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Typed Letter Signed by HENRY OSBORNE HAVEMEYER

Typed Letter Signed by HENRY OSBORNE HAVEMEYER, Art Collector, Plutocrat and Patron of New York’s Metropolitan Museum

HAVEMEYER, Henry Osborne HAVEMEYER, HENRY OSBORNE. (1847-1907). American industrialist, art collector and president of the American Sugar Refining Company. TLS. ("H. O. Havemeyer"). 1p. 12mo. New York, February 19, 1902. On his 11 Wall Street stationery. To ROBERT E. MANROSS (1852-1932), president of the New Haven coal wholesaler Benedict & Pardee Co. "Thank you very much for your goodness in returning my card case, found on the elevated train." Henry belonged to the third generation of the Havermeyer family involved in the sugar industry, which he entered as a 15-year-old apprentice in 1863. A decade later, he was in charge of the New York City-based family business. The decades after the Civil War saw intense competition in sugar refining due to overproduction that resulted in depressed prices. Havemeyer established the Sugar Trust in 1887 to control pricing and production. After its legality was challenged, the Sugar Trust morphed into the American Sugar Refining Company, a holding company and processed 98% of the sugar in America. In 1900, it became Domino Sugar. Suits challenging the company's monopoly on sugar refining continued after Havemeyer's death well into the 1920s. Havemeyer and his wife Louisine were inexhaustible art collectors, bequeathing to New York's Metropolitan Museum nearly 2,000 works, the bulk of which forms part of that institution's Impressionist collection and includes works by Degas, Monet and Cassatt. Portions of their vast collection are also on view at the Shelburne Museum in Vermont, founded by their daughter Electra Havemeyer Webb, also a prominent art collector. Folded and trimmed just below the signature. Normal wear and in very good condition. Uncommon. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
Rare Document Signed by King George V and His Son

Rare Document Signed by King George V and His Son, the Future King Edward VIII (The Duke of Windsor), Honoring the Canadian Opera Star Emma Albani

KING GEORGE V GEORGE V (1865-1936). King of England and Emperor of India; and his son, the future King EDWARD VIII (DUKE OF WINDSOR). (1894-72). DS. ("George R.I." and "Edward P."). 2pp. Tall 4to. London, June 3, 1925. An appointment of Canadian opera soprano EMMA ALBANI-GYE (1847-1930) as Dame Commander of the Civil Division of the British Empire, with her autograph draft letter (unsigned) accepting the citation. George V ascended to the British throne with the May 1910 death of his father, Edward VII, the son and successor of Queen Victoria. George V's 26-year reign witnessed challenges to Britain's empire in Ireland and India and the upheaval of World War I, which altered the political landscape of Continental Europe and Britain. It was in 1917, due to anti-German sentiment, that George V changed his royal house's name from Saxe-Coburg to Windsor. At the beginning of World War I, Edward, Prince of Wales, was commissioned to the Grenadier Guards, the official guard of the royal family but, to his great disappointment, he was not allowed to serve at the front. He did, however, distinguish himself in other campaigns abroad and "it was during the war that he first showed those qualities of charm, friendliness and sincerity that were to make him so popular," (Royal Encyclopedia). After the war, he frequently represented his father, and became one of the most prominent celebrities of the day. But following his succession to the throne in 1936, public opinion turned against him because of his relationship with Wallis Warfield Simpson, a twice-divorced American, deemed unacceptable as a British queen. Edward's determination to marry her led to the only voluntary abdication of a British monarch in history and made Edward's reign the second shortest. Albani was born in Quebec but pursued her musical education in Paris and Italy. Her London debut took place in 1872 at Covent Garden in Bellini's La sonnambula. In 1878 she married Ernest Gye continuing her career with performances in Paris, the United States, Australia, and Canada. Her last public performance was in 1911. Her memoir, Forty Years of Song, includes accounts of her interaction with various members of royalty throughout her career. The chivalric order being bestowed on her in our document was established in 1917 by George V who, when he ascended the throne, committed himself to maintaining the splendor of his father's reign. Boldly signed by George V on the recto and Edward on the verso. Documents signed by both these British monarchs are uncommon. In addition to Albani's draft reply there are several other pieces of related correspondence and ephemera. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
Autograph Letter from JACQUELINE KENNEDY

Autograph Letter from JACQUELINE KENNEDY, Written on her Personal Stationery to Roswell Gilpatric, President Kennedy and President Johnson’s Deputy Secretary of Defense

KENNEDY, Jacqueline KENNEDY, JACQUELINE. (1929-1994). ALS. ("Jackie"). 1p. 8vo. NY, June 20, 1993. On her personal stationery to ROSWELL GILPATRIC (1906-1996), Presidents Kennedy and Johnson's Deputy Secretary of Defense, with whom she was intimately involved. "I do thank you for sending me your words from that wonderful evening at Christies. All the experience you have had - and the wisdom it has given you. I showed it to John who was fascinated. The tribute they paid you was so moving. I felt so lucky to be there - and more so to be sitting beside you. Thank you dear Ros - I hope you have the most wonderful cruise and summer. Always affectionately, devotedly." A protégé of Harry Truman's secretary of defense, Robert A. Lovett, Gilpatric was hand-picked by Pres. Kennedy to join his administration. As deputy secretary of defense under Robert McNamara, Gilpatric advised Kennedy during the anxious days of the Cuban Missile Crisis and chaired Pres. Johnson's Task Force on Nuclear Proliferation. In 1970, the announced auction of 4 personal letters Jackie wrote to Gilpatric between 1963 and 1968 caused a world-wide scandal. Stolen by Theodore Donson, a former employee at Gilpatric's law firm, Donson consigned the letters to autograph dealer Charles Hamilton, who paid him an advance of $500. Gilpatric had been notified by The Washington Post that they intended to publish the letters and, despite the threat of legal action, they did so on Feb. 10, 1970, under the headline "Jackie and the Purloined Letters," by Maxine Cheshire, who reported that according to Hamilton, "Mr. Gilpatric sounded as if he were weeping when he called. his voice was shaking and he was concerned that the sale. would ruin his friendship with Mrs. Onassis." Ultimately, the letters were returned to Gilpatric, but not before their publication led to widespread speculation about the pair's relationship. Ros' friendship with Jackie may have caused the breakup of his third marriage (of five) to Madelin Gilpatric; in fact, Mrs. Gilpatric set their divorce in motion the same day the letters were seized under subpoena. The scandal also distressed Jackie, as revealed in the Feb. 12, 1970, NY Daily News front-page headline: "'Dear Ros' Fuss Upsets Jackie." Extremely reserved, Jackie avoided public scrutiny and initiated several lawsuits against the paparazzi who invaded her privacy. Jackie first met Washington's most eligible bachelor, Sen. John F. Kennedy, while employed as the Washington Times-Herald's "Inquiring Camera Girl." Their engagement in June 1953 and wedding three months later marked the beginning of "Camelot" and the public's fascination with the couple. Jackie is remembered equally for her style and grace both as first lady and as a widow after her husband's assassination in Dallas, Texas, on Nov. 22, 1963. Following JFK's death, Jackie devotedly worked to preserve his legacy and, with her brother-in-law Robert F. Kennedy (with whom she purportedly engaged in a 4-year love affair), famously sued to block publication of The Death of a President, William Manchester's authorized account of the assassination. The June 1968 assassination of Robert dealt her another blow. It was Gilpatric who drove a grieving Jackie to the airport to fly to California upon hearing the news. After the death of her 2nd husband, Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis, Jackie worked in publishing and played an important role in the city's nascent historical preservation movement. At the end of 1993, after a horse riding accident, she was diagnosed with cancer to which she succumbed the following May. Our letter mentions Jackie's son, John Kennedy, Jr. (1960-1999) who was only three years old when JFK died. He lived his life in the public eye and perished along with his wife when a plane he was piloting crashed into the ocean in 1999. A warm letter acknowledging Gilpatric's public service. Written on pale blue paper in dark blue ink. Folded in half and in excellent condition.
Stunning CHARLES GOUNOD Cabinet Photograph Inscribed to American Opera Singer Minnie Hauk

Stunning CHARLES GOUNOD Cabinet Photograph Inscribed to American Opera Singer Minnie Hauk

GOUNOD, Charles GOUNOD, CHARLES. (1818-1893). French composer. SP. ("Ch. Gounod"). 1p. Cabinet. N.p., N.d. Inscribed in French to the American opera singer AMALIA MIGNON "MINNIE" HAUK (1851-1929), a soprano known for her portrayal of Carmen, which she could perform in four languages. An attractive sepia portrait by Paris' Bosch studio depicting Gounod seated at a table with his bowler next to him, his head resting on his hand as he gazes directly at the camera. Gounod's early love of sacred music inspired him to pursue a religious vocation, but soon after entering a Carmelite monastery in 1847 to prepare for the priesthood, Gounod left his studies and turned away from the composition of church music to seek fame and fortune in the world of opera. Sapho, his first opera, debuted in 1850 and nine years later the composer secured a place in the history of French music with his popular opera based on Goethe's Faust. The career advantages derived from the wild success of Faust were, however, mitigated by an unpopular extramarital affair with amateur singer Georgina Weldon, begun in 1871. Though he continued to write operas, oratorios and masses, none of Gounod's later compositions rivaled the popularity of Faust. Hauk made her stage debut at the age of 14 and in 1867 appeared as Juliette in the American premiere of Gounod's Roméo et Juliette. In the years that followed she appeared on stage across Europe, performing the lead role of Bizet's Carmen in both the British and American premieres in 1878 as well as Massenet's Manon for its 1885 American premiere. Incidentally, Hauk, the daughter of a German carpenter and his American wife, was long rumored to be the illegitimate daughter of American financier Leonard Jerome, based on her resemblance to his daughter Jennie Jerome Churchill, the mother of Winston Churchill. Inscribed in the upper portion of the image. A part of the inscription and first two letters of the signature are lightly smudged. Age toned and in very good condition. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
Autograph Letter Signed by American Opera Singer LOUISE HOMER as an Eight-Year-Old

Autograph Letter Signed by American Opera Singer LOUISE HOMER as an Eight-Year-Old, along with Two Locks of Her Hair

HOMER, LOUISE HOMER, LOUISE. (1871-1947). American contralto. ALS. ("your niece Louise"). In pencil. 2 1/3pp. On a single folded sheet of ruled paper. Shady Side, December 26, 1879. Written at age eight to her aunt. Her childish spelling, punctuation, and usage have not been corrected. "I was so much delighted with the presents you and uncle sent me. they were the very things I wanted only the bag was too nice to use. I want too tell you the things I got on xmas papa gave me a lovely doll just like the one you gave me last xmas and a Cradle with it, and Mama gave me a lovely red silk [here, she has drawn a smiling face] handkerchief and Allie a box of writing paper. and Mrs. Dilworth gave me a book. and Miss Mame Renshay gave Ella and I a book. and Bessie gave me a brass and chain. and breast-pin. for the doll papa gave me we wont give you up this winter so do come as soon as you can. good bye." After moving to Paris with her new husband, the American composer Sidney Homer, Louise debuted at Vichy in 1898, and the following year appeared at Covent Garden. Her successful American career included twenty-nine years (1900-1929) with New York's Metropolitan Opera, where she became known for her masterly interpretations of Wagner. Homer is also remembered for her excellent concert and oratorio work, and for recordings with Caruso, Martinelli, and Gigli. Enclosed, with two locks of her hair, in a 1911 letter from her mother, on whose envelope the adult Louise has written in pencil, "special letter of mine & hair." Fine. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be necessary.
Autograph Letter from Austrian-Born

Autograph Letter from Austrian-Born, American Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court FELIX FRANKFURTER, Written on Supreme Court Stationery

FRANKFURTER, Felix FRANKFURTER, FELIX. (1882-1965). Austrian-born, American jurist; Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1939-1962). ALS. ("FF"). 2pp. Oblong 8vo. Washington, D.C., February 7, 1964. On his Supreme Court stationery to which he has added his home address on Massachusetts Avenue. To Ted at the Atlantic Monthly. "On Wednesday Gardner Cox was here and told me that in the Feb. issue of the Atlantic there is to be 'a wonderful article on F.F. by Garson Kanin.' My Feb. copy has come but no Garson Kanin. Was it omitted from my copy to save me from blushing? I hope that Gardner's portrait of you will be half as good as those he painted of Learned Hand and more recently . of me. With cordial regards, Ever yours." As a student, Frankfurter had edited the Harvard Law Review, and after serving in the federal Bureau of Insular Affairs, a division of the War Department, he returned to Harvard as a professor, making a name for himself as a legal scholar. In 1920, he helped found the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). He became an advisor to Franklin Roosevelt during both his New York governorship and presidency, and in 1939 FDR appointed him to the Supreme Court. He served until August 1962, when he retired four months after suffering a stroke. In addition to his defense of Sacco and Vanzetti and his liberal court opinions, he is also remembered for the publication Of Law and Men, a collection of essays on such well-known contemporaries as Alfred E. Smith, Alfred North Whitehead, Harold Laski, Lord Lothian, John Dewey, and Thomas Mann. The subject of our letter is a tribute penned by Frankfurter's friend, American writer and director Garson Kanin (1912-1999) and published in the March 1964 issue of The Atlantic. It was reprinted the same year in a festschrift, Felix Frankfurter: A Tribute edited by Wallace Mendelson. In it, Garson remarked, "Felix is everyone's contemporary. His subject is human beings; not in the abstract, nor in the mass, but one by one. In Felix's life there are no strangers." Gardner Cox (1906-1988) was an American portraitist whose subjects include Henry Kissinger, Robert Frost, Robert Kennedy, Dean Rusk, and Supreme Court Justices Earl Warren, Potter Stewart, Byron White, and Frankfurter. Learned Hand (1872-1961) distinguished himself through his decisions as a judge of the United States District Court of Appeals and through his legal writing. He was quoted frequently in Supreme Court decisions and became known as the "tenth justice of the Supreme Court." A strong defender of free speech and civil liberties as well as an accomplished orator, his "I Am an American Day" speech on May 21, 1944, has been likened to Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address," and his 1952 collection of addresses and essays, The Spirit of Liberty, was extremely popular and did much to increase his public profile. Written on the recto and verso of a U.S. Supreme Court correspondence card and in excellent condition. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
Autograph Letter from AMOS ENO

Autograph Letter from AMOS ENO, 19th Century Real Estate Developer, Mentioning “The Unfortunate Old Merchants of New York”

ENO, Amos ENO, AMOS. (1810-1898). Wealthy and influential 19th-century real estate developer. ALS. ("Amos R. Eno"). 1p. 8vo. New York, November 11, 1882. To George Bliss. "I have heard said that among the numerous charities in which this city abounds, that no sufficient provision has been made for the unfortunate old merchants of New York. If that is so ought not something be done? Will you kindly favor me with your views and oblige." A successful dry goods merchant, Eno invested his profits in New York City real estate. Among his many successful ventures was the construction of the Fifth Avenue Hotel, located on Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street, across from Madison Square. At the time of its construction in the late 1850s, the neighborhood was so far north that New York bankers refused to finance the project and it was dubbed "Eno's Folly." However, Eno's business acumen was acknowledged after the hotel quickly became not only a financial success but New York City's social center. It also served as the headquarters for Eno's Second National Bank of New York. In 1884, his son John embezzled millions of dollars from the bank that led to a panic and a run on the institution. Amos Eno covered every demand for payment, but largely retired from business after the affair. The identity of the recipient is unclear but some possibilities include New York attorney Colonel George Bliss (1830-1897), who served in the Civil War as New York's paymaster, attaining the rank of colonel before becoming a successful New York district attorney. He is noted for his conversion to Catholicism and was honored by Pope Leo XIII in 1895. George Bliss (1816-1896) was a banker and partner in the important firms of Morton, Bliss & Co. and Phelps, Dodge & Co. His son George T. Bliss (ca. 1851-1901) followed in his footsteps. Both were wealthy individuals and the younger Bliss' wife and daughter were noted for their involvement in such charitable endeavors as the Welfare Council of New York City. Written in Eno's minute hand on a sheet of paper with an irregular right edge. Folded with some very minor paper loss around the edges. In very good condition. Scarce. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
Rare Letter by American Industrialist WILLIAM DODGE

Rare Letter by American Industrialist WILLIAM DODGE, the “Merchant Prince” of Wall Street

DODGE, William DODGE, WILLIAM E. (1805-1883). American industrialist and "Merchant Prince" of Wall Street, congressman and philanthropist. ALS. ("W.E. Dodge"). 2pp. 4to. New York, February 21, 1868. On a folded sheet of Phelps, Dodge & Co. stationery. To J. C. Newkirk, Esq. "Your esteem'd favr of the 25 ult and 18 came duly to hand the former enclosing memo obtained from Magoun of lots sold & of those remaining, the latter en check for 200$ on. of payments from Renlack [?] & Franklin. I am perfectly astonished at the obstinacy of the man and cannot understand him at all. I find by looking in my papers that his last settlement was in 1858. With these and the map you can tell pretty well how the matter of the lots stand. But as to what he has rcd I do not see as we can get at it in any other way but by trying to find from the parties as to what they have paid, he has no doubt rcd some 4000$ that he has never paid over. Perhaps if you should say if he will now render a full. that I will take his notes pay at such times as he may desire for the balance due me he may come to terms. Suppose you try him one more with his letters in your hands and the map. I should like with the opening spring to close out what is left for what it can be sold for & will be glad if you will either take it in hand or employ some real estate man to do it. Please get the map corrected by Magoun. (This he will not reprise. I am sure.) and let it be keep carefully as I have no other. Very resp[ectfully] yours." Dodge, in partnership with his brother-in-law and father-in-law, owned Phelps, Dodge & Co., a NY-based firm active in importing metals, exporting cotton, lumber; mining and manufacturing of brass, copper and iron; railroads; real estate; and banking. During the 1880s, the firm became one of the largest mining companies with the purchase of several Arizona copper mines. After the Civil War, Dodge and several other businessmen purchased large plots of land in Southeast Georgia for the longleaf pine timber, with the Dodge Land Company claiming more than 300,000 acres in 1868 through questionable land deeds. Southerners saw Dodge as the ultimate carpetbagger and his "action led to a 50-year land war, murder and mayhem over property rights of the settlers and local citizens in the five-county region who thought they owned the rights to the land. In 1886, Dodge's agents [distributed]thousands of handbills. claiming that Dodge had true title to the property. Trouble was, someone named Dodson had sold much of this same land to hundreds of local citizens, who had since. developed homesteads," ("The Dodge Land Troubles," Georgia Trend, Young). After Dodge began cutting the timber, "the locals fought through the courts and with guns and knives to hold onto land that they thought was already theirs. It was a lawless time. It is estimated that more than 50 people lost their lives during the land war and court fight. It was not until 1923, when many of the lawyers and judges who participated in the civil trials had passed away, that the almost 50-year dispute was finally settled." (ibid.). In addition to his business interests, Dodge served one year in Congress (1866-1867), was a founding member of the YMCA, president of the National Temperance Society, and an active Native American rights activist. He co-founded and funded the United States Indian Commission in 1868, took a strong interest in government policy and lobbied for the establishment of an Indian Affairs department. Magoun is possibly George C. Magoun (1840-1893), an expert in railroad finance who, in 1868, opened a New York branch of Kidder, Peabody & Co. investment banks, and who, later, was heavily involved in railroads. New York City's Morgan Library sits on the location of Phelps' Madison Avenue mansion, which J. P. Morgan demolished to make way for his gardens. Folded with creasing and some age toning. In very good condition and rare. * All our items are sent via FedEx.
U.S. President BILL CLINTON's Signed Letter on White House Stationery Saying

U.S. President BILL CLINTON’s Signed Letter on White House Stationery Saying, “We secured a major victory for the American people”

CLINTON, Bill CLINTON, BILL. (b.1946). Forty-second president of the United States. TLS with holograph addition of the word "Bravo" under the signature. ("Bill"). 1p. 8vo. White House, June 25, 1993. On White House stationery bearing the blind-embossed seal of the United States. To Senator DANIEL PATRICK "PAT" MOYNIHAN (1927-2003). "I want to thank you again for your spectacular performance in leading the Senate to pass our economic plan. We secured a major victory for the American people, and it could not have happened without your outstanding leadership and direction. As I stated in our phone conversation early this morning, we still have a lot of work ahead of us, and I look forward to working closely with you during Conference." Clinton, a former Arkansas governor, became the youngest president since Kennedy upon his election in 1993. His re-election made him the first Democrat since FDR to serve a full second term, and he left office with the highest approval rating of any president in the second half of the 20th century. Unfortunately, a series of sex scandals overshadowed his accomplishments. His 1998 impeachment by the House was only the second time in American history that a president had been impeached (the first being Andrew Johnson in 1868). Both presidents were acquitted by the Senate. Our letter refers to Clinton's economic plan, outlined on February 17, 1993, the goals of which were to reduce the deficit and stimulate the economy by keeping interest rates low; investing in education, infrastructure and research; and opening foreign markets. On June 22, 1993, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 was ordered reported by the Senate Finance Committee of which Moynihan was newly-elected chairman. It was signed into law on August 10, 1993. Over the course of his eight years in office, Clinton successfully accomplished his economic goals, leaving office with a budget surplus, record high employment and stock market gains. Our letter was written in the early days of Clinton's first term. He had already started work on fulfilling key campaign promises including health care reform, which fell under Moynihan's jurisdiction as committee chair. Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act into law with Moynihan's approval and they also tackled the thorny issue of welfare reform, a matter of special interest to Moynihan, which he felt was more important than health care reform. Although Moynihan and the Clinton White House did not always see eye-to-eye, upon leaving his seat in the Senate in 2001, Moynihan endorsed former First Lady Hillary Clinton who was elected to fill it. Never folded and in mint condition. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
Black-and-White Postcard Photo Signed by British Statesman

Black-and-White Postcard Photo Signed by British Statesman, Author and Nobel Prize Winner WINSTON CHURCHILL, Seated at his Desk Reading a Letter

CHURCHILL, Winston CHURCHILL, WINSTON S. (1874-1965). British statesman and author; prime minister from 1940-45 and 1951-55. SP. ("Winston S. Churchill"). 1p. Oblong 12mo. N.p., N.d. A black-and-white postcard photo depicting Churchill seated at his desk reading a letter. Signed in the lower left portion of the image. According to Marc Kuritz, a leading dealer in Churchill material, the original photograph was taken by Walter Thomas, circa 1915, when Churchill served as First Lord of the Admiralty, a position he was to resign that year following the disastrous Dardanelles campaign. The identical image was later used on the 1933 first printing of the Eyre & Spottiswoode edition of Churchill's The River War. Before his career as a statesman, Churchill was a soldier and a reporter, covering Cuba's fight for independence from Spain for London's Daily Graphic. Indeed it was his own journalistic account of his exploits of rescuing an armored train from a Boer ambush along with his subsequent escape from a South African prison that made him a hero and led to his election to parliament in 1900, beginning a life-long political career. Churchill served as home secretary and, famously, First Lord of the Admiralty before resigning from the Liberal Party and being elected a Conservative MP in 1924, the same year that the party's leader, Stanley Baldwin, appointed him Chancellor of the Exchequer. In that post Churchill returned Great Britain to the gold standard, which led to increased unemployment and a growing unpopularity that culminated in his 1929 election defeat. Although out of office for the next ten years, he remained active in public life and became prime minister in 1940. He is revered for his leadership during the London Blitz and World War II, characterized by his famous "Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat" speech, his first address to Parliament. Churchill was soundly defeated in the 1945 election, but the elder statesman refused to retire and continued to champion the cause of British security and world peace. During this interregnum Churchill began his six-volume history, The Second World War, gave his famous "iron curtain" speech in 1946, and attended the first assembly of the Council of Europe in 1949. Though defeated a second time in 1950, he was victorious in 1951 and once again took the position of Prime Minister until poor health prompted his resignation in 1955. He remained a Member of Parliament until 1964, a year before his death. Some of Churchill's other works include A History of the English Speaking Peoples and the multi-volume biography of his famous ancestor, Marlborough: His Life and Times. His books earned him the 1953 Nobel Prize for Literature "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values." Accompanied by an envelope stating that the photograph was given to Eustace C. Larke after he wrote a letter complimenting Churchill on his Marlborough book. Some slight silvering to the image, otherwise near fine. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
Signed Photograph of American Pioneer Aviator CLARENCE CHAMBERLIN

Signed Photograph of American Pioneer Aviator CLARENCE CHAMBERLIN

CHAMBERLIN, Clarence CHAMBERLIN, CLARENCE. (1893-1976). American aviator. SP. ("Clarence D. Chamberlin"). 1p. 12mo. N.p., N.d. An informal black-and-white photograph of Chamberlin standing outside with a car and house in the background, darkly signed in the lower portion of the image. In 1919, French-born American restaurateur Raymond Orteig offered $25,000 to anyone completing a solo nonstop flight from New York to Paris or vice versa, renewing his offer seven years later. Chamberlin was among those who took up the challenge, joining the ranks of naval commander and arctic explorer Richard Byrd and aviator Charles Lindbergh, who famously won the competition when he landed at Paris? Le Bourget Airport on May 21, 1927. Chamberlin had already set several aviation records. With Bert Acosta he set an endurance record in April 1927 and Chamberlin might well have beaten Lindbergh to the Orteig prize had it not been for a legal injunction against the owner of his plane, which delayed its departure. Upon hearing of Lindbergh's arrival in Paris, Chamberlin instead decided to attempt to set a distance record, and he made a non-stop flight from Roosevelt Field to Eisleben, Germany, in his Bellanca monoplane Columbia. This flight was the second non-stop transatlantic flight and the first to carry a passenger. After establishing a reputation as one of the world's greatest aviators, Chamberlin turned to airplane production, manufacturing the Chamberlin Eight-Seater and greatly assisting the war effort by training aircraft factory workers during World War II. Near fine. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
Seven Autograph Letters from STRUTHERS BURT

Seven Autograph Letters from STRUTHERS BURT, American Writer, Poet and Dude Ranch Pioneer

BURT, Struthers BURT, STRUTHERS. (1882-1954). American writer, poet and dude ranch pioneer. Archive of 7 autograph letters signed. ("Struthers Burt"). 7pp. 4to. Southern Pines, South Carolina and Jackson Hole, Wyoming. November 2, 1939 to December 7, 1951. On his Hibernia and Three Rivers Ranch stationery. To notable Civil War scholar, author and collector, ARNOLD F. GATES (1914-1993). "I'm glad you like what I've written. That always means something to aim at in the future." November 2, 1939 "Tim Boyd is my next door neighbor and a most intimate friend. I saw him downtown today. I have known him ever since Princeton days when he followed me as Managing Editor of The Tiger. As a matter of fact, I settled here during the winters because of him. I need all the encouragement I can get at present, for I?m half way through a novel, and novel writing is a dogged, damnable job." May 3, 1940 "Thank you for sending me 'Amberglow.' I found it beautiful, and it had an especial appeal for me as Lincoln is my great hero, as he is to so many Americans. I should look forward to seeing 'Johnny Appleseed' who is also an especial hero of mine, but in a different way." June 25, 1940 "The story of Johnny Appleseed has always seemed to me one of the most touching and one of the finest in American Annals, and I think you've described him and what he did, beautifully; so beautifully, that I wish you'd write a book about him." September 3, 1940 "My damned book is nearing its end, and what a struggle it's been. Dogged did it, and I only hope dogged did it fairly well." November 1, 1940 (Possibly regarding Along These Streets, published in 1942) "I wish you could see this country today; not a cloud in the sky and the mountains pure white." October 8, 1941 "Glad we agree on MacArthur. Why so many people are taken in by him, I can't make out. My son spent three years in the Pacific and feels very much as you do." December 7, 1951 Although born in Philadelphia and educated at Princeton, Burt is best known for his association with the American West. He co-founded Jackson Hole, Wyoming's first dude ranch, the JY Ranch, which became famous after it was purchased by John D. Rockefeller Jr.'s Snake River Land Company in 1932 as a family retreat. In 1912, he established the nearby Bar B C Dude Ranch. Both ranches would later be incorporated into the Grand Teton National Park, which he helped establish. Burt's oeuvre includes poetry, such novels as The Delectable Mountains and Along These Streets, short stories, non-fiction volumes including The Diary of a Dude Wrangler and Patriotism Versus Prejudice: Hitler Forces at Work in America, and a number of magazine articles such as "Democracy for Everyone" and "Adventure" which he wrote for The Saturday Evening Post. Burt's papers are at Princeton. Gates, a well-respected amateur historian of the Civil War and Abraham Lincoln, devoted 50 years to researching those subjects, reviewing books for the Lincoln Herald and contributing to the anthology Lincoln for the Ages. He was an avid letter writer and "friend and unofficial agent of many a noted author," ("Autographica Curiosa: How Not to Impress Emily Post," Autograph Magazine, Butts). His own books include Amberglow of Abraham Lincoln and Ann Rutledge, Amberglow of Abraham Lincoln and Joshua Speed, Song of the Leaves: Quest of Johnny Appleseed and The Weaver. In excellent condition. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
Autograph Letter Signed by the Author of "Looking Backward" EDWARD BELLAMY

Autograph Letter Signed by the Author of “Looking Backward” EDWARD BELLAMY, about its Sequel, “Equality”

BELLAMY, Edward BELLAMY, EDWARD. (1850-1898). American author and socialist best known for his influential utopian novel Looking Backward, which inspired the establishment of Nationalist Clubs across the United States. ALS. ("Edward Bellamy"). 3pp. 12mo. Chicopee Falls, N.d. (Circa 1897-98). To American writer, urban planner and First Nationalist Club of Boston founder SYLVESTER BAXTER (1850-1927). "I read your article on Equality in the Reviews of Revues as soon as it came out but general debility has persecuted me till now from telling you how much delighted I and my friends have been with it. Nothing could have been. more effective as an introduction to my public or more delicate in taste. I appreciate especially the note of personal regard for myself which I take very kindly. I hope that your health has been better than mine since we met last and your views of life less autumnal. Still I think I am gaining a little and if the present slant of the wind holds hope to claw off the lee shore on which I have come near going aground. How is that for a nautical figure? I fear you are not enough of a yachtsman to appreciate it. One does not learn those points on a 'Land Yacht.' Affectionately yrs. P.S. I send you an autograph copy of Equality the novel [?]" Although he published a number of books, including the 1880 science fiction novel Dr. Heidenhoff's Process, it was for his wildly popular Utopian novel Looking Backward, 2000-1887, that Bellamy is best known. Looking Backward was the third most popular American book of the 19th century, trailing Uncle Tom's Cabin and Ben Hur. Its publication captivated the American public and led to the founding, throughout the country, of Nationalist Clubs, which sought to realize the socialist society described in the book. The 165 clubs founded by "Bellamyites," included a Boston club founded by Baxter, an urban planner instrumental in the development of the Metropolitan Park System of Greater Boston. In addition to his civic involvement, Baxter was an author and columnist, whose works were published in the Boston Herald and Boston Evening Transcript. Our letter refers to Bellamy's 1897 novel, Equality, which, though it elaborated on the same ideas, was less popular than Looking Backward. Bellamy died from tuberculosis at his Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts home at the age of 48 on May 22, 1898. Written on a folded sheet, with some separation along the center vertical fold; otherwise in very good condition. Rare. Much of Bellamy's correspondence, including letters to Baxter, is at Harvard. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
American Naturalist and Writer JOHN BURROUGHS Signs a Photograph of Himself Outside his Cabin "Slabsides"

American Naturalist and Writer JOHN BURROUGHS Signs a Photograph of Himself Outside his Cabin “Slabsides”

BURROUGHS, John BURROUGHS, JOHN. (1837-1921). American naturalist and essayist who influenced the American conservation movement. SP. ("John Burroughs at 'Slabsides'"). 1p. Large oblong 4to. (West Park), N.d. (after 1895). A sepia photograph of Burroughs sitting on the steps of his summer cabin Slabsides, signed and identified by Burroughs as such on the lower blank margin. Born on a farm in the Catskills, Burroughs was an ardent lover of nature who expressed his feelings through his writing. Burroughs' professional writing career began in 1860, with the publication of his essay Expression in the Atlantic Monthly. Editor James Russell Lowell initially thought it had been plagiarized from Ralph Waldo Emerson who was incorrectly credited as its author in subsequent publications. Encouraged by his close friend poet Walt Whitman, Burroughs published a collection of essays, Wake-Robin, in 1871 while working as a federal bank examiner in Washington, D.C. Burroughs' work combined observations of nature with philosophy, religion and literature and made him a popular figure during his day. Among his fans was Theodore Roosevelt who, after meeting him in 1889, became a close friend for the next three decades. Burroughs' essays also appeared in such collections as Locusts and Wild Honey, Squirrels and Other Fur-Bearers, Songs of Nature, Ways of Nature, and Camping and Tramping with Theodore Roosevelt. In 1873, Burroughs purchased a farm in the Hudson Valley town of West Park and built an estate called Riverby, where he continued to write and cultivate various crops. In 1895, he constructed Slabsides, a one-room Adirondack-style cabin used as a summer residence. Visitors to Slabsides included his close friend Roosevelt, naturalist John Muir, and industrialists Henry Ford, Thomas Edison and Harvey Firestone. Image size is approximately 8¼" x 7¼", on photographic paper measuring roughly 8" x 10". Mounted on an 11" x 14" piece of stiff paper board. In overall lovely condition. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
Signed Photograph of COUNT BASIE Seated at His White Piano

Signed Photograph of COUNT BASIE Seated at His White Piano

BASIE, Count BASIE, COUNT. (1904-1984). American band leader, composer and jazz pianist. SP. ("Count Basie"). 1p. Oblong 4to. N.p., N.d. A black-and-white James J. Kriegsmann (1909-1994) photograph of Basie playing the piano, inscribed "Best Wishes" and signed in a light portion of the image. Basie grew up in New Jersey, where he learned piano, improvised soundtracks to silent movies at the local movie theater, played with Sonny Greer (Duke Ellington's future drummer), and performed at dances and Jersey Shore resorts. At around age 16, he relocated to Harlem, epicenter of jazz, and, while touring in such jazz hotspots as Kansas City, St. Louis, New Orleans, and Chicago, made important connections to Louis Armstrong, Fats Waller, Walter Page, and Bennie Moten. As the pianist for Moten's Kansas City band, he elevated swing music with such numbers as the eponymous "Moten Swing," for which he became known. Basie took over the band after Moten was expelled by its members and went on to lead a number of bands in Kansas City and Chicago, becoming well-known for his recordings of "Boogie Woogie" and "Lady Be Good." In 1937, Basie returned to New York where his roster of musicians and singers included such luminaries of jazz as Billie Holiday, Lester Young and Walter Page. A much publicized 1938 battle of the bands between Basie and Chick Webb featuring Ella Fitzgerald cemented Basie's fame. He continued to perform and make popular recordings well into the 1980s. Austrian-American Kriegsmann photographed such celebrities as Cab Calloway, Frank Sinatra, Benny Goodman, Ray Charles, Duke Ellington, and Stevie Wonder in his New York studio and was the Cotton Club's official photographer. He was also a prolific composer whose works include Dave "Baby" Cortez's 1959 hit song "The Happy Organ." With a few small creases and nicks in the lower white margin. In fine condition. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
Scarce Letter by JOHN BAIRD

Scarce Letter by JOHN BAIRD, Scottish Inventor of Television, on Baird Television Letterhead

BAIRD, John BAIRD, JOHN. (1888-1946). Scottish inventor; produced the first televised picture of a moving object in 1926 and in 1928 developed color television. TLS. ("J.L. Baird"). ½p. 4to. London, December 10, 1935. On Baird Television Limited letterhead. To Mr. A. (Arthur?) Buckley. "I thank you for your letter of the 3rd instant. I am sorry I will not be able to be present on January 9th as I will be abroad until the beginning of February. If, however, you are having a Dinner in February, I will be very pleased indeed to be present. " Baird was an inventor with diverse interests who, early in his career, dabbled in such areas as synthetic diamonds, a glass razor, pneumatic shoes, thermal "undersocks," fiber optics, radar, and video recording. His major contribution to science, however, came with his pioneering television transmission in 1925. His demonstration was repeated for the Royal Society the following year and, in 1927, he transmitted the first long-distance television images between London and Glasgow. In 1928, he again made history by transmitting the first televised images broadcast in color. Baird International Television Limited was formed in 1928 to explore the commercial applications of his innovations, and, beginning in 1929, the BBC transmitted television programming using one of Baird's systems. Baird's commercial endeavor was hindered by the total loss, in November 1936, of his Crystal Palace laboratory. By 1937, the BBC switched its transmissions to the competing Marconi system. Nonetheless, Baird continued to make important innovations in television broadcasting up until his death. Folded with minor, light scattered spotting and two irregular file holes in the left margin. In very good condition. Uncommon. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
Author of "Little Women" LOUISA MAY ALCOTT Inscribes a Photograph Using the Name of a Character from Charles Dickens' Martin Chuzzlewit

Author of “Little Women” LOUISA MAY ALCOTT Inscribes a Photograph Using the Name of a Character from Charles Dickens’ Martin Chuzzlewit

ALCOTT, Louisa May ALCOTT, LOUISA MAY. (1832-1888). American author best known for her novel Little Women. SP. ("Sairy"). 1p. CDV. N.p., May 1882. Inscribed by Alcott in ink on the verso of the photograph, "Betsey from Sairy May 1882." Below the inscription is a pencil notation in a later, unidentified hand, "Sairy = Louisa M Alcott, Betsey = Mary H. Williams." The daughter of transcendentalist Amos Bronson Alcott and abolitionist Abigail May, Alcott had an unconventional upbringing. She spent her childhood living according to her father's philosophical ideals including time in a short-lived Utopian community, which he helped found. Living out his beliefs often meant financial hardship as his schools failed for being too progressive. In addition to taking odd jobs such as sewing and teaching, Louisa began a literary career to help alleviate her family's situation, and earned money by selling her magazine articles, gothic romance novels and children's stories. Eventually, her reputation was made with the 1868-1869 publication of the novel Little Women and a series of subsequent related novels including Little Men. Little Women's headstrong protagonist, Jo, was based on Alcott's own experiences as a willful and independent child. The fictional character of Beth closely paralleled that of her sister Elizabeth "Lizzie" Alcott, who contracted scarlet fever in 1856 and would further deteriorate until her death in 1858, at age 22. During her convalescence, Louisa nursed her sister, entertaining her with stories including those from Charles Dickens' 1844 serial Martin Chuzzlewit, which featured alcoholic nurse Sairy Gamp and her assistant Betsey Prig. In 1862, Alcott reached the age of 30 and was qualified to volunteer as a nurse to Civil War wounded. The month before departing for Washington, she wrote in her journal, "I love nursing and must let out my pent-up energy in some new way," (Louisa May Alcott: The Woman Behind Little Women, Reisen). For six weeks she tended the wounded in the makeshift hospital in the Union Hotel, assisting with amputations, reading to and writing letters for the injured and comforting the dying. "The hospital matron, Mrs. Ropes, admired Louisa and gave her the responsibility of assigning the patients in her three-room ward to the appropriate quarters, according to their condition: the 'duty room' held the newly wounded; the 'pleasure room' was for recovering soldiers, whom Louisa entertained with games, gossip, and probably the Dickens' Sairy Gamp imitation that had been her sister Lizzie's sickbed delight. The 'pathetic room' of hopeless cases was a place to bring 'teapots, lullabies, consolation, and, sometimes, a shroud. Nursing tempered Louisa, matured her, replacing her book knowledge of behavior under duress with real-life experience." (ibid.). In 1863, the abolitionist magazine Boston Commonwealth published a series of articles based on Louisa's experiences, later issued in the book Hospital Sketches. Louisa's service was cut short when she contracted a life-threatening case of typhoid pneumonia. She was treated with large doses of calomel and, though she recovered, her health was permanently damaged by the mercury it contained. She died at the age of 56, two days after her father whom she had been nursing after a debilitating stroke three years earlier. Alcott's published letters (ed. Cheney) include one to Mary H. Williams, possibly a relation on her mother's side, whom she addresses as "Dear Betsey," and is the likely recipient of this precious image. Our sepia carte-de-visite image of Alcott at 50 years of age bears no photographers' identification. Some light toning and wear and a small spot along the bottom edge that does not affect the inscription or image. In very good condition and very rare in this format. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
ISADORA DUNCAN Autograph Letter Mourning the Death of her Two Children: "I am Here in a Villa by the Sea Dying of Despair"

ISADORA DUNCAN Autograph Letter Mourning the Death of her Two Children: “I am Here in a Villa by the Sea Dying of Despair”

DUNCAN, Isadora DUNCAN, ISADORA. (1878-1927). American dancer who introduced the art of interpretive dance. ALS. ("Isadora"). 2pp. 4to. Viareggio, (Circa November/December, 1913). On her monogrammed Neuilly stationery the address of which she has crossed out and replaced with, "Villa Rigatti, Viareggio, Italy." "I am here in a villa by the sea dying of despair - Eleanora Duse was here very ill but she has left - I am all alone & I have hardly left the courage to move. I feel I am at the end of all & my efforts were in vain. I struggled but the thing has killed me after all - Paris is in place [des] Vosges. Do you see him? Write me your plans. I have no force even to write - ." A visionary of modern dance, Duncan left the United States at 21 to pursue a career in Europe. Duncan's success enabled her to open dance schools in France, Germany, Russia, and the United States. However, her life changed forever following the death of her two children in a freak automobile accident. On April 19, 1913, seven-year-old Deirdre (her daughter with Edward Gordon Craig), three-year-old Patrick (her son with Singer Sewing Machine heir, Paris Singer, 1867-1932) and the children's nanny drowned when their car slid into the Seine while the driver was in front cranking the stalled vehicle. Raymond, her brother, persuaded Isadora to go with him to Corfu and Albania where she sought relief aiding refugees before returning home to Paris. But once in Neuilly she noted, "Everything about the place brought back only too keenly days when I had been happy. Soon I had the hallucination of hearing the children's voices in the garden, and when, one day, I saw their clothes and toys scattered about, I broke down completely and realized that it would be impossible for me to stay in Neuilly. One day. I received a telegram which read, 'Isadora, I know you are wandering through Italy. I pray you come to me. I will do my best to comfort you.' It was signed Eleanora Duse" (1858-1924), (ibid.). Duncan joined the Italian actress at her villa in Viareggio where she found "courage from the radiance in Eleanora's eyes. She used to rock me in her arms, consoling my pain, but not only consoling, for she seemed to take my sorrow to her own breast. Eleanora said: 'Tell me about Deirdre and Patrick,' and made me repeat to her all their little sayings and ways, and show her their photos which she kissed and cried over. She never said, 'Cease to grieve,' but grieved with me, and, for the first time since their death, I felt I was not alone. For Eleanora Duse was a super-being." (ibid.) While at the villa, Duncan, desperate for another child, begged a local sculptor to sleep with her. She became pregnant and, in August 1914, gave birth to a boy who died shortly after delivery. Duncan's son Patrick had been fathered by her lover Paris Singer, heir to the Singer Sewing Machine fortune. Their liaison began in 1909 with Singer showering Isadora with expensive gifts including her home in Neuilly overlooking the Seine. They also occupied l'Hotel Coulanges, referred to in our letter. Their relationship, however, was stormy as Singer became increasingly frustrated with Duncan's behavior towards him and her free spirit. Their final falling out occurred in 1917 when Duncan publicly refused Singer's gift of Madison Square Garden. Eventually, Duncan overcame her grief and resumed her vocation, devoting the rest of her life to dance. Her brief marriage to the younger Russian poet Sergei Yesenin made her unwelcome back home due to the anti-Communism hysteria prevalent in America. She lived out the last of her days in Nice where she, herself, died in a bizarre automobile accident after her scarf caught in the spokes of a wheel. Duncan remains a legend of modern dance, whose bohemian life and innovative technique continue to inspire performers around the world. Folded and in fine condition. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
Circus Showman P.T. Barnum on Financial Investments

Circus Showman P.T. Barnum on Financial Investments

BARNUM, P.T. BARNUM, P.T. (1810-1891). American showman and entrepreneur. ALS. ("P. T. Barnum" and "P.T.B."). 2pp. 8vo. Bridgeport, July 31, 1855. Written on Barnum's highly decorative American Museum stationery on which Barnum has crossed out "New York," written "Bridgeport, CT," and marked the letter "Private." To Mr. (H.B.) Curtis of the Ohio law firm Curtis and Scribner. "That Nichols is injuring my credit very much by peddling around my acceptances all over the country at enormous shares. Two of them which had been forwarded by some broker in Ohio were sold yesterday in Wall St. New York for 1½ per cent per month. Now this of course won't do, & I cannot send him any more acceptances but must take them all up as they come due & I must now proceed to sell that property. I don't see any other way. So I would be glad to get you to take hold of the matter promptly as we talked, and have it all sold. Will you please to take it in hand ? as you know all the ropes. Truly yours. P.S. Mr. Higby sent you on Saturday last the certificates of R[ail] R[oad] stock asked for. I fear that the officer who took Turner's depositions neglected to have the witnesses identify them, but perhaps not. I send copy of Buices [?] letter certified by R. D. Turner. He is expected every day in N.Y. When he comes I'll try to send the original. P.T.B." Barnum began his remarkable career at age 25 when he bought a slave named Joice Heth, who he maintained was 161 years old and formerly George Washington's nurse. The claim created a sensation, and by 1842 Barnum had established the American Museum in New York City in which he exhibited many oddities (both dead and alive) including the Fiji Mermaid, General Tom Thumb and the original Siamese twins Chang and Eng. An inveterate businessman, Barnum began to invest in the development of Bridgeport, Connecticut, subdividing land and selling smaller plots and investing his own money in several manufacturing endeavors. During 1855, already heavily in debt, Barnum found his personal credit imperiled when his cousin Edward T. Nichols, a Cleveland theater manager, real estate investor and gambler to whom Barnum frequently lent money, began forging Barnum's signature to cover his own debts. After his discovery, "Nichols ran away from Cleveland, was arrested and brought back to stand trial, and spent some time in prison. The trouble was, in his defense he claimed Barnum had authorized him to sign his signature; and as the brokers and others who were stuck with the forged paper - the amount was $40,000 in all - naturally preferred to believe him on this point, they eventually succeeded in getting him pardoned. The vexing affair dragged on for over six years and involved Barnum in several different trials, lawsuits, and threats of legal action," (P.T. Barnum: The Legend and the Man, Saxon). Our letter also mentions Barnum's wish to sell one of Nichol's properties on which he came to hold the mortgage. At the same time, Barnum had arranged to loan the Jerome Clock Company an amount up to $110,000 while they relocated to Bridgeport. However, "there followed what appears to have been some incredibly inept accounting on the part of Barnum or his bookkeeper son-in-law. The showman had agreed to set his signature to any number of notes and drafts, renewed as often as necessary. [but] he carelessly began signing notes without checking to see how much might still be out," (ibid.). The result was Barnum's bankruptcy, publicly announced in January 1856. These financial reversals forced him out of retirement and Barnum reopened the American Museum and in 1871 created a circus dubbed, "The Greatest Show on Earth." He later merged with James A. Bailey to form the Barnum & Bailey Circus. Our letter is marked "Private." Folded with some dust staining on the vertical fold and light wear. In very good condition. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.
Document Signed by the English Author of "A High Wind in Jamaica" RICHARD HUGHES

Document Signed by the English Author of “A High Wind in Jamaica” RICHARD HUGHES, A Questionnaire about his Writing

HUGHES, RICHARD HUGHES, RICHARD. (1900-1976). English author of the novel A High Wind in Jamaica. DS. ("Richard Hughes"). 2pp. 4to. N.p., April 25, 1964. Hughes responds to a questionnaire that begins, "My definition of the word 'symbolism' as used in this questionnaire can be understood from the following example: In the Scarlet Letter, there are four main characters. Some people say that Hawthorne meant those four to be symbolic of nature, science, religion, and other symbols in disguise and conflict. The same people compare the actions of the four to what has happened, is happening and will happen to science, religion, nature, etc." Hughes responds in black ink. 1. (a) Do you consciously, intentionally plan and place symbolism in your writing? If both yes and no, according to instance, please given [sic] an example of each. If yes, please state your method for doing so. (b) Do you feel you sub-consciously place symbolism in your writing? (a) No. (b) Probably yes. After all, to a lesser extent the same is probably true of our daily conversation - in fact, of everything we think and say and do. 2. Do readers ever infer that there is symbolism in your writing where you had not intended it to be? If so, what is your reaction and feeling to this type of inference? (Annoyance? Amusement? Indifference?) Frequently. Sometimes they may be right (see "b" above). A good example is the recent suggestion by critics that my novel In Hazard, published in 1938, was a symbolic forecast of what was to happen to Britain in the coming Second World War (even including the American salvage ship!). Certainly this was not in the front of my mind when I wrote but may well have been hidden at the back - may well have been why I felt a compulsion to write that story rather than any other at that particular date. Sometimes however the suggestion seems to me mistaken. 3. (a) Do you feel that the great writers of classics consciously, intentionally planned and placed symbolism in their writing? (I am of course researching the question, but I should like your opinion). If both yes and no, according to instance, please give an example of each. (b) Do you feel that they placed it there sub-consciously? (a) Of course. There are countless instances in certain authors (and equally of course countless contrary ones.) (b) In many cases, yes: e.g. Keats in "La Belle Dame Sans Merci" (which is fiction as well as poetry) and elsewhere. They're bound to, for that is how thinking works. Richard Hughes 25.4.64. 4. Do you have anything to remark concerning the subject under study, or anything you believe to be pertinent to such a study? P.S. Have you considered the extent to which subconscious symbol-making is part of the process of reading, quite distinct from its part in writing? In 1929, Hughes published The Innocent Voyage, which he retitled A High Wind in Jamaica, about children who are captured by pirates and reveal themselves to be more ruthless than their captors. His 2nd novel, In Hazard also had a nautical theme. His final two novels, The Fox in the Attic and The Wooden Shepherdess, were intended to be the first two parts of a trilogy, The Human Predicament, but Hughes died before he could complete the final volume. He also wrote plays, screenplays and the first radio play, Danger, broadcast by the BBC in 1924. It was at Hughes' home in Laugharne, South Wales that Dylan Thomas penned his Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog. With Hughes' encouragement, Thomas relocated to Laugharne and lived there until his death. Our questionnaire mentions English poet John Keats' ballad La Belle Dame sans Merci, written in 1819. File holes in the left margin and a staple hole in the upper left corner, none of which affects the writing. The name of the likely author of the questionnaire is at the bottom of the second sheet. Normal folding and in very good condition. Uncommon. * All our items are sent via FedEx. Additional postage may be requested.
Letter Signed By U.S. President CALVIN COOLIDGE

Letter Signed By U.S. President CALVIN COOLIDGE

COOLIDGE, CALVIN COOLIDGE, CALVIN. (1872-1933). Thirtieth president of the United States. TLS. ("Calvin Coolidge"). 1p. 4to. Northampton, March 26, 1932. On his imprinted stationery to the editor-in-chief of The Saturday Evening Post, GEORGE H. LORIMER (1867-1937). "I am very glad my article came out to your satisfaction. It is entirely agreeable to have it reprinted by anyone who wishes. I have not anything in mind that I could do for you at present time. I am very much pleased to have something I write in your publication but when I have an article that does not need to be hurried to the press, I can do quite a little better in the monthly magazines, partly because they get a larger advantage than you do from an increased sale." Under Lorimer, The Saturday Evening Post became an immensely successful and influential magazine, known for featuring the work of leading contemporary writers and thinkers. Initially progressive, with Lorimer's drift to the right it later "became an active --if unofficial -- organ of the Republican party. Lorimer knew many presidents personally, and nearly every president during his editorship contributed to the Post" (DAB), including Coolidge. After leaving office in March 1929, Coolidge remained deeply interested in current affairs, and briefly wrote a syndicated column (the only president to do so), Thinking Things Over with Calvin Coolidge, which appeared in nearly two hundred newspapers. Boldly signed and fine. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be necessary.
Typed Letter Signed by American Playwright EUGENE O'NEILL

Typed Letter Signed by American Playwright EUGENE O’NEILL, Winner of Both the Pulitzer and Nobel Prizes

O'NEILL, EUGENE O'NEILL, EUGENE. (1888-1953). American playwright; winner of both the Pulitzer and Nobel prizes. TLS. ("Eugene O'Neill"). 2/3 p. 4to. Danville, February 22, 1938. On Tao House stationery. To [MAX] OTTO KOISCHWITZ (1902-1944). German-American author, professor and Nazi sympathizer. "Before acknowledging your letter, forwarded out here, I have been waiting to receive the copy of your monograph which you said was being mailed under separate cover. It has not reached me yet - probably delayed in forwarding - but I am writing anyway to tell you how deeply I appreciate your interest in my work and to thank you for your letter. Also to tell you, regarding Bound East to Cardiff, that in my opinion you are quite right in laying emphasis on that play - although purely as a piece of dramatic writing I rate it considerably below The Moon of the Caribbees." Perhaps America's greatest playwright, O'Neill vaulted himself to success with his Desire Under the Elms, produced in 1924, followed by the Pulitzer Prize-winning Strange Interlude, and the 1931 trilogy Mourning Becomes Electra. A regular among the Greenwich Village literati in the 1910s, O'Neill became involved with the Provincetown Players in 1916, a theater company that debuted many of his early plays at their theaters in Provincetown, Massachusetts and Greenwich Village. Inspired by his own years at sea as a sailor, Bound East for Cardiff and The Moon of the Caribbees were first performed in 1916 and 1918 by the Provincetown Players. The two one-act plays make up half of the Glencairn cycle, a series of four plays that take place on the S.S. Glencairn. The Glencairn plays, or the "sea plays" also include In the Zone and The Long Voyage Home. O'Neill considered The Moon of the Caribbees one of his best works. The play was inspired by his own experiences as a sailor in Trinidad. A German professor at Columbia University and Hunter College, German-born Koischwitz became a U.S. citizen in 1935. In 1938, he published the first European critical analysis of O'Neill's work, the "monograph" referred to in our letter. Koischwitz openly supported Hitler and the Nazi regime, and in 1939, after introducing anti-Semitic content into his courses, he was asked to take a leave of absence from Hunter College. From 1940 until his death in 1944, Koischwitz worked as a program director for the Nazi-run German State Radio, broadcasting propaganda directed towards college students and German-Americans, while his American girlfriend and fellow radio commentator, Mildred Gillars, became known to American GIs as "Axis Sally." An unusual association, to say the least! Folded and in very good condition. * All our items are sent via Federal Express. Additional postage may be requested.