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Diversae Insectarum Volatilium icones ad vivum accuratissimè depictae per celeberrimum pictorem.

HOEFNAGEL, J. (Amsterdam), Nicolao Ioannis Visscher, 1630. Oblong-4to (230 x 187mm). 16 engraved plates (including the title-page). (Together with:) LE ROY, H. Le Jardin des Sauterelles et Papillions ensemble la diversité des Mouches. Paris no date, probably before 1635. 15 engravings (including the title-page). The title has been loosely inserted and the others have been mounted in pairs. Later half vellum, marbled sides. (I) First edition of one of the earliest works dealing exclusively with insects. Jacob Hoefnagel (1575-ca.1630) was the son of the famous Georg Hoefnagel (1545-1600), an Antwerp artist employed by the dukes of Bavaria and latterly making illustrations of botanical and zoological specimens in the cabinet of the Emperor Rudolph II, at Prague. Jacob was an engraver who learned the craft by engraving copies of his father's paintings."A pattern or copy-book for artists, displaying on sixteen plates about 340 insects, mostly larger than life. According to Bonnanni's 'Micrographia Curiosa', published in 1691, a form of microscope was used in the preparation of some of the drawings for this book, but as the drawings in question were made before 1592, it is more likely a single convex lens and not a compound instrument was employed. Wedderburn, 'Quatuor Problematum' (Padua 1619), reports how Galileo had used his telescope to magnify the parts of insects, and this at present is the earliest certain account we have of the use of a microscope" (Goldschmidt Cat. 165, no. 76). Nevertheless, the pictures in Jacob Hoefnagel's 'Diversae Insectarum' "unmistakably indicate the use of the magnifying glass. So far as known, the pictures of Hoefnagel are the earliest printed figures of magnified objects" (Locy, The Story of Biology, p. 199).The 16 beautiful engravings depict 37 Coleoptera, 22 Orthoptera, 14 Odonata, 16 Neuroptera, 72 Lepidoptera, 35 Hymenoptera, 78 Diptera, 21 Hemiptera, and 7 larvae; all together 302 insects, with the exception of two all belonging to the insect-fauna of central- and north Germany. The present work is one of the greatest entomological rarities and as Hagen already indicates in 1862, he had only seen one copy offered during the last 20 years. A good copy with strong and clear impressions printed on strong paper.(II) "Le Jardin de Sauterelle et Papillons" (The Garden of grasshoppers and butterflies) is probably the rarest suite of engravings on insects. Henri le Roy (1579-1652) was a Parisian engraver. Very few copies, complete as the present one survived. The British Museum has a complete copy which comes from the collection of Hans Sloane (1660-1753) whose huge collection of books and natural history materials formed the basis of the British Museum. The fifteen engraved plates show individual flowers, butterflies, caterpillars, grasshoppers, dragonflies, snail and various other insects. The title-page shows 2 figures, a male and a female, holding a drape, surrounded by insects. The date of publication is unknown. The work was probably intended to serve as a pattern book for craftsmen working in the decorative arts such as embroidery or metalwork.Huzard only had 11 engravings, see 'Catalogue des livres' 4225. Horn & Schenkling 18599 list a copy with 6 plates. Wilhelm Junk in his catalogue 'Bibliographia Lepidopterologica' of 1913 lists a copy with 7 plates.Small gallery of worming at the inner margin of the last 9 leaves of the Hoefnagel and the first 2 leaves of the Le Roy, not affecting the engravings. Engraved title of Le Roy with some slight damage not affecting the illustration.Provenance: armorial bookplate, probably of Pierre Dupont (circa 1577-1640) with 'Mediis tranquillus in undis' (Calm in the midst of waves). In manuscript below 'A Paris en la Gallerie du Louvre 1635' and above 'Livre 56 des insects contenant 89f ; pour Pierre Dupont '. The text is partly illegible. Most likely the book was part of the library of Pierre Dupont's 'Gallerie du Palais du Louvre' famous for its fine tapestries and the engravings served as examples for his tapestry designs.(I) Nissen ZBI, 1995; Hollstein IX, p. 46; Ford, Images of Science p. 51 (showing 2 plates). (II) Horn & Schenkling 18599.
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La Botanique mise à la portée de tout le monde ou collection des plantes d’usage dans la médecine, dans les alimens et dans les arts.

REGNAULT, N.F. Avec des notices instructives pulsées dans les auteurs les plus célèbres, contenant la description, le climât, la culture, les propriétés et les vertus propres à chaque plante. Précédé d'une introduction à la botanique, ou dictionaire abregé des principaux termes emploiés dans cette science. Paris, chez l'auteur, 1774. 3 volumes. Large folio (488 x 366mm). With 3 handcoloured engraved titles and 472 handcoloured engraved plates. Recent green half morocco, richly gilt decorated spines with 2 red gilt lettered labels and 5 raised bands, marbled sides. First edition. According to Blunt "Perhaps the most impressive French botanical book of the period is François Regnault's 'La Botanique' with nearly five hundred hand-coloured etchings. Many of these plates are the work of Genéviève de Nangis Regnault. The book deals with useful and decorative plants, and the author engagingly described the potato 'as possibly the only good thing that ever came out of America'". Regnault was a French physician and botanist and his wife drew and engraved most of the plates. Our copy contains the 'Table des Maladies' and 'Table des noms des Plantes' bound at the end of volume 3.There is some occasional slight discolouration to the paper, last 25 leaves of third volume with small damage at the outer margin.Great Flower Books, p. 72: "A very impressive book"; Dunthorne 256; Nissen BBI, 1600 (erroneously quoting 475 plates); Stafleu & Cowan 8810.
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Species Muscorum Frondosorum descriptae et tabulis aeneis LXXVII coloratis illustratae.

HEDWIG, J. Opus posthumum editum a Friderico Schwaegrichen. Leipzig, J.A. Barth; Paris, A. Koenig, 1801. 4to (250 x 205mm). With engraved vignette on title and 77 hand-coloured engraved plates (with:) SCHWAEGRICHEN, C.F. Species Muscorum Frondosorum descriptae et tabulis aeneis coloratis illustratae opus posthumum. Supplementum I-IV. Leipzig, Paris, London 1801-1842. 11 volumes, bound in 7. 4to (250 x 205mmn). With 326 hand-coloured engraved plates. Contemporary uniform half vellum, black boards. The most important work on mosses. "The starting point for the nomenclature of Musci (Sphagnum excepted) . Schwaegrichen published along series of supplements to Hedwig's 'Species Muscorum', which are, botanically, complete new works, mentioning all species anew, though, of course, referring to Hedwig" (Margadant pp. 141 & 144). "This work, 'Species Muscorum Frondosorum'(1801), published two years after his death, was later accepted as the valid starting point for the nomenclature of mosses. Hedwig showed the close relationship between mosses and liverworts, and also defined clearly, for the first time, the characters which separate these two groups" (Morton p. 322). This work was posthumously edited by C.F. Schwaegrichen, who succeeded Hedwig as Professor of Botany and Director of the Botanical Gardens in Leipzig. A complete set with all the supplements, such as offered here, is extremely rare.Nissen BBI, 830; Stafleu & Cowan 2532 & 11427.
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Historiae animalium liber IIII. qui est de piscium & aquatilium

GESSNER, C. Zurich, Conrad Froschauer, 1558. Folio (395 x 245 mm). pp. [xl], 1297, with printer's device on title and 737 woodcuts in text, all in outstanding publisher's hand-colouring; a few minor tears in blank margins repaired, some minute wormholes occasionally touching a letter of text, faint waterstaining on upper corner of some gatherings, overall an exceptionally clean and fresh copy in contemporary German blind-stamped pigskin over wooden boards, with clasps. First edition, in fine publisher's hand-colouring, of Gesner's history of fish and aquatic animals. This is the fourth volume of his great encyclopedia of the animal kingdom, the first systematic treatise on zoology of the Renaissance. The woodcuts form the fourth great series of ichthyological illustrations, after Belon (1551), Rondelet (1554) and Salviani (1554), but are also the first general series of marine illustrations not confined to fish. A number of molluscs, crustaceans, shells, coral, and other marine organisms and products are illustrated.The original drawings for many of these illustrations were recently discovered in the Amsterdam University Library; the colouring of these match in most cases that of the publisher's colouring, and establishes that they were the templates not only for the woodcuts but also their colouring.'Many of the images given to Gessner are found in the two Amsterdam albums, which together comprise 369 sheets; 235 images on these sheets (which generally show two or three images per sheet) match illustrations in Gessner's printed works on fish. The aquatic album, with 225 sheets, has 159 matches with Gessner's printed illustrations. The percentage (but not the actual number) of matches with printed illustrations by Gessner is considerably higher for the album containing images of viviparous animals than for the fish album: 76 out of 137 (i.e. slightly more than half) of the Gessner's printed illustrations of viviparous animals match images in the Amsterdam album; 159 out of a total of 524 (i.e. just under a third) of Gessner's printed fish illustrations match the Amsterdam drawings' (Egmond 2016). A detailed study of these has been published by Florke Egmond in 2018. See Florike Egmond and Sachiko Kusukawa, 'Circulation of images and graphic practices in Renaissance natural history: the example of Conrad Gessner', Gesnerus 73/1 (2016), pp 29-72 and Conrad Gessners 'Thierbuch'. Die Originalzeichnungen, Darmstadt 2018.Adams G538; Horblit 39; Nissen ZBI 1553 PMM 77; Wellisch 26.1
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Asia Portuguesa.

FARIA E SOUSA, M. Lisboa, H. Valente de Oliveira/ A. Craesbeeck, 1666-1675. 3 volumes. Folio. pp. (32), 396, (42), with 1 engraved title, 1 engraved portrait and 9 woodcut portraits; pp. (10), 969, (1), with 1 engraved title, 1 engraved portrait, 19 full-page woodcuts of explorers, governors etc. and 6 full-page woodcut maps; pp. (10), 564, (4), with 1 engraved title, 1 engraved portrait, 21 full-page woodcuts of explorers, govenors etc. and 2 full-page woodcut maps. 2 volumes contemporary mottled calf, spines with 4 raised bands, gilt lines, floral ornaments and lettering; 1 volume 19th century calf, spine with 5 raised bands and richly gilt ornaments. The first edition of a rare and invaluable source for the history of the Portuguese conquests and administration in Asia. The present copy lacks the engraved maps. "This is the first edition of Faria e Souza's well-known work. Faria e Souza belongs to the distinguished tradition of Portuguese chroniclers. However, his sweeping survey of one and a half centuries of Portuguese activity in Asia is usually held in lower esteem than the works of Barros, Couto . Nevertheless, he does occasionally put forward a point of view of his own which is of significance as many of the manuscript records he used have since been lost. The first volume has an index and an appendix (369-396) on what he added to Barros. The second which deals with the period 1538-1581 has an extensive survey of the religions and customs of the East (605-803) and the third volume has a list of India fleets, 1512-1640 (523-560)" (Daya de Silva. The Portuguese in Asia, 754). "Das grosse portugiesische Geschichtswerk ist auch für die Missionsgeschichte von Bedeutung. Band I umfasst die Anfänge der portugiesischen Kolonialgeschichte 1412-1538. Besonders bedeutungsvoll für die Missionsgeschichte ist der III. Band (1581-1640)" (Streit). The many bold woodcuts give a particular charm to this rare work.Cordier. Bibl. Jap. 378; Laures 490; Löwendahl. China illustrata nova. Supplement, 1570.
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Insectorum sive Minimorum Animalium Theatrum: Olim ab Edoardo Wottono, Conrado Gesnero, Thomaque Pennio inchoatum .

MOFFET, T. Londini, ex Officina typographica Thom. Cotes, 1634. Folio (295 x 190mm). pp. (20), 326, (4), title-page with woodcut of a bee hive surrounded by various insects and about 500 woodcuts in the text, 4 full pages with woodcuts of insects at end. Later vellum. First edition, third issue, with the same collation as given by Lisney (Bibliography of British Lepidoptera, p. 8), who also amply describes the other issues and the interesting and complicated genesis of the work. It is the first book dealing entirely with Entomology to be published in the British Isles. "Ulysses Aldrovandi's 'De Animalibus insectis' (1602) was the first book to be devoted to insects. It was followed by Thomas Moffet's (1525-1605) 'Theatrum Insectorum' in 1634. The manuscript of this remarkable work, the first book on insects to appear in England, was actually begun before Aldrovandi's but its publication was delayed; however when it eventually appeared the book proved to be very successful and sold well. The woodcuts in the printed work are superior to those in the Aldrovandi work, and many of the butterflies can be identified" (P. Gilbert p. 2). Moffet's work remained unpublished during his lifetime, the manuscript eventuelly came into the hands of the physician and scholar, Sir Theodore de Mayerne who was able to find a publisher. Last leaf with small paper repair at the lower outer corner, the missing legs of an insect have been supplied by pendrawing. A few leaves with some tiny marginal worming. An attractive copy of this important work.Nissen ZBI, 2852.
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Getreue Darstellung und Beschreibung der in der Arzneykunde gebräuchlichen Gewächse, wie auch solcher, welche mit ihnen verwechselt werden können.

HAYNE, F.G. Berlin, auf Kosten des Verfassers (& Nicolai'sche Buchhandlung), 1805-1837. 13 volumes (bound in 6). 4to (273 x 230mm). With 1 lithographed portrait and 624 hand-coloured engraved plates. Contemporary uniform black half morocco, richly gilt spines with gilt ornaments and lettering, cloth sides (some minor skilful repair to spines). One of the finest German works on medical plants. Gottlob Friedrich Hayne (1763-1832) was a German botanist and pharmacist as well as professor of pharmaceutical botany in Berlin and a contemporary of C.L. Willdenow. Hayne published several botanical works of which some together with Friedrich Guimpel. The present work of which the plates according to Stafleu are 'beautifully coloured. showing only one species (mostly phanerogams; some cryptogams)' is Hayne's major work. After Hayne's death volume 12 and 13 were edited by J.F. Brandt and J.T. Ratzeburg. The elaborate plates are almost all by Friedrich Guimpel, a famous botanical artist and engraver and professor at the Academy of Arts in Berlin. Guimpel illustrated some of the finest botanical works of the period such as Willdenow's impressive work 'Hortus Berolinensis'. Six years after volume 13 had been published J.F. Klotzsch brought out 24 lithographed plates, as a kind of supplement. This supplementary volume remained unfinished and is mostly not present. Volume 13 is, as is often the case, the early issue, without the preface by Hayne's widow and the general index.Great Flower Books, p. 58; Nissen BBI, 815; Stafleu & Cowan 2508.
Essay Concerning Humane Understanding

Essay Concerning Humane Understanding

LOCKE John "LOCKE, John. An Essay concerning Humane Understanding. In Four Books. London: Printed by Eliz. Holt, for Thomas Basset, 1690. Folio (8 by 13 inches), period-style full dark brown calf, morocco spine label, raised bands. $65,000.Rare first edition, first issue, of Locke's remarkable study of the nature of knowledge, a fundamental work in the history of Western thought. Locke's investigation was continued by David Hume and Immanuel Kant; John Stuart Mill considered Locke to be the founder of the analytic philosophy of mind. An excellent, wide-margined copy of Locke's most famous work, a touchstone of the Age of Enlightenment, with extensive marginalia in a neat early hand indicating that this copy was well-read."Locke was the first to take up the challenge of Bacon and to attempt to estimate critically the certainty and the adequacy of human knowledge when confronted with God and the universe" (PMM 164). Locke's conclusion—that while man can never attain a perfect and universal understanding of the world, he can gain sufficient knowledge to secure his own well being—became a touchstone for the Age of Enlightenment. With the Essay Locke initiated the criticism of human knowledge and further opened the discourse on free inquiry. "The Essay Concerning Humane Understanding was the first attempt on a great scale, and in the Baconian spirit, to estimate critically the certainty and the adequacy of human knowledge" (Fraser). "Locke's philosophy has not only had a profound effect upon philosophical and political thought, but also laid the foundations of modern psychology, dominating the field until well into the 19th century" (Norman). "The importance of few philosophical books have been so quickly recognized as was the case with the present [Essay Concerning Humane Understanding]. It passed through many editions in English and has several times been translated" (Pforzheimer). First issue, with "printed by Eliz. Holt" in the imprint on the title page (rather than "sold by Edw. Mory"). "Peter Nidditch has estimated about 900 copies were published, chiefly of the Holt issue. But it is possible there were as few as 500" (Yolton, 69-70). PMM 164. Yolton 61A. Norman 1380. Wing L2738. Pforzheimer 599. Wither to Prior 527. Early owner signatures of R. Styleman on title page and Robert Dixon on front and rear free endpapers. Marginal ink notes in an early, neat, and legible hand on virtually every page of the first three (of four) books, indicating that this copy was very carefully read and studied.Text generally quite clean, period-style calf near-fine. An excellent wide-margined copy of this rarity."