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Philosophical Investigations

Philosophical Investigations

WITTGENSTEIN Ludwig. German-English parallel text, translated by G.E.M Anscombe. First edition. 8vo (225 x 150mm). x [+ xe], 232 [+ 232e], pp. Original blue cloth, spine lettered in gilt, dust jacket (extremities of jacket gently rubbed, spine panel faintly toned with a minute portion of loss to head, otherwise a remarkably fine copy). Oxford, Basil Blackwell. One of the most important works of twentieth century philosophy, Philosophical Investigations is widely held to be a refutation of large parts of Wittgenstein's earlier book Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921), the only of his philosophical works to published during his lifetime. Such a reformulation was not without precedent; indeed as early as 1931, Wittgenstein had referred to his early work as 'dogmatic' ('On Dogmatism', in Ludwig Wittgenstein and the Vienna Circle, p. 182). In Investigations, Wittgenstein's interest moved towards the connection between rule-following and language:'[i]f language is to be a means of communication there must be agreement not only in definition but also (as queer as this may sound) in judgement' (p. 88e). Published posthumously, Philosophical Investigations is comprised of two parts. Part I, the Preface to which is dated January 1945, was ready for printing in 1946, but was rescinded from the publisher by Wittgenstein. Part II was added following Wittgenstein's death by the editors, G. E. M. Anscombe and Rush Rhees, trustees of his ?Nachlass?.
Considerations sur le commerce et sur l'argent

Considerations sur le commerce et sur l’argent

LAW John.; HUME David.; GEE Joshua Par Mr. Law, controlleur genéral des finances. Traduit de l'anglois. First edition in French. 8vo (168 x 100mm). [4]ff, 187, [17] pp., frontispiece portrait, title printed in red and black. Contemporary tree calf, covers with single blind fillet borders, spine divided into compartments by gilt rolls, the second lettered in gilt on red morocco label, the rest with elaborate gilt tooling (some discreet repair work to the spine and front and rear joints, otherwise an excellent copy. A La Haye, Jean Neaulme. 1720. [bound with:] HUME (David). Essais sur le commerce; le luxe; l'argent; l'intéret de l'argent; les impots; le crédit public, et la balance du commerce. Trad. nouvelle, avec des réflexions du traducteur (Mlle. de la Chaux). Et lettre d'un négociant de Londres, à un de ses amis. Third edition in French. 8vo. [2], 288, [4] pp. Engraved head and tail pieces. Paris, Saillant, & Lyon, Delaroche, 1767. [bound with:] GEE (Joshua). Considérations sur le commerce et la navigation de la Grande-Brétagne. Ouvrage trad. de l'anglais (par J. B. de Secondat). First edition in French. 8vo. [28], 268 pp. London [i.e. Paris or Trévoux], A. Bettesworth & C. Hitch, rue du Pater-Noster: S. Birt, rue de l?Ave-Maria. 1749. A sammelband of three seminal works of eighteenth-century economics, in French translation. Comprising the first edition in French of John Law's Money and Trade Consider'd; the third French edition of Hume's essays on finance and economics, taken from his Political Discourses (1752); and the first French edition of Joshua Gee's The Trade and Navigation of Great Britain Consider'd (1729), this volume unites important - though in some areas conflicting - studies of commercial, economic and monetary theory by the foremost thinkers of eighteenth-century English economics. John Law's most important - and infamous - work of monetary theory, this treatise, first published in Scotland in 1705, proposes a system of paper money backed by land, which, Law argues, is more stable than the comparably more volatile and less predictable silver and gold. ?The central thrust in his argument was that an expansion in the money supply would lead to an expansion in output? (ODNB). Though rejected by the Scottish government, Law received permission to implement elements of his plan in France in 1716, in particular, the issuing of paper credit as part of an attempt to relieve the national debt through investment schemes. Publication of this first French translation of Law's proposal is conspicuous in its timing. The same year, 1720 saw the collapse of his so-called 'System' - the Mississippi Bubble - with ruinous consequences for the French economy: unprecedented speculation, hyperinflation, a stock market crash, and subsequently high taxation, following the state's absorption of Law's debt. Law is referred to on the title page here as 'Controlleur Géneral des Finances', a position he held from 5 January 1720 until temporary dismissal on 27 May following the first of his scheme's crises (though reappointed, dismissal became permanent on 9 December). This indicates that publication took place early in the year when his scheme still appeared to be watertight, and public opinion in France was buoyant. The collection of Hume's writings that follow contains the seven essays on finance and economics from his Political Discourses, first published in 1752. By the time that this third edition was published Hume enjoyed great repute in France both as historian and philosopher; on his arrival in 1763 to assist the British ambassador he received 'an official and personal welcome such as few foreign authors have ever received in the French capital' (Bongie, xxiv). Although not the explicit laying out of a systematic economic theory, these essays have been described as 'the beginnings of modern monetary theory' (Lucas); 'when asked what economists had learned about monetary theory in the past 25 years, Milton Friedman replied that the better question would be to ask what had been learned in the 200 years since Hume. The answer is very little, he concluded' (Schabas & Wennerlind). These essays contain Hume's most famous economic proposals, including his rejection of a mercantilist approach to trade, and his related theory of price-specie flow mechanism. The juxtaposition of Hume's work with Law's is, though not unusual, an interesting one; Hume firmly believed in a currency backed by gold or precious metals and, in contrast to Law, was sceptical about the issuance of paper notes. Indeed, Hume obliquely refers to Law in his essay on Public Credit, here, as an example of the wrong way to address national debt: 'when the nation becomes heartily sick of their debts, and is cruelly oppressed by them, some daring projector may arise with visionary schemes for their discharge. And as public credit will begin, by that time, to be a little frail, the least touch will destroy it as happened in France in 1720: much like the patient who dies from his doctor's remedy' (p. 166). The final work in this sammelband, the first French edition of Gee's The Trade and Navigation of Great Britain Consider'd, lays out Gee's staunchly protectionist approach to British commerce. 'Gee's most famous work presented an overview of British trade both historically and by national areas, and commented on specific problems (for example devoting Chapter XXII to 'French fashions pernicious to England')' (ODNB). Both Hume and Adam Smith poked fun at Gee's writing for his sensationalism, Hume attributing to him 'universal panic' at the picture he painted of the national debt. Despite this, Gee's work was well-known and widely translated, with around twenty editions published before 1780. Provenance: Nineteenth-century ownership inscription at head of flyleaf, 'Louis Curvalle', with note in Spanish 'de las cosas mas seguras la mas segura es dudan', from Simon Bolivar. 'Table de recueil' noted on verso of front flyleaf and on rear pastedown in different hand. Law:
De regnandi peritia ad Carolum .VI. Imper. Caesarem semper augustum

De regnandi peritia ad Carolum .VI. Imper. Caesarem semper augustum

MACHIAVELLI Niccolo.; NIFO / NIPHUS Agostino / Augustinus Dedication and first book with guide letters. 8vo. (192 x 125mm). [42]ff , A-D8, E10 (last leaf blank).Trimmed close at the fore-margin with the sidenotes in Greek on A3r shaved; paper repairs at the head of the final leaf of text and final blank with the first word on the recto ?Proemium? strengthened by hand and the last part of?EPIG[RAMMA]? in the headline on recto supplied by hand; light spotting from damp in the lower fore-corner and part of the fore-edge. Rebound (date uncertain) in the covers of an English binding of plain calf, circa 1700-30, panelled in blind (covers rubbed); the spine with three raised bands and a blind fleuron in the panels, plain old laid paper endleaves with two shelfmarks visible under the pastedown (the rubbing to the spine suggests that the rebinding, while 20th-Century, has some age). Naples, Catherina de Silvestro, The first appearance in print of significant portions of Niccolo Machiavelli's Il Principe. The Neapolitan philosopher Agostino Nifo's (1473-1538) treatise borrows and adapts (without acknowledgement and a decade before its publication) elements of Machiavelli's seminal work to offer instruction on good governance by Christian princes to its dedicatee, the newly-crowned Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. Nifo has removed Machiavelli's Chapters XV, XXIV-XXVI, reorganised the text into four books, and added his own fifth, as well as translating the text into Latin, from Machiavelli's original vernacular Italian. The changes are not solely structural; significantly, Nifo has adapted Machiavelli's instructions to propose a model of leadership more in keeping with traditional models of Christian kingship, inflected along moral and ethical lines, than that proposed by Machiavelli. Crucially, he draws a distinction between prince and tyrant not made in the original text. Nifo 'completely overthrew [Machiavelli's teaching] by reproposing a catalogue of virtues for the prince - notably magnificentia and liberalitas - which had been deliberately shown to be dangerous and discarded by the author of the Prince; an array of virtues taken mostly from Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and Cicero's De officiis. [.] Nifo's most conspicuous ?innovation? is possibly his introduction of a distinction - based on moral, legal and religious grounds - between the prince and the tyrant, or rex and tyrannus; a distinction well-known to Machiavelli but deliberately obliterated in the Prince. [.] Nifo's conclusion that glory on earth and beatitude in heaven are the rewards for the good shepherds of the people is perfectly in line with the traditional teaching on princely virtues but surely un-Machiavellian, since the Florentine secretary was persuaded that a prince must be ready to damn his soul in order to rule well' (Giorgini, 627). Whether Nifo's borrowing and use of significant portions of Machiavelli's treatise amounts to plagiarism has been the subject of lively discussion. Neither Machiavelli nor Il Principe are referenced in Nifo's work; yet the use, reuse, appropriation and borrowing of the work of another writer was a commonplace in this period and so 'plagiarism' is perhaps something of an anachronism. Various questions remain unanswered, however, foremost among them being that of Nifo's access to the work. Several incarnations of Il Principe in various stages of completion circulated in manuscript form in the years before publication (it is thought to have been composed 1513-14, and only published in 1532, five years after Machiavelli's death) and it was reputedly well-known among Florentines in this period; indeed, Machiavelli is thought by some to have actively preferred circulation in MS form for Il Principe and the Discorsi (Richardson in Moyer, 194). It would not therefore have been unusual for Nifo, who was visiting Florence at the time, to have had access to it, especially given that he was working with the Giunta printers there around the same time as Machiavelli (Giorgini, 626). Second is the complicity of Machiavelli himself in Nifo's use of his material. Machiavelli's correspondence from 1513 reveals anxiety about the theft of this work: 'I have discussed this little study of mine with Filippo and whether or not it would be a good idea to present it and if it were a good idea, whether I should take it myself or should send it to you. Against presenting it would be my suspicion that he might not even read it and that that person Ardinghelli might take the credit for this most recent of my endeavours' (Correspondence, 262-5). This concern has been seen as evidence by some that Machiavelli was likely aware of and actively involved in others' use of his work, including, potentially, Nifo. Others have suggested that Nifo's borrowing was enabled, not by Machiavelli, but by his patron Giulio de' Medici who deliberately kept Il Principe out of print after its composition to allow Nifo to use it (Moyer, 194). Adams, A289. BMSTC (Italian), 468. CNCE 29819. F.J. Norton, Italian Printers 1500-1520 (London, 1958), p.60. Ascarelli-Menato, pp.28-9. G. Giorgini, 'Five Hundred years of scholarship on Machiavelli's ?Prince?', The Review of Politics 75.4 (2013), pp.625-40. J. Atkinson, D. Sices (ed.), Machiavelli and his Friends: Their Personal Correspondence (NI UP, 1996), pp.262-5. A. E. Moyer, 'Reading Machiavelli in Sixteenth-Century Florence', in W. Caferro (ed.), Routledge History of the Renaissance (London, 2017), 192-209. OCLC: (US: Newberry Library, Duke, NYPL, Brown, Harvard. UK: Cambridge.) RareBookHub list one copy to have sold at auction, appearing at Sotheby's in 1970.
Lancaster - the Story of a Famous Bomber

Lancaster – the Story of a Famous Bomber

WALLIS Barnes.; ROBERTSON Bruce Illustrations by W.F. Hepworth after drawings by J.D. Carrick. First edition. 4to., cloth, pictorial dust jacket. Letchworth, Harleyford Publications. Tipped on to the front pastedown a printed slip 'This book is the property of', followed by a small printed fragment reading 'Derek Mason', 'Serial number 240 Autographed by' followed by the autographs of Bruce Robertson, W.F. Hepworth, J.D. Carrick, D.G. Russell (responsible for the production of the book), and Barnes Wallis. Loosely inserted a brief TLS on BAC notepaper, dated 27th April 1971, from Wallis to Derek Mason, commercial pilot and aviation collector, explaining where he has signed two books, including this copy. Bookplate of Mason to the front pastedown. Barnes Wallis was obsessed by engineering from a young age, his first experience of aviation being with the design and manufacture of airships, especially the famous R100. At the outbreak of the Second World War he was convinced that the quickest way to defeat the Nazis was to attack their industrial base, and came up with the idea of a 'bouncing bomb', a concept which made him world famous when 617 Squadron destroyed some of the Ruhr dams. There is still debate today as to whether the result made any difference to the length of the war, and Wallis was bitterly upset by the loss of life of many of the aircrew in the raid. He also designed the Wellington Bomber, a staunch workhorse in the early years of the war, and devastating bombs known as 'Tallboy' and ?Grand Slam', which were designed to penetrate the immense concrete U-Boat pens and armament factories of the Nazis. After the war he led aeronautical research and design at the British Aircraft Corporation, where he did much work on the concept of swing-wing or variable geometry fighter aircraft.
Baltimore Lectures on Molecular Dynamics and the Wave Theory of Light

Baltimore Lectures on Molecular Dynamics and the Wave Theory of Light

KELVIN William Thomson, Lord Numerous diagrams and equations in the text. First English edition. 8vo., buckram, gilt, t.e.g. London, C.J.Clay and Sons. First printed, by the 'papyrograph' process, in Baltimore in 1884. A presentation copy, inscribed on the half title page 'William Anderson Feb 25, 1904 Kelvin'. William Anderson, who is thanked in the introduction, was secretary and assistant to Lord Kelvin, and a fine scientist in his own right. It is generally accepted that the first Monte Carlo simulation, a method used to calculate the solution to physical or mathematical problems using statistical techniques, was carried out in 1901 ?with unfailing faithful perseverance? by Anderson. He generated random numbers by shuffling decks of numbered cards and calculated a total of five thousand molecular impacts with surfaces and three hundred intermolecular collisions. In 1846, at the age of 22, Kelvin became Professor of Natural Philosophy at Glasgow University, a post he held for 53 years, in which time he made an extraordinary contribution to British Science, formulating the second law of thermodynamics, that heat will not flow from a colder to a hotter body, and proposing an absolute temperature scale, known as the 'Kelvin Scale'. Errata slip tipped in at page 117, loosely inserted the separately printed index, published in 1905, and a printed author's compliments slip. Three pencilled corrections to pages 14 and 15, covers scuffed, spine browned.
A Description and a Draught of a New-Invented Machine

A Description and a Draught of a New-Invented Machine

HULLS Jonathan for carrying Vessels or Ships Out of, or Into any Harbour, Port, or River, against Wind and Tide, or in a Calm. For which, HIs Majesty has Granted Letters Patent, for the Sole Benefit of the Author, for the Space of Fourteen Years. Small 4to. Limited Edition Facsimile Reprint. Folding frontispiece. Light browning, otherwise very good in half red skiver on marbled boards by Rivière, a little rubbed at the extremities. 48pp. N.p. [?London], n.d., As explained in a MS note on the first blank this is one of a Limited Edition of thirty-nine copies, this being one of twelve Small 4to. on ?old paper?, the rest 12mo. ?size of the original edition? ?Hulls is remembered principally for having patented the application of the atmospheric steam engine to marine propulsion. A communication from M. de Quet on mechanical propulsion of ships, published in 1734 in Volume VI of the Abridgement of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, may have spurred Hulls to attempt to apply the Newcomen engine for this purpose. The means to do so eluded him until a neighbour at nearby Batsford Park, Mr. Freeman, contributed about £160 to finance a patent application, granted to Hulls on 21 December 1736. As was required by the grant, Hulls published within three months [the present work]. He proposed a stern-wheeled paddle towboat carrying a boiler coupled to a vertical steam cylinder. Atmospheric pressure depressed a piston towards the bottom of the cylinder when the steam beneath it was suddenly condensed. Through a linkage of ropes over pulleys, this movement turned an adjacent layshaft and simultaneously raised a counterweight, the subsequent descent of which reversed the rotation of the layshaft as fresh steam was admitted beneath the piston. Friction ratchets on the layshaft converted this alternating motion to continuous rotation of the adjacent paddle-shaft mounted on a framework over the stern. When the water was sufficiently shallow, Hulls proposed to employ a pair of mechanical quanting poles operated by the same alternating motion. No conclusive evidence has survived to substantiate the tradition that Hulls experimented with such a vessel on the Avon at Evesham. Had his pamphlet provoked serious trial of his scheme history would certainly have noted it, but the intermittent motion of the Newcomen engine made it fundamentally unsuitable for continuous propulsion, whether on land or water.? [ODNB] Inscribed beneath limitation note, ?No.5 Large Paper Copy, Robt. Napier Esqr. with Mr. J. Sheepshanks's Compts. Oct. 27 1860? Napier's bookplate to the front pastedown, together with that of the Scott Collection, Scott Catalogue No. 238. Sheepshanks is best remembered as a patron of British artists, forming a large collection commissioning works from such as Turner, Constable, Landseer, Roberts and Wilkie. He presented his collection to the nation in 1857. The highly suitable recipient, Robert Napier, was a marine engineer remembered as the ?father of Clyde shipbuilding?.
An Universal Military Dictionary

An Universal Military Dictionary, in English and French;

JAMES Charles In which are Explained the Terms of the Principal Sciences that are Necessary for the Information of an Officer. Fourth [and perhaps Best] edition. Portrait frontispiece. Some light browning, frontispiece a little foxed, but overall a very good copy in contemporary half sprinkled calf on marbled boards, boards rubbed, spine slightly creased. xii, 1006 pp. T. Egerton, The first edition was published in 1802, by 1811 revisions had turned it into a two volume work, but for this edition the author expanded the number of terms included, but abridged his explanations to make it more ?portable? James ? was present in Lisle during the outbreak of the French Revolution, and travelled through France as it spread. He chronicled these events in his Audi alteram Partem: an Extenuation of the Conduct of the French Revolutionists from 14 July 1789 to 17 January 1793. [He] served as a captain in the Western Regiment of Middlesex militia (later the 2nd Royal West Middlesex Militia) in 1793-4, and as Captain in the North York Militia from 1795 to 1797. On 1 March 1806 he was appointed a Major of the Corps of Artillery Drivers attached to the Royal Artillery. When that rank was abolished in 1812 he was placed on half pay. James died in London on 14 April 1821.? [ODNB] This copy with a series of ownership markings. The earliest traceable is that of Sidney James Timbrell, [Lieut.] 31st Foot, dated in 1842, this verso of the frontispiece. In the same location is a further inscription, perhaps later, of ?D. M'Leod, Engineers? Armorial bookplate of G.L.W. Watson to the front pastedown, together with the partially obliterated inscription of G.R. Crake Leech, dated 1956. To the front free endpaper there is a rather enigmatic inscription which gives the recipe for gun-powder, with advice on the purification of nitre, over the ?signature? United Irishman. A solid and quite attractive copy of this invaluable C19th reference work.
War Diaries and Other Papers

War Diaries and Other Papers

HOFFMANN Major-General Max Translated from the German by Eric Sutton. Two volumes. Portrait frontispiece and folding map to the rear of each. Slight worm damage to the first 7ll. of Volume I and upper board of Volume II, which is also somewhat damp-spotted, but overall a sound enough set in the original brown cloth. 272pp., 408pp. Martin Secker, Falls p.42 ** ?This is the more important of the late General Hoffmann's two books. This remarkable man, nominally only Chief of the Staff to the royal personage who was Commander-in-Chief on Germany's Eastern Front but actually wielding far more power than would be possible for any British or French officer in a similar situation, set down from day to day not only the day's events but a running commentary upon the characters and qualifications of German soldiers in every theatre of the War. Falkenhayn he disliked and mistrusted; Ludendorff he seems to have liked and admired, but frequently criticised. His comments are racy and often amusing, but behind them there are knowledge, shrewdness, and a grasp of essentials which show him to have been one of the most intellectual of German soldiers.? Of him David Bongard has said, ?Tall and stout [he] was not a typical German staff officer; he was gluttonous, a poor rider and swordsman; while he was by nature indolent, he was also quick-thinking, astute, resourceful, and decisive, a typical example of Moltke's ideal staff officer; ?lazy and intelligent? (as opposed to ?Stupid and industrious?)? Whilst this is not the prettiest set imaginable, this is an uncommon and highly desirable item.
An Address to the Committee of Association of the County of York

An Address to the Committee of Association of the County of York, on the State of Public Affairs

HARTLEY David By. January 3, 1781. The Second Edition. Light browning and scattered foxing throughout, else very good in modern sage green combed cloth-backed plain paper covered boards. 46pp. Printed by A.Ward, and sold by J. Almon. G. Kearsly; and R. Faulder. London; R.Cruttwell, Bath; and by all the Booksellers in York, Sabin 30685, giving precedence to this ?Second? over the Stockdale, London edition of the same year. Hartley was a close friend and correspondent of Benjamin Franklin, who he had met whilst he was studying at Lincoln's Inn. He was MP for Hull from 1774 to 1780 and 1782-4 and was noted as an outspoken, if not eloquent, opponent of the American War and of African slavery. Most likely it was due to his intimacy with Franklin and his consistent support of Rockingham that he was chosen as plenipotentiary to Paris, where in 1783 he and Franklin drew up and signed the definitive peace between Great Britain and the United States. Of his writings DNB remarks that they were mostly political ?and set forth the arguments of the extreme liberals of his time?, his personality appears to have been less than memorable, ? Wraxall says that Hartley, ?though destitute of any personal recommendation of manner, possessed some talent with unsullied probity, added to indefatigable perseverance and labour.? He adds that his speeches were intolerably long and dull, and that ?his rising always operated like a dinner-bell.?