Ward and Carozzi 1968
Appendix. Scientiam Spatii Absolute Veram exhibens: a veritate aut falsitate Axiomatis XI Euclidei (a priori haud unquam decidenda) independentem: adjecta ad casum falsitatis

Appendix. Scientiam Spatii Absolute Veram exhibens: a veritate aut falsitate Axiomatis XI Euclidei (a priori haud unquam decidenda) independentem: adjecta ad casum falsitatis, quadratura circuli geometrica. [in:]BÓLYAI, Farkas (1775-1856). Tentamen Juventutem Studiosam in Elementa Matheseos Purae. Tomus primus [-secundus].

BOLYAI, János (1802-1860) 2 vols, 8vo (I: 228 x 145 mm; II: 214 x 125 mm), I: pp [iv] XCVIII; 502; [ii] 26 [2, errata] XVI [subscriber's list and Latin-Hungarian lexicon of mathematical terms], with one large folding letterpress table, and 4 folded engraved plates (plate 3 with 7 small folding slips); II: pp [vi] xvi [Index Tom II] 402, with 10 folded engraved plates (plate 7 with 10 slips, plate 8 with 4 slips, plate 9 with 3 slips and plate 10 with 5 slips and 1 volvelle), manuscript corrections to line 6 of p 380 vol II; vol II with some worming to inner blank margins and text in several gatherings, affecting some letters but still legible, also affecting first four plates in same vol, just touching some of the figures, some paper flaws as often; first volume uncut, second with some outer edges uncut, together in uniform contemporary blue boards, paper labels on spines, spines and joints cracked but sound, preserved in a morocco box.First edition of 'the most extraordinary two dozen pages in the history of thought' (Halsted) and one of the few absolute rarities among the classics of science. This work contains the independent foundation (along with the work of Lobachevsky) of non-Euclidean geometry. I have located some 23 other copies worldwide, all of them exhibiting variations in issue or completeness (the present copy represents the most complete state of the text for both volumes).Lobachevsky and János Bolyai had independently created non-Euclidean systems by challenging the 'parallel postulate' of Euclid. János Bolyai's work was conceived in 1823, when he wrote to his father 'I have now resolved to publish a work on the theory of parallels . I have created a new universe from nothing'. It was published as an appendix to his father's mathematical treatise, the Tentamen, 1832-3. Lobachevsky's work appeared in a Kazan academic periodical between 1829-1830, and in fuller form as Geometrische Untersuchungen, Berlin 1840. Whereas Lobachevsky initially had only demonstrated the possibility of a geometry in which Euclid's fifth postulate (or 11th axiom) was untrue, János developed a geometry completely independent of the fifth postulate and applicable to varieties of curved space. However, the epochal significance of the work of these two was to remain largely unappreciated until the beginning of the twentieth century when it provided the mathematical basis for the Theory of Relativity.Currently 24 copies of the Tentamen are known to exist, including the present copy, and one (Berlin) that was lost in WWII. Of these 24, one comprises Janos Bolyai's Appendix only. A further three comprise volume one only. In addition, some copies are seriously defective, apart from the standard issue variations. There are numerous variations in collation, etc. amongst these copies.Full description provided upon request.
Lezioni elementari di astronomia ad uso del Real Osservatorio di Palermo .

Lezioni elementari di astronomia ad uso del Real Osservatorio di Palermo .

PIAZZI, Giuseppe (1746-1826) 2 vols, small 4to (200 x 140 mm), pp [xviii] [xix-x] 240; xxvi 446 [recte 416, pages 361-390 omitted in pagniation, text complete], with engraved vignettes depicting the observatory on title-page and 11 engraved plates, some folding; some slight foxing on plates, a very good copy in later nineteenth-century red leather-backed cloth boards.First edition of Piazzi's astronomical textbook for use at the Palermo Royal Observatory, of which he was the director. Having obtained a grant from the Viceroy of Sicily, Piazzi set up the observatory in the Santa Ninfa tower of the Royal Palace in 1789; as the southern-most European observatory, it offered unequalled access to the southern skies. Piazzi was able to acquire a great masterpiece of eighteenth-century technology, the five-foot vertical circle completed for him by the English instrument maker Jesse Ramsden, for the observatory (illustrated on plate II of the present work). It was here that Piazzi discovered the first minor planet, Ceres, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. This, together with the great star catalogue he published at Palermo in 1803 (Praecipuarum Stellarum Inerrantium Positiones), listing 6,748 stars, established his reputation. Using this catalogue, he was able to show that the majority of stars exhibit proper motions relative to the Sun. The present work, a detailed technical handbook intended for the use of astronomers at the Palermo Observatory, became the leading astronomical textbook of the period, considered sufficiently important to be translated into German, with a preface by Carl Friedrich Gauss (Lehrbuch der Astronomie, Berlin 1822).Piazzi's Lezioni consists of seven chapters: Vol I: First observations and results; Basic facts of modern astronomy; On stars; Vol II: Theory of the motion of the planets; The solar system; Eclipses; Comets. Detailed information about the discovery and orbit of Ceres is included in vol II (pp 198-204). Many problems with their solutions are included to assist the reader.DSB X pp 591-593; Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers II pp 902-3; Houzeau & Lancaster 9275
Seven manuscript notebooks comprising three catalogues of minerals and four notebooks on mineralogy

Seven manuscript notebooks comprising three catalogues of minerals and four notebooks on mineralogy

MAXWELL, Henry, 7th Baron Farnham (1799-1868) 7 manuscript books, 8vo (various sizes), ink on paper, details below; all in original paper wrappers (marbled, mottled, or plain), one lower wrapper with some minor dampstaining, generally in fine condition, uncut.A fascinating collection of catalogues of minerals and meteorites, along with a few fossils, mostly relating to the family collections of minerals at their estates in County Cavan and Newtonbarry. The manuscripts reveal that Maxwell was well-read in geological and mineralogical literature, and some of the notes refer to quite early works, such as Gesner's De omni rerum fossilium genere, gemmis, lapidibus, metallis (1565-66). Maxwell is unknown in the annals of mineralogy, but it is possible that he shared his interests with his contemporary and neighbouring Irish peer William Willoughby Cole, third Earl of Inniskillen (1807-1886), geologist and palaeontologist. Cole amassed a world-famous fossil collection at his residence Florence Court, south-west of Enniskillen and in proximity to Farnham House, Maxwell's residence. Both Cole and Maxwell served in Parliament together, both were members of the Orange Order, of which Cole was master and also Grand Master of the Grand Orange Lodge.1. General Account 1818 (So titled on front cover), with Maxwell's signature to paste-down. The text is headed 'Constituent parts of Minerals' and lists various minerals and their composition. 21 numbered pages, 9 blanks.2. Catalogue of the Minerals in the Collection of Henry Maxwell Esqr Newton Barry October 1822. With the note, 'The arrangement is that adopted by Phillips, in the 2nd Edition of his excellent "Introduction to Mineralogy", with occasional references to other Works' signed 'Henry Maxwell. Plain grey wrappers. Foliation title and 52 numbered leaves. 3. Mineralogical Memoranda. Inscribed 'Henry Maxwell / Newtown Barry / 1822' to paste-down. Original marbled wrappers. Pagination: 12 numbered pages, followed by several blanks. Commences 'On the Egyptian Breccia Tomb of Alex[ander] / The following extract from Winkelmann / (sur la Breche d'Egypte, Tom. I p. 184) is of importance, as it described a substance little known, and proves the extreme rarity of this kind of stone .' with concluding remarks by Maxwell.4/5. Catalogue of Minerals in the Collection of Henry Maxwell Esqr at Farnham House, Cavan. Two volumes. With the motto (quotation from Virgil) 'Vires acquirit eundo' on title and the note, 'The arrangement is that adopted by Phillips, in the 3rd Edition of his excellent "Introduction to Mineralogy", with occasional references to other Works.' Signed 'Henry Maxwell' at the base of both title pages. Plain paper wrappers, stitched. Foliation vol I title, 1-29, 21-26 (26 is blank) numbered leaves; vol II title, 26 (some blank) numbered leaves, followed by several unnumbered blank leaves. 6. Mineralogical Miscellanea. Foliation: title, blank, 18 numbered leaves, followed by numerous blank leaves.7. Chronological List of Meteoric Stones. Pagination: 10 numbered pages, followed by several blanks. The manuscript is divided into two sections, 'Before the Christian Era' (in two divisions, and 'After the Christian Era'. It is arranged in chronological order giving dates (excepting the second division of the first section) and places where meteors have been recorded under various descriptive names.Provenance: Henry Maxwell, 7th Baron Farnham, was an Irish peer, educated at Trinity College, Cambridge and Trinity College, Dublin. Holdings of manuscript material by or related to Maxwell: Farnham Papers (correspondence diaries, accounts and papers, 1817-63), National Library of Ireland; MSS 40488-580 (correspondence with Sir Robert Peel, 1841-45), British Library; L 29/700/14 (corresp with Earl de Grey, 1843), Bedfordshire and Luton ArchivesFull description provided upon request.
Emission of neutrons by uranium'. [Offprint from:] Physical Review 56

Emission of neutrons by uranium’. [Offprint from:] Physical Review 56, 1939

SZILARD, Leo (1898-1964) and Walter H. ZINN (1906-2000) 4to (268 x 201 mm) pp 619-624, with illustrations in text; a very good copy, stapled as issued.First edition, offprint issue and presentation copy, inscribed 'With Compliments of Leo Szilard' on first page.The second of Szilard and Zinn's two most important papers on the experimental production of fast neutrons from uranium-an essential component of the nuclear chain reaction. Lise Meitner, using the experiments she suggested to Hahn and Strassmann, had discovered nuclear fission in 1938, and Szilard immediately realised that fission would be the key to releasing nuclear energy. In that year Szilard had emigrated from England to the United States, and he began a series of experiments with Walter Zinn at Columbia University in New York to determine which characteristics of fission would make it possible to establish a chain reaction. '"All we needed to do," [Szilard] said later, "was to get a gram of radium, get a block of beryllium, expose a piece of uranium to the neutrons which come from the beryllium, and then see by means of the ionization chamber which Zinn had built whether fast neutrons were emitted in the process . . ." 'He got his radium, two grams sealed in a small brass capsule, early in March, after he arranged admission to the Columbia laboratories for three months as a guest researcher. He and Zinn immediately set up their experiment. They made an ingenious nest, like Chinese boxes, of its various components: a large cake of paraffin wax, the beryllium cylinder set at the bottom of a blind hole in the paraffin, the radium capsule fitted into the beryllium cylinder; resting on the beryllium, inside the paraffin, a box lines with neutron-absorbing cadmium filled with uranium oxide; pushed into that box, but shielded from the radium's gamma radiation by a lead plug, the ionization tube itself, which connected to an oscilloscope. With this arrangement . . . they could measure the flux of neutrons from the uranium with and without the cadmium shield . . . ' (Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, pp 288; 291). Szilard and Zinn found that about two neutrons were emitted per fission, which matched the results of similar experiments conducted at the same time by Fermi and Anderson at Columbia and by Frédéric Joliot and his colleagues in France. Szilard and Zinn made preliminary announcement of their findings in a brief paper ('Instantaneous emission of fast neutrons in the interaction of slow neutrons with uranium,' Physical Review 55 [April 1939]: 799-800), following it in October with the full account in the present paper, which also describes their further experiments.'Unquestionably, the most important event in Szilard's life took place in England. This was the growth, in his mind, of the conviction that a nuclear chain reaction was possible and thata nuclear bomb could be developed on the basis thereof. The original basis of Szilard's conviction proved to be erroneous, but he held on to his idea tenaciously and it indeed came to fruition when nuclear fission, discovered in 1939, provided the missing key. Szilard was probably the first to suggest that neutron emission might accompany the fission reaction, that the number of neutrons emitted in the process might exceed 1, and that, as a result, it should be possible to establish an energy-producing chain reaction' (Wigner, Leo Szilard 1898-1964: A Biographical Memoir (1969)Szilard was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor. He conceived the nuclear chain reaction in 1933, patented the idea of a nuclear reactor with Enrico Fermi in 1934, and in late 1939 wrote the letter for Albert Einstein's signature that resulted in the Manhattan Project that built the atomic bomb.Provenance: from the library of Theodore von Kármán, docketed and stamped with Kármán's cataloguing symbols. Theodore von Kármán (1881-1963), Hungarian physicist, was founder of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory; he made fundamental advances in the fields of aeronautics and astronautics
Beschreibung allerfurnemisten mineralischen Ertzt unnd Bergwercks Arten

Beschreibung allerfurnemisten mineralischen Ertzt unnd Bergwercks Arten, wie dieselbigen. irer Natur und Eigenschafft . mit Erklärung etlicher. Schmelszwerck. Auffs newe. erklert.

ERCKER, Lazarus ERCKER, Lazarus. Beschreibung allerfurnemisten mineralischen Ertzt unnd Bergwercks Arten, wie dieselbigen. irer Natur und Eigenschafft . mit Erklärung etlicher. Schmelszwerck. Auffs newe. erklert. Frankfurt, J. Schmidt for S. Feyrabendt, 1580Folio (300 x 195 mm), ff [4] 134 [4, the last blank], title printed in red and black and with a woodcut vignette, woodcut coat of arms on dedication leaf and large woodcut device on colophon leaf, and 41 woodcut illustrations in the text; a fine, very crisp, clean copy in early eighteenth-century German yapped vellum, with date 1714 on front cover.An attractive copy of the second edition (first, Prague, 1574), with seven woodcuts that appear here for the first time. This is the first manual of analytical and metallurgical chemistry and, along with Agricola's De re metallica (see below), the most important book on metallurgy and assaying in the sixteenth century. 'In 1574 Ercker published his magnum opus, Beschreibung allerfürnemisten mineralischen Ertzt. The only one of Ercker's works to contain many drawings, it presents a systematic review of the methods of testing alloys and minerals of silver, gold, copper, antimony, mercury, bismuth, and lead; of obtaining and refining these metals, as well as of obtaining acids, salts, and other compounds. The last chapter is devoted to saltpeter. Ercker described laboratory procedures and equipment, gave an account of preparing the cupel, of constructing furnaces, and of the assaying balance and the method of operating it. He used as his model Agricola's De re metallica, yet was quite original and included only the procedures he himself had tested. Ercker was so hostile to alchemy that he did not use alchemical symbols, although his Probierbuchlein (1556) included a full list of them' (DSB).The second edition contains seven new woodcuts not present in the first edition.Ward and Carozzi 752; Wellcome 2066; see Dibner 89 (first edition); this edition not in the Hoover Collection, nor in Duveen or FergusonThis copy is appropriately bound with (and before) the second German edition (first 1557) of Agricola's De re metallica (Latin, 1556), also published by Feyrabendt in 1580. It consists of the sheets of the first German edition of 1557, with a newly printed title and preface. It was translated into German by Philipp Bech (1521-1560). This copy is in fine condition, but lacks the two unpaginated woodcut plates (one of which illustrates a compass and the other three measuring rods). These were never bound into the copy. Otherwise the copy is in equally fine condition. The woodcuts are printed from the blocks of the first edition of 1556.AGRICOLA, G. Bergwerck Buch: darinn nicht allain alle Empter, Instrument Gezeug, und alles, so zu diesem Handel gehörig, mit Figuren vorgebildet? mit sonderm Fleyss teutscher Nation zu Gut verteutscht? Frankfurt, J. Schmidt for S. Feyrabendt, 1580. Folio (300 x 195mm), pp [viii] ccccxci [7], with title printed in red and black, printer's device on colophon leaf, and approximately 290 woodcuts by Hans Rudolf Manuel Deutsch and Blasius Weffring, many full-page.Hoover 23
Prospectus] Histoire naturelle des Singes . Imprimée sur caractères neuf

Prospectus] Histoire naturelle des Singes . Imprimée sur caractères neuf, et de format grand in-folio, sur papier dit Nom-de-Jésus vélin superfin satiné, de la fabrique de Lagarde, figures en couleurs, etc. Prospectus.

AUDEBERT, Jean Baptiste (1759-1800)] 4to (280 x 215 mm), pp [4] on one folded sheet; creases from folding for posting, in fine condition, uncut and unbound, as issued.First edition of the prospectus for Jean Baptiste Audebert's Histoire naturelle des singes [et des makis] (1797-1800).This work was published over three years in a series of ten parts.The Prospectus describes in detail both the taxonomic goals of the author and also the technical innovations in printing the plates. Around 50 plates are envisioned (in fact 65 in total were issued), with the work issued in eight or nine parts, each with six plates. The three final lines of text are printed with the same type and size to be employed in the work. Subscribers are advised 'Il faut, pour le tout, adresser les lettres et l'argent, port franc, à Desray, Libraire à Paris, rue Hautefeuille, n°. 36, près l'église St.-André-des-Arcs'. This is followed by a list of sixteen booksellers in Paris and other European countries with whom subscriptions could also be taken out.Audebert's work was the finest book on monkeys and apes, illustrated with excellent colour-printed plates. Jean Baptise Audebert, born in Rochefort, was a notable miniaturist who developed a technique of colour printing using oil-based inks, which was first employed in this work. All of the plates were drawn and engraved by himself. 'The tradition embodied in the brilliant dynasty of miniaturists. gave zoological art in France an overall uniformity and distinction that was not equalled elsewhere. The illustrations in books such as the Histoire naturelle des singes et des makis by J.B. Audebert had few serious rivals outside France in the early years of the nineteenth century' (Peter Dance, The Art of Natural History).OCLC records BnF only
De Humani Corporis Fabrica librorum Epitome.

De Humani Corporis Fabrica librorum Epitome.

VESALIUS, Andreas (1514-1564) Broadsheet (ca 525 x 388 mm), ff [14] signed A-M [N, O], with woodcut title, large woodcut portrait of Vesalius, nine full-page anatomical woodcuts, two full-page figures of a nude male and female, two sheets of woodcut anatomical details for cutting out and mounting, and several woodcut initials; all sheets with fold-marks across centre as usual, and with vertical crease from having once been folded, some miscellaneous staining and waterstains, some old repairs to folds, but all of the images complete and intact, the sheets unpressed with strong indentation of type and woodcuts into paper, in an early eighteenth-century Italian binding of speckled paper over boards.First edition of the extremely rare Epitome, 'De humani corporis fabrica may be the only masterwork in the history of medicine and science that was published simultaneously with a synopsis prepared by the author. Vesalius designed his Epitome to serve as a more affordable outline key to the encyclopedic and expensive Fabrica. In its dedication Vesalius stated: "I have made [the Epitome] to be as it were a footpath beside the larger book, and as an index of what is set forth in it." However, unlike the Fabrica, which begins with the skeletal system and works outward, the Epitome's approach to anatomy is topographical: that is, the muscles are first discussed, followed by a combined study of the vessels, nervous system, and viscera. The various parts of the anatomy are illustrated in nine woodcuts, divided into two skeletal, four muscular, and two circulatory charts, plus a neurological chart. The skeletal, muscular, and one of the circulatory plates are similar, but not identical, to plates found in the Fabrica: the Epitome's plates are some sixty millimeters taller, the figures are in slightly different attitudes, and less space is devoted to background scenery (sheet K duplicates the Fabrica's thinking skeleton, but the inscription on the pedestal has been changed). The remaining circulatory plate and the neurological plate are reproduced, with different texts, on the two folding plates found in the Fabrica. In addition to these nine anatomical plates, the Epitome includes two woodcuts of a nude male and female figure, accompanied by long descriptions of the surface regions of the body; nothing like them appears in the Fabrica. The Epitome's title-page woodcut and portrait of Vesalius are from the same blocks used in the Fabrica.Full description provided upon request.
Neuester Himmels-Atlas zum Gebrauch für Schul- und Akademischen Unterricht

Neuester Himmels-Atlas zum Gebrauch für Schul- und Akademischen Unterricht, nach Flamsteed, Bradley, Tob. Mayer, De la Caille, Le Francais de la Lande und v. Zach, in einer neuen Manier, mit doppelten schwarzen Stern-Charten bearbeitet; durchgehends verbessert, und mit den neuesten astronomischen Entdeckungen vermehrt von C. F. Goldbach. Revidirt auf der Sternwarte Seeberg bey Gotha und mit einer Einleitung begleitet von Freyherrn F. von Zach ? Zweyte unveränderte Auflage.

GOLDBACH, Christian Friedrich (1763-1811) and ZACH, János Ferenc [Franz Xaver] von (1754-1832) Oblong folio (220 x 275 mm), pp [x], with 4 engraved hemisphere maps and 52 engraved maps on black background; title a bit browned but otherwise in fine condition, in original publisher's calf-backed boards with engraved title label on upper cover.A reissue of the first edition of 1799, with a new title-page added and the original preface reprinted without change. All of the star charts are printed from the original plates, as is the title label on the cover.Goldbach's star atlas is based on the Bode-Flamsteed atlas of 1782, but substantially enlarged. 10,570 stars are shown, 7651 more than depicted in the 1782 Bode-Flamsteed atlas. Goldbach's atlas 'consisted of 56 maps, 26 of which were white-on-black constellation maps centered on the major constellations north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Each map used a Sanson-Flamsteed projection with a geocentric orientation, and the Ursa Major map was 158 x 206 mm. Facing each of these [26] maps was a print of the same area showing the white stars on a black background but without co-ordinates, constellations, or other markings. These were intended to simulate the view of the night sky. This pairing was well received by the astronomical community' (Kanas, pp 184-85). The pairs of facing plates, with and without constellation figures, weren't printed from different states or stages of the same plate, as Warner states, but from two separately engraved plates. The stars, constellation figures, scales, etc. are all in relief, that is to say, all of the uninked, white figures on the plates stand in relief, and can be felt (and on the black versos can clearly be seen indented in the paper surface). It is possible that for at least the star figures a metallic punch was used; they don't appear to be individually engraved.'Although Goldbach's atlas was not the first showing white stars against a dark background - Semler, for instance, had used this technique in 1733 - it was the first of this kind to catch the eye of the Paris astronomical establishment. Lalande noted that the mtheod succeeded very well; Montucla praised its resemblence to a clear night sky' (Warner). In fact, white-on-black depictions were also used in seventeenth-century astronomical works, such as Odiern'a De Systemate Orbis Cometici of 1654, but these were done in woodcut, not engraving.Christian Friedrich Goldbach taught astronomy at Moscow University. János Ferenc Zach was a Hungarian astronomer.Warner 96.1
Historiae coelestis libri duo: quorum prior exhibet catalogum stellarum fixarum Britannicum novum & locupletissimum

Historiae coelestis libri duo: quorum prior exhibet catalogum stellarum fixarum Britannicum novum & locupletissimum, una cum earundem planetarumque omnium observationibus sextante, micrometro, &c. habitis; posterior transitus syderum per planum arcus meridionalis et distantias eorum a vertice complectitur. Observante Johanne Flamsteedio in Observatorio Regio Grenovicensi continua serie ab anno 1676 ad annum 1705 completum.

FLAMSTEED, John (1646-1719) 3 vols, large folio (397 x 253 mm), I: pp [viii] 40, 412 [389-] 396 [recte] 420 [2, errata], with engraved portrait frontispiece, 7 engraved headpieces and one initial, and 6 engraved plates; II: [iv] 573 [-574]; 70 [2, errata and blank], with one engraved headpiece and one full-page engraved plate in text at p 70; III: [iv] [iv] 164; [2, 'Ad lectorem' which should be bound after the preface in vol I] 76; 83 [-84, blank]; 103 [1,], with one engraved headpiece and 2 engraved plates; first section of first vol slightly browned, otherwise quite fresh and crisp; contemporary calf with fillets in gilt and blind, rebacked retaining original labels, a bit rubbed.The first complete edition of Flamsteed's catalogue of fixed stars, the first volume of which had published without his consent by Edmund Halley and the Royal Society in 1712. Flamsteed had the undistributed edition confiscated, and, apart from one section included in the above, burned the lot, as 'a Sacrifice . to heavenly Truth'. Flamsteed's catalogue and sextant observations is one of the foundations of modern observational astronomy, and his data was crucial to Isaac Newton in writing the Principia. Flamsteed's catalogue was far more extensive and accurate than anything that had gone before. He was the first to utilize instruments with telescopic sights and micrometer eyepieces; he was the first to study systematic errors in his instruments; he was the first to urge the fundamental importance of using clocks and taking meridian altitudes; and he also insisted on having assistants to repeat the observations and the calculations in order to improve accuracy. The catalogue contains about 3000 naked eye stars (Ptolemy and Tycho listed 1000, Hevelius 2000) with an accuracy of about 10 seconds of arc. However, Flamsteed, although appointed first Astronomer Royal in 1675, was reluctant to publish what he considered preliminary observations. Isaac Newton and Edmond Halley pressed him to do so. Flamsteed's refusal led to one of the most famous, and bitterest, disputes in the history of astronomy, and to the present work being published against Flamsteed's will. Flamsteed's response, in 1716, was to destroy 300 of the 400 copies printed, apart from the section of sextant observations; he burnt the rest or, as he put it, 'made a Sacrifice of them to heavenly Truth'. The present 'authorised' version of the star catalogue was only published posthumously, by his widow, in 1725. Frances Willmoth has given a very detailed account of the intricate publishing history and Flamsteed's dispute with Newton and Halley in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biogaphy (online).The frontispiece, featuring Flamsteed's portrait, is by George Vertue after J.B. Catenaro; the engraved plates are by John Senex; and the fine headpieces, several depicting Flamsteed's astronomical instruments, are also engraved by Guernier after Catenaro.In common with the Macclesfield copy, this one does not have the errata leaf issued for vol III.Parkinson p 146; Frances Willmoth ed, Flamsteed's Stars: New Perspectives on the Life and Work of the First Astronomer Royal, 1646-1719 (1997)Provenance: Arthur Frank, scientific instruments dealer and collector, with bookplate in vol II (See R.H. Nuttall, The Arthur Frank Loan Collection - Early Scientific Instruments (Glasgow, 1973); Giancarlo Beltrame
Specimens of British Minerals selected from the Cabinet of Philip Rashleigh . With general Descriptions of each Article.

Specimens of British Minerals selected from the Cabinet of Philip Rashleigh . With general Descriptions of each Article.

RASHLEIGH, Philip (1729-1811) 2 parts, 4to (305 x 238 mm), pp. [iv] 56 [2]; [iv] 23 [3], with 54 aquatint plates, all but 3 coloured by hand (these three in colour-printed aquatint); a fine, spotless copy, uncut and partially unopened in original plain paper-backed marbled boards, minor and invisible restoration to one spine. First edition of one of the most attractive illustrated mineral books published, with outstanding aquatint plates printed by William Bulmer. Philip Rashleigh, antiquary and mineral collector, lived at Menabilly, near Fowey, Cornwall.'The expansion of tin and copper mining during his lifetime led to Rashleigh's interest in mineralogy. Initially through his own efforts, he amassed a significant mineral collection, but later added to it by exchange and purchase from British and European collectors and dealers. It was, and still remains, unrivalled for its content of Cornish specimens. The upper zones of the rich Cornwall deposits were being exploited when Rashleigh formed the collection and he obtained a tremendous variety of unusual and rare minerals, many of them known only from this region and several only from his specimens. He was ahead of his time in cataloguing the source and locality of the specimens. He attempted moderate scientific experiments and analysis, but as the science became more technical he declared, 'I think we shall Refine Mineralogy too much' (letter, 22 March 1789, Russell bequest, NHM); but he assisted in its development by providing material for others. In 1797 Rashleigh published the first volume of his Specimens of British Minerals, with the second volume appearing in 1802. In this he achieved his ambition to provide accurate coloured illustrations of minerals-the first successful attempt in Britain, which has also become bibliographically significant owing to its typography (Bethel). His knowledge of mineralogy led to his election as a fellow of the Royal Society in 1788' (R.J. Cleevely in ODNB).Rashleigh was the most notable of the Cornish mineralogists and his wide knowledge ensured that the examples of Cornish minerals were unsurpassed. Unusually for his time Rashleigh was painstaking in labelling his specimens and ensuring the accuracy of their localities.'Rashleigh's mineral collection was housed in a special room in the 16th-century ancestral mansion called Menabilly, near the southern coast of Cornwall . It was put up in eight cabinets and 10 meters of wall cases with drawers underneath' (Wilson, p 71).Part of Rashleigh's collection is in the Natural History Museum in London, although the bulk is to be found in the County Museum in Truro. It is one of the few eighteenth-century collections that has been preserved intact, along with all of the original records.'The illustrations were prepared by Henry Bone (1755-1834), Thomas Medland (died 1833), and Richard Thomas Underwood (1765-1836), himself a geologist and Fellow of the Geological Society from whom Rashleigh had obtained specimens' (Wilson, The history of mineral collecting, q.v. for a very thorough account of Rashleigh and his collection). Cambridge University online exhibition, 'Landscapes Below: Mapping and the New Science of Geology', notes that 'Many of the original drawings for this volume were based on local specimens found at Rashleigh's mines and produced by his sister Rachel and nephew's wife Harriet (née Williams, d. 1831). Naturalists often relied on female relatives to draw specimens and for the tinting of prints'.The work is usually described as having 54 hand-coloured engraved plates, whereas in fact the plates are aquatint engraving, all but three being hand-coloured. Plates 26, 27, and 29 in the first vol are monotone aquatint plates, one having a small amount of hand-colouring. This is consistent with the other copies I have seen.Provenance: I have had two other copies in similar original condition, uncut in marbled boards, identical to the above. They appear to have been dispersed by the Rashleigh estate in the 1940s. One copy ha
Flora Londinensis: or plates and descriptions of such plants as grow wild in the environs of London: with their places of growth

Flora Londinensis: or plates and descriptions of such plants as grow wild in the environs of London: with their places of growth, and times of flowering; their several names according to Linnaeus and other authors: with a particular description of each plant in Latin and English. To which are added, their several uses in medicine, agriculture, rural oeconomy, and other arts .

CURTIS, William (1746-1799) 2 vols, folio (470 x 285 mm), with two title-pages, two dedication leaves, one leaf of subscribers, 6 leaves of index, 2 leaves of 'Observations on grasses.' and 3 leaves of the 'Catalogue of plants.', and leaf of letterpress description to each plate, with engraved vignette on first title and 432 hand-coloured engraved plates (two double) depicting a total of 434 plants; a few minor marginal spots, a very clean, fresh copy, without offsetting, in contemporary English calf, gilt borders on sides, rebacked preserving original spines, spines elaborately gilt, with red and green morocco labels.First edition, first issue of this 'splendid, complicated, basic, English flora' (Hunt catalogue). It contains some of James Sowerby's first botanical illustrations; other artists involved were Sydenham Edwards, W. Kilburn, and possibly others. The Flora londinensis embraces most of the English flora, as a result of which it should properly be regarded as the first colour-plate national flora of England.'Curtis was a British pharmacist, botanist, and entomologist. After selling his pharmacy business, Curtis set up a botanic garden of British plants at Bermondsey in 1771. In 1773 he was appointed demonstrator of plants at the Chelsea Physic Garden, a post he held until 1777. In 1779 he moved his London botanic garden to a larger location in Brompton.'[The Flora londinensis] attempted to portray all the native plants within a ten-mile radius of London, but was cut short for lack of subscriptions. According to Miss Henrey's account, no more than 300 of any single number are believed to have been printed' (Johnston, The Cleveland botanical collections, p 495).As a result of pressing for binding, this work often has offset from the text onto the plates.Provenance: Sir Richard Vyvyan, 8th Baronet (1800-1879); In 1826, Vyvyan was made a Fellow of the Royal Society for his 'considerable literary and scientific acquirements especially in the Philosophy of Natural History'; he was also a Fellow of the Geological Society. The family estate in Cornwall, Trelowarren, was famous for its botanical gardenDunthorne 87; Johnston 532; Henrey 595; Hunt 650; Nissen BBI 439; Stafleu and Cowan 1286
Stirpium & fossilium Silesiae Catalogus. In quo praeter etymon

Stirpium & fossilium Silesiae Catalogus. In quo praeter etymon, natales, tempus; Natura & vires cum variis experimentis assignantur . cum indice remediorum .

SCHWENCKFELD, Caspar (1563-1609) 4to (206 x 158 mm), pp. [xl] 407 [17]; printer's device on titles; a fine copy, many edges uncut with deckle intact, in contemporary vellum with overlapping fore-edges.First edition, a flora of the Silesian region along with a catalogue of the fossils, rocks, minerals etc. of that area. This is one of the first such local floras and also an early regional catalogue of minerals. The preliminary material includes a history of Silesia and a note on its antiquities. The flora occupies pages 1-348, and is divided into two parts: native plants of Silesia, and plants in various botanical gardens in Silesia, arranged by garden. The geological portion, which includes a classification scheme for minerals, occupies pages 349-407, and has its own title-page. The geological part is titled: 'Fossilium Silesiae catalogus, omnis generis mineralis, metallica, metalia, succos, terras, lapillos, fontes medicatos & thermas continens'. Fossilia of course comprised any non-living substance found in the Earth, including minerals, ores, medicinal and hot springs, as well as fossilised remains, although this latter category isn't prominent in Schwenckfeld's catalogue. This section its own dedication, followed by a four-page classification schema based upon Gesner.Schwenckfeld was born at Grieffenberg in Silesia, studied at Basel under Caspar Bauhin, and practised as a physician in Hirschberg and later at Görlitz.Provenance: early signature 'Nicolai Simonii' on title (possibly related to an academic encomium on same of Glostrup by Oluf Hansen Slangerup, Copenhagen 1612); stamp of 'Bibliotheca Seminarii Plocensis' (Plock Seminary) on title and two other leaves; removed in 1941 to Königsberg, with stamp of Stadtbibliothek Königsberg (destroyed in the Second World War, library dispersed) on titleCobres p 245 n 7; Pritzel 8542; OCLC list copies at Harvard, Lloyd Library, and Oklahoma for North America
Musaeum metallicum in libros IIII distributum.

Musaeum metallicum in libros IIII distributum.

ALDROVANDI, Ulisse (1522-1605) Folio (352 x 242 mm), pp [vi, without blank 4] 979 [13], with a fine engraved title and ca 1200 woodcuts in text; an exceptionally fine, fresh, spotless copy in contemporary polished vellum with overlapping fore edges, red edges, gilt arms on sides (see below).First edition, an exceptional copy, of the great illustrated catalogue of the 'metals' of Aldrovandi's museum, i.e. fossils, shells, minerals and crystals, ethnographic stone objects and utensils, lamps, antique vases and marble busts, terra sigillata, kidney stones, or any other object with the properties of 'stoniness'.Aldrovandi's museum was one of the first natural history museums, and it has survived intact to this day in Bologna. Aldrovandi (1522-1605) was professor of natural sciences and director of the botanic garden (which he founded) of the University of Bologna. His collections were housed in a special museum and library building within the gardens, and acted as a reference collection for research in natural history. Aldrovandi's goal was simply to catalogue the entire natural world, and the museum was envisioned as 'an attempt to transfer the world of nature from the often inaccessible outdoors to the restricted interior of a museum' (Giuseppi Olmi in Impey and MacGregor eds, The origins of museums p 8). Rather than being merely a collection of mirabilia in the Wunderkammer tradition, it was a scientific assembly, an encyclopaedia of the natural world presented as a theatrum naturae, although still betraying the Mannerist predilection for the freakish or bizarre. In this respect, Aldrovandi also turned this taste to scientific use, making one of the first studies of teratology.By 1595 Aldrovandi had ca 8000 drawings of his objects and 14 cupboards containing the woodblocks made from them for his publications. The drawings were commissioned from such artists as Lorenzo Bennini and Jacopo Ligozzi and cut in wood by Cristoforo Coriolano and his nephew. The museum contained over 11,000 animals, fruits and minerals, and 7000 dried plants in 15 volumes, one of the earliest known herbaria. Two cupboards alone had 4554 drawers containing 'cose sotteranee, et conchilii et Ostreace' (fossils, shells, and fossilised echinoderms).Aldrovandi collected few artificialia, but those he had were principally ethnographic items of interest to him for the raw materials used. He had an Aztec sacrificial stone knife, a Mexican mosaic mask, and an Amazonian axe (donated by his fellow museologist Giganti), along with Egyptian tablets of hieroglyphs and funerary objects, all illustrated in the above work.Aldrovandi's text is an extensive history, description, and discussion of the objects, in the encyclopaedic style of Gesner. It took over 60 years after Aldrovandi's death to complete the publication of the works he had prepared, 13 enormous folio volumes in all. The present work was edited by Bartholomeo Ambrosini, Aldrovandi's successor as director of the Bologna botanic garden. Ambrosili utilised Aldrovandi's manuscript, titled Geologica ovvero Fossilibus. There remains to this day in Bologna between two and three hundred unpublished essays in manuscript (described by Maximilien Misson in A new Voyage to Italy, 1699, thus: 'In a chamber near to the first we saw a hundred and eighty-seven volumes in folio, all written by Aldrovandus his own hand, with more than two hundred bags full of loose papers').Provenance: gilt arms Johann Jodocus Schmidmayr von Schwarzenbruck, featuring coat-of-arms within a wreath. Schmidmayr (1611-1647) was a benefactor of Altdorf university, which lay just outside Nuremberg. In 1648 the Nuremberg City Library purchased over 100 rare books from the Schmidmayr library, which went to Altdorf. The discrepancy between the date of Schmidmayr's death and date of publication would indicate that this book entered his library shortly after his deathCobres 163 14.12; Nissen ZBI 75; Osler 1773; Sinkankas 72; Ward and Carozzi 43; Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting,
14 Photographien mit Röntgen-Strahlen. Aufgenommen im physikalischen Verein zu Frakfurt A.M. .

14 Photographien mit Röntgen-Strahlen. Aufgenommen im physikalischen Verein zu Frakfurt A.M. .

RÖNTGEN, Wilhelm Conrad (1845-1923)] Carl Georg Walter KÖNIG (1859-1936) Portfolio (337 x 254 mm), pp [iv, title and foreward], with 13 original X-ray photographs mounted on ten sheets of stiff card mounts with printed captions; in fine condition, in original portfolio with green pebble cloth-backed printed boards with title and contents on front, with ties, slightly worn.First edition, a rare and early complete set of this series of X-ray photographs, published within a few months of Röntgen's announcement of his discovery of X-rays. This work not only presents the medical importance of this new technique but also its use in archaeological, anthropologiical, and forensic investigations. The first photograph depicts a bullet or piece of shot embedded in a man's wrist; this was a first for the forensic evidence of gunshots. These are some of the earliest published X-ray photographs and first applications of their use outside of medicine.'A few months after the discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen in November 1895, the physicist Walter Koenig conducted the first radiographic investigation of mummified remains at the Physical Society of Frankfurt am M., Germany. The results of this investigation were published in March 1896 in the monograph entitled 14 Photographs with X-rays taken by the Physical Society of Frankfurt am Main. The X-rayed objects included a bandaged ancient Egyptian child mummy from the Senckenberg Museum of Natural History. The earliest radiographic investigations of mummies focused on discovering amulets and jewelry within the body cavities, evaluating the wrappings, and determining whether human or animal bones were represented in bandages and coffins. However, the application of the novel X-ray technique included shortly afterwards the aim of assessing anthropological and paleopathological knowledge about the mummified individuals' (S .Zesch et al, 'From first to latest imaging technology: Revisiting the first mummy investigated with X-ray in 1896 by using dual-source computed tomography', in European Journal of Radiology Open, 2016).Carl Georg Walter König studied physics from 1878 to 1882 at the Universities of Tübingen and Berlin and graduated in 1887 at the University of Leipzig. He then worked at the Philosophical Faculty of the University of Leipzig as a Privatdozent and from 1892 as an associate professor of physics. In addition, he was from 1892 to 1900 director of the Physical Institute of the Physical Association in Frankfurt am Main. There he set up a X-ray photographic laboratory in 1896. On February 2, 1896 he made a series of 14 dental radiographs of his own teeth, probably the first dental X-rays ever made; these clearly showed the fillings in some of the teeth.König believed that probably the use of a 'focal tube' was the reason why he was able to make such good X-ray images at a very early stage. He found that more penetrating and focused X-rays were generated when the cathode rays were reflected off a platinum plate at a 45-degree angle instead of colliding with the glass of the X-ray tube. This concentration of X-rays allowed a much shorter exposure time.This work contains 13 separate photographs, one (mount n 8, with two animals side by side) on ten mounts. They are titled as follows:1 Linke Hand eines Mannes mit Kugel im Handgelenk; 2 Rechter weiblicher Unterarm mit Knochenresektion; 3 Krammetsvogel ; 4 Kniegelenke einer ägyptischen Kindermumie; 5 Oberteil einer ägyptischen Katzenmumie; 6 Damenhand im Handschuh mit Armband und Blumenstrauss; 7 Echte und unechte Perlen; 8 Schlange und Schildkröte; 9 Frosh. Krebs; 10 Klemmer in Holzschachtel. Vorderzähne des Ober- und Unterkiefers. Finger mit Gichtgelenken.(1 Left hand of a man with ball in the wrist; 2 Right female forearm with bone resection; 3 bird; 4 Knee joint of an Egyptian child mummy; 5 Top of an Egyptian cat mummy; 6 Female hand in glove with bracelet and bouquet; 7. Real and fake pearls; 8; Snake and turtle; 9a Frog, 9b Lobster; 10a Glasses in wood box.,10b the anterior and mandible of the up