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Astronomical Observations Relating to the Mountains of the Moon [With] The Following Additional Memoranda of the Manner in Which Mr. Herschel Made his Observations are Taken From a Letter of His to the Rev. Dr. Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal” (pp.-507-527) AND “Astronomical Observations on the Periodical Star in Collo Ceti” (PP. 338-344) in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 70, 1780, Parts I & II [HERSCHEL’S FIRST PUBLISHED DESCRIPTION OF HIS NEWLY HANDBUILT TELESCOPE]

Herschel, William BOUND FULL VOLUME (Parts I & II): 1ST EDITIONS OF WILLIAM HERSCHEL'S SCIENTIFIC DEBUT, HIS 1ST TWO PUBLISHED PAPERS -- BOTH ASTRONOMICAL - WITH HIS FIRST PUBLISHED DESCRIPTION OF HIS NEWLY HANDBUILT TELESCOPE. "The first paper dealt with a periodical star [Collo Ceti], the second with the height of the mountains of the moon; in both papers, Herschel called attention to the remarkable capabilities of his telescope" (McCormmach, Weighing the World, 334). In the second paper, he wrote: "I believe that for distinctness of vision this instrument is perhaps equal to any that was ever made" (Herschel, PT 70, 1780). The second paper is accompanied by a large fold-out copperplate illustrating the mathematical calculations behind his lunar measurements. "In 1773 Herschel began grinding mirrors for telescopes and in 1774 he began keeping a journal of his observations. Bennett [primary historian of Herschel's telescopes] states: 'It was the beginning of a unique career in astronomy; original speculations on the nature of stellar objects and the construction of the heavens would be paralleled by equally bold designs for improving telescopes" (Cunningham, The Scientific Legacy of William Herschel, 249). IN THE FIRST PAPER, Herschel wrote that Collo Ceti, the "remarkable star" he observed "was first observed by David Fabricus, the 13th of August, 1596, who called it the 'stella mire,' or 'wonderful star' (ibid). In this paper, Herschel wrote that "he magnified the star as much as 449 times, finding it 'very full and round in the telescope,'" (Herschel, PT 70, 1780). From this time on, Herschel's telescopes and the claims he made for their magnification and their distinct images greatly interested British astronomers" (McCormmach). THE SECOND PAPER, "Astronomical Observations Relating to the Mountains of the Moon," also includes the 5 page addition of "The Following Additional Memoranda of the Manner in Which Mr. Herschel Made his Observations are Taken From a Letter of His to the Rev. Dr. Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal". Both papers, as said, illuminate the power of Herschel's telescope. As he sought to describe the means by which he made his lunar mountain calculations, Herschel detailed some of his telescope's specifications: "The telescope I used was a Newtonian reflector of six feet eight inches focal length, to which a micrometer was adapted consisting of two parallel hairs, one of which was moveable by means of a fine screw. The value of the parts shewn by the index was determined by a trigonometrical observation of a known object at a known distance, and was verified by several trials. The power I always used, except when another is mentioned, was 222 times, also determined by experiment, which I have often found to differ somewhat from theory, on account of some little errors in the data, hardly to be avoided. The moon having sufficient light, I used no more aperture of the object speculum than four inches; and, I believe, that for distinctness of vision this instrument is perhaps equal to any that was ever made" (Herschel, PT 70, 1780). With this instrument and "In the winter of 1779-1780 [prior to publication] Herschel calculated the height of several lunar mountains by adapting the method of Galileo and others. This involved measuring the angular distances between the mountain and the boundary of the illuminated part of the moon, at the time when the sun's rays first reached the peak of the mountain. To make the delicate measurements Herschel used a bifilar micrometer, which he calibrated by applying it to known terrestrial objects. He concluded that the height of lunar mountains had been exaggerated and that 'the generality do not exceed half a mile in their perpendicular elevation'" (DSB VI, 333-334). CONDITION & DETAILS: 4to. 15 copperplates. 583pp. No library markings at all. Handsomely rebound in calf; 5 raised spine bands; red & black morocco spine labels. Original wide margins. Bright & clean throughout. Near fine.

De gli automati, ouero machine se mouenti libri due, tradotti dal greco da Bernardino Baldi, Bertolini, Venice, 1601 [AUTOMATA, SELF-OPERATING MACHINES]

Hero of Alexandria [Erone di Alessandria Heron (Alexandrinus)] SECOND ITALIAN EDITION OF HERO OF ALEXANDRIA'S AUTOMATA, AN EARLY WORK ON THE ENGINEERING DETAILS OF SELF-OPERATING MACHINES (be they mechanical or pneumatic), complete with 22 illustrations. "In the pantheon of ancient experimenters and scientists, [Hero was] an unparalleled inventor and producer of the earliest automatic and robotic devices" (Ptak). The Dictionary of Scientific Biography observed that the automata Hero writes of and illustrates here "represent a marvel of ingenuity with very scant mechanical means" (DSB VI, 313). "The accounts of these automata are interesting as [they introduce] for the first time mechanisms that formed the basis of later machines. Among them are the crank, the camshaft, and systems of rotation with counter-weights" (Singer II, 634). A Greek mathematician, engineer, and experimentalist, Heron or Hero (c.10-c.70 AD) was the most influential Hellenistic scientist of his time, to date still the best representative of the extensive Roman and Hellenistic scientific tradition. He is thought to have been Greek and appears from his writings to have taught at the Museum in Alexandria, home to the famous Library of Alexandria. Complex mechanical devices are known to have existed in Hellenistic Greece, with automata of the era largely intended as prototypes for demonstrating basic scientific principles as well as toys, tools, and religious idols. Numerous designs for automata (referred to as 'thaumata' or miracles) appear in Hero's writings. Many though not all of those included in this work are theater related. The automata theater constructions describe "two sorts of puppet shows, one moving and the other stationary; both of them perform without being touched by human hands. The former moves before the audience by itself and shows a temple in which a fire is lit on an altar and the god Dionysus pours out a libation while Bacchantes dance about him to the sound of trumpets and drums' (DSB). Hero also describes "automatic rotating objectives, noise such as thunder, automatic opening and closing doors, statues that pour wine, etc. [and] the workings of several bird automatons" (History of Computers). However trivial these feats of engineering may seem now, all made significant contributions to the evolution of technology. Among Hero's inventions: the first vending machine (a coin dispensed holy water); a hydraulic mechanism for mysteriously opening temple doors where a burnt offering heated water beneath the altar; the first demonstration of wind powering a machine (an organ); automata for Greek theater "including an entirely mechanical puppet play almost ten minutes in length powered by a binary-like system of ropes, knots, and simple machines operated by a rotating cylindrical cogwheel. The sound of thunder was produced by the mechanically-timed dropping of metal balls onto a hidden drum" (Norman). Hero also constructed a 3-wheeled cart driven by a falling weight that pulled on a string wrapped round the cart's drive axle that could carry a group of automata to the front of a stage where they would perform for an audience (ibid). As well, the use of an analog train of gear wheels (linked so that each time one wheel completes a revolution the next wheel turns one tenth of a revolution, thus recording a carry in many types mechanical calculating machines) appears in the works of Hero (HC). CONDITION: Complete. This is not ex-libris and bears no library markings whatsoever. Small 4to. (8 x 6 inches; 203 x 152mm). [1], 6, [48], 1 (colophon), [1]. 22 woodcut illustrations, 6 full page, 16 imbedded in the text. Engraved title with architectural border; woodcut head- and tail-pieces; woodcut initials. Wide margins. Tightly bound in toned contemporary limp vellum; minor chipping; remnants of original ties present on front. Bright and remarkably clean throughout. Near fine condition. Provenance: The names Antoni Raraggini and Virginio Zabaly are handwritten in a very early script on the front fly leaf.
Statistical Thermodynamics. Course of Seminar Lectures. Delivered in January - March 1944

Statistical Thermodynamics. Course of Seminar Lectures. Delivered in January – March 1944, at the School of Theoretical Physics, 1944 [SCARCE HECTOGRAPHIC PRINTING]

Schroedinger, Erwin [Schrödinger] FIRST EDITION SCARCE PRE-PUBLICATION HECTOGRAPHED TYPESCRIPT, housed in a custom case. OCLC cites only a handful of these specific printings: "very small edition of the lectures was published in hectograph form by the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies" (University of St. Andrews). A hectograph was an early apparatus for copying documents. While this specific print-run is unknown, in similar cases it is usually under 30 copies. "Between 1940 and 1956, Schrödinger was senior professor at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Study's School of Theoretical Physics, during which his tenure there became famous as a gathering-place for discussion of current problems in physics" (Jeremy Norman). "From January to March 1944 Schrödinger returned to one of his first loves in science in a course of lectures on Statistical Thermodynamics. They were published in a small hectographed edition. In [this work] he covered the fundamentals of the subject with an insight and clarity that have never been equaled. The book is a distillation of his many years of creative work in the field" (Moore, Schrödinger, 415). "The object of this seminar [was] to develop briefly one simple, unified standard method, capable of dealing, without changing the fundamental attitude, with ALL cases (classical, quantum, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, etc.) and with every new problem that may turn up. The interest is focused on the general procedure, and examples are dealt with as illustrations thereof. Not a first introduction for new-comers to the subject is intended, rather a 'repetitorium'. The wording is extremely shortened about well-known stories to be found in every one of a hundred text-books, but more extended on some vital points, usually passed over in all but large monographs (as Fowler's and Tolman's). There is, essentially, only one problem in statistical thermodynamics: the distribution of a given amount of energy E over N identical systems." (From the General Introduction by Schrödinger, f. 1). Schrödinger argues that this "is the mathematical problem" and that it is "always the same" (ibid). He further states "There are two ways to think about it but there are two different attitudes as regards the physical application of the mathematical result" (ibid). Schrödinger assesses both Gibbs's and Boltzmann's methodology - the two different attitudes to which he refers and "It is in the course of the present lectures that Schrödinger explains why he thought the Boltzmann counting method not be appropriate. Furthermore, Schrödinger here distinguishes himself from his 1925-6 publications on the same subject by presenting (1) the complete relinquishment of the concept of wave packets, and (2) the exclusive stress put on the field quantization formalism which, for all statistical purposes, is equivalent to Schrödinger's initial quantized matter wave model" (ibid). CONDITION & DETAILS: Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1944. Hectographed typescript in custom brown case with a brown, gilt-lettered label at the spine. Complete. 4to. 251 x 201mm. [2], 135ff. Original stiff wrappers, cloth spine with light scuffing and creasing. Very good + copy with former owner's signature on the title page ("C. E. Easthope." Charles Emmanuel Easthope, "is best known for developing the full theory of radiation from electrons travelling at close to the speed of light" (Wikipedia).

On certain Physical Properties of the Light of the Electric Spark, within certain Gases as seen through a Prism” (pp. 213-215) in American Journal of Science, Volume 19, 1855 [Alter] WITH “Memoir on Meteorites: A Description of Five New Meteoric Irons, with Some Theoretic Considerations on the Origin of Meteorites Based on Their Physical and Chemical Characters” Parts I (pp.153-164) and Part II (pp. 322-343) in American Journal of Science, Volume 19, 1855 [Smith]. [SPECTRAL ANALYSIS & METEORITES]

Alter, David WITH Smith, J. L. (John Lawrence) Full volume. FIRST EDITION OF TWO PAPERS OF SIGNIFICANCE. THE FIRST is David Alter's important paper expanding on his original idea of spectral analysis to include six gases, including the discovery of what are now called the Balmer lines of hydrogen. Alter's invention of spectral analysis was a highly significant development in spectroscopy. THE SECOND is a lengthy paper by J. Lawrence Smith, the mineralogist whose meteorite collection grew to be the finest in the United States. Upon Smith's death, his collection went to Harvard, but the National Academy of the Sciences awards the J. Lawrence Smith Medal every three years for investigations of meteoric bodies. Smith's paper includes four large in-text illustrations. (see below for more information) ALTER'S PAPER: One year earlier and in a paper we offer separately, David Alter announced his invention of spectral analysis, the revolutionary idea that every element has its own emission spectrum. A critical development in spectroscopy, Alter studied atomic spectra, the light given off by elements when heated to incandescence, and then used them as a method of chemical analysis. Alter includes a table "of the seven Newtonian colors and listed twelve chemical elements. In the resulting 84 spaces he entered up to four vertical lines for the number of prominent spectral lines or bands (effectively somewhat like Roman numerals). So in a sense he simply counted how many such lines there were per color region for each spectrum. SMITH'S PAPER: During the 19th century, the American Journal of Science, the journal in which Smith's paper is published, was "the single most important periodical for the reporting of new meteoritic falls and finds. Although many publications of scientific societies also reported new meteorites, no other journal published as many articles on meteoritres" (Lange, The Founders of American Meteoritics, Meteoritics, Volume 10, 3, 241). J. Lawrence Smith (1818-1883), a mid-19th century mineralogist and chemist, analyzed minerals and meteorites at the Smithsonian Institution in the mid-1850s. Later he became a serious meteorite collector and competitor of the leading meteorite collector of the period, Professor Charles Upham Shephard - a competition Smith won. As well, Smith invented the inverted microscope. ALSO included is a two page, detailed review of R. P. Greg's book "On Meteorolites (sic) and Asteroids.". CONDITION & DETAILS: New Haven: G. P. Putnam & Co. Complete full volume. Ex-libris bearing a small stamp on the front flyleaf and another on the title page. Bound in black cloth, gilt-lettered at the spine. Slight remnants from the removal of a spine label, professionally inked black so as to make them nearly invisible. Binding is tight and very solid, evidencing wear. The interior is in near fine condition.

ALL FOUR IMPORTANT GASSIOT PAPERS, 1839-1859: CATHODE RAYS, PARTICLES, STRATIFICATION & THE ROOTS OF EARLY TELEVISION]: “An Account of Experiments Made with the View of Ascertaining the Possibility of Obtaining a Spark before the Circuit of the Voltaic Battery is Completed” [extracted from] The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Vol 130, Received Oct. 11, 1839. Read Dec. 19, 1839, [1840 publication], pp. 183-192 WITH “A Description of an Extensive Series of the Water Battery; With an Account of Some Experiments Made in Order to Test the Relation of the Electrical and the Chemical Actions Which Take Place Before and After Completion of the Voltaic Circuit” [extracted from] The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Vol 134, Received Dec. 7, 1843. Read Jan. 25, 1844, [1844 publication], pp. 39-52 WITH “The Bakerian Lecture. On the Stratifications and Dark Band in Electrical Discharges as Observed in Torricellian Vacua” [extracted from] The Philosophical Transacti

Gassiot, John Peter FIRST EDITIONS OF 4 GASSIOT PAPERS (1839, 1844, 1858, & 1859 extracts) LEADING TO & CONCLUDING WITH IMPORTANT EXPERIMENTS IN WHICH HE OBSERVED DEFLECTIONS OF CATHODE RAYS BY ELECTROSTATIC CHARGES & MAGNETISM. "Gassiot's work was particularly important in the demise of the contact theory of voltaic electricity" (Wikipedia). In 1858 & 1859, John Gassiot reported experiments in which he observed deflections of cathode rays by electrostatic charges & magnetism. These findings (along with Plücker's) provided the first evidence that 'cathode rays' carry an electric charge & might be particles. The roots of television can even be found in Gassiot's research into electric discharges in rarefied gases. With Faraday & others, Gassiot's work was part of the foundation of cathode-ray-tube technology which led much later to electron physics (Shiers, Early TV Bibliography). When Gassiot began his research the identity of static & voltaic seemed likely. "But if so, voltaic, like static, electricity ought to produce sparks before the circuit was completed. In 1839 (in the 1st paper) Gassiot showed that even with a battery of 1,024 Daniell cells no sparks occurred. But if he used these cells either to charge a bank of nine Leyden jars in conjunction with a circuit interrupter & transformer, he could produce sparks before contact" (Dictionary of Scientific Biography V, 292). In 1843 (the 2nd paper), Gassiot used "a massive battery of 3,520 zinc-copper rainwater cells [to produce] sparks through 0.020 inch of air, [attributing] his success to his great care in insulating the individual cells to prevent the loss of their electrical tension" (ibid). No one then knew if voltaic electricity was produced by contact between metals or by chemical reaction. "Attempting to decide this question Gassiot showed in this same paper that 'the elements constituting the voltaic battery, when arranged in a series, assume polar tension before the circuit is completed.' "Faraday's discovery in 1838 of the negative dark space had revived interest in the glow discharge caused by conduction of electricity through gases at low pressure, but Gassiot's interest in this discharge was directly stimulated by W. R. Grove's almost incidental report in 1852 that the discharge was "striated by transverse non-luminous bands. [Gassiot's experiments] "showed that if enough care were exercised to achieve a sufficiently low pressure, striations could be produced in the Torricellian vacuum. Next he demonstrated that both a static electric machine & a Ruhmkorff coil with a Grove cell produced a striated discharge. This once again confirmed the identity of these two electricities. He also noticed that a powerful electromagnet divided the striations into what appeared to be two distinct columns" (ibid). He announced these discoveries in the 3rd paper (honored as the Royal Society's Bakerian lecture for 1858.) In it, he reports experiments in which he observed deflections of cathode rays by electrostatic charges & magnetism, here providing (with Plücker) the first evidence that 'cathode rays' carry an electric charge & might be particles" (ibid). The 1858 paper was followed with a second paper of the same name in 1859. In that, the 4th paper, "Gassiot demonstrated experimentally that the striae exist only within a narrower range of pressure & temperature than the luminous discharge itself; that a sufficiently low pressure ends the discharge but also that this relative vacuum does not conduct electricity; that changes in the electrical resistance of the external circuit change the discharge; & that at least sometimes the luminous discharge; is actually intermittent even though it appears to be continuous" (ibid). CONDITION: 4 bright & clean 1st edition papers as extracted from Philosophical Transactions. 4to. Two lithographed plates & a total of 27 in-text figures (induction coils, tubes, apparatus, striae). The 1858 plate has very slight, light spotting. Very good condition.

1859 GASSIOT PAPER: CATHODE RAYS, PARTICLES, STRATIFICATION, & THE ROOTS OF EARLY TELEVISION]: “On the Stratifications in Electrical Discharges as Observed in Torricellian and other Vacua — SECOND Communication” [extracted from] The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 149, Received Dec.9, 1858. Read Jan 13, 1859, [1859 publication], pp. 137-160

Gassiot, John Peter FIRST EDITION (1859 extract) of GASSIOT'S FINAL PAPER REPORTING HIS CONCLUSIONS ON IMPORTANT EXPERIMENTS IN WHICH HE OBSERVED DEFLECTIONS OF CATHODE RAYS BY ELECTROSTATIC CHARGES & MAGNETISM. "Gassiot's work was particularly important in the demise of the contact theory of voltaic electricity" (Wikipedia). NOTE that Gassiot published four papers on this subject, this being the last. In a separate listing we offer all four papers together. In 1858 & 1859, John Gassiot reported experiments in which he observed deflections of cathode rays by electrostatic charges & magnetism. These findings (along with Plücker's) provided the first evidence that 'cathode rays' carry an electric charge & might be particles. The roots of television can even be found in Gassiot's research into electric discharges in rarefied gases. With Faraday & others, Gassiot's work was part of the foundation of cathode-ray-tube technology which led much later to electron physics (History of Science: The Wenner Collection; Shiers, Early TV Bibliography). CONDITION: London: Taylor & Francis. 1st edition paper as extracted from Philosophical Transactions. 4to. One lithographed plates & 15 figures (induction coils, tubes, apparatus, striae). The 1858 plate has very slight toning at the edges. Near fine.

Reaching Agreements in the Presence of Faults” in Journal of the ACM 27 No. 2 pp. 228-234, April 1980 (Pease, Shostak, and Lamport) WITH “The Byzantine Generals Problem” in ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems 4 No. 3 pp. 382-401, July 1982 (Pease, Shostak, and Lamport) WITH “Pricing via Processing for Combatting Junk Mail” in Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO ’92 pp. 139-147, 1993 (Dwork and Naor) WITH “Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance” in Third Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation pp. 173-186, 1999 (Castro and Liskov) FOUR PAPERS: THE FOUNDATIONS OF BITCOIN’S BLOCKCHAIN ALGORITHM

Pease, Marshall; Shostak, Robert; Lamport, Leslie WITH Dwork, Cynthia; Naor, Moni WITH Castro, Miguel; Liskov, Barbara FIRST EDITIONS IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF THE FOUNDATIONS OF BITCOIN'S BLOCKCHAIN ALGORITHM, INCLUDING THE CONCEPTS OF BYZANTINE FAULTS, THE BYZANTINE GENERALS PROBLEM, PROOF-OF-WORK, & SOFTWARE ABLE TO TOLERATE BYZANTINE FAULTS. The creation of a system like Bitcoin -- one both distributed and reliable -- is exceptionally problematic. The issues that arise are not specific to crypto currencies and instead apply to any form of distributed system where there is no central control enforcing trust. This issue has become known as the Byzantine Generals Problem (BGP) and it was first described in 1980 in the first paper offered here (Pease, Shostak, and Lamport); the trio then generalized, proposed, and solved BGP in their 1982 second paper also included here. Prior to the 1980 paper, it was generally assumed that a three processor system could tolerate one faulty processor. The 1980 paper shows that 'Byzantine" faults' - be they malicious attacks, operator mistakes, source congruency, or software errors - are any failures where the failing device seems to behave in an arbitrary way as opposed to just ceasing to function. In such a scenario, faulty nodes exhibit arbitrary behavior presenting different symptoms to different observers, sometimes making it unclear as to whether or not a component has even failed. Here the authors prove in such a scenario -- Byzantine faults causing a processor to send inconsistent information to other processors -- the assumption that a three-processor system/algorithm can tolerate one faulty processor no longer holds true (1980). In search of a method by which computer networks could handle conflicting information in order to make the right decisions, the authors developed The Byzantine Generals Problem (BGP). They envisioned the problem of receiving conflicting requests from computers as that of Byzantine generals trying to coordinate decisions despite differing information: "We imagine that several divisions of the Byzantine army are camped outside an enemy city, each division commanded by its own general. The generals can communicate with one another only by messenger. After observing the enemy, they must decide upon a common plan of action. However, some of the generals may be traitors, trying to prevent the loyal generals from reaching agreement. The generals must have an algorithm to guarantee that (A) All loyal generals decide upon the same plan of action and (B) A small number of traitors cannot cause the loyal generals to adopt a bad plan" (1982). The authors proposed a BGP solution algorithm or technique that can tolerate Byzantine faults (beginning with the need to first reach consensus amongst 'the generals' as to which component has failed in the first place). Another BGP solution was presented with Bitcoin's novel proof-of-work system in which "the problem [was solved] by utilizing a public decentralized proof-of-work chain in order to reach a consensus on ownership of units of the currency" (ibid). "The bitcoin network works in parallel to generate a blockchain with proof-of-work allowing the system to overcome Byzantine failures and reach a coherent global view of the system's state" (Wikipedia). That 'proof-of-work' system or protocol is the subject of the 3rd paper included here. In it, Dwork and Naor invent the concept, proposing 'proof of work' as a piece of data which is difficult (time-consuming, costly) to produce but easy for other to verify. The fourth document (Castro and Liscov) describes the first practical software implementation of a byzantine fault tolerance algorithm able to tolerate Byzantine faults. CONDITION: Two ACM documents: individual issues in original wraps, fine condition save for library stamp on each front wrap. Crypto '92 document: pristine condition in original paper wraps. Third Symposium document: two small stickers on front wrap, otherwise in pristine original paper wraps.

On a General Method in Analysis” (Boole, pp. 225-282) WITH “Observations on some of the nebulae” (Parsons, pp. 321-324) In Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 134, 1844

Boole, George WITH Parsons, William [Earl of Rosse] FULL VOLUME BOUND FIRST EDITION WITH BOOLE'S IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION TO THE THEORY OF LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS & ROSSE'S OBSERVATIONS OF 'CRAB NEBULA' AS WELL AS HIS WELL KNOWN RENDERING. GEORGE BOOLE: "The English mathematician and philosopher George Boole (1815-1864) was one of the first men (after Leibniz) who believed that the human thinking is mastered by laws, which can be described by means of mathematic. Boole is the inventor of Boolean logic, which is the basis of modern digital computer logic, thus Boole is regarded in hindsight as a founder of the field of computer science" (History-Computer Portal). Boole received the Royal Society's Gold Medal for the work offered here, the first ever awarded for mathematics. The paper is a lengthy work "on differential equations, combining an exponential substitution and variation of parameters with the separation of symbols method" (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). Sometimes described as Boole's "first mathematical masterpiece [this paper] is a work grounded on the laws of combination of non-commutative symbols, which apparently convinced Boole of the immense power afforded by symbolical methods, a power largely due to their main property of not depending upon conditions of their interpretation" " (Panteki, The Mathematical Background, Boole Anthology, 167). Boole's efforts were a significant contribution to the theory of linear differential equations, moving from the case of constant coefficients to variable coefficients. "The paper investigates differentiation and differential equations from an operator point of view and introduces Boole's new 'algebra of classes'" (George Boole 200 Portal). This 'Boolean algebra' contributed to freeing mathematics from number systems, and pushed mathematics a step further towards abstraction. Boole's innovation in operational methods are in use today. Boole's "general method in analysis, originally described in his famous memoir printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1844 [offered here]. Boole was one of the most eminent of those who perceived that the symbols of operation could be separated from those of quantity and treated as distinct objects of calculation. His principal characteristic was perfect confidence in any result obtained by the treatment of symbols in accordance with their primary laws and conditions, and an almost unrivalled skill and power in tracing out these results" (NNDB). EARL OF ROSSE: In 1844 and using a 36 inch telescope, William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse observed an object that came to be referred to as the 'Crab Nebula' largely based on the details of Rosse's drawings (included in this volume). Now understood to be a supernova remnant, the nebula was named because its tentacle-like structure, so clearly evidenced in the drawings, resembled the legs of the crustacean. Also now understood is that the bright designs of the Crab Nebula come from a filamentary structure of hot gasses combined with a mass of electrons trapped within the leftover pulsar's powerful magnetic field. ALSO: Gassiot, A Description of an Extensive Series of the Water Battery, pp. 39-51. Gassiot had found that "the static effects of effects of tension produced by a voltaic battery were in some direct ratio with the chemical energies of the substances of which the battery was composed" (Gassiot, 1844). His "work was particularly important in the demise of the contact theory of voltaic electricity" (WP). ALSO: Fownes, On the Existence of Phosphoric Acid in Rocks of Igneous Origin, pp. 53-56. Fownes discovered the presence of phosphate in igneous rocks and suggested that this was the original source of phosphate in clay and soil. CONDITION: Complete volume. 4to. Bearing only a single stamp on the title page and a blind stamp. 28 plates. Handsomely rebound in calf; 5 raised spine bands; red & black morocco spine labels. Original wide margins; minor toning to a few plates, otherwise bright and clean within. Near fine.

Das Problem der Wettervorhersage, betrachtet vom Standpunkte der Mechanik und der Physik” [“The problem of weather prediction as seen from the standpoint of mechanics and physics”] in Meteorologische Zeitschrift 21 pp. 1-7, 1904

Bjerknes, Vilhelm FIRST EDITION OF BJERKNES'S SEMINAL MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS, now known as "the primitive equations of weather". Bjerknes proposed these equations in the paper offered here, and in so doing, pioneered numerical weather forecasting, which is based on applying physical laws to the atmosphere and solving mathematical equations associated with these laws. Vilhelm Bjerknes became "a professor of applied mechanics and mathematical physics at the University of Stockholm in 1895. Two years later he discovered the circulation theorems that led him to a synthesis of hydrodynamics and thermodynamics applicable to large-scale motions in the atmosphere and oceans. He then began devising a research plan that would use these theorems to compute the future state of the atmosphere given its present (initial) condition. This work ultimately resulted in the theory of air masses and fronts. As a primary piece of the modern weather forecasting puzzle, this theory described the life cycle of mid-latitude weather systems (low pressure systems)" (Earth Observatory, NASA). "In a programmatic paper published in 1904, Bjerknes proposed the procedure now known as numerical weather prediction" (ibid). "Bjerknes argued that atmospheric physics had advanced sufficiently to allow weather to be forecast using calculations. He developed a set of equations whose solution would, in principle, predict large-scale atmospheric motions" (Sloan, Before 1955: Numerical Models). Bjerknes's equations include: Boyle's law; Charles' law; the continuity equation; the Navier-Stokes equations of motion; the thermodynamic equation; and the water continuity equation. "Bjerknes proposed a "graphical calculus," based on weather maps, for solving the equations." (ibid). He suggested that weather prognosis (forecasting) should be considered as an initial value problem of mathematical physics, and could be carried out by integrating the governing equations forward in time, starting from the observed, initial state of the atmosphere" (EO). "Since equations govern how meteorological variables change with time, if we know the initial condition of the atmosphere, we can solve the equations to obtain new values of those variables at a later time (i.e., make a forecast)" (Numerical Weather Predicition). In short, Bjerknes discovered that with enough information about the current state of the atmosphere, scientists can use math formulas to predict future weather patterns. "Unfortunately, due to the lack of processing facilities (computers), the calculations he envisioned were not feasible at that time. Nevertheless, Bjerknes considered weather forecasting as the principal objective of meteorological research, trusting that adequate observations and computer facilities would emerge in the future" (EO). CONDITION: 4to. 11.5 X 8 inches. Old hand-lettered library sticker at the foot of the spine; no other markings. Contemporary cloth and boards. Edges and spine slightly scuffed at the edge tips, but the binding is tight and solid. Bright and clean throughout. Near fine.

On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances. Abstract by the Author” in The American Journal of Science and Arts 16 pp. 441-458, 1878 [GIBB’S EQUILIBRIUM]

Gibb's, J. [Josiah] Willard FIRST EDITION OF A SEMINAL & LENGTHY ABSTRACT OF "A FOUNDATION TREATISE ON PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY", GIBB'S EQUILIBRIUM, "CONSIDERED ONE OF THE GREATEST ACHIEVEMENTS IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE IN THE 19TH CENTURY (Grolier/Horblit 40; Nobel Prize Web Portal). Gibb's "interpretation of chemical processes by application of thermodynamics and mathematics. has been called 'the Principia of thermodynamics' and physical chemistry (Norman, History of Information). It is the publication offered here - the 1878 appearance of 'On the Equilibrium.' in The American Journal of Science and Arts - "that brought Gibbs's findings to the attention of the world; [prior to that] he chose for publication a journal "for reasons that defy speculation" and that all but guaranteed no one would see it -- Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences [TCAAS] (Bryson, Short History, 116-17). Initially appearing in two parts in 1874 and 1878 in TCAAS , "a journal that managed to be obscure even in Connecticut", Gibbs's two papers "dazzlingly elucidated the thermodynamic principles of, well, nearly everything - 'gases, mixtures, surfaces, solids, phase changes.chemical reactions, electrochemical cells, sedimentation, and osmosis'" (ibid). [They] "integrated chemical, physical, electrical, and electromagnetic phenomena into a coherent system [and] introduced concepts such as chemical potential, phase rule, and others which form the basis for modern physical chemistry" (Norman). "In essence what Gibbs did was show that thermodynamics didn't apply simply to heat and energy at the sort of large and noisy scale of the steam engine, but was also present and influential at the atomic level of chemical reactions" (Bryson). What it accomplished was the clear formulation of "the equation which tells us that what we need to know in order to calculate the free energy from the heat of reaction, is the change in entropy during the reaction. This change in entropy, multiplied by the absolute temperature, must be added to the heat of reaction in order to give the free energy" (NPP). "In the abstract of his memoir [this publication], [Gibbs] began by stating the simple but profound idea underlying his work: "It is an inference naturally suggested by the general increase of entropy which accompanies the changes occurring in any isolated material system that when the entropy of the system has reached a maximum, the system will be in a state of equilibrium. Although this principle has by no means escaped the attention of physicists, its importance does not appear to have been duly appreciated. Little has been done to develop the principle as a foundation for the general theory of thermodynamic equilibrium" [p. 441]. "Gibbs formulated the criterion for thermodynamic equilibrium in two alternative and equivalent ways. "For the equilibrium of any isolated system it is necessary and sufficient that in all possible variations of the state of the system which do not alter its energy [entropy], the variation of its entropy [energy] shall either vanish or be negative [positive]" [ibid]. "The consequences of this criterion could then be worked out as soon as the energy of the system was expressed in terms of the proper variables. Gibbs's first and probably most significant application of this approach was to the problem of chemical equilibrium. The result of his work was described by Wilhelm Ostwald as determining the form and content of chemistry for a century to come" (DSB; Wheeler, Gibbs, The History). Gibbs's work is one of the most frequently cited in the speeches of Nobel Prize winners in both physics and chemistry. CONDITION & DETAILS: 8vo. (8.75 x 5.75 inches). 18 plates. Ex-libris stamp on front paste down and title page; none on the spine. Tightly bound in half calf; minor scuffing at the edges over marbled paper boards; 4 raised bands at the spine, gilt-lettering. Clean throughout. Very good condition.

The Resonating valence bond state in la-2CuO-4 and superconductivity” (Anderson) in Science 235, pp. 1196-1198, March 6, 1987 WITH “The discovery of a class of high-temperature superconductors” (Bednorz and Müller) in Science 237, pp. 1133-1139, September 4, 1987

Anderson, P. W. [Paul Warren] WITH Bednorz, Georg; Müller, Alex TWO 1st EDITION PAPERS (in two separate issues, both in original wraps) OF IMPORT IN THE HISTORY OF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, THE FIRST PROPOSING THE THEORY OF HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, AND THE SECOND CONTRIBUTING TO THE NOBEL PRIZE FOR ITS AUTHORS. Working at Princeton and in this paper, the theoretical physicist Paul Anderson proposed the theory of high temperature superconductivity. This is distinct from the work of Bednorz and Müller who, a year earlier, discovered high temperature superconductivity - Anderson's effort to lay the theoretical foundation for their discovery. Anderson's theory resonating valence bond theory (RVB) is an electron correlation based mechanism that "began as an insightful response by Anderson, to Bednorz and Muller's discovery of high Tc superconductivity in cuprates in late 1986" (Baskaran, Resonating Valence, Cornell, 2017). It develops "a theoretical framework for quantum spin liquids and superconductivity was developed [and] addresses a formidable strong coupling quantum manybody problem, in modern times. [Anderson's theory] is built on certain key experimental facts: i) survival of a dynamical Mott localization in a metallic state, ii) proliferation of bond singlets and iii) absence of fermi liquid quasi particles" (ibid). In this paper, Anderson also discusses "superconductivity and the nature of excitations in the system" (Anderson, 1987). "Superconductivity, one of the most spectacular phenomena of physics, has been known since 1911. Superconductivity arises when a superconducting material is cooled to a fairly low critical temperature. Suddenly, an electric current can then flow with no resistance whatsoever. It has been the dream of many researchers to find material that remains superconducting at higher temperatures but, in spite of small advances, nothing had happened since 1973, when an alloy was produced that became superconducting at -250°C." (Nobel Prize Press Release). In their 1986 paper, "Bednorz and Müller reported finding superconductivity in an oxide material at a temperature 12°C higher than previously known. This was the introduction to an explosive development in which hundreds of laboratories the world over commenced work on similar material. Better superconductors have already been produced" (ibid). In this follow up paper, Bednorz and Müller describe the background and early development of high temperature superconductivity, writing "The exceptional interest in the new class of oxide superconductors and the importance of these materials are discussed together with the concepts that led to their discovery. The discovery itself and its early confirmation are summarized, including the work until the beginning of 1987. The observation of a superconductive glass state in percolative samples is also discussed" (Bernorz and Müller, 1987). In the same year Bednorz and Müller won the Nobel Prize "for their discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in ceramics", inclusive of both this paper and the initial 1986 paper (Nobel Prize Committee). CONDITION & DETAILS: New York: AAAS. Two 1st editions, each original pictorial wraps. 8vo. Neither issue has a mailing label. Both wraps have very slight surface toning on the wraps. Both are bright and exceptionally clean within. Near fine.

Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione Deglinsetti Fatte da Francesco Redi Accademia della Crusca, e scritte in una letters, 1674

Redi, Francesco THIRD EDITION OF FRANCESCO REDI'S MASTERPIECE REFUTING SPONTANEOUS REGENERATION, first published in 1668. "A milestone in the history of modern science," Redi's book outlines the first series of experiments to disprove 'spontaneous generation' -- "a theory also known as Aristotelian abiogenesis" (Wikipedia). Redi's seminal work includes 39 particularly gorgeous copperplate engravings. "At the time, [the] prevailing wisdom was that maggots arose spontaneously from rotting meat"; in other words, that nonliving matter could generate the production of living organisms" (ibid). In his experiments, Redi captured maggots and waited for them to metamorphose, becoming flies. "Also, when dead flies or maggots were put in sealed jars with dead animals or veal, no maggots appeared, but when the same thing was done with living flies, maggots did" (Wikipedia). Redi compared two groups of meat: "the first left exposed to insects, and the second group covered by a barrier of gauze. In the exposed meat, flies laid eggs, which quickly hatched into maggots. On the gauze-covered meat, no maggots appeared, but Redi observed fly eggs on the outer surface of the gauze" (Benecke, A Brief History of Forensic Entomology). Knowing full well the terrible fates of out-spoken scientists like Giordino Bruno and Galileo Galilei, Redi was careful to express his new views in a manner that would not contradict to theological tradition of the Church; hence, his interpretations were always based on biblical passages, such as his famous adage: omne vivum ex vivo ('All life comes from life')" (Wikipedia). Francesco Redi was an Italian physician, naturalist, and poet; this work, as said, is the first Latin edition, the second edition overall. CONDITION & DETAILS: Florenz: Onofri. 1674. Quarto (9.5 x 7 inches; 238 x 175mm). Complete. [4], 136, [39], 1. 39 engravings total (29 numbered; 10 unnumbered; 3 folding). Vellum bound with the title written on the spine in an early hand. A large section of the vellum has been cut from the rear board and is missing. The binding and its stitching, however, remain very solid. Vellum has some creasing, but is still handsome. Consistent with its age, minor foxing and aging.

The ENIAC” in Electrical Engineering, pp. 163-176,February 1948

Brainerd, J. G. [John Grist]; Sharpless, T. K. [Thomas K.] FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF "THE CLASSIC PAPER" in which BRAINERD & SHARPLESS PROVIDE "THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PROFESSION WITH BACKGROUND AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION" ABOUT ENIAC, THE WORLD'S 1st DIGITAL COMPUTER" (Brittain, Bainer & Sharpless on the ENIAC, IEEE 1984). The paper presents ENIAC'S development and includes 8 diagrams as well as detailed specifications for "a machine that was an early milestone in the computer revolution that has had profound economic, social, and cultural impacts" (ibid). "In 1942, physicist John Mauchly proposed an all-electronic calculating machine. The U.S. Army, meanwhile, needed to calculate complex wartime ballistics tables. Proposal met patron. The result was ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer), built between 1943 and 1945-the first large-scale computer to run at electronic speed without being slowed by any mechanical parts" (ComputerHistory Web Portal). Brainerd was chief engineer and Sharpless a principal designer. As John Ptak has written: "The authors make the following (qualified) understatement: 'electrical engineers in the United States have had a major interest in development of large-scale computing devices.' Within ten years of the end of WWII the second generation of computer was nearly functional, and (as can be seen in the wonderful computer tree below) there were dozens of new machines in operation. By 1960, the explosion was getting ready with the advent of microminiaturization" (Typepad). "By today's standards for electronic computers the ENIAC was a grotesque monster. Its thirty separate units, plus power supply and forced-air cooling, weighed over thirty tons. Its 19,000 vacuum tubes, 1,500 relays, and hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors, and inductors consumed almost 200 kilowatts of electrical power. "But ENIAC was the prototype from which most other modern computers evolved. It embodied almost all the components and concepts of today's high- speed, electronic digital computers. Its designers conceived what has now become standard circuitry such as the gate (logical "and" element), buffer (logical "or" element) and used a modified Eccles-Jordan flip-flop as a logical, high-speed storage-and-control device. "ENIAC could discriminate the sign of a number, compare quantities for equality, add, subtract, multiply, divide, and extract square roots. [It] stored a maximum of twenty 10-digit decimal numbers. Its accumulators combined the functions of an adding machine and storage unit. No central memory unit existed, per se. Storage was localized within the functioning units of the computer. "The primary aim of the designers was to achieve speed by making ENIAC as all-electronic as possible. The only mechanical elements in the final product were actually external to the calculator itself. These were an IBM card reader for input, a card punch for output, and the 1,500 associated relays. Another design objective was to make the electronics simple and reliable. This goal was achieved by utilizing vacuum tubes in a minimum of basic circuit combinations. To ensure reliable operation, circuits were constructed to rigidly tested standard components. "Accuracy of computation was assured by designing the basic circuits to work independently of the variable tolerances of their components. Numbers were not represented by electrical quantities which could be affected by changes in tolerance but only by the presence or absence of dynamic pulses. The gate performed the switching or logical 'and' function [consisting] of a single pentode which had a control voltage applied to its suppressor grid. Its function was similar to that of a single pole switch in that it "opened" (passed a pulse pattern) when the suppressor grid was positive and "closed" when the suppressor grid was negative" (ibid). CONDITION: 4to. Complete issue housed in a custom linen case lettered at the spine. 'Duplicate' stamp on the front wrap. Slight exterior scuffing. Pristine within.

On Some Combinations of Platinum” (Davy pp. 108-125) WITH “A sketch of an analysis and notation applicable to the estimation of the value of life contingencies” (Gompertz, pp. 214-294) in The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Vol. 110, 1820, Parts I & II

Davy, Edmund WITH Gompertz, Benjamin Handsomely rebound full volume. FIRST EDITIONS of two significant papers: Davy describes the first room temperature catalytic reaction & Gompertz describes how he applied the method of fluxions to the development of the science of human mortality. DAVY PAPER: Cousin to Humphry Davy, Edmund Davy's work is of significance in the history of catalysis. Catalysis is perhaps best defined by Berzelius as "the property of exerting on other bodies an action which is very different from chemical affinity. By means of this action, they produce decomposition in bodies, and form new compounds into the composition of which they do not enter." (Wisniak, History of Catalysis, EQ 21, 1, 2010, 60). In the paper offered here, Davy "reported that boiling a mixture of platinum sulfate with alcohol or ether precipitated a black substance in a finely divided state. Heating the powder produced a feeble explosion accompanied by a flash of red light and reduction of the platinum" (ibid). In short, Davy had prepared a finely-divided platinum catalyst of such high activity that it acted at room temperature. "When this catalyst was dropped on to any porous substance moistened with alcohol, oxidation occurred so rapidly that the catalyst became red hot" (Robertson, The Early History of Catalysis). This release of energy from oxidation of the compounds - absent any flame and without change in the platinum itself -- was a clear sign of the catalytic property of platinum. GOMPERTZ PAPER: Benjamin Gompertz was a mathematician and actuary with a keen interest "in the problem of life insurances and mortality rates in the nineteenth century. He worked with death and population records of people in England, Sweden and France between ages 20 and 60 and noted that the arithmetic increases in age were consistently accompanied by geometric increases in mortality, and that this law of geometrical progression appeared in large portions of the different tables of mortality" (Monsiváis-Alonso, Simulations in Statistical Physics, 50). The paper offered here is Gompertz's first attempt to connect what his mathematical formulations made obvious to the biology of aging; a first attempt to grasp mathematical laws as they relate to mortality. "Gompertz noted the peculiar pattern among different European populations for a limited portion of the age range that his research had identified. Gompertz himself described the papers as one in which "I observed the near agreement with a geometrical series for a short period of time, which must pervade the series which expresses the number living at ages in arithmetical progression, proceeding by small intervals of time, whatever the law may be, provided the intervals be not greater than certain limits'" (ibid). Gompertz's second paper on the subject, published in 1825, is considered seminal. To date, "the simple formula describing the exponential rise in death rates between sexual maturity and extreme old age, (t) = e t is better known as Gompertz equation" (ibid). ALSO INCLUDED: John Herschel's "On the action of crystallized bodies on homogeneous light, and on the causes of the deviation from Newton's scale in the tints which many of them develope on exposure to a polarised ray", pp. 45-101 with one engraved plate. In this paper, Herschel reported his extensive research on colored rings produced by crystal plates with polarized light, known as the phenomenon of chromatic polarization (Good, John Herschel's Optical Researches, 1982). CONDITION & DETAILS: London: Bulmer. Complete. 4to. 32 plates. 343pp. Handsomely rebound in calf; 5 raised spine bands; red & black morocco spine labels. Small College of Surgery stamp on title page and first page of advertisements. Minor toning at the edges of the plates. Otherwise very clean throughout (with original wide margins). Near fine.
Allegmeine Morphologie der Gewächse [Gewachse]

Allegmeine Morphologie der Gewächse [Gewachse], 1868

Hofmeister, Wilhelm [Wilhelm Friedrich Benedikt] FIRST EDITION OF HOFMEISTER'S GROUNDBREAKING 1868 WORK DESCRIBING HIS FUNDAMENTAL FINDINGS ON HOW PLANTS GROW & ARE DEVELOPED. Hofmeister's work inspired Gregor Mendel to begin his research on plant hybridization that led to Mendel's discoveries on the inheritance of traits, the beginning of the science of genetics. Allegmeine Morphologie der Gewachse was never translated into English. This volume bears the ownership stamp of Cornelis Eliza Bertus Bremekamp (1888-1984), a Dutch botanist in whose honor a number of plants are named. Wilhelm Friedrich Benedikt Hofmeister (1824 -1877) "stands as one of the true giants in the history of biology and belongs in the same pantheon as Darwin and Mendel" (Kaplan, The Genius of Wilhelm Hofmeister). Well ahead of his time, however, Hofmeister is by comparison virtually unknown" (Dibner 34). Still, his inspired Gregor Mendel to begin his research on plant hybridization which led to Mendel's discoveries on the inheritance of traits, the beginning of the science of genetics. A German botanist, "Hofmeister was a man of penetrating insight. He not only observed the constant changes in size, form and complexity that attended any embryological development: he also carried out physiological experiments and he constantly inquired: How does the observed form come to be? Here he had in mind the need to formulate explanations or interpretations, in general terms, incorporating mathematics and the physical sciences. These studies, which disclosed a new approach to morphology, were presented in . Allgemeine Morphologie der Gewächse" (Claude Wilson Wardlaw, Essays on Form in Plants). NOTE: We separately offer On the Germination, Development, and Fructification of the Higher Cryptogamia, and on the Fructification of the Coniferae, 1862 [Frederick Curry's English translation of Vergleichende Untersuchungen]. CONDITION & DETAILS: Octavo. 664pp. Profusely illustrated with 192 drawings. Provenance: Cornelis Eliza Bertus Bremekamp (1888-1984), a Dutch botanist in whose honor the Acanthaceae genus Bremekampia and the Rutaceae species Toddaliopsis bremekampii are named. Bound in quarter cloth over the rare original wrappers which have been mounted on boards. Bound upside-down and backwards. Inside, the half title faces the title page. A small rectangle on the half title has been meticulously cut out, exactly mirroring "MIT 134 Holzchnitten" on the title page, meaning that from the person of the half-title, you can see clearly through to the mirrored area (photos available on request. Minor toning to endpapers, otherwise bright and clean throughout. An attractive copy in with original wraps.

Visibility of single atoms” in Science 168, No. 3937, pp. 1338-1340, June 12, 1970

Crewe, Albert et al. FIRST EDITION OF THE FIRST PICTURES OF INDIVIDUAL ATOMS WITHIN A MOLECULAR STRUCTURE. Note that this paper includes those photographs. "Although individual atoms [had] been produced by field ion microscopes, there previously had been no way to reveal a single atom within a molecular structure" (Fling, First Photographs of a Single Atom, American Institute of Biological Sciences, 918, August 1970). Using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) Albert Crewe made headlines around the world. "In 1964 Crewe, a professor emeritus in physics at the University of Chicago and former director of Argonne National Laboratory, invented the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) based on a concept that came to him on an airplane trip. Crewe used focused beams of electrons instead of light waves for magnification. Because electron waves are thousands of times shorter than light waves, they can be used to resolve much smaller objects than can be seen through optical microscopes. "The technique involved scanning a beam of electrons across an object or specimen. The electrons scattered from the structure in the specimen were then used to generate an image on an oscilloscope, which converts electrical impulses into pictures, much like a television set. "He imaged single uranium and thorium atoms magnified a million times. Crewe's STEM was able to view samples smaller than five angstroms-about the distance between atoms. Atoms measure approximately one angstrom, or four-billionths of an inch, in diameter. Because atoms are smaller than a light wave, it is impossible to see them through an optical microscope regardless of its power. "'Crewe's STEM achieved much higher resolution than existing electron microscopes of the day. 'The reason is that Crewe for the first time used a field emission electron source, effectively a point source of electrons, much smaller and brighter than any other electron source,' said Riccardo Levi-Setti, Professor Emeritus in Physics at University of Chicago. 'This enabled him to focus the scanning electron beam to a spot size of atomic dimensions. The field emission electron source is the key to his development'" (University of Chicago Obituary). CONDITION & DETAILS: New York: AAAS. Complete 1st edition in original pictorial wraps. 8vo. Discreet mailing label on rear wrap. Clean and bright. Near fine condition.

Tumor Detection by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance” by Raymond Damadian in Science 171, No. 3976, pp. 1151-1153, March 19, 1971

Damadian, Raymond FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF DAMADIAN'S GROUND-BREAKING EXPERIMENT SUCCESSFULLY USES NMR TO IDENTIFY CANCER IN A HUMAN BODY. The American physician Raymond Vahan Damadian believed that cancerous cells could be differentiated from non-cancerous ones using magnetic resonance. Working with only two grad students and without any consistent funding, Damadian theorized that cancerous cells hold more water and would show up in NMR due to the increased number of hydrogen atoms in relation to the extra water. Damadian believed that tumors would emit different 'signals' - signals detectable by an NMR body scanner -- when compared to healthy tissue. His work, detailed in the paper offered here, proved that he was right: Cancer cells have longer T1 and T2 values than do normal cells and Damadian's work proved that it is possible to see this. "Without Damadian's discovery, it could not be known that serious diseases like cancer could be detected by an NMR scanner or that tissue NMR signals possessed sufficient contrast to create medically useful images" (Wikipedia). Because of Damadian's discovery as well as his 1977 invention of the MRI, doctors can now visualize organs and their diseased parts without the risks of exploratory surgery or the radiation associated with traditional scanning methods. CONDITION & DETAILS: New York: AAAS. Complete 1st edition in original pictorial wraps. 8vo. Discreet library sticker at the foot of the front wrap; mailing label on rear wrap. Small tear at the foot of the front wrap where it meets the staple binding. Clean and bright throughout. Very good + condition.

Around-the-World Atomic Clocks: Predicted Relativistic Time Gains” and “Around-the-World Atomic Clocks: Observed Relativistic Time Gains” in Science 177 No. 4044 pp. 166-170, July 14, 1972

Hafele, Joseph C.; Keating, Richard E. FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF THE HAFELE-KEATING EXPERIMENT SUPPORTING TIME DILATION IN SPECIAL AND GENERAL RELATIVITY. In short, Hafele and Keating observed that there was a discrepancy between the times measured by the traveling clocks and the times measured by similar clocks that stayed at the lab in Washington. The first paper offered here lays out the design of Hafele and Keating's experiment as well as its predictions; the second details the observed time differences recorded by the experiment. In 1971, time dilation, predicted by the special (and the general) theory of relativity, was experimentally verified in a particularly convincing manner by J.C. Hafele and R.E. Keating of the U.S. Naval Observatory. The experiment itself, sometimes referred to as 'the flying clock experiment', is widely regarded as brilliant. Hafele and Keating used regularly scheduled commercial flights to fly two very precise atomic clocks - who incidentally had their own tickets -- around the earth close to the equator, one on eastbound flights and the other on westbound flights. Their goal was to test Einstein's theory of relativity with macroscopic clocks. Hafele and Keating's "theory predicted that the flying clocks, compared with reference clocks at the U.S. Naval Observatory, should have lost 40+/-23 nanoseconds during the eastward trip and should have gained 275+/-21 nanoseconds during the westward trip" (Abstract, Around-the-World Atomic Clocks: Predicted Relativistic Time Gains, p.166). "Relative to the atomic time scale of the U.S. Naval Observatory, the flying clocks lost 59+/-10 nanoseconds during the eastward trip and gained 273+/-7 nanosecond during the westward trip, where the errors are the corresponding standard deviations. These results provide an unambiguous empirical resolution of the famous clock "paradox" with macroscopic clocks" J.C. Hafele and R. E. Keating, Science 177, 166 (1972). CONDITION & DETAILS: New York: AAAS. Complete 1st edition in original pictorial wraps. Discreet label on rear wrap. 8vo. Fine condition.

Climatic Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming?” in Science 189 No. 4201 pp. 460-463, August 8, 1975

Broecker, Wallace FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF BROECKER'S "LANDMARK SCIENTIFIC PAPER" ISSUING ONE OF THE EARLIEST (and most famous) WARNINGS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE & POPULARIZING THE TERM 'GLOBAL WARMING'" (New York Times Obit). This work is famous for the accuracy of Broecker's predictions: "he predicted the rise in average global temperature over the next 35 years with stunning accuracy" (Grist Portal 2019). "It's quite remarkable that a prediction made in 1975 using such a simple model of the climate system could so accurately match the observed global temperature change" (Wallace Broecker's Remarkable 1975.Prediction, ThinkProgress, Aug. 2011). "Dr. Broecker, a geologist by training whose questing mind led him to rove from field to field, had an uncanny ability to draw a comprehensive understanding of the Earth's climate system from research into the oceans, the atmosphere, the planet's ice and more. He gave early warning of a planetary crisis if humans continued to spew carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. He published a landmark scientific paper [this paper] in 1975 that asked in its title, "Climatic Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming?" (NYT). "Broecker was among the first climate scientists to use simple climate models to predict future global temperature changes" (ThinkProgress). "The innovation of Broecker's article was in combining estimates of CO2 warming with natural variability. Basically his prediction involved just three simple steps that in essence are still used today. Step 1: Predict future emissions Step 2: Predict future concentrations Step 3: Compute the global temperature response" (Real Climate Web Portal). Specifically, "Broecker modeled the effects of the expected future increase of CO2 due to humans burning fossil fuels, combined with a natural climate cycle which he estimated based on Greenland ice core records, and tweaked to match the observed temperature record at the time. This was a very simple model, excluding the effects of the sun, volcanoes, other greenhouse gases, aerosols, and so forth, which Broecker acknowledged: 'In this report only the interaction of the CO2 effect and natural climatic change is considered. As other anthropogenic effects are shown to be significant and as means to quantitatively predict their future influence on global temperatures are developed, they can be included in models such as this'" (ThinkProgress). Note that while Broecker is commonly thought to have coined the term 'Global Warming' and first used it in this paper, the Oxford English Dictionary traces its usage first to a San Antonio newspaper in 1952 and then in 1957 to an editorial in an Indiana paper. Without question however, it is Broecker popularized the term. CONDITION & DETAILS: New York: AAAS. Complete 1st edition in original pictorial wraps. Discreet label on front wrap (see photo). 8vo. Fine condition.

On the best means for conducting meteorological observations in different places and climates, so as to produce some uniformity in the modes of obtaining and summing up the results 1821″, The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Volume 57, pp. 81-83, 1821

Howard, Luke Complete volume. FIRST EDITION OF A SHORT PAPER BY LUKE HOWARD WHO IN 1802 SEMINAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO METEOROLOGY. Howard was a British chemist and amateur meteorologist. "In 1802, Luke Howard (1772 - 1864) made a fundamental contribution to weather forecasting by proposing the first standard nomenclature for clouds, proposing Latin names that are still in use today such as "cirrus," "cumulus," "stratus," and "nimbus," and combinations such as "cumulostratus." His insight was that clouds have many individual shapes but few basic forms. Howard's nomenclature has been updated and improved many times since he first presented it, but it is still in use today" (History of Physics: The Wenner Collection). "After delivering his 1802 paper, Howard he became something of a sensation. Within a decade his classification was in general use throughout Western Europe and not only scientists, but poets like Shelley and Goethe were praising him for his contribution to language.Because of his many contributions to the emerging science of meteorology, in the same year that this paper was published, Howard was made a Fellow of the Royal Society, the highest honor his peers could confer" (Cloudman's Cloud History). Howard's insight was that "clouds have many individual shapes but few basic forms" (Hamblyn, The Invention of Clouds). In addition to the Latin terms he selected, he also introduced intermediate and compound modifications, such as cirrostratus and stratocumulus - these to accommodate the transitions that occur between forms. As well, Howard identified the importance of clouds in meteorology: "Clouds are subject to certain distinct modifications, produced by the general causes which affect all the variations of the atmosphere; they are commonly as good visible indicators of the operation of these causes, as is the countenance of the state of a person's mind or body" (Howard). ALSO INCLUDED: This volume also includes many mentions and responses of Oersted and Ampère's 1820 work. The key role of Oersted's and Ampère's 1820 electromagnetic experiments in the construction of the concept of electric current marked the beginning of a revolution in the understanding of electromagnetism, providing the first connection between what had been thought to be two very different physical phenomena. Among the many related works: Hatchett, C. "On the Electro-Magnetic Experiments of MM. Oersted and Ampere", Philosophical Magazine 1821, vol. 57, No. 273, p. 40-47. CONDITION & DETAILS: Complete. 8vo. 476pp. 4 plates and tables throughout. Original marbled paper boards are present, but have been reinforced at the spine and around to about 1.5 inches on the front and rear boards with tan buckram. While there are no interior ex-libris markings, the spine is hand-lettered and includes two call numbers at the foot. The hinges are reinforced inside and the volume is now tight and solidly bound. The interior, save for the endpapers, is very clean. Good + condition.